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AUTOMATION OF DRY-WET DUST COLLECTION AND

MONITORING USING INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT)


Kankalla.Nishakar1, Ambharkhana.Srujan2, Rudraraju.Anil Varma3, Maddala.Chamdanaa4

Associate Professor, Department of ECE, St. Martin’s Engg. College, Medchal, Telangana, India
1

2
Bachelor of Technology, Department of ECE, St. Martin’s Engg. College, Medchal, Telangana, India.
3
Bachelor of Technology, Department of ECE, St. Martin’s Engg. College, Medchal, Telangana, India.
4
Bachelor of Technology, Department of ECE, St. Martin’s Engg. College, Medchal, Telangana, India.
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Abstract— Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (English: Clean India attention. The various initiatives taken by government,
Mission and abbreviated as SBA or SBM for "Swachh Bharat NGOs, private companies, and local public drastically
Mission") is a national campaign by the Government of India, increased in the past few decades. Nonetheless, land filling
covering across 4,000 statutory cities and towns, to clean the is still the dominant solid waste management option for the
streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. United States as well as many other countries like India
The aim of the mission is to cover all the rural and urban areas around the world. A more economically viable and socially
of the country to present this country as an ideal country before acceptable solution to our current waste management
the world. With the proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) dilemma. This project outlines various advances in the area
devices such as smartphones, sensors, cameras. It is possible to of waste management. It focuses on current practices related
collect massive amount of garbage. to waste management initiatives taken by India. The purpose
This project is designed for the effective dry and wet dirt of this project is to gain knowledge about various initiatives
collection using Embedded System. The main motto of this in both countries and locate the scope for improvement in
application collecting of dry and wet waste separately into the the management of waste.
dumping vehicles. On which the dry waste collected dust bins
are placed left side and wet waste collected bins on right side. I. MOTIVATION OF PROJECT
Technology has developed day by day but no proper waste
management project were developed, this project
Keywords— SBA, SBM, Proliferation, IoT concentrates on waste management and remotely monitor
the garbage bins.
I. INTRODUCTION II. EXISTING METHOD
The existing method requires the manual separation of waste
No one can stop wastage to take place in our Environment
and uses the radio frequency technology to inform the
but with better management we can prepare ourselves. Here
garbage trucks to pick up the waste, where in a person
we will talk about waste and waste management. Now for
always needs to be at the point of the bin for the collection
the first question, what is waste? Any material which is not
and notifying the pickup trucks.
needed by the owner, producer or processor is waste. In a
III. PROPOSED METHOD
common man’s eye anything that is unwanted or not useful
IoT requires the connectivity to a local server to connect
is garbage or waste. However scientifically speaking there is
over cloud and performs all the actions over it, this gives
no waste as such in the world. Almost all the components of
access remotely with no range limitations and the
solid waste have some potential if it is converted or treated
segregation of dry and wet waste is done self by the
in a scientific manner.
proposed model with the contact wires which we are using
We can dispose the waste or reuse the waste and can earn
to connection.
money through proper management. Indian cities which are
fast competing with global economies in their drive for fast
economic development have so far failed to effectively
manage the huge quantity of waste generated. There are
about 593 districts and approximately 5,000 towns in India. II. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF HARDWARE SYSTEM
About 27.8 percent of India’s total population of more than
1 billion (as per Census 2001) lives in urban areas. The
projected urban population percentage is 33.4 percent by the
year 2026. The quantum of waste generated in Indian towns
and cities is increasing day by-day on account of its
increasing population and increased GDP. The annual
quantity of solid waste generated in Indian cities has
increased from six million tons in 1947 to 48 million tons in
1997 with an annual growth rate of 4.25 percent, and it is
expected to increase to 300 million tons by 2,047 (CPCB,
1998). Population explosion, coupled with improved life
style of people, results in increased generation of solid
wastes in urban as well as rural areas of the country. Fig V: Block Diagram Of Hardware System
However, due to ever increasing urbanization, fast adoption
of ‘use & throw concept’& equally fast communication
between urban & rural areas the gap between the two is This project implementation primarily focuses on
diminishing. The solid waste from rural areas is more of a Segregation of Dry and Wet dust and monitoring it over
biodegradable nature & the same from urban areas contains cloud.
more non-biodegradable components like plastics &
packaging. In India, the urban local bodies, popularly IV. WORKING
known as the municipal corporations/councils, are
responsible for management of activities related to public Basically this design works in three different stages they
health. However, with increasing public and political are;
awareness as well as new possibilities opened by economic  Segregation
growth, solid waste management is starting to receive due  Monitoring
 Notifying
Segregation of dust is done by first detecting the element
with the help of piezo that is placed over the plate, next the
contact that connected to the plates detect whether the dust
is dry or wet depending on the connectivity and rotates the
motor depending on the result.

Fig VII: Schematic Diagram


The above schematic diagram explains the interfacing
section of each component to the micro controllers
Fig VI Physical Device ATmega2560 and ESP8266. Here MB-102 breadboard
power supply is an external supply given to the
Monitoring of the bin is done using the Blynk application microcontroller boards and the components like sensors,
which is a cloud platform. Where it reads the data from the accurators, so that no power issues occur on the board. It
ultrasonic connected to the kit and shows the location in the drives 3.3V and 5V, in order to convert the power as per the
map widget. requirement of the circuit.
In the Power supply unit firstly the required power is sorted
to regulate the flow on each side. Here we use two
microcontrollers where the first one is to detect and
segregate the waste and the second one is to drive the
storage data to the cloud using IoT and to allow remote
access.

VI. THE HARDWARE SYSTEM

The following are the hardware components used


1. Microcontroller (Arduino mega)
2. Microcontroller (NodeMCU)
3. Piezoelectric sensor
4. Servo Motors
5. MB-102 Power supply
6. Ultrasonic sensor (HC-SR04)
7. Connecting wires
Fig VI: Blynk Dashboard
8. Aluminium foil
Notification is set by data processing by giving the triggers A. Embedded System
the incoming data. The data is processed and if it meets the An embedded system is a combination of software and
triggered level it sends an email alert. hardware to perform a dedicated task. Some of the main
devices used in embedded products are Microprocessors and
V. SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
Microcontrollers. Microprocessors are commonly referred to
as general purpose processors as they simply accept the
inputs, process it and give the output. In contrast, a
microcontroller not only accepts the data as inputs but also
manipulates it, interfaces the data with various devices,
controls the data and thus finally gives the result.
IV. Arduino Mega 2560
The MEGA 2560 is designed for more complex
projects. With 54 digital I/O pins, 16 analog
inputs and a larger space for your sketch it is the
recommended board for 3D printers and robotics
projects. This gives your projects plenty of room
and opportunities.

Fig VIII: Embedded System

III. Microcontroller
This section forms the control unit of the whole project.
This section basically consists of a Microcontroller with its
associated circuitry like Crystal with capacitors, Reset
circuitry, Pull up resistors (if needed) and so on. The
Microcontroller forms the heart of the project because it
controls the devices being interfaced and communicates
with the devices according to the program being written.
Atmel® megaAVR® microcontrollers (MCUs) are the
Fig VIII: Arduino Mega
ideal choice for designs that need some extra muscle. For
applications requiring large amounts of code, megaAVR V. Ultra-sonic HC-SR04
devices offer substantial program and data memories with
performance up to 20 MIPS. Meanwhile, innovative HC-SR04 is an ultrasonic ranging module that provides
Atmel picoPower® technology minimizes power 2 cm to 400 cm non-contact measurement function. The
consumption. All megaAVR devices offer self- ranging accuracy can reach to 3mm and effectual angle
programmability for fast, secure, cost-effective in-circuit is < 15°. It can be powered from a 5V power supply.
upgrades. You can even upgrade the Flash memory while
running your application.

Based on proven, industry-leading technology, the


megaAVR family offers our widest selection of devices in
terms of memories, pin-counts and peripherals. These
include everything from general-purpose devices to
models with specialized peripherals like Peripheral Touch
Controller (PTC), USB, LCD controllers, as well as CAN,
LIN and Power Stage Controllers (PSC). You will easily
find the perfect fit for your project in the megaAVR
Fig VIII: Ultrasonic sensor
product family. All these devices are supported by the
Atmel Studio development platform, which further VI. Servo motor
reduces your time-to-market.
A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that
allows for precise control of angular or linear position,
velocity and acceleration. It consists of a
suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback.
... Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics,
CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.

Fig VIII: Microcontroller


Fig VIII: Servo Motor
B. Piezoelectric Sensor
A sensor that utilizes the piezoelectric effect, to
measure changes in acceleration, strain, pressure, and
force by converting them into electrical charge is called
as a piezoelectric sensor. ... This generated
piezoelectricity is proportional to the pressure applied
to the solid piezoelectric crystal materials.

Fig VIII: MB102 Breadboard Power Supply

VII. SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION

1) Arduino IDE
Arduino is a prototype platform (open-source) based on an
easy-to-use hardware and software. It consists of a circuit
Fig VIII: Piezoelectric Sensor board, which can be programed (referred to as a
microcontroller) and a ready-made software called Arduino
VII. NodeMCU
IDE (Integrated Development Environment), which is used
NodeMCU is an open source IoT platform. It to write and upload the computer code to the physical board.
includes firmware which runs on the ESP8266 Wi- The key features are:
Fi SoC from Espressif Systems, and hardware which is  Arduino boards are able to read analog or digital input
based on the ESP-12 module. The term "NodeMCU" by signals from different sensors and turn it into an output
default refers to the firmware rather than the such as activating a motor, turning LED on/off, connect
development kits. The firmware uses the Lua scripting to the cloud and many other actions.
language. It is based on the eLua project, and built on  You can control your board functions by sending a set
the Espressif Non-OS SDK for ESP8266. of instructions to the microcontroller on the board via
Arduino IDE (referred to as uploading software).
 Unlike most previous programmable circuit boards,
Arduino does not need an extra piece of hardware
(called a programmer) in order to load a new code onto
the board. You can simply use a USB cable.
 Additionally, the Arduino IDE uses a simplified version
of C++, making it easier to learn to program.
 Finally, Arduino provides a standard form factor that
breaks the functions of the micro-controller into a more
accessible package
Fig VIII: NodeMCU

C. MB102 Bread Board Supply


The MB102 is a breadboard power supply
module manufactured by the YwRobot Corporation in
China. It provides dual 5 V and 3.3 V power rails, and
has a USB socket.

Fig IX: Arduino Software

2) BLYNK
Blynk was designed for the Internet of Things. It can control
hardware remotely, it can display sensor data, it can store
data, visualize it and do many other cool things.
There are three major components in the platform: In this project, we have three sections segregation,
monitoring and notifying which helps in reducing the
 Blynk App - allows to you create amazing maintenance and promotes clean and green environment.
interfaces for your projects using various widgets we This project can be further developed using the technologies
provide. like DIP (Digital Image Processing), AI (Artificial
Intelligence), ML (Machine Learning). This three
 Blynk Server - responsible for all the technologies helps in segregating large amount of waste to
communications between the smartphone and hardware. segregate with no human intervention and c/an be installed
You can use our Blynk Cloud or run your private Blynk in dumping yards for waste management.
server locally. Its open-source, could easily handle
thousands of devices and can even be launched on a
Raspberry Pi. REFERENCES
1. https://www.engpaper.com/iot-2018.htm
 Blynk Libraries - for all the popular hardware 2. https://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com/definition/
platforms - enable communication with the server and embedded-system
process all the incoming and outcoming commands. 3. https://www.journals.elsevier.com/waste-management
4. https://www.webopedia.com/TERM/W/Wi_Fi.html
Features of BLYNK 5. hlolp’.ttp://www-
sop.inria.fr/members/Charles.Andre/CAdoc/M-
 Similar API & UI for all supported hardware & devices ES/SyncApproach.pdf
 Connection to the cloud using: 6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AVR_microcontrollers
 WiFi 7. https://www.arduino.cc/en/main/documentation
 Bluetooth and BLE 8. https://docs.blynk.cc/
 Ethernet
 USB (Serial) GUIDE DETAILS
 GSM
 Direct pin manipulation with no code writing NAME: KANKALLA NISHAKAR
 Easy to integrate and add new functionality using QUALIFICATION: M.TECH
virtual pins DESIGNATION: ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR,
 History data monitoring via Super Chart widget ECE DEPARTMENT
 Device-to-Device communication using Bridge Widget MAIL ID: nishakar.k@gmail.com
 Sending emails, tweets, push notifications, etc. PHONE: 9866563737

VIII. CONCLUSION STUDENT DETAILS


Separate our garbage: India has one of the world’s most
efficient recycling mechanisms. Use the service of our junk NAME: AMBHARKHANA SRUJAN
man. Newspapers, bottle cans and other such recyclables QUALIFICATION: B TECH
can fetch us money and in the process we can help to save MAIL ID: srujanambharkhana@gmail.com
the environment. Rag pickers, too, perform a vital function PHONE: 9652407709
for the city. Kitchen garbage (biodegradable) should be
separated from non-biodegradable waste. NAME: RUDRARAJU ANIL VARMA
QUALIFICATION: B TECH
IX. FUTURE SCOPE MAIL ID: anilvarma.rudra@gmail.com
This project “AUTOMATION OF DRY-WET DUST PHONE: 9505535511
COLLECTION AND MONITORING USING INTERNET
OF THINGS (IoT)” is mainly intended to implement an NAME: MADDALA.CHAMDANAA
embedded device which enables separation of DRY dust QUALIFICATION: B TECH
over WET. This technology can be implemented in rural MAIL ID: chamdanaa98@gmail.com
areas, GHMC substations for lowering the maintenance. PHONE: 8247837109