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Parody

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Charlie Chaplin impersonating Hitler for comic effect in the satirical film The
Great Dictator (1940)
A parody (/'p�r?di/); also called a spoof, send-up, take-off, lampoon, play on
(something), caricature, or joke is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or
comment on an original work�its subject, author, style, or some other target�by
means of satiric or ironic imitation. As the literary theorist Linda Hutcheon puts
it, "parody ... is imitation, not always at the expense of the parodied text."
Another critic, Simon Dentith, defines parody as "any cultural practice which
provides a relatively polemical allusive imitation of another cultural production
or practice".[1] Parody may be found in art or culture, including literature, music
(although "parody" in music has an earlier, somewhat different meaning than for
other art forms), animation, gaming, and film.

The writer and critic John Gross observes in his Oxford Book of Parodies, that
parody seems to flourish on territory somewhere between pastiche ("a composition in
another artist's manner, without satirical intent") and burlesque (which "fools
around with the material of high literature and adapts it to low ends").[2]
Meanwhile, the Encyclop�die of Denis Diderot distinguishes between the parody and
the burlesque, "A good parody is a fine amusement, capable of amusing and
instructing the most sensible and polished minds; the burlesque is a miserable
buffoonery which can only please the populace."[3] Historically, when a formula
grows tired, as in the case of the moralistic melodramas in the 1910s, it retains
value only as a parody, as demonstrated by the Buster Keaton shorts that mocked
that genre.[4]

Contents
1 Origins
2 Music
3 English term
4 Modernist and post-modernist parody
5 Reputation
6 Film parodies
6.1 Copyright
7 Poetic parodies
8 Self-parody
9 Copyright issues
9.1 United States
9.2 Canada
9.3 United Kingdom
10 Internet culture
11 Social and political uses
12 Examples
12.1 Historic examples
12.2 Modern television examples
12.3 Anime and manga
13 See also
14 Notes
15 References
16 Further reading
17 External links
Origins
According to Aristotle (Poetics, ii. 5), Hegemon of Thasos was the inventor of a
kind of parody; by slightly altering the wording in well-known poems he transformed
the sublime into the ridiculous. In ancient Greek literature, a parodia was a
narrative poem imitating the style and prosody of epics "but treating light,
satirical or mock-heroic subjects".[5] Indeed, the components of the Greek word are
pa?? para "beside, counter, against" and ?d? oide "song". Thus, the original Greek
word pa??d?a parodia has sometimes been taken to mean "counter-song", an imitation
that is set against the original. The Oxford English Dictionary, for example,
defines parody as imitation "turned as to produce a ridiculous effect".[6] Because
par- also has the non-antagonistic meaning of beside, "there is nothing in parodia
to necessitate the inclusion of a concept of ridicule."[7] Old Comedy contained
parody, even the gods could be made fun of. The Frogs portrays the hero-turned-god
Heracles as a glutton and the God of Drama Dionysus as cowardly and unintelligent.
The traditional trip to the Underworld story is parodied as Dionysus dresses as
Heracles to go to the Underworld, in an attempt to bring back a Poet to save
Athens.

In the 2nd century AD, Lucian of Samosata, a Greek-language writer in Syria,


created a parody of travel/geography texts like Indica and The Odyssey. He
described the authors of such accounts as liars who had never traveled, nor talked
to any credible person who had. In his ironically named book True History Lucian
delivers a story which exaggerates the hyperbole and improbable claims of those
stories. Sometimes described as the first Science Fiction, along the lines of The
Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the characters travel to the moon, engage in
interplanetary war with the help of aliens they meet there, and then return to the
earth to experience civilization inside a 200 mile long creature generally
interpreted as being a whale. This is a parody of Ctesias' claims that India has a
one-legged race of humans with a single foot so huge it can be used as an umbrella,
Homer's stories of one-eyed giants, and so on.

Roman writers explained parody as an imitation of one poet by another for humorous
effect.[citation needed] In French Neoclassical literature, parody was also a type
of poem where one work imitates the style of another to produce a humorous effect.
The Ancient Greeks created satyr plays which parodied tragic plays, often with
performers dressed like satyrs.

Music
Main article: Parody music
In classical music, as a technical term, parody refers to a reworking of one kind
of composition into another (for example, a motet into a keyboard work as Girolamo
Cavazzoni, Antonio de Cabez�n, and Alonso Mudarra all did to Josquin des Prez
motets).[8] More commonly, a parody mass (missa parodia) or an oratorio used
extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; Victoria,
Palestrina, Lassus, and other composers of the 16th century used this technique.
The term is also sometimes applied to procedures common in the Baroque period, such
as when Bach reworks music from cantatas in his Christmas Oratorio.

The musicological definition of the term parody has now generally been supplanted
by a more general meaning of the word. In its more contemporary usage, musical
parody usually has humorous, even satirical intent, in which familiar musical ideas
or lyrics are lifted into a different, often incongruous, context.[9] Musical
parodies may imitate or refer to the peculiar style of a composer or artist, or
even a general style of music. For example, The Ritz Roll and Rock, a song and
dance number performed by Fred Astaire in the movie Silk Stockings, parodies the
Rock and Roll genre. Conversely, while the best-known work of Weird Al Yankovic is
based on particular popular songs, it also often utilises wildly incongruous
elements of pop culture for comedic effect.

English term

Allegory of the Tulip omania [de], persiflage on the tulip mania, by Jan Brueghel
the Younger (1640s
The first usage of the word parody in English cited in the Oxford English
Dictionary is in Ben Jonson, in Every Man in His Humour in 1598: "A Parodie, a
parodie! to make it absurder than it was." The next citation comes from John Dryden
in 1693, who also appended an explanation, suggesting that the word was in common
use, meaning to make fun of or re-create what you are doing.

Modernist and post-modernist parody


In the 20th century, parody has been heightened as the central and most
representative artistic device, the catalysing agent of artistic creation and
innovation.[10][11] This most prominently happened in the second half of the
century with postmodernism, but earlier modernism and Russian formalism had
anticipated this perspective.[10][12] For the Russian formalists, parody was a way
of liberation from the background text that enables to produce new and autonomous
artistic forms.[13][14]

Historian Christopher Rea writes that "In the 1910s and 1920s, writers in China�s
entertainment market parodied anything and everything.... They parodied speeches,
advertisements, confessions, petitions, orders, handbills, notices, policies,
regulations, resolutions, discourses, explications, sutras, memorials to the
throne, and conference minutes. We have an exchange of letters between the Queue
and the Beard and Eyebrows. We have a eulogy for a chamber pot. We have 'Research
on Why Men Have Beards and Women Don�t,' 'A Telegram from the Thunder God to His
Mother Resigning His Post,' and 'A Public Notice from the King of Whoring
Prohibiting Playboys from Skipping Debts.'"[15][16]

Jorge Luis Borges's (1939) short story "Pierre Menard, Author of the Quixote", is
often regarded as predicting postmodernism and conceiving the ideal of the ultimate
parody.[17][18] In the broader sense of Greek parodia, parody can occur when whole
elements of one work are lifted out of their context and reused, not necessarily to
be ridiculed.[19] Traditional definitions of parody usually only discuss parody in
the stricter sense of something intended to ridicule the text it parodies. There is
also a broader, extended sense of parody that may not include ridicule, and may be
based on many other uses and intentions.[19][20] The broader sense of parody,
parody done with intent other than ridicule, has become prevalent in the modern
parody of the 20th century.[20] In the extended sense, the modern parody does not
target the parodied text, but instead uses it as a weapon to target something else.
[21][22] The reason for the prevalence of the extended, recontextualizing type of
parody in the 20th century is that artists have sought to connect with the past
while registering differences brought by modernity.[23][page needed] Major
modernist examples of this recontextualizing parody include James Joyce's Ulysses,
which incorporates elements of Homer's Odyssey in a 20th-century Irish context, and
T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land,[21] which incorporates and recontextualizes elements
of a vast range of prior texts, including Dante's The Inferno.[citation needed] The
work of Andy Warhol is another prominent example of the modern "recontextualizing"
parody.[21] According to French literary theorist G�rard Genette, the most rigorous
and elegant form of parody is also the most economical, that is a minimal parody,
the one that literally reprises a known text and gives it a new meaning.[24][25]

Blank parody, in which an artist takes the skeletal form of an art work and places
it in a new context without ridiculing it, is common.[citation needed] Pastiche is
a closely related genre, and parody can also occur when characters or settings
belonging to one work are used in a humorous or ironic way in another, such as the
transformation of minor characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern from Shakespeare's
drama Hamlet into the principal characters in a comedic perspective on the same
events in the play (and film) Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead.[citation
needed] Similarly, Mishu Hilmy's Trapped in the Netflix uses parody to deconstruct
contemporary Netflix shows like Mad Men providing commentary through popular
characters. Don Draper mansplaining about mansplaining, Luke Danes monologizing
about a lack of independence while embracing codependency.[26] In Flann O'Brien's
novel At Swim-Two-Birds, for example, mad King Sweeney, Finn MacCool, a pookah, and
an assortment of cowboys all assemble in an inn in Dublin: the mixture of mythic
characters, characters from genre fiction, and a quotidian setting combine for a
humor that is not directed at any of the characters or their authors. This
combination of established and identifiable characters in a new setting is not the
same as the post-modernist trope of using historical characters in fiction out of
context to provide a metaphoric element.[citation needed]

Reputation
Sometimes the reputation of a parody outlasts the reputation of what is being
parodied. For example, Don Quixote, which mocks the traditional knight errant
tales, is much better known than the novel that inspired it, Amadis de Gaula
(although Amadis is mentioned in the book). Another case is the novel Shamela by
Henry Fielding (1742), which was a parody of the gloomy epistolary novel Pamela, or
Virtue Rewarded (1740) by Samuel Richardson. Many of Lewis Carroll's parodies of
Victorian didactic verse for children, such as "You Are Old, Father William", are
much better known than the (largely forgotten) originals. Stella Gibbons's comic
novel Cold Comfort Farm has eclipsed the pastoral novels of Mary Webb which largely
inspired it.

In more recent times, the television sitcom 'Allo 'Allo! is perhaps better known
than the drama Secret Army which it parodies.

Some artists carve out careers by making parodies. One of the best-known examples
is that of "Weird Al" Yankovic. His career of parodying other musical acts and
their songs has outlasted many of the artists or bands he has parodied. Yankovic is
not required under law to get permission to parody; as a personal rule, however, he
does seek permission to parody a person's song before recording it. Several
artists, such as rapper Chamillionaire and Seattle-based grunge band Nirvana stated
that Yankovic's parodies of their respective songs were excellent, and many artists
have considered being parodied by him to be a badge of honor.[27][28]

In the US legal system the point that in most cases a parody of a work constitutes
fair use was upheld in the case of Rick Dees, who decided to use 29 seconds of the
music from the song When Sonny Gets Blue to parody Johnny Mathis' singing style
even after being refused permission. An appeals court upheld the trial court's
decision that this type of parody represents fair use. Fisher v. Dees 794 F.2d 432
(9th Cir. 1986)

Film parodies
Main article: Parody film

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Some genre theorists, following Bakhtin, see parody as a natural development in the
life cycle of any genre; this idea has proven especially fruitful for genre film
theorists. Such theorists note that Western movies, for example, after the classic
stage defined the conventions of the genre, underwent a parody stage, in which
those same conventions were ridiculed and critiqued. Because audiences had seen
these classic Westerns, they had expectations for any new Westerns, and when these
expectations were inverted, the audience laughed.

Perhaps the earliest parody film was the 1922 Mud and Sand, a Stan Laurel film that
made fun of Rudolph Valentino's film Blood and Sand. Laurel specialized in parodies
in the mid-1920s, writing and acting in a number of them. Some were send-ups of
popular films, such as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde�parodied in the comic Dr. Pyckle and
Mr. Pryde (1926). Others were spoofs of Broadway plays, such as No, No, Nanette
(1925), parodied as Yes, Yes, Nanette (1925). In 1940 Charlie Chaplin created a
satirical comedy about Adolf Hitler with the film The Great Dictator, following the
first-ever Hollywood parody of the Nazis, the Three Stooges' short subject You
Nazty Spy!.

About 20 years later Mel Brooks started his career with a Hitler parody as well.
After The Producers (1968), Brooks became one of the most famous film parodists and
did spoofs on any kind of film genre. Blazing Saddles (1974) is a parody of western
films, Young Frankenstein (1974) is a Frankenstein spoof, Spaceballs (1987) is a
Star Wars spoof, and Robin Hood Men in Tights (1993) is Brooks' take on the classic
Robin Hood tale.

The British comedy group Monty Python is also famous for its parodies, for example,
the King Arthur spoof Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1974), and the Jesus satire
Life of Brian (1979). In the 1980s the team of David Zucker, Jim Abrahams and Jerry
Zucker parodied well-established genres such as disaster, war and crime movies with
the Airplane!, Hot Shots! and Naked Gun series respectively. There is a 1989 film
parody from Spain of the TV series The A-Team called El equipo Aahhgg directed by
Jos� Truchado.

More recently, parodies have taken on whole film genres at once. One of the first
was Don't Be a Menace to South Central While Drinking Your Juice in the Hood and
the Scary Movie franchise. Other recent genre parodies include. Shriek If You Know
What I Did Last Friday The 13th, Not Another Teen Movie, Date Movie, Epic Movie,
Meet the Spartans, Superhero Movie, Disaster Movie, Vampires Suck, and The 41-Year-
Old Virgin Who Knocked Up Sarah Marshall and Felt Superbad About It, all of which
have been critically panned.[citation needed]

Copyright
Many parody films have as their target out-of-copyright or non-copyrighted subjects
(such as Frankenstein or Robin Hood) whilst others settle for imitation which does
not infringe copyright, but is clearly aimed at a popular (and usually lucrative)
subject. The spy film craze of the 1960s, fuelled by the popularity of James Bond
is such an example. In this genre a rare, and possibly unique, example of a parody
film taking aim at a non-comedic subject over which it actually holds copyright is
the 1967 James Bond spoof Casino Royale. In this case, producer Charles K. Feldman
initially intended to make a serious film, but decided that it would not be able to
compete with the established series of Bond films. Hence, he decided to parody the
series.[29]

Poetic parodies
Kenneth Baker considered poetic parody to take five main forms.[30]

The first was to use parody to attack the author parodied, as in J K Stephen's
mimicry of Wordsworth, �Two voices are there: one is of the deep....And one is of
an old half-witted sheep.�[31]
The second was to pastiche the author's style, as with Henry Reed's parody of T. S.
Eliot, Chard Whitlow: �As we get older we do not get any younger....�[32]
The third type reversed (and so undercut) the sentiments of the poem parodied, as
with Monty Python's All Things Dull and Ugly.
A fourth approach was to use the target poem as a matrix for inserting unrelated
(generally humorous) material � �To have it out or not? That is the
question....Thus dentists do make cowards of us all.�[33]
Finally, parody may be used to attack contemporary/topical targets by utilizing the
format of a well-known piece of verse: �O Rushdie, Rushdie, it's a vile world� (Cat
Stevens).[34]
A further, more constructive form of poetic parody is one that links the
contemporary poet with past forms and past masters through affectionate parodying �
thus sharing poetic codes while avoiding some of the anxiety of influence.[35]
More aggressive in tone are playground poetry parodies, often attacking authority,
values and culture itself in a carnivalesque rebellion:[36] �Twinkle, Twinkle
little star,/ Who the hell do you think you are?�[37]

Self-parody
Main article: Self-parody
A subset of parody is self-parody in which artists parody their own work (as in
Ricky Gervais's Extras) or distinctions of their work (such as Antonio Banderas's
Puss in Boots in the Shrek sequels) or an artist or genre repeats elements of
earlier works to the point that originality is lost.

Copyright issues
See also: Plagiarism
Although a parody can be considered a derivative work of a pre-existing,
copyrighted work, some countries have ruled that parodies can fall under copyright
limitations such as fair dealing, or otherwise have fair dealing laws that include
parody in their scope.

United States
Parodies are protected under the fair use doctrine of United States copyright law,
but the defense is more successful if the usage of an existing copyrighted work is
transformative in nature, such as being a critique or commentary upon it.

In Campbell v. Acuff-Rose Music, Inc., the Supreme Court ruled that a rap parody of
"Oh, Pretty Woman" by 2 Live Crew was fair use, as the parody was a distinctive,
transformative work designed to ridicule the original song, and that "even if 2
Live Crew's copying of the original's first line of lyrics and characteristic
opening bass riff may be said to go to the original's 'heart,' that heart is what
most readily conjures up the song for parody, and it is the heart at which parody
takes aim."

In 2001, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals, in Suntrust v. Houghton Mifflin,


upheld the right of Alice Randall to publish a parody of Gone with the Wind called
The Wind Done Gone, which told the same story from the point of view of Scarlett
O'Hara's slaves, who were glad to be rid of her.

In 2007, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals denied a fair use defense in the Dr.
Seuss Enterprises v. Penguin Books case. Citing the Campbell v. Acuff-Rose
decision, they found that a satire of the O.J. Simpson murder trial and parody of
The Cat in the Hat had infringed upon the children's book because it did not
provide a commentary function upon that work.[38][39]

Canada
Ambox current red.svg
Parts of this article (those related to Changes from the Copyright Modernization
Act, 2012) need to be updated. Please update this section to reflect recent events
or newly available information. (September 2012)
Under Canadian law, although there is protection for Fair Dealing, there is no
explicit protection for parody and satire. In Canwest v. Horizon, the publisher of
the Vancouver Sun launched a lawsuit against a group which had published a pro-
Palestinian parody of the paper. Alan Donaldson, the judge in the case, ruled that
parody is not a defence to a copyright claim.[40]

United Kingdom
In 2006 the Gowers Review of Intellectual Property recommended that the UK should
"create an exception to copyright for the purpose of caricature, parody or pastiche
by 2008".[41] Following the first stage of a two-part public consultation, the
Intellectual Property Office reported that the information received "was not
sufficient to persuade us that the advantages of a new parody exception were
sufficient to override the disadvantages to the creators and owners of the
underlying work. There is therefore no proposal to change the current approach to
parody, caricature and pastiche in the UK."[42]

However, following the Hargreaves Review in May 2011 (which made similar proposals
to the Gowers Review) the Government broadly accepted these proposals. The current
law (effective from 1 October 2014), namely Section 30A[43] of the Copyright,
Designs and Patents Act 1988, now provides an exception to infringement where there
is fair dealing of the original work for the purpose of parody (or alternatively
for the purpose of caricature or pastiche). The legislation does not define what is
meant by "parody", but the UK IPO � the Intellectual Property Office (United
Kingdom) � suggests[44] that a "parody" is something that imitates a work for
humorous or satirical effect. See also Fair dealing in United Kingdom law.

Internet culture
Parody is a prominent genre in online culture, thanks in part to the ease with
which digital texts may be altered, appropriated, and shared. Japanese kuso and
Chinese e'gao are emblematic of the importance of parody in online cultures in
Asia. Video mash-ups and other parodic memes, such as humorously-altered Chinese
characters, have been particularly popular as a tool for political protest in the
People's Republic of China, the government of which maintains an extensive
censorship apparatus.[45] Chinese internet slang makes extensive use of puns and
parodies on how Chinese characters are pronounced or written, as illustrated in the
Grass-Mud Horse Lexicon.

Social and political uses

Satirical political cartoon that appeared in Puck magazine, October 9, 1915.


Caption "I did not raise my girl to be a voter" parodies the anti-World War I song
"I Didn't Raise My Boy To Be A Soldier". A chorus of disreputable men support a
lone anti-suffrage woman.

Reggie Brown, a voice actor and Barack Obama impersonator


Parody is often used to make a social or political statement. Examples include
Swift's "A Modest Proposal", which satirized English neglect of Ireland by
parodying emotionally disengaged political tracts; and, recently, The Daily Show,
The Larry Sanders Show and The Colbert Report, which parody a news broadcast and a
talk show to satirize political and social trends and events.

On the other hand, the writer and frequent parodist Vladimir Nabokov made a
distinction: "Satire is a lesson, parody is a game."[46]

Some events, such as a national tragedy, can be difficult to handle. Chet Clem,
Editorial Manager of the news parody publication The Onion, told Wikinews in an
interview the questions that are raised when addressing difficult topics:

� I know the September 11 issue was an obviously very large challenge to


approach. Do we even put out an issue? What is funny at this time in American
history? Where are the jokes? Do people want jokes right now? Is the nation ready
to laugh again? Who knows. There will always be some level of division in the back
room. It�s also what keeps us on our toes.[47] �
Parody is by no means necessarily satirical, and may sometimes be done with respect
and appreciation of the subject involved, without being a heedless sarcastic
attack.

Parody has also been used to facilitate dialogue between cultures or subcultures.
Sociolinguist Mary Louise Pratt identifies parody as one of the "arts of the
contact zone", through which marginalized or oppressed groups "selectively
appropriate", or imitate and take over, aspects of more empowered cultures.[48]

Shakespeare often uses a series of parodies to convey his meaning. In the social
context of his era, an example can be seen in King Lear where the fool is
introduced with his coxcomb to be a parody of the king.

Examples
Historic examples
Sir Thopas in Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer
Morgante by Luigi Pulci
The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd by Sir Walter Raleigh
La secchia rapita by Alessandro Tassoni
Don Quixote by Miguel Cervantes
Beware the Cat by William Baldwin
The Knight of the Burning Pestle by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher
Dragon of Wantley, an anonymous 17th century ballad
Hudibras by Samuel Butler
"MacFlecknoe", by John Dryden
A Tale of a Tub by Jonathan Swift
The Rape of the Lock by Alexander Pope
Namby Pamby by Henry Carey
Northanger Abbey by Jane Austen
Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift
The Dunciad by Alexander Pope
Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus by John Gay, Alexander Pope, John Arbuthnot, et al.
Mozart's A Musical Joke (Ein musikalischer Spa�), K.522 (1787) � parody of
incompetent contemporaries of Mozart, as assumed by some theorists
Sartor Resartus by Thomas Carlyle
Ways and Means, or The aged, aged man, by Lewis Carroll. Much of Alice in
Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass is parodic of Victorian schooling.
Batrachomyomachia (battle between frogs and mice), an Iliad parody by an unknown
ancient Greek author
Britannia Sitting On An Egg, a machine-printed illustrated envelope published by
the stationer W.R. Hume of Leith, Scotland, parodying the machine-printed
illustrated envelope (commissioned by Rowland Hill and designed by the artist
William Mulready) used to launch the British postal service reforms of 1840.
Modern television examples
Saturday Night Live parodies of Hillary Clinton
Saturday Night Live parodies of Sarah Palin
Saturday Night Live parodies of Donald Trump
Square One TV parodies of Dragnet
Southpaw Regional Wrestling, WWE's parody of 80s territory-style professional
wrestling
On Cinema and spin-off Decker parody film review shows and political action
thrillers, respectively.
Anime and manga
Attack on Titan: Junior High
See also
Abridgement
Anti-Barney Humor
D�tournement
Internet meme
Intertextuality
Joke
Literary technique
Metaparody
Parody advertisement
Parody film
Parody music
Parody religion
Parody science
Persiflage
P. D. Q. Bach
Satire
Subvertising
Tom Lehrer
"Weird Al" Yankovic
Notes
Dentith (2000) p.9
J.M.W. Thompson (May 2010). "Close to the Bone". Standpoint magazine.
"Parody". Hdl.handle.net. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
Balducci, Anthony (28 November 2011). "The Funny Parts: A History of Film Comedy
Routines and Gags". McFarland. Retrieved 3 October 2018 � via Google Books.
(Denith, 10)
Quoted in Hutcheon, 32.
(Hutcheon, 32)
Tilmouth, Michael and Richard Sherr. "Parody (i)"' Grove Music Online, Oxford
Music Online, accessed 19 February 2012 (subscription required)
Burkholder, J. Peter. "Borrowing", Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online,
accessed 19 February. 2012 (subscription required)
Sheinberg (2000) pp.141, 150
Stavans (1997) p.37
Bradbury, Malcolm No, not Bloomsbury p.53, quoting Boris Eikhenbaum:
Nearly all periods of artistic innovation have had a strong parodic impulse,
advancing generic change. As the Russian formalist Boris Eichenbaum once put it:
"In the evolution of each genre, there are times when its use for entirely serious
or elevated objectives degenerates and produces a comic or parodic form....And thus
is produced the regeneration of the genre: it finds new possibilities and new
forms."

Hutcheon (1985) pp.28, 35


Boris Eikhenbaum Theory of the "Formal Method" (1925) and O. Henry and the Theory
of the Short Story (1925)
https://www.thechinastory.org/2016/03/from-the-year-of-the-ape-to-the-year-of-the-
monkey/
Christopher Rea, The Age of Irreverence: A New History of Laughter in China
(Oakland, CA: University of California Press, 2015), pp. 52, 53.
Stavans (1997) p.31
Elizabeth Bellalouna, Michael L. LaBlanc, Ira Mark Milne (2000) Literature of
Developing Nations for Students: L-Z p.50
Elices (2004) p.90 quotation:
From these words, it can be inferred that Genette's conceptualisation does not
diverge from Hutcheon's, in the sense that he does not mention the component of
ridicule that is suggested by the prefix paros. Genette alludes to the re-
interpretative capacity of parodists in order to confer an artistic autonomy to
their works.

Hutcheon (1985) p.50


Hutcheon (1985) p.52
Yunck 1963
Hutcheon (1985)
G�rard Genette (1982) Palimpsests: literature in the second degree p.16
Sangsue (2006) p.72 quotation:
Genette individua la forma "pi� rigorosa" di parodia nella "parodia minimale",
consistente nella ripresa letterale di un testo conosciuto e nella sua applicazione
a un nuovo contesto, come nella citazione deviata dal suo senso

Willett, Bec (17 December 2017). "Trapped in the Netflix at iO". Performink.
Retrieved 23 March 2018.
Ayers, Mike (24 July 2014). "'Weird Al' Yankovic Explains His Secret Formula for
Going Viral and Hitting No. 1". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 September
2015.
Hamersly, Michael. ""Weird Al" Yankovic brings his masterful musical parody to
South Florida". Miami Herald. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
Barnes, A. & Hearn, M. (1997) Kiss kiss bang bang: the unofficial James Bond film
companion, Batsford, p. 63 ISBN 9780713481822
K. Baker ed., Unauthorized Versions (London 1990) Introduction p. xx�xxii
K. Baker ed., Unauthorized Versions (London 1990) p. 429
K. Baker ed., Unauthorized Versions (London 1990) p. 107
K. Baker ed., Unauthorized Versions (London 1990) p. 319
K. Baker ed., Unauthorized Versions (London 1990) p. 355
S. Cushman ed., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (Princeton 2012)
p. 1003
J. Thomas, Poetry's Playground (2007) p. 45-52
Quoted in S. Burt ed., The Cambridge History of American Poetry (Cambridge 2014)
Richard Stim. "Summaries of Fair Use Cases". Stanford Copyright and Fair Use
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"Google Scholar". google.com.
"The Tyee � Canwest Suit May Test Limits of Free Speech". The Tyee. 11 December
2008.
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Available at ipo.gov.uk Archived 2011-05-17 at the Wayback Machine (Accessed: 22
February 2011).
"The Copyright and Rights in Performances (Quotation and Parody) Regulations
2014". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
"Exceptions to copyright : Guidance for creators and copyright owners" (PDF).
Gov.uk. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
Christopher Rea, "Spoofing (e�gao) Culture on the Chinese Internet.� In Humour in
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References
Dentith, Simon (2000). Parody (The New Critical Idiom). Routledge. ISBN 0-415-
18221-2.
Elices Agudo, Juan Francisco (2004) Historical and theoretical approaches to
English satire
Hutcheon, Linda (1985). "3. The Pragmatic Range of Parody". A Theory of Parody: The
Teachings of Twentieth-Century Art Forms. New York: Methuen. ISBN 0-252-06938-2.
Mary Louise Pratt (1991). "Arts of the Contact Zone". Profession. New York: MLA.
91: 33�40. Archived from the original (pdf) on 2008-10-26. archived at University
of Idaho, English 506, Rhetoric and Composition: History, Theory, and Research.
From Ways of Reading, 5th edition, ed. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petroksky (New
York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999
Sangsue, Daniel (2006) La parodia
Sheinberg, Esti (2000) Irony, Satire, Parody and the Grotesque in the Music of
Shostakovich
Stavans, Ilan and Jesse H. Lytle, Jennifer A. Mattson (1997) Antiheroes: Mexico and
its detective novel
Ore, Johnathan (2014) Youtuber Shane Dawsons fans revolt after Sony pulls his
Taylor Wwift parody video
Further reading
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclop�dia Britannica article Parody.
Bakhtin, Mikhail; Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist
(1981). The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin and London: University of
Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71527-7.
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. (1988). The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American
Literary Criticism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503463-5.
Petrosky, Anthony; ed. David Bartholomae and Anthony Petroksky (1999). Ways of
Reading (5th ed.). New York: Bedford/St. Martin�s. ISBN 978-0-312-45413-5. An
anthology including Arts of the Contact Zone
Rose, Margaret (1993). Parody: Ancient, Modern and Post-Modern. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41860-7.
Caponi, Gena Dagel (1999). Signifyin(g), Sanctifyin', & Slam Dunking: A Reader in
African American Expressive Culture. University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-
55849-183-X.
Harries, Dan (2000). Film Parody. London: BFI. ISBN 0-85170-802-1.
Pueo, Juan Carlos (2002). Los reflejos en juego (Una teor�a de la parodia).
Valencia (Spain): Tirant lo Blanch. ISBN 84-8442-559-2.
Gray, Jonathan (2006). Watching with The Simpsons: Television, Parody, and
Intertextuality. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-36202-4.
John Gross, ed. (2010). The Oxford Book of Parodies. Oxford: Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-954882-8.
External links
Media related to Parody at Wikimedia Commons
The dictionary definition of parody at Wiktionary
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