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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 10, Issue 03, March 2019, pp. 1238-1244. Article ID: IJMET_10_03_126
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

THE EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP ON WORK


EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CORPS SUPPLY
OFFICER AT TNI AL MABES, JAKARTA
Hery Setiyo Nugroho *
Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Department of Management (MSDM), Jakarta,
DKI Jakarta 13220, Indonesia

Wibowo
Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Department of Management (MSDM), Jakarta,
DKI Jakarta 13220, Indonesia

Muchlis R Luddin
Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Department of Management (MSDM), Jakarta,
DKI Jakarta 13220, Indonesia
*corresponding author

ABSTRACT
This quantitative research examined the influence of leadership on work
effectiveness of Corps Supply Officers. The sample in this study was all financial officers
in Navy Secretariat Headquarters Jakarta by the financial specialization of the rank of
Flag Officer and the rank of Second Lieutenant, First Lieutenant, Captain and Middle-
ranked Officers with the rank of Major and Lieutenant Colonel at the Navy
Headquarters which numbered 120 people. The results of the study indicate that
leadership has a direct influence on the effectiveness of the Supply Corps Officer.
Keyword head: Leadership; Work Effectiveness; Supply Corps Officer
Cite this Article Hery Setiyo Nugroho, Wibowo and Muchlis R Luddin, the Effect of
Leadership on Work Effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer at Tni Al Mabes,
Jakarta, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(3), 2019,
pp. 1238-1244.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=3

1. INTRODUCTION
In this study, the author focused on the discussion of the Corps Supply Officer specializing in
Finance at financial institutions of the Indonesian Navy Headquarters. Based on that, the
government has carried out reforms quickly and sustainably including bureaucratic reform

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The Effect of Leadership on Work Effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer at Tni Al Mabes,
Jakarta

carried out on all fronts, in order to realize good governance in the administration of the state.
Potential problems that can be occured are not all Kasatker understand the system of
administration and management of state finances and all its consequences, so that they do not
understand the importance of transparency of the independence of treasurers, in this case the
Finance Officer in realizing financial management in a professional, transparent and
accountable organization. Facing these challenges, officers in charge of the financial sector are
required not only to work professionally in their fields but also to be able to work intelligently
to anticipate and solve problems that arise as a consequence of carrying out tasks in their fields.
Based on the description, it can be seen that the work effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer
with financial specialization is influenced not only by intellectual intelligence, but also requires
mastery of social skills well which includes leadership, level of trust and interpersonal
communication.

2. METHOD
This study used a quantitative approach, survey methods with path analysis techniques consist
of exogenous and endogenous variables. Exogenous variables are leadership and trust, while
endogenous variables are interpersonal communication and work effectiveness. The population
in this study were all financial officers in Navy Headquarters Jakarta. The sample in the study
is a portion of the population. The sampling technique used is Random Sampling, which is a
simple random sampling method. Affordable target populations are all supply specialists with
financial specialization with the rank of First Officer with the rank of Second Lieutenant, First
Lieutenant and Middle Officers with the rank of Major and Lieutenant Colonel at the Navy
Headquarters which numbered 120 people. Calculate the number of samples using the Slovin
formula, as follows:

n = N
Nd2 + 1
Description:
n = Number of Samples
N = Total Population
D = Prescribed Precision[1]
n = 120
(120 x 0.05%2) + 1
= 120
1,0003
n = 119.996 or 120 (rounded off)
It is obtained the sample number = 120 people, while for the trial of the instrument as many
as 30 people. Data collection techniques are carried out using a research instrument in the form
of a questionnaire. The instrument was tested before being used in research. The testing of these
instruments includes validity tests and reliability tests. From the results of the test, there were
items that were valid and invalid. Invalid instrument was removed.
The method used in this research is quantitative research with correlational analysis.
Correlational study aims to determine the correlation between variables. The correlation
between two or more variables is determined by using the regression equation to make
predictions on the population. The total population used in this study is 120 people. The

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Hery Setiyo Nugroho, Wibowo and Muchlis R Luddin

research variables include two variables: Variable X is Leadership and variable Y is Work
Effectiveness, with hypothesis as follows:
H1 : Leadership has significant influence on Work Effectiveness
H0 : Leadership does not have a significant influence on Work Effectiveness

3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


Based on the results of this study, it is known that there is a positive direct influence of
leadership (X1) on work effectiveness (Y), which can be seen from the results of the py1 path
coefficient greater than 0.05, which means that the correlation value r1y of 0.416 occurs due to
indirect effects other variables. The direct effect / influence of leadership (X1) on work
effectiveness (Y) is 0.281 while indirectly through trust (X2) is 0.057 through interpersonal
communication (X3) of 0.064 so the effect of total leadership (X1) on work effectiveness (Y) is
0.403. The results of the hypothesis analysis showed that the leadership has a direct positive
effect on work effectiveness. Increasing the leadership will lead work effectiveness.
The results of this study are in line with the opinions of some experts including Steven L.
MCShane said “Leadership is about influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute
that the effectivenes and success of the organizations of which they are members”[2].
(Leadership is influencing, motivating, and allowing others to contribute to the effectiveness
and success of their organization within members). Different from Locke: At the individual
level of analysis, empowerment is ultimately experienced when followers engage in effective
self - leadership, where self - leadership is defined as “a process through which people influence
themselves to achieve the self - direction and self - motivation needed to perform”[3].
This study supports the hypothesis that leadership has a positive direct effect on
effectiveness (effective). Supportive leadership that provides support and gives them the
freedom to take policies will increase work effectiveness. This research is also in line with the
theory put forward by Blase and Blase that:
As for modeling, Blase and Blase found that, according to teachers effective principals
demonstrated teaching techniques in classrooms and during conferences; they also modeled
positive interactions with students. These forms of modeling were viewed as impressive
examples of instructional leadership that primarily yielded positive effects on teacher
motivation as well as on reflective behavior. This research also demonstrated how praise
significantly affected teacher motivation, self-esteem, efficacy, and fostered, “teacher reflective
behavior, including reinforcement of efektifitas mengajar( effective teaching) strategies, risk
taking, and innovation/creativity[4].
As described above, the main problem in leadership is how to make or influence people
who are led to want to consciously carry out their duties well in order to achieve the stated
goals.
Leadership has often an impact in determining organizational goals for achieving goals, and
improving groups and culture. This can be seen from the success of a leader in moving others
in achieving their stated goals. The meaning of "leadership" is closely related to the meaning
of the word "lead". The word lead contains the meaning of being able to move all existing
resources in an organization so that it can be utilized maximally to achieve the stated goals.
According to Stephen P Robbins “leadership as the ability to influence a group toward the
achievement of a vision or set of goals[5]. (Leadership as the ability to influence a group
towards achieving a vision or achieving a goal).
The opinion above reveals that leadership is an attempt to influence others, high ability to
influence others or strong influence possessed by leaders towards subordinates will have an
impact on the success of leaders in achieving goals, conversely if the leader has a weak

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The Effect of Leadership on Work Effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer at Tni Al Mabes,
Jakarta

influence on subordinates it will have an effect to subordinates who are less supportive to
achieve the desired goals of the leader so that the desired goals are difficult to achieve.
According to Colquitt “leadership as the use of power and influence to direct the activities of
followers toward goal achievement. That direction can affect followers interpretation of events,
the organization of their work activities, their commitment to key goals, their relationships with
other follower, and their access to cooperation and support from other work unit”[6].
Bass (2000) the leadership in the organization has to change with the development and
maturation of the organization[7].Then the findings of Hao & Yazdanifard (2015) mention that
leadership is one of the main factors in bringing positive change to the organization; if there is
no leadership in the organization they will not be able to change in the direction they desire and
could experience negative change instead[8]. Colquitt said that there are two important words
in leadership, namely power (power) and influence (influence). Power and influence are used
to direct followers towards the target to be achieved. The leader can influence his followers in
the activity bond, or the activities of the organization with the targets to be achieved and also
direct how to work together and support from other units.
Furthermore Steven L. MCShane said “Leadership is about influencing, motivating, and
enabling others to contribute that the effectivenes and success of the organizations of which
they are members”[9]. (Leadership is influencing, motivating, and allowing others to contribute
to the effectiveness and success of their organization within members).
From this opinion, there are three important implications of leadership, namely: 1)
Leadership must involve other people or subordinates, 2) leadership involves uneven
distribution of power between leaders and group members, and 3) leaders can direct and
influence others.
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that leadership is a person's effort in
influencing, directing and guiding and regulating others to achieve the goals to be achieved.
According to Ivancevich the leadership “as the process of influencing others to facilitate the
attainment of organizationally relevant goals”[10]. (as a process of influencing others to
facilitate the achievement of relevant organizational goals).
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that leadership is a person's effort to
influence others to achieve the goals to be achieve. The leadership definition implies that it
involves the use of influence and that all interpersonal relationships can involve leadership. A
second element in the definition involves the importance of being a change agent—being able
to affect followers’ behavior and performance. Finally, the definition focuses on accomplishing
goals[11].
Meaningful leadership implies that it involves the use of influence and that all interpersonal
relationships can involve leadership. The second element in the definition involves the
importance of being an agent-able to influence followers' behavior and performance changes.
Finally, the definition focuses on achieving the goal.
The same thing was expressed by Kreitner and Kinicki, leadership is as “a process whereby
an individual influences a group of individulas to achieve a common goal”[12]. (a process
where an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal). Leadership
revealed by Robert Kreitner and Kinicki is a person's effort to influence the activities of group
members to achieve common goals designed to benefit individuals and organizations.
From the opinion expressed by Edward, Kreitner and Kinicki explained that leadership as an
effort to influence people to be willing to take actions directed at achieving common goals.
Meanwhile Yukl defines “leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and
agree about what needs to be done and to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and
collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives”[13].

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Hery Setiyo Nugroho, Wibowo and Muchlis R Luddin

The above opinion denotes that leadership is the process of influencing others to understand
and agree about what needs to be done and to do it, and the process facilitates individual and
collective efforts to achieve common goals. Debra L. Nelson said that “leadership the process
of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the work environment”[14]. (The leadership
process guides and directs people's behavior in environmental activities). Debra L Nelson, said
that leadership is as a person's effort in influencing, directing, guiding, and organizing a group
of other people's behavior in carrying out the work assigned to them.
From the opinions stated above, it can be concluded that leadership basically contains
common assumptions that are general in nature such as: (1) in a group phenomenon involves
interaction between two or more people, (2) in involving influential processes, where the
influence is intentional ( intentional influence) is used by leaders against subordinates.
In addition to the common similarity of assumptions, the expert opinion also has general
differences such as: (1) who uses influence, (2) goals rather than efforts to influence, and (3)
the way the influence is used. The element of leadership is the influence a person has and in
turn due to that influence for the person who wants to be influenced. An important role in
leadership is the effort of someone who plays a role as a leader to influence other people in
certain organizations / institutions to achieve goals.
So, it is clear that leadership is someone's effort in influencing others so that they will give
their cooperation, and want to carry out their duties well so that goals can be achieved
efficiently. In essence, for the success of every effective implementation of work, every leader
in the implementation of work must be able to carry out leadership well.
As described above, the main problem in leadership is how to make or influence people
who are led to want to consciously carry out their duties well in order to achieve the stated
goals.
Related to the problem above, the study of leadership consisting of various approaches is
essentially an attempt to answer or provide solutions to the problems contained in these
problems. According to Gary Yukl leadership can be grouped into five types of approaches,
namely; 1) the trait approach, 2) the behavior approach, 3) the power-influence approach 4) the
situsional approach 5) the integrative approach[15].
According to Robert N. Lussier[16], When we combine our knowledge, skills, and ability,
they are often referred to as “human capital” and “competencies.” Leadership effectiveness
stems from managerial competence and support. now let’s discuss the three management skills
that all leaders need to be successful technical, interpersonal, and decision-making skills—and
the differences in the skills needed based on the level of management. the most important
attributes were: (1) communication and interpersonal skills, 89%); (2) ability to work well
within a team (which takes interpersonal and decision making skills, 87%; and (3) analytical
and problem-solving skills (which is part of decision-making skills, 85%.
Lussier also said that Effective leadership can make a positive difference in the lives of
people, the functioning of groups, and the success of organizations. Effective leadership has
been shown to enhance employees’ satisfaction with their jobs, motivation at work, and task
performance. Some scholars have even suggested that effective leadership is essential for
societies to progress in positive directions, and without it, the social fabric of our communities
and organizations would fall apart. On the other side, a bad boss can cause employees a lot of
stress and health-related problems.1
Effective leadership can make a positive difference in people's lives, group functions, and
organizational success. Effective leadership has been proven to increase employee satisfaction
with their work, motivation at work, and task performance. Some experts even claim that
effective leadership is important for the community to progress in a positive direction, and

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The Effect of Leadership on Work Effectiveness of the Corps Supply Officer at Tni Al Mabes,
Jakarta

without it, the social structure of our society and organization will fall apart. On the other hand,
a bad boss can cause employees a lot of stress and health-related problems.
A leader can do various ways in activities that influence or motivate other people or
subordinates to take actions that are always directed towards achieving organizational goals.
This method reflects the attitudes and views of the leader towards the person he leads, and is
an illustration of his leadership style.

4. CONCLUSION
Based on the results of this study, it is known that there is a positive direct influence of
leadership (X1) on work effectiveness (Y), which can be seen from the results of the py1 path
coefficient greater than 0.05, which means that the correlation value r1y of 0.416 occurs due to
indirect effects other variables. The direct effect / influence of leadership (X1) on work
effectiveness (Y) is 0.281 while indirectly through trust (X2) is 0.057 through interpersonal
communication (X3) of 0.064 so the effect of total leadership (X1) on work effectiveness (Y) is
0.403. The results of the hypothesis analysis showed that the leadership has a direct positive
effect on work effectiveness. Increasing the leadership will lead work effectiveness. Thus, it
can be concluded that there is a significant influence between leadership on work effectiveness
of Corps Supply Officers in the Indonesian Navy Headquarters, Jakarta.

NOTES
1. Robert N. Lussier,Ph.D, leadership . (New York: Mc Graw Hill, Inc.,2013), p.4

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