You are on page 1of 89

S

SEEDORFF UNIVERSITY

Masonry Made Simple:


Best Practices & Lessons Learned
Continuing Education Track
19 March 2009

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Vision

A GREAT engineering force of highly


disciplined people working with our partners
through disciplined thought and action to
deliver innovative and sustainable solutions
to the Nation’s engineering challenges.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Lincoln Omaha Corporate Des Moines Quad Cities

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Our Vision

A premier organization that raises expectations,


redefines excellence, and builds
extraordinary opportunity.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
SMI Corporate Focus

Two
One Million Safe Hours.
Masonry Guaranteed for Life.
Two Goals. One Team.
We Can.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Project Performance

Importance/
Value
Schedule
ScheduleCompression
Compression

Ability

Design Est/Procure Const O&M


S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Project Delivery: A Better Way
Traditional Integration
Delivery &
Methods Collaboration
Information Value

Design Est/Procure Const O&M


S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P R E V I E W

Today’s Objectives
• Understand the basic behavior of individual
masonry units and/or materials
• Address proper applications/installations
• Analyze the performance of the assembly
• Use predictability to ensure performance

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Teamwork

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Teamwork

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P R E V I E W

Agenda
• Leakage in masonry assemblies
• The Basics of behavior
• Proper Applications
• Performance of assemblies
• Prevention vs. Detection
• Discussion

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Preventing Leaks in Masonry

“No 4” masonry wall, no matter how built, by


whom, or of what, ever stopped a wind-
driven rain.”

-Clayford T. Grimm, P.E.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Water Intrusion
• Masonry units themselves
• Mortar
• Bond breaks between mortar & masonry
units
– Bed joints
– Head joints
– Flashing details
• Soft joints (weak link w/ short life expectancy)
• Top of wall & bottom of wall conditions
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Head Joints

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

The Basics
• Block Shrink
• Brick Grow
• Flashing Details (dams, drips, etc.)
• Go soft on Dissimilars
• Rainfall climbs (1” per 10 mph)
• V3 – Vent Vulnerable Veneers

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Block Shrink
• Portland cement product
• Volumetric change is decreasing
• Maximum size @ time of manufacture
• Horizontal joint reinforcement resists
tensile force at head joints
• Control joints direct locations at which
stresses are relieved
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Block Shrink
B E H A V I O R

The Role of Joint Reinforcement


Note: as block shrink, dimensional
change creates movement toward
center of individual units.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Joint Reinforcement
Incorporation of Reinforcing Wire takes up the
tensile forces created through shrinkage of units.

Horizontal joint reinforcement @ 16” on center. With stacked


bond it may be incorporated @ 8” on center.
**Good rule of thumb for any Portland product. S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Accommodating Shrinkage

Interrupt Horizontal Reinforcement at CJ’s S MI


www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Control Joints
(Plan View)

Regular Rapid Control allows longitudinal panel movement,


but resists displacement perpendicular to the wall line.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Regular Rapid Control Joint

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Mortar Key - Control Joints


(Plan View)

Mortar Key (with bond break) allows longitudinal panel movement,


but resists displacement perpendicular to the wall line.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Control Joint Locations

Control joints create a plane of weakness which allows


panel movement in the length of the wall.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Horiz Joint Reinf @ CJ’s


(Plan View)

Horiz Joint Reinforcement must allow longitudinal


panel movement for CJ to function.
INTERRUPT at Control Joints!
B E H A V I O R

Bond Beam Rebar @ CJ’s


(Plan View)
l

Bond Beam reinforcement must* allow longitudinal


panel movement for CJ to function, but resist displacement
perpendicular to the wall line.
B E H A V I O R

Portland cement Rule of Thumb


Portland cement products:
“Rule of Thumb”
1. Concrete Slabs
-tend to want to crack in
squares
2. Masonry walls
-tend to crack at ratio
equal to 2x height
Control Joints (continued)
B E H A V I O R

Block Shrink
• Portland cement product
• Volumetric change is decreasing
• Maximum size @ time of manufacture
• Horizontal joint reinforcement resists
tensile force at head joints
• Control joints direct locations at which
stresses are relieved (soft joint @ ext face)
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

BRICK

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Brick Grow
• Clay product
• Volumetric change is increasing
• Smallest the units will ever be is
immediately following firing
• Irreversible expansion
• Expand and contract with variations in
temperature
• Expansion joints allow panel movement
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Brick Growth
Note: as brick grow, dimensional change creates
movement away from the center of individual units.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Thermal Expansion
Change in Length = Etl
Coefficient of Linear Expansion for Clay Masonry: 0.00034
per 100 degree F change
Where:
E = coefficient of linear expansion
(change in length, per unit of length, per degree)
t = change in temperature (C or F)
l = length in feet
For 30’ of brick and a 100 degree F temperature change:
Etl = .00034 x 100 x 30 = 0.0102 ft or ~ 1/8”
100 S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

The Role of Expansion Joints

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Effects of Brick Growth

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Unrestrained Corner – Plan View

Brick Growth @
unrestrained corner
(relieve within 4’)
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Brick Growth & the
S MI
Role of Expansion Joints
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
www.seedorff.com
B E H A V I O R

Brick Growth w/in an Elevation

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
A S S E M B L I E S

Ribbon Windows
Brick Veneer Windows

Elevation S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
A S S E M B L I E S

Punched Openings
Brick Veneer Punched Openings

Elevation
Effects of Ribbons vs.
Pier details in Brick Walls
B E H A V I O R

Brick Growth w/in an Elevation


Line of fracture as brick
ribbon migrates outside plane

Pier brick remains in


original plane of wall
A S S E M B L I E S

EJ Locations

Elevation S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
EJ Locations

Partial Elevation
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
EJ’s – Jamb or Lintel?

BIA TechNote 18A


Do we need EJ’s @ both elev’s?

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R
Unrestrained Corner – Plan View

EJ
Displacement

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Do we need EJ’s @ both elev’s?

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
A S S E M B L I E S

EJ Locations: Centerline?

Elevation S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Expansion Joints ~ Avoid CL

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
A S S E M B L I E S

Radius Walls

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Brick Grow
• Clay product
• Volumetric change is increasing
• Smallest the units will ever be is
immediately following firing
• Irreversible expansion
• Expand and contract with variations in
temperature
• Expansion joints allow panel movement
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Dissimilar Materials

S MI
to flashing section www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

Masonry Growth Chart

Baseline = size @ time


of manufacture or fabrication
size

timeline

Brick
CMU S MI
Stone/Granite
www.seedorff.com
to flashing section c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Intermingled Dissimilars

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Cast Stone
• Portland
• Dimension
accumulates
shrinkage
• Rake & caulk
exposure

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Cast Stone

Dimensional Magnification
Portland vs. Clay (cladding)
Cast-in-Place Frame
P E R F O R M A N C E
Structural Dissimilarity

S MI
www.seedorff.com
Collision of Creep vs. Growth
Investigation & Analysis

Case Studies
Main Menu
Dissimilar Materials

Prevention not Detection

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Flashings
• Proper material selection
• Multi-purpose
– Collection of moisture from cavity
– Directs water to exterior
– Serves as a plane of slippage
– Prevents capillary action
• Dams ensure containment
• Drips ensure exit of moisture
• Laps are critical
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Flashing - details
Flashing turns
up behind paper
building paper
seal laps

(drip is preferred to
S MI
this detail) www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Stainless Steel Drip
Flashing

Stainless drip

Caulk joint at toe


of brick (under
stainless drip)
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Installation

Weeps

Stainless drip edge

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Dams - Containment

Dams provide containment until moisture can exit the


assembly via weep rope or weep vents.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Weep Vents

Cell Vent

Line of flashing
below

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Mortar Droppings

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Weep Vent Location

Flashing

Weep Vent

Weep Rope
Stainless drip

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Vents @ 1 course above flashing &


within 3-4 courses below relief angle

Line of SStl Drip

Weep Vents (con’t) S MI


www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Air and Vapor Barriers

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Top of Wall Condition

Protection Ensures Performance


S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Coping & Cap Flashing


• Wind driven rain = 1” per 10 mph
• Aluminum
– expansion is 1-1/2” per 100 lf/100 degree F
• Stone needs a drip where possible
• Rowlock brick caps are a maintenance and
performance “challenge”

S MI
FFWD to Wrap Up
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
P E R F O R M A N C E

Rowlock Brick Caps


Disproportionate number
of head joints increases
exposure.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
IC Public Library
Window serves as point of
collection. Expands scope
of exposure & deterioration.

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Case in Point - Public Safety
Building
<2” coverage
provided by
coping

6” + coverage from
coping
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
SP Cap Flashings - 2002

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
B E H A V I O R

The Basics
• Block Shrink
• Brick Grow
• Flashing
– Dams
– Drips
• Go soft on Dissimilars
• Rainfall climbs
• V3 – Vent Vulnerable Veneers
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Water Repellents
• “Breathable” coatings penetrate and modify
pore structure in an effort to prevent entry
of active moisture, allow vapor transmission
• Remember: With protection comes
exposure
• Misapplication: Without resolution of
source ~ deterioration accelerates
• High solid content or elastomerics bridge,
but create barrier wall condition
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Coatings on Assemblies

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Operation & Maintenance

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
What to look for…and When

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
S E E D O R F F

Prevention
Lessons Learned
Best Practices

SMI
www.seedorff.com S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Prevention – Lessons Learned
• Masonry is a relatively well-known quantity
• Understand and apply the basics to design
and installation
• Identify & address problematic details to
ensure long-term performance
• Look for avenues to impact facilities before,
during and after construction
• Identify and address problems in their
infancy (when manageable)
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
Prevention – Best Practices
• Ensure the entire team is on the same page
of the playbook…develop our gameplan
• Proof of understanding is the ability to
explain…communicate the plan
• Apply what we know to what we do and
how we build (execute the plan)
• O&M – education for early identification of
H2O intrusion and corrective measures
S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
S E E D O R F F

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.
S E E D O R F F

Building on a
Tradition of Performance
SMI
www.seedorff.com

S MI
www.seedorff.com
c 2009 Seedorff Masonry, Inc.