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International Journal of Oceanography & Aquaculture

ISSN: 2577-4050

Applications of Remote Sensing in Oceanographic Research

Hafez Ahmad* Review Article


Department of Oceanography, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh
Volume 3 Issue 1
Received Date: January 12, 2019
*Corresponding author: Hafez Ahmad, Department of Oceanography, University of
Published Date: February 04, 2019
Chittagong, Bangladesh, Tel: 1828463046; Email: hafezahmad100@gmail.com DOI: 10.23880/ijoac-16000159

Abstract
Remote sensing (RS) has a wide range of applications in the field of physical, biological, coastal, satellite oceanography.
RS in Oceanographic research is the collection of oceanographic, monitoring of coastal and oceanic processes data and
analysis various processes using space borne and air borne sensors. RS offers many advantages over conventional
procedures such as synoptic coverage, repeated observations, and area averaging. The main applications are ocean
weather and climate studies, measuring primary productivity, water quality monitoring, detection of potential fishing
zone, marine life assessment, marine pollution monitoring, determination of near shore bathymetry and mapping,
sensing of ocean current and wave, human impacts on marine and coastal life etc. This study aims to identify and explain
the importance of RS, advancements, rationality of applications, and future trends in oceanic research.

Keywords: Oil Spill; Mineral Resource; Natural Hazards; Coastal Zone

Abbreviations: RS: Remote Sensing; SST: Sea Surface climate change issues, fisheries, aquaculture conservation,
Temperature; NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric minerals resource (both renewable and non-renewable)
Administration; OS: Oil Spill; CZCS: Coastal Zone Colour exploitation, coastal zone management,
Scanner; TSM: Total Suspended Matter; CDOM: Colored transportation/recreation, marine pollution hazards and
Dissolved Organic Matter; PCA: Principal Component submarine communication and acoustic propagation for
Analysis; PFZs: Potential Fishing Zones; OCM: Ocean strategic planning. There are several complementary
Colour Monitor; PCA: Principal Component Analysis; SAR: approaches to studying the ocean: (1) observations, (2)
Synthetic Aperture Radar; LiDAR: Light Detection and process models, including pure theory and simplified
Ranging. numerical models, (3) simulations of the flow using
complex numerical models, (4) combined
Introduction observational/numerical modeling simulations (data
assimilation) and (5) statistical approaches/soft
Remote sensing (RS) is the science and art of obtaining computing techniques like multiple regression, genetic
information about an object, area or phenomenon algorithm or artificial neural networks etc.
through an analysis of the data acquired by a device
which is not in contact with the object, area or RS utilizes satellite and/or airborne based sensors to
phenomenon under investigation [1]. Ocean is vast and collect information about a given object or area. Radiation
complex so the observation, monitoring and studies of that is emitted or reflected by the object or water body, is
oceanic process and aspects are critical. Understanding recorded by sensors. Light (Figure 1) from the sun
the oceans is vital for pure scientific curiosity, global through the water body to the remote sensing sensor

Applications of Remote Sensing in Oceanographic Research Int J Oceanogr Aquac


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(passive remote sensing). The possible interactions are collect data over vast ocean to characterize natural
absorption and scattering by the water constituents, features or physical objects on the ground, to observe
reflection and absorption by the sea surface, reflection surface of ocean and objects on a systematic basis and
and refraction at the water/air interface and absorption monitor their changes over time, and the ability to
and scattering by the atmosphere. integrate this data with other information to aid decision
making. RS from satellites can be collected at various
spatial resolutions. Images can detect features in a size
range of tens to hundreds of meters or larger. Remote
sensing instruments may also acquire data in different
spectral bands of the electromagnetic spectrum which
provides information. Application of RS in Oceanographic
research refers to collection of oceanographic data and
analysis various processes using space borne and air
borne sensors. monitoring of coastal and oceanic
processes is very important in sea level, sea surface
temperature (SST) changes due to climate change and
global warming, shore line changes, coastal morphology
due to dynamic nature of coastal zone, detection of
chlorophyll content, oil spill, suspended or dissolved
Figure 1: Simple Data collection techniques in water matter, algal bloom, measurement of near shore
body via remote sensing [2]. bathymetry, natural hazards, management of coastal zone,
exploration and exploitation living and nonliving resource
RS is so high sophisticated technology for this purpose. and determination of human impacts [3].
The benefits of RS in oceanography include the ability to

S.No. Parameters Satellite and their data used Uses


Sea surface Helps in the study of climate change and weather
1 MODIS, AMSRE, TMI
temperature(SST) forecasting
Total suspended solids Provides information of hydrodynamic modelling of
2 DEIMOS-1, LANDSAT, ASTER
(TSSs) coast
3 Chlorophyll content SeaWiFS, IKONOS, IRS P4 OCM Indicates the concentration of phytoplankton

4 Potential fishing zone NOAA AVHRR, IRS OCM Indicates highly potentials of fishing

5 Wave height and spectra GEOSAT, ASAR (ENVISAT) Provides information for navigation
Sea surface height, wind Detection of mid-scale sea surface, importance
6 Topex /Poseidon, ERS-1, ERS-2
speed variables in ocean mixtures
Surface current, front, POES/AVHRR, GOES/IMAGER,
7 Wave and current modelling
circulation JASON-1
Table 1: Ocean parameters with their importance of each parameters [4,5].

Materials and Methods collected from original researchers with permission and
open sources software python, R and ArcGIS, MS Excel are
This study was based of secondary information. To used for data analysis and visualization. For data analyses,
collect secondary data, an intensive literature review the “content analysis” method was used. This method is a
related to RS, RS development status, RS application research tool for interpreting and coding textual material
approaches in Oceanography context were conducted (e.g. documents, books, oral communication, interviews,
through an online and offline in addition, relevant policy and graphics) to elicit meaningful information over
documents and government reports were also collected different themes.
from government agencies through personal contacts the
secondary data and graphic illustrations also was

Hafez Ahmad. Applications of Remote Sensing in Oceanographic Copyright© Hafez Ahmad.


Research. Int J Oceanogr Aquac 2019, 3(1): 000159.
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Applications of Remote Sensing in many oceanic processes that is directly related to heat
Oceanography transfer between ocean and atmosphere and served as
important indicator of climate state.in numerical weather
Ocean Weather and Climate Studies prediction models, the SST field exerts its influence in the
Remote sensing has given major advances in calculation of surface fluxes over the oceans [3]. The
understanding the climate system and its change by Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on board the
quantifying processes and spatio temporal states of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
atmosphere, land and oceans. Satellite data are frequently satellites allows us to monitor the SST worldwide.
used with climate models to stimulate the dynamic of the Satellite observations also reveal an uneven warming
climate system and to improve climate projections [6]. pattern [7].
Sea surface temperature (SST) plays an important role in

Figure 2: July 2008 and July 2018 SST maps are based on observations by the MODIS on NASA’s Aqua satellite (source:
www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov).

The satellite measures the temperature of the top


millimeter of the ocean surface. In this map, the coolest
waters appear in blue (approximately 2 degrees Celsius),
and the warmest temperatures appear in pink-yellow (35
degrees Celsius). Landmasses and the large area of sea ice
around Antarctica appear in shades of gray, indicating no
data were collected.

The Map provides estimates of sea level rise based on


measurements from satellite radar altimeters. The local
trends were estimated using data from TOPEX/Poseidon
(T/P), Jason-1, and Jason-2, which have monitored the
same ground track since 1992. An inverted barometer has
been applied. The estimates of sea level rise do not
include glacial isostatic adjustment effects on the geoid,
which are modeled to be +0.2 to +0.5 mm/year when
Figure 3: Global mean sea level trends (1992-2018).
globally averaged [8].
Combined data sets of TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and
Jason-2 produced by the Laboratory for Satellite
Altimetry, NOAA
(https://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/lsa/SeaLevel
Rise/LSA_SLR_maps.php).

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Research. Int J Oceanogr Aquac 2019, 3(1): 000159.
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Mapping and Prediction for Oil Spilling Extent and predicting future oil movement. Annually, 48% of the oil
Drift pollution in the oceans is fuels and 29% are crude oil.
Oil spill (OS) can destroy marine life and habitat of Tanker accidents contribute with only 5% of all pollution
land animal as well as human. For OS mapping and entering into the sea. The detection and mapping of oil on
prediction some information must need to know these are a water surface is the most common uses of oil spill
Spill location, size and extent of oil spill, direction and remote sensing [9,10].
magnitude, wind, current and wave information for

Figure 4: Example of detection the oil slick shown by the white rectangle (MODIS, deep water horizon, www.nasa.gov)
noted: many clouds in the image.

A multi-spectral image was derived from MODIS and Ocean Color Study
corrected by a supervised classification system to Ocean color is an important aspect for RS. It provides
enhance and characterize oil on water [9]. Laser numerous potentials and useful information for
fluorosensors use the phenomenon that oil aromatic oceanographic research. Ocean color sensors are having
compounds interact with ultraviolet light, absorb the light high radiometry to measure water quality with
energy, and release the extra energy as visible light. The reasonable accuracy and precision. Thermal infrared
absorption and emission wavelengths are unique to oil sensors provide sea surface temperatures (SST) and
[11]. Satellite-based oil pollution monitoring capabilities features with varying sea surface temperatures.
in the Norwegian waters were demonstrated in the early
1990s by using images from the ERS-1 satellite [12].

Application of ocean color Information from Ocean color sensors


Provides information for current, eddies, mixing zone
Spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton
etc.
Identify potential fishing zone and upwelling zone Role of global carbon cycle and other biogeochemical cycles
Processes associated with coastal current, boundary current,
Synoptic maps of ocean color
eddies etc.
Provides information of pelagic ecosystem Determination of algal bloom
Table 2: Applications of ocean colors and usefulness of ocean color sensors.

Ocean Primary Productivity Measuring phytoplankton. Data from Coastal Zone Colour Scanner
Chlorophyll –a (chla) is an important parameter that is (CZCS) provided first view of the synoptic scale
used in determining open sea (case-1 waters) and coastal distribution of chlorophyll concentration [13]. Three-
water (case-2 waters) quality status or presence of band algorithm has been used to estimates of Chla in

Hafez Ahmad. Applications of Remote Sensing in Oceanographic Copyright© Hafez Ahmad.


Research. Int J Oceanogr Aquac 2019, 3(1): 000159.
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turbid and very high biomass hypertrophic waters. Total Suspended Matter (TSM) and Colored Dissolved
Sensors such as Landsat, SPOT, and IKONOS are also Organic Matter (CDOM) Monitoring
frequently used to estimate Chla [14-17]. The study of TSM concentration has a huge ecological
importance, because the suspended matter is the main
carrier of various inorganic and organic substances and
becomes the main substrata for biochemical processes
[18]. The TSM concentration affects ocean/coastal
productivity, water quality, navigation, and coastal
defense. Teodoro AC, et al. presented different
methodologies to estimate the TSM concentration in a
particular area of the Portuguese coast, from remotely
sensed multispectral data (ASTER, SPOT HRVIR, and
Landsat TM), based on single-band models, multiple
regression, and ANNs [19]. Coloured dissolved organic
Figure 5: Chlorophyll concentration maps of July 2008 matter (CDOM) is an important variable for sea land
and July 2018 are based on observations by the MODIS interaction studies and water monitoring .many
on NASA’s Aqua satellite (source: researchers have showed that the capability to estimate
https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/global- CDOM from satellite RS data [20-22]. Loisel H, et al.
maps/MY1DMM_CHLORA). Places where chlorophyll proposed a new method to assess a CDOM, based on the
amounts were very low, indicating very low numbers theoretical link between the vertical attenuation
of phytoplankton are blue. Places where chlorophyll coefficient and the absorption coefficient with high
concentrations were high, meaning many accuracy [23].
phytoplankton were growing, are dark green.

Open ocean waters (case-1 waters) Coastal waters (case -2 waters)


Pigment concentration Concentration of three components
Bloom dynamics and productivity Bloom dynamics, productivity, coastal dynamics, sediment transport
Carbon cycle Water quality, carbon cycle, fisheries leisure activities, aquaculture
Table 3: Visible remote sensing over open and coastal water [24].

Detection of Shoreline Changes for coastline extraction and detection. Manual


It is estimated that there are sound 350,000 km of identification, image enhancement, density slice using
shoreline in the world and more than 60% of the world’s single or multiple bands, and image classification (super‐
population lives within 100 km of the coastal/sea. on the vised and unsupervised) are still the most common
other hand, coastal land erosion and flooding are common techniques employed [28].
problem in every low lying coastal area in the world,
therefore, monitoring and managing shorelines are Detection of Algal Bloom
ecologically and economically importance. The HABs could be defined by an increase in the high
delineation of coastal zone features is largely dictated by concentration of a phytoplankton species that has an
the characteristics and capabilities of specific satellite adverse impact on the environment. They cause eutrophic
sensors [25]. Maiti and Bhattacharya used multidate conditions, depleting oxygen levels needed for organic life,
satellite images from Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+ and ASTER and limiting aquatic plant growth by reducing water
to demarcate shoreline positions from which shoreline transparency. The use of remote-sensing techniques for
change rates have been estimated using linear regression detecting phytoplankton and mapping HABs could be
along the coast of Bay of Bengal (India) between 1973 and found in Klemas V [29].
2003 [26]. Kuleli T, et al. Showed on the shoreline change
rate analysis by automatic image analysis techniques Detection of Potential Fishing Zone
through histogram-based segmentation of land and water Quantitative analysis of SST and Chla can give a clear
based on automatic thresholding algorithm, using multi understating of circulation and distribution of
temporal Landsat images (MSS, TM and ETM+) between phytoplankton of the surface ocean. RS combined with
1972 and 2009 along the coastal Ramsar wetlands of conventional data collection techniques provides a
Turkey [27]. There are several methods and techniques powerful tool for designing harvesting strategies for

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living marine resources. Remotely sensed satellite local wind speed, and significant wave height. Satellite
observations of sea surface may provide significant altimetry measures sea surface heights, providing data on
information to assess and improve the potential yield of geostrophic circulation, including major ocean currents.
fishing grounds [30]. Satellite based RS provides synoptic Ocean currents can also be determined by satellite
views of the ocean and is capable of detecting mesoscale synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or tracking the movement
features through thermal infrared and visible sensors. of thermal and color features in the ocean [38]. Satellite
Hence, it can be useful for locating potential fishing zones derived SST data are useful for detecting axis positions of
(PFZs) [31]. An integrated approach was developed by ocean currents and locations of rings generated from the
Solanki HU, et al. using ocean colour monitor (OCM) currents as well as giving qualitative description of
derived chlorophyll and AVHRR derived SST for locating meander and ring separation. The measurement of wave
PFZs in the Indian waters [13]. characteristics such as height, length and direction using
Electromagnetic (EM) wave is of the latest development
Coastal and Oceanic Hazards Mapping in the field of ocean wave studies [39]. Oceanographic
Storm surges associated with severe tropical cyclones satellites measure properties of the water surface which
constitute the world’s worst coastal marine hazard which can then related to either wind speed or wave height [40].
can cause heavy loss of life and property, damage to the Variability of ocean health can be assessed through the
coastal structures and losses of agriculture in affected small scale features like oceanic eddies and small scale
countries [32]. Satellite remote sensors can map coastal gyres.
ecosystems and their changes cost-effectively at
appropriate scales and resolutions, minimizing the need Discussion
for extensive field and ship measurements. Remote
sensing allows to quantitatively retrieving several Results of various studies revealed that RS can be
parameters useful for produce multi-hazard and successfully used to detect and monitor various aspects in
vulnerability maps [28,33]. ocean. Reynolds, et al. used microwave remote sensing for
calculating SST because of its advantages over infra-red
Determination of Near Shore Bathymetry SST retrievals [41]. Marcello, et al. used a methodology for
Optical remote sensing offers a cost-effective measuring wave velocity directly from SPOT-5 satellite
alternative to echo sounding and bathymetric LiDAR image [42]. A Machine learning method used in detection
techniques for deriving bathymetric estimates in shallow of ocean pollution with the help of satellite image and
coastal and inland waters. Monitoring of coastal radar image such as oil spilling, plastics pollution, algal
bathymetry is vital for exploration and exploitation of bloom etc. Oil spill detection currently requires a highly
nonliving and living resources, operations on engineering trained human operator to assess each region in each
structures and ocean circulations [3]. The availability of image [43]. Klemas V used to determine ocean current by
optical high-resolution satellites, such as IKONOS, satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) or tracking the
QuickBird, and WorldView, has renewed interest in movement of thermal and color features in the ocean [39].
applying optical remote-sensing techniques to the Monitoring of coastal bathymetry is vital for exploration
retrieval of bathymetric information for shallow coastal and exploitation of nonliving and living resources,
and inland waters, due to their high spatial resolution and operations on engineering structures and ocean
enhanced water penetration capability [34-36]. Teodoro circulations [3]. The availability of optical high-resolution
A, et al. proposed a model for the estimation of depth satellites, such as IKONOS, QuickBird, and WorldView, has
based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of an renewed interest in applying optical remote- sensing
IKONOS-2 image, for the Douro River estuary (Porto, techniques to the retrieval of bathymetric information for
Portugal) [37]. shallow coastal and inland waters. The detection and
mapping of oil on a water surface is the most common
Ocean Current and Wave Studies uses of oil spill remote sensing [9,10]. RS has numerous
Ocean currents influence the global heat transport, usages in Oceanographic research.
weather and climate, plankton transport, drift of water
pollutants; sediment transport; and marine Conclusion
transportation. As a result, oceanographers, coastal
managers, and ships need up-to-date information on The advantages of remote sensing include the ability
ocean and coastal currents. Satellite altimetry is one of the to collect information over large spatial areas; to
essential remote-sensing techniques for monitoring characterize natural features or physical objects on the
dynamic ocean conditions, including surface currents,

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