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RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION

Action Research: Student Self-Advocacy and Motivation

Taylor L. Cyr

University of San Diego


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 2

Abstract

Student teaching in my fourth-grade classroom of 30 students, I integrated self-advocacy

lessons through both literature and mathematics instruction to increase student’s abilities to

advocate for themselves and increase motivation. The self-advocacy lessons created a space for

student collaboration and freedom to seek help when needed. Through these lessons, students

learned about themselves and the different ways they can advocate for themselves both in and

out of school. The final summative assessment for the students in both math and literacy showed

that 70% of students met or exceeded standards in math, and 83% of students met or exceeded

standards in literature throughout the course of the unit. Through the study, I found the

importance of students knowing their own strengths and weaknesses and what it means for them

to know how to use them to advocate for themselves. Through this knowledge, I learned that

students became more motivated to learn.

Keywords: Self-advocacy, motivation, strengths, weaknesses


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Introduction

Teaching, in my opinion, is one of the most rewarding professions. I want to be the

person that the children can count on every day to be there for them and help them grow. Since I

was in elementary school, I have dealt with problems of anxiety. I used to feel an overwhelming

sense of need to stay home from class because I was too stressed or too scared to face the day. I

have worked for years to overcome these issues and have found ways to cope; however, I want to

make sure that no kids have to feel the way I did when I thought about school. After having such

a difficult time when I was younger in school, I want to be able to be a person that can make sure

that students have someone to talk to and someone to lean on for any situation. After discovering

that the one place I used to fear the most is now the one place that I want to spend all my time, I

have come to realize how invested and excited I am to be a leader for children. I plan to

contribute my compassion, my understanding, and most of all my commitment to young students

who deserve nothing less. Through this journey of finding that I wanted to become a teacher; it

led me to find USD. I visited the school with my sister when she was looking at colleges and fell

in love first with the atmosphere, and then came to find out about the SOLES program. After

then learning about the elementary education program I knew that this was the school I wanted to

be at.

One of the things that I talked about above was how I want to emphasize a sense of safety

and comfort for my students in the classroom. This year my master teacher has been showing

many ways that are helpful in making sure that all the students are feeling comfortable and

listened to in the classroom. One of the problematic aspects that I have noticed in the classroom

so far though is the attention of the students. There are quite a few students that are frequently

off task and not listening. They will disrupt other students and the flow of the lesson. This is
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something that I would like to look further into and try to find solutions for the students to help

them focus during class. I want to make sure that these students aren’t always being targeted for

not paying attention, which could create added stress on them, but rather find quiet solutions.

Context

The School

My student teaching took place at an ethnically diverse school in the greater San Diego

area that embraces its core values of problem-solving, kindness, and respect. The school teaches

Kindergarten through 8th grade and had its classrooms set up in three different hallways where

students were all in the same grade areas. The school also had different activities to help bring

the school together, one of which was held every Friday where different students from each class

were recognized from different helpful and kind things they have done during the week. They

also hold monthly assemblies where parents are invited and different students are recognized by

the school for showing the traits that the school values. The school as a whole has a welcoming

environment shown through the staff, students, and parents that are involved both at home and at

school.

Classroom Demographics

There are 32 students in my classroom, 16 girls and 16 boys. The classroom has a mix of

different ethnicities and learners with the largest group being White (18 students) and the second

largest being Hispanic (8 students). There are three ELL students in my classroom and not

students with special need and two students on IEP plans. An IEP is an individualized education

plan for students with special educational needs. These students all have different educational

needs and are addressed through their personal IEP programs set up through the school. The
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current number of students that have free and reduced lunch is unknown though constantly

changing on a day to day basis.

Classroom Description

The classroom is also quite spacious for needing to hold 32 students with extra room to

move around. There are five different table groups in a circular formation around the edge of the

classroom leaving the center of the room open for students to come together and work. The room

is also very well-lit with extra lamps and lights to allow for different lighting throughout the day

to fit the needs of the class. The classroom is also decorated with different posters and student

artwork. It is colorful with different colored squares filled with different informational posters

and student artwork along the walls of the room creating a friendly and welcoming atmosphere.

One important description of the room is how the tables are all different. It was important for my

cooperating teacher that the students in our classroom would have the choice of their seating.

There are students that work better in different places of the room and it was important that they

are given the opportunity to have the tables and space to have a seat that works for them. There

are tables that have rods on the bottom that will move to help with students who are often

needing something to fidget with. This moving table is helpful for those students to help keep

them focused and on task. There are also tables that are low to the ground where students can

choose to sit on the ground or a stool. There are different types of stools that are offered to the

students again for them to choose which works best for them. The larger tables are also painted

in whiteboard paint so that the students can do work on their desks to follow along instead of

each student needing individual whiteboards. Though there are different types of desks for

students to sit at there are also some desks that are at a normal height with regular chairs for the

students to sit on. This gives the students the opportunity each day to choose what works best for
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them and learn how to position themselves in the room to help them work to the best of their

abilities.

Room Arrangement

The room arrangement in the classroom allows students to have the opportunity to choose

where they work best. There are tables around the room that are at different heights with

different chairs and places to sit that work to different student’s needs. With the tables arranged

around the class, it also leaves a large open space in the front area of the room where students

can also choose to sit on the floor if that works better for their learning style. There is a small

area in front of the classroom for the teacher, but it is not like a “traditional” desk area with a

chair and workspace. It is a tall standing desk by the projector with an area for the computer and

an area with the document camera.

Teacher-Student Interactions

Students are always treated with kindness and helped through using restorative practices

in class. There are often many different questions and problems that the students face each day

and they are always given a helpful response to get them through their difficulties. Both myself

and the teacher in the classroom will both do our best to help students to our best abilities

throughout each day. It is important to make sure the students know that we are there for them

and that we care about all of them, while at the same keeping it a professional student-teacher

relationship. If there are constant problems with specific students it is never negatively dealt

with, rather working with the students to help them problem solve and create a solution. The one

difficulty that the students have had since the beginning of the year is the transitions. Transitions

are usually the time where the students become distracted and will get off task by talking to

friends and walking around the class rather than doing what they need to for us to get to work.
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The one part of the day that creates a strong teacher-student connection is our morning meeting

routine each day. Every morning students unpack their materials and gather in a circle in the

front of the class. They are given a different question each day to share with the class to help

create a stronger community where students can share without judgment and be heard by both

the teachers and their peers.

Instructional Design

There are a few different strategies that are used for teaching in the classroom. One

specific strategy that is used is how we work to practice as a class for all subjects before the

students are expected to complete the work on their own. With math, the students are given

whiteboards to practice along with the examples on the board. This gives them the ability to use

manipulatives and practice along with the example on the board. This then increases student

participation as they are needing to follow along and as I am at the front I can see who is not

working along with the class. With calling on students we work to call on students who raise

their hand rather than calling on random students and make a point that it is okay to make

mistakes when answering questions, it is a learning opportunity for all students. This creates an

open community of learners who have more confidence in being able to share their ideas with the

class. The students often have to justify their answers by asking questions such as “how do you

know this?” or “can you describe how you came to that conclusion?”. There are then a few

different methods that are used to check for student understanding after lessons and throughout

the day. One that has been using frequently is having the students give a thumb up or down to

show if they understand the material, and we will then write down those who are needing more

guided assistance after the lesson. Another method that is used for checking students

understanding is through looking at their online work. Students use different apps on their iPads
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in class to complete assignments. The data from these assignments is then visible to us showing

where the students are academically and if they are understanding the material this is being

covered in class.

Needs Assessment

Student success in the classroom depends heavily on their ability to focus and pay

attention to what is happening throughout the day. They must navigate around the many different

distractions that they are faced with daily to get the most out of their learning experience. It has

been a prominent problem in my classroom with students transitioning and focusing on the

material that we are teaching daily. With a loss of focus and motivation, it will prevent students

from learning to the best of their abilities and gaining the education that they not only need but

deserve.

In my 4th grade classroom, my cooperating teacher provides multiple different tools for

students to use to help with focus and attention. It is a focus that we are providing these tools for

the students to work and learn in a way that is conducive to their learning style. We have noticed

that students in the class, through these first couple months of school, have been having a

difficult time finding stillness in class, getting to work in a timely manner, and being able to stay

on task during their work time. There are multiple tools that are provided to the students which

include flexible seating, stuffed animals, a calm down kit, and methods that were taught to them

to help with fidgeting. Students have been informed throughout the year that they are able to

access any of these tools whenever they are feeling unfocused and need something to help them

in class. When asked about getting the focus of the class my cooperating teacher gave a few

different methods that she uses such as ringing a bell, clapping hands and having the class repeat,

saying ‘waterfall’ and having the students do a hand motion and noise, and using an alarm on our
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phone to get their attention. Then from understanding the methods to get student attention I

asked how much time it takes from students learning time when they are off task and not paying

attention. The answer was that it depends on the activity and how quickly the students are taking

to transition. Most of our transitions take extra time as students take a longer amount of time to

come back together as a class and listen to instructions. This takes time from the lessons as well

as time for them to be able to work independently. Another question I talked about was if there

are any punishments for students who are off-task and not following along with the lesson. The

answer was that there are not always outright punishments for students, but they will fall behind

in their work. This is a punishment that the students give to themselves as they are not focusing

and will have to make up the work that they are missing while they are off-task. The last

question discussed if there were any incentives for the students who were needing help with

focusing and getting work done in class. There are currently no incentives for students in place.

We have discussed adding class points for good transitions and lines, but have not yet

implemented them. There is also talk about adding self and match charts for those students who

are needing more help with focus and motivation in class.

Knowing what the students are provided with and the behaviors that they are showing in

class it was important to know their own personal take on focus and attention in class. I provided

the class with a survey asking five questions, three multiple choice and two short answer asking

different questions about attention and distractions in class. The first question was multiple

choice and asked the question “Do you feel focused in class?”, and their options for answers

were “yes, no, or sometimes”. The results showed that most the class (79.3%) of the class

answered sometimes and only a small percent (17.2%) answering yes. The next question then

asked students “Do you get easily distracted in class?”, and their options for answers were once
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again “yes, no, or sometimes”. With this question, the responses were a bit more divided with an

equal percent of the class (44.8%) saying ‘yes’ and ‘sometimes’. This shows me that though

many students are saying that they sometimes focus in class, many of them are often getting

distracted throughout the day. This then leads to the next question “what are some distractions

that you find in the classroom?” where they were then given the opportunity to give a short

answer response. Through reading over their answers the most common thing that was discussed

by over half the class (55.2%) was students in class talking and being loud. The other common

themes were friends and iPads. The next question was then “Are there any tools that help you

stay focused in class?”, with the answer choices “yes, no, or I’m not sure what tools there are”.

This answer showed that the majority (58.6%) answered either ‘no’ or ‘I’m not sure what tools

there are’. This shows that for some of those students who are not able to focus in class and get

easily distracted they may not have the tools that they need in class to help them focus and pay

attention, or they don’t know what is available to them in class. Last I asked what the students

use as tools to help them refocus their attention in class. A large group said that they didn’t know

what tools they would use, and the other used the materials that are available to them in class.

This shows that the students may not have the tools that they need in the classroom, they don’t

know what to use, or they already have the tools that they need in the class.

Through watching students during the school day, it was apparent which students were

not focusing and falling behind in their work. I have observed during their writing time over the

past few weeks and watched to see which students are falling behind and which are able to

follow along and stay on task. I observed that there was a group of about five students who are

constantly off task and not working on the current task. During writing time those students were

constantly going to the bathroom to take breaks, and talking with their neighbors causing other
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students to be distracted and off task as well. I have noticed that they are often confused as they

will stare off into space and not listen to the lesson and directions, causing them to fall further

behind. I also noticed while they are working on a specific task if it becomes too difficult

students will tend to give up and move onto something that they would rather do. I have also

noticed that students will begin to get up and walk around the classroom when they are not

focused on their work and start talking to friends, also creating a larger group of students who are

not focused and off task.

After reviewing what I have observed and the data I have collected from the students it is

apparent that focus and attention in the classroom are having an impact on their learning. The

students are self-aware in that they understand how distractions and talking are taking away from

their learning, but through the weeks they have had no clear motivation to stop this behavior. It is

also becoming an increasing problem for the small group of students who are not able to stay

focused for longer periods of time during the day as they are losing a lot of learning time as well

as time to work independently. This is causing them to fall behind on work which will in turn

cause problems in their academic lives. Through my findings on focus and attention for students

in the classroom, I have decided to work with the small group of students that are showing the

most struggle in this area. After reviewing my findings my research question is, how will

applying strategies of self-advocacy help to refocus my students and raise engagement in class?

Literature Review

Self-advocacy and motivation are two driving factors in student’s growth and learning.

Carol Dweck’s theory of Growth Mindset states how “people could have different mindsets -

fixed or growth - toward varying areas within their lives...students with a fixed mindset deem

intelligence as a factor that cannot be changed” (Rhew, Piro, Goolkasian, & Cosentino, 2018,
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p.2). Through the knowledge of fixed versus growth mindset, it shows the importance of students

understanding of time and effort and its effects on their own learning and success. Based on this

theory of growth mindset, Albert Bandura shows a connecting theory of motivation seen

through self-efficacy and one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations or during

specific tasks. This theory discusses how student’s motivation stems from how they view

themselves. This theory states that students will be less likely to be motivated to succeed if

they have a negatively fixed mindset of their abilities. Likewise, if a student believes that they

can succeed, and have a growth mindset, their motivation will be stronger while completing

assignments and tasks. This theoretical framework from the works of Carol Dweck and Albert

Bandura helps guide the research throughout this literature review.

Effects of Autonomy and Motivation on Self Advocacy

When researching self-advocacy and how it can affect students and their overall

classroom engagement it was important to find and review different articles to help further our

knowledge and understanding of the topic. Looking at self-advocacy it is important to first look

at its connection to student autonomy and its effects it has on student’s motivation in the class.

One positive effect seen with student autonomy is that “autonomy-supportive teaching strategies

have been associated with higher intrinsic motivation and…most beneficial to students’

motivation” (Hornstra, Mansfield, Veen, Peetsma, & Volman, 2015, p. 365). This shows that

students that have more autonomy in the classroom tend to show more motivation towards their

work, which will further help with their ability to self-advocate. When students are given the

ability of autonomy in the classroom this is also giving them more of a sense of ownership of

their work as well as their learning. Ownership of their work can make a difference in how

students approach school and their learning experiences. It is stated that “ownership increases the
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likelihood that young people will approach the knowledge and skills to be learned as active,

critical, thoughtful investigators, rather than as passive receptors” (Clayton and Ardito, 2009,

p.55). Studies show that when students are more interested and involved in their learning it

creates an atmosphere where they feel empowered. Students feel as though they have a voice in

their learning which can then further their ability to be autonomous. Along with autonomy and

student’s motivation in the classroom research also shows how it is important to understand how

student’s interests play a role in their learning. It is seen that “genuine interest plays a critical

role in students’ learning” (Pierson, 1999, p.310), showing that for students to be autonomous

and motivated they also need to be interested in what they are learning. It is important to

understand that students need to have a genuine interest in what they are learning and how it is

going to affect them, without this information students will lose interest, feel less autonomous,

and now feel a sense of ownership over their work. It is also stated that “multidimensional

approaches to students’ engagement with school need to incorporate the dimension of study

skills, as a relevant domain of students’ engagement with school” (Moreira, Dias, Vaz, & Vaz,

2012, p.123). This goes back to the idea of student autonomy as students who can have to correct

study skills are able to be more autonomous in the classroom. They can get what they need and

have the autonomy they need to work on things in a way that works best for them. This then

furthers the idea of ownership and how students who can have the correct study skills be more

engaged with what they are interested in at school will be able to advocate for themselves and

what they need. This then leads to the idea that “the characteristics of ownership and justification

of ideas, the construction of meaning, and the intentional self-reliance used in critical thinking

are at the heart of learning and motivation in the classroom” (Stefanou, Perencevich, Dicintio, &

Turner, 2004, p.109). Students need to possess these skills to be able to genuinely learn and
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advocate for themselves in the class. Self-advocacy is something that students will be able to do

once they feel comfortable in a classroom and understand their strengths and weaknesses to be

able to advocate for themselves in the best way that they can. It is stated that “self-advocacy is

important and effective when one understands one's learning styles, learning strategies, and

knows how to seek help assertively” (Merlone and Moran, 2008, p.4). Students with the ability

to be autonomous, take ownership, and have the correct skills to learn in class will then be able

to effectively advocate for themselves both in and out of school.

Self-Advocacy and Coping

Another important factor to look at when observing student’s self-advocacy is their

coping methods. One positive effect that has been found is that “adaptive coping has been found

to be positively correlated with students’ self-system processes of relatedness, competence, and

autonomy” (Skinner, Pitzer, & Steele, 2016, p.2105). When students possess the ability to cope

with their weakness in and out of the classroom they will be better prepared with the tools they

need to succeed in the classroom. It is also stated that “individuals with a higher hope for

success…primarily seek to maximize positive emotions such as joy or pride by achieving

success…with higher fear of failure primarily seek to avoid negative emotions such as shame or

sorrow by avoiding failure” (Bergold and Steinmayr, 2016, p.230). This furthers what was

already understood above about students seeking out the tools they need to cope with different

stress factors in school. Furthering this argument Dweck and Master stated that “students with

more of a growth mindset characteristically had higher levels of self-efficacy than students with

more of a fixed mindset” (as cited in Rhew, Piro, Goolkasian, & Cosentino, 2018, p.4). When

students have a mindset that they are hoping for success they are better able to cope and look for

positive emotions to help them throughout their days, whereas students who are not able to cope
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and have a more fixed mindset are likely to be stagnant in their learning and not know how to

properly seek the right help. It is also stated in “Expanding Autonomy Psychological Need States

from Two (satisfaction, frustration) to Three (dissatisfaction): A Classroom-Based Intervention

Study” that “need-satisfying experiences, when they occur, energize students’ positive classroom

functioning, such as greater engagement and conceptual learning” (Cheon, et al., 2018, p.2). This

furthers the argument that students that have more hope for success will be able to function more

positively in the classroom setting. These students will be more engaged with the learning and

have more confidence in themselves to advocate for themselves when they are needing help. It is

then important to work towards increasing students hope for success and lessen their fear of

failure. This can cause students to then gain confidence and advocate for themselves and others.

It is stated that we have a “need to enable all children, including children with disabilities, to

learn and develop the attitudes and abilities they will need to achieve” (Palmer and Wehmeyer,

2013, p.125). This emphasizes that we then need to focus on creating an environment that fosters

student success in order for students to have the tools and ability they need to succeed both in

and out of the classroom.

Conclusion

Students in my classroom were all self-aware in that they understood how different

distractions and talking were taking away from their learning on a daily basis, though through the

weeks they had had no clear motivation or intentions to stop this behavior. This was also

becoming an increasing problem for the small group of students who were not able to stay

focused for longer periods of time during the day as they were losing a lot of group learning time

as well as independent work time.


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It was also found through my review of literature that when researching self-advocacy

and its effects on student motivation, there is a wide gap in the research as most studies are based

around students with disabilities. There are many findings on the effects of self-advocacy and

how it can help with different intellectual, physical, and cognitive disabilities and give students

the tools they need to succeed both in and out of the school setting. Though there is an

abundance of research surrounding this topic, it is lacking research on the importance for all

students regardless of their abilities.

Through looking at this research it clarifies the different connections to different topics

related to self-advocacy. There are many different factors that go into helping students feel as

though they can advocate for themselves and have the confidence to do so in the classroom. It is

important that they know the tools they have, to get the help they need. It is also important that

they know their strengths and weaknesses to know how to best help themselves. Through these

findings, I have chosen to implement self-advocacy lessons through as precursors to both

mathematics and literacy lessons. The intention of the lesson is to provide students with the tools

they need to succeed during both lessons, and allowing both the time and help necessary for

success. Through lessons prior to discourse, models and examples of self-advocacy were shown

to help enhance learning and motivation during both the math and literature lessons.

Cycle I - Self-Advocacy Development through Math Review Lesson

Self-Advocacy Assessment Plan

Before beginning my lesson on self-advocacy, I tallied information on students and

whether they were being self-advocates during our math lessons (see Figure 1). I walked around

to different groups of students during their math work time and tallied for each student when

they were demonstrating skills for self-advocacy, and when they were not demonstrating skills
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for self-advocacy. I took tallies for a math lesson prior to and after their lesson. Using this

information, I was then able to use the before and after data to compare how students were

differences in how they were using self-advocating skills prior to and after the lesson.

Figure 1. Table for tallies showing when students showed self-advocacy skills and when they

showed skills that did now show self-advocacy. Tallies were marked for each student in the class

over two math lessons.

The summative assessment that the students completed was an ‘exit slip’ that was given

to them at the end of their math lesson. Students were given time to go over past work and ask

clarifying questions while advocating for themselves before taking the test. They were then

scored on their ability to complete the different methods to complete the multiplication word

problem that was given to them. This rubric shows three different proficiency marks for students

such as exceeding, meeting, and not meeting standards (see Figure 2). For a student to exceed

they needed to show that they could correctly complete three different multiplication methods

that we have gone over in class. For students to meet they needed to show that they could
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correctly show that they understood two methods or one method with work for another. This

showed me that they could understand most of the material and comprehend what they were

doing. For students to not meet standards they would only have one method, no methods or work

that does not show understanding of the material. Some students showed three examples of

methods will all incorrect answers and ways to find the numbers. This shows me that they are

lacking a basic understanding of the material.

Figure 2. Rubric to assess student’s summative assessment and determine whether they

exceeded, net, or did not meet the learning standards.

After the summative assessment students were given the opportunity to express their

opinions of the lesson for self-advocacy (see Figure 3). They were first asked on a scale from 1-4

how they would rate the lesson with 1 being ‘not helpful to my learning’ and 4 being ‘very

helpful to my learning’. After making their decision they were then asked to explain their

reasoning behind their ranking. The last multiple choice question asked if they felt more

confident in their ability to self-advocate, and they answered either ‘yes’, ‘no’, or ‘maybe’.
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Figure 3. Survey students were given asking for their feedback on their lesson about self-

advocacy. They were given three questions to answer about the lesson and rate how they felt the

lesson contributed to their learning.

Self-Advocacy Implementation

In the Self-Advocacy lesson, I worked through a slideshow with the students over the

course of two class periods. Students were given the time to discuss in pairs what they thought

“self-advocacy” meant and how it applied to their academics. Once students were given time to

discuss as pairs they were presented with a slide that defined to them what self-advocacy means.

During the first lesson students then worked through a slideshow discussing what their personal

strengths and weaknesses are and how knowing these different things about themselves can help

them to become better self-advocates. They worked in pairs to write down and discuss their own

strengths and weaknesses both related and not related to school and then share them out as a

class.
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The second day of the lesson the students were tasked with the activity of creating a story

demonstrating self-advocacy (see Figure 4). Students worked in pairs to create a story about

someone who needs to advocate for themselves while also answering different questions on the

slide. Once students were finished with their stories they were given the opportunity to share out

with the class by either reading it out loud or bringing it up to the front and showing the story

that they drew up together.

Figure 4. Google slide of activity students were presented with to complete with a partner.

Students were to create a story using the different questions about someone that needed to

advocate for themselves. Students were encouraged to use ideas about themselves that they had

come up with during the previous lesson.

The next day I began the math lesson by reminding students what we had learned about

self-advocacy. The math lesson was a technology-based lesson as I had recorded the lesson on

their class application the night prior. After reminding students about being self-advocates I

explained the expectations of the lesson. This lesson was a review and was ending with students

completing an “Exit Slip” before leaving for recess (see Figure 5). Students were expected to

watch the video through to refresh their memory on multiplication and then review their notes on

multiplication as well as work with a partner through any confusion they may have had about
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any different method we have learned. I informed students to advocate for themselves through

the techniques we have been discussing to help ensure that they are getting all the help they need

before working through their “Exit Slip”. I was then able to walk around the room and see

whether students were advocating for themselves, asking for help, working through problems, or

not showing the self-advocacy skills we had been working on. If I saw a student not advocating

for themselves I was then able to go over and check on what was not working and what we could

do to help.

Figure 5. Exit Slip students were given as a quiz to show their understanding of the material.

This showed if they were working and advocating for themselves during the time they were

given to fully show their understanding of the content.

Self-Advocacy Findings

Through my data collection on student self-advocacy and looking at how many students

were taking ownership of their work and being a self-advocate both pre- and post lesson, I was

then able to compare the results and see if there were any differences seen in their work. Being a

self-advocate requires students to understand both their strengths and weaknesses and know how

to use them when they need help. Students use this knowledge so that they are better able to deal
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 22

with any situations or challenges that may come up both in school and everyday life. When

students were demonstrating self-advocacy skills they were asking for help from either their

peers or one of the teachers, reviewing past materials to help with current assignments, taking

notes, and practicing problems to help better themselves. I then determined what it looked like

when students were not being self-advocates, which was shown through behavior such as

speeding through work, writing in random answers instead of asking for help, talking to

neighbors and being off task during work time, and not taking notes. I took tallies for these

behaviors for both the pre-assessment and post-assessment to see how the student’s self-

advocacy skills changed along with their test scores (see Table 1). Through looking at their

ability to self-advocate before and after the lesson they showed a large improvement in how they

were asking for help and advocating for themselves and the work they were turning in.
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 23

Table 1

Self-Advocacy used by Fourth Grade Students

After our lesson on self-advocacy, students were better able to understand the tools they

needed to advocate for themselves. They understood what it meant to be self-aware and advocate

for themselves to be the best that they can be, both in and out of school. There was a noticeable

change in the students and how they were choosing to advocate for themselves throughout the

post-lesson versus the pre-lesson. When seeing the tallies from the pre-lesson it is visible that the

students were using self-advocacy skills very sparsely which was seen in their class work. There

were few questions being asked, and they were not using each other as tools for learning, rather

just socially. Their lack of ability to advocate and help themselves with their work was then

reflected in their assignment.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 24

Though there was a lack of self-awareness before our lesson, there was a big shift in our

post-lesson. Students were using the tools that they were given to make sure they were

understanding the material. There were more students coming up to myself and my cooperating

teacher to ask for help and clarifying questions, and students were focused on helping other

students who may have been needing a bit of extra help. This shift in student’s mindsets towards

advocating for themselves showed a large improvement in their classwork. As they took the time

to understand what they needed help with it helped them to gain a better understanding of the

material and what they needed to know to correctly finish their work.

Through the increase in student self-awareness, there was also an increase in their

understanding and comprehension of the lessons that they were learning. They were taking more

time to read through the lesson instructions and check over their work to make sure it was

correct. For the summative assessment, I asked students to complete an “exit slip” to show their

comprehension and ability to express three of the four different multiplication methods that we

have learned in our unit (see Table 2). I created a word problem that they had to solve using

whichever three methods they wanted to use. They were given time before getting their exit slips

to advocate for themselves and ask any last clarifying questions, get help from a neighbor and

review notes and past materials.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 25

Table 2

Summative Assessment Results on Math Learning Objective

After students finished their tests I then graded them on a rubric with the options of

exceeding, meeting, or not meeting the lesson standards. Out of the 24 students that were in the

class for this test, there were 5 that exceeded, 12 that met, and 7 students that did not meet the

standards. The five students that exceeded could apply and show their work for all three different

methods. The 12 students that met standards could correctly apply two or one methods and show

their work. The 7 students that did not meet standards were not able to correctly fill out any

methods. Samples of student work for exceeding, meeting, and not meeting the standards are

shown in Figures 6, 7, and 8.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 26

Figure 6. Sample of student work that exceeded. This student could correctly apply three of the

strategies of multiplication that we have been learning in class. They were also able to label each

of the strategies to describe which one they were using in each different box.

Figure 7. This student met standards as they demonstrated that they could understand and apply

two of the multiplication strategies that they have learned in class. They also drew arrows

showing the reasoning behind their math and labeled their area model.

Figure 8. This student did not meet standards as they were not able to correctly identify a

method, and the work that they have shows an incorrect answer. They showed some work that
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 27

would help towards finding the correct answer, but this is not a method that they have learned

and the number line strategy is not one that they are learning.

Once the students finished the test they were then given a short survey on how they felt

about the lesson on self-advocacy. Students were asked three different questions in their

survey, two were multiple choice questions and one was a short answer explanation (see

Table 3). This gave them time to reflect over what they had learned about self-advocacy

and helping themselves to make sure that they are doing the best that they can.
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 28

Table 3

Student Evaluation of Self-Advocacy

After looking at the results from the survey it showed 6 students that found the lesson to

be very helpful to their learning, 15 students said it was helpful, and 3 students that found it to be

somewhat unhelpful. One student wrote, “It’s teaching me what it means and what to do in a

type of situation. Like sticking up for myself or things that I need help on”. Much of the class

shared that their confidence in their ability to self-advocate was “maybe” higher from this lesson,
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 29

and the other group said “yes” this lesson helped me gain confidence in my ability to self-

advocate. Most of the class expressed that through the lesson on self-advocacy it was beneficial

to their learning experiences and would help them be better self-advocates both in and out of the

class.

Overall the students were able to gain skills to help learn how to better advocate for

themselves and understand how they can take more ownership of their work in the class. They

could advocate for themselves when it came to studying for their work and working together in

groups. Their work reflected that they could take these skills and improve on how they were

performing in class.

Next Steps

For cycle 1, I wanted my students to get an understanding of what it means to be a self-

advocate and what that looks like in and out of school. It was important that they were learning

that basics and how they can practice this in class during our lessons. Through their

understanding of self-advocacy, their test scores increased and their ability to advocate for

themselves and how they are doing on their assignments increased as well.

A drawback of this lesson was that the students were not given much time after the lesson

before they were assessed. The students didn’t have much time to take in all the information

before they were expected to use the skills to help them perform on their assessment. For cycle 2

I would extend this lesson and make sure that the students are given more time to understand the

information they are learning from the lessons and be able to better implement it in their

learning.

Through this cycle, I was able to learn a lot about my students. They showed a strong

desire to show their best work and make sure they were doing all they could to get all the
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 30

information they needed. They showed to be passionate about their work and excited to

understand new tools in helping the self-advocate. They now use this vocabulary word during

class with peers to make sure they are helping themselves through their lessons and assignments.

Students were eager to work with one another and learn about their strengths and weaknesses to

help themselves grow as learners.

Through this lesson, I also learned about myself as a teacher and how teaching one small

lesson can make a big impact on my students. I learned that it is important to listen to students

and their needs and find ways to help all different students learn to the best of their ability. I

learned that students all have different strengths and weaknesses and it is important to know

them to better help them in class. I enjoyed how the lesson gave me a deeper understanding of

my students and some of their needs and how they understand what self-advocacy means to

them. I think it is important to know your students and their needs to be the best educator that

you can for your students.

Cycle II - Self-Advocacy Development through Paragraph Construction

Self-Advocacy (Literacy) Assessment Plan

Over the course of a week, I instructed students through how to create a paragraph using

their skills from the self-advocacy lessons they had learned. Students were writing about how to

self-advocate over the course of five separate lessons. The formative assessment that I used was

a tally chart used to monitor student’s self-advocacy skills throughout each lesson period (see

Figure 1). I used a tally sheet for each student to monitor how they were using the skills we

learned throughout the lessons. This assessment is like the assessment in cycle 1, though

formatted to observe each student for each individual lesson. To observe this data correctly, I

used my video recordings of each lesson to go back and double check my observations of each
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 31

student. I marked tallies in each box that pertained to the skills the students were expressing in

class, and then used this data to calculate the results and find the total amount of time students

were being self-advocates to the total time they were expressing any skills (self-advocacy or not)

during each lesson. When observing this data over the course of time, if students were expressing

significantly more non-self-advocacy behaviors then I would intervene and have a one-on-one

meeting discussing what we could do together to become a better self-advocate.

Figure 1. Table for tallies showing when students showed self-advocacy skills and when they

showed skills that did now show self-advocacy during their four different literacy lessons. Tallies

were marked for each student over the course of four different lessons showing if they were

expressing the skills they had learned throughout their self-advocacy workshop lessons.

The summative assessment that was used was for each lesson throughout the unit. At the

end of each lesson, I collected students work that they completed on their Google Classroom

accounts. Each lesson students were to work on a different part of their paragraph that we
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 32

learned as a class. Their work was recorded on different slides in their Google Slides that was

assigned to them at the beginning of the unit. I assessed their work on a scale of ‘exceeding’,

‘meeting’, or ‘not meeting’, to better understand where students were and whether the lesson

needed to be worked on further or not (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Rubric to assess students work at the end of each writing lesson and determine whether

they exceeded, met, or did not meet the learning standards.

The formal summative assessment was another rubric to assess students understanding

and mastery of the learning objectives for the unit (see Figure 3). Students were assessed on a

scale of ‘exceeding’, ‘meeting’, and ‘not meeting’ for their learning objectives. Each level of the

scale also had a designated point value ranging from 1 to 3 points that would be used to give an

overall score at the end of grading. Students were graded both on their final paragraph that they

had constructed as well as their oral presentation of their material to the class. The learning

objectives that students were graded on were: a) students can demonstrate an understanding of

how to construct a paragraph, b) students can identify the problem in their scenario and create a

solution, c) students demonstrate the ability to correctly use punctuation in their writing, d)
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 33

students demonstrate an understanding of self-advocacy, and e) students can orally present their

paragraph to an audience. Each lesson objective was then graded and received a point value that

contributed to their overall average score on their final paper and presentation.

Figure 3. Final summative assessment rubric for students writing and presentation at the end of

the writing unit. Students were graded on a scale where they received either one, two, or three

points for each learning objective. There is also a place for teacher notes and feedback to

students once they receive their papers back. The point totals were added up at the end of grading

and students average score was then shown as an overall score of either exceeding, meeting, or

not yet meeting the lesson objectives.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 34

The final formative assessment was a student self-assessment on the material that was

learned over the course of the five different lessons. Students were assigned a survey to complete

asking a range of different questions about what they learned and how they would change it for

the future (see Figure 4). Students were first asked to rate the lesson on self-advocacy on a scale

ranging from ‘poor’ to ‘excellent’. Following the ranking, they were then asked to explain why

they chose that ranking of the lesson. Students are then asked to answer a question about whether

or not they feel more confident in their ability to construct a paragraph and follow with an

explanation of their answer. They are then asked if they are more confident in their ability to

self-advocate given the choices of ‘yes’, ‘no’, and ‘maybe’. The following question then asks

students their opinion of whether they would change anything about the lesson for the future.

The survey is then ended with the final question asking students whether having scenarios helped

them understand how to self-advocate in an easier way or not.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 35

Figure 4. Survey that students were given asking for their feedback on their lesson about self-

advocacy and paragraph construction. They were given seven different questions to answer about

their lessons and to rate how they felt it overall contributed to their learning and what they would

change for the future.

Self-Advocacy (Literacy) Implementation

Prior to beginning the unit on paragraph construction, I briefly reviewed self-advocacy

and what we had learned in our self-advocacy lessons. I had students discuss in small groups

what they remembered and what they have been working on in class related to self-advocacy.

Students then shared out what they discussed with their small groups.

Students were then sent back to their seats as I introduced the new writing unit that they

would be starting. Students were sent a slide deck to their iPads that had each lesson set up for
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 36

them to follow. Each day students would be working on a different part of a paragraph that they

would be constructing about a different scenario that they would be given. I then passed out a

scenario to each student that they would have to write about and come up with a solution for.

Once students had received their scenarios they were to either take a picture of their paper or

type it out into its respective slide on their slide deck.

Lesson one students were instructed on how to come up with between three and five of

their own personal strengths and weaknesses (see Figure 5). I presented an example for myself

on the overhead. I worked through what I thought I did well and what I think I can work on when

it comes to school. Once the class had time to review this section through my example they were

sent off to work on their own and create a list of their strengths and weaknesses.

Figure 5. Example of student Google Slide showing their work on finding their own strengths

and weaknesses and how they can help them come up with solutions for the scenario they were

presented with.
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 37

Moving on to lessons two, students were instructed on how to come up the beginning of

their paragraph (see Figure 6). I presented an example that we worked through as a class using

one of the student examples to write off. Once the class had time to work together they were sent

off to work on their own and create the beginning to their own paragraphs using the scenarios

they were given. During this time, they were encouraged to advocate for themselves and use all

resources available to them to help with their writing. I was walking around the room during this

time to help ant struggling students as well as making tallies for students on their self-advocacy

actions versus non-self-advocacy actions.

Figure 6. Example of student Google Slide showing their work on creating the beginning of their

paragraph. Students were instructed to reword their scenario to introduce the paragraph and their

problem.

Lesson three works off lesson two as it is the construction of the middle of the paragraph.

Students are once again given an example using one of the scenarios on the overhead screen at

the beginning of the lesson. During this lesson, students are taught that the middle of the

paragraph is where they are solving their problem. They need to use their strengths and

weaknesses they have come up with and use them to create a solution to the problem that they

have been given. They need to create a way in which they can advocate for themselves for this
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 38

portion of their paragraph. They are instructed to create between three and four sentences on

their google slide once they are sent back to their seats (see Figure 7). Students are again

encouraged to advocate for themselves during this time as I will also be walking around and

tallying their self-advocacy actions.

Figure 7. Example of student Google Slide showing their work on creating the middle of their

paragraph. Students were instructed to create a solution using their own skills and weaknesses to

the scenario they were given.

Lesson four then brings the paragraph to an end as the students work on their

conclusions. As I had done in the previous lessons I gave an example on the overhead to the

students for how to construct a conclusion. They were instructed on how to reword their scenario

and what they did to solve the problem. Once they were given the example the students were sent

off back to their desks to work on their google slide and construct between two and three

sentences to conclude their paragraph (see Figure 8).


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 39

Figure 8. Example of student Google Slide showing their work on creating the end of their

paragraph. Students were instructed to reword their problem and solution to conclude their

paragraph.

Lesson five then brings all the previous lessons together as students are then to take the

slides they created and place them into one google document that has been assigned to them in

their Google Classroom account. Students are instructed to take the pieces that they have written

and paste them together into their full paragraph in the document. Once they have all their pieces

in the document they then can go through and make any final edits that they need to before

finishing their work. During this time, they also have time to work with another partner who has

also finished their work and practice reading their paragraphs out loud. This time can be used as

preparation time before presenting their paragraphs during the final lesson of the unit.
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 40

Figure 9. Example of student final paragraph in Google Docs. Students took all previous

materials they had created in the lessons before and completed the construction of their self-

advocacy paragraph.

During the final lesson, students are given the first ten minutes of the lesson to practice

reading their paragraphs out loud either to themselves or with a partner. Once the preparation

time is over students return to their seats and were called up to present their paragraphs. During

this time students were expected to share their work orally with the class, if they wanted they

could pass, though they were informed that it would reflect upon their oral participation grade.

Self-Advocacy (Literacy) Findings

Through the implementation of self-advocacy into the writing lessons I could compare

student’s self-advocacy behavior to their non-self-advocacy behavior throughout the lessons (see

Table 1). As the students were working through lessons that discussed self-advocacy, students

were constantly reminded of what it meant to be a self-advocate both in and out of school.

Through recording their self-advocacy behaviors, I could analyze whether the lessons on self-
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 41

advocacy were helping students take more control and ownership of their learning throughout the

literacy unit.

Table 1

Self-Advocacy used by Fourth Grade Students

Through looking at the results of these ratios there are no significant changes from one

lesson to another. There are some students that show lower ratios of self-advocacy behaviors to

non-self-advocacy behaviors and there are also some that show self-advocacy behaviors most of

the time. During Cycle 1 students showed more of a drastic change in their self-advocacy

behaviors and throughout these lessons students are showing more of these behaviors on a more

constant basis.

Through the ongoing student self-awareness there shows to be a higher level of

understanding and comprehension of the lessons and material that they were learning. They were

taking their time to read through the lesson instruction, read over their work, and check in with a

partner before turning in their assignments. For the final summative assessment, read over
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 42

students’ final paragraphs as well as scored them on their oral presentation of their work (see

Table 2).

Table 2

Summative Assessment Results on Literacy Learning Objectives

Once all the student’s paragraphs were completed and turned in I then graded them on the

rubric according to the lesson objectives and standards. Students were graded and received an

overall score of either ‘exceeded’, ‘met’, or ‘not yet met’. Out of the 30 students in the class 8

exceeded, 17 met, and 5 did not yet meet the standards. The eight students that exceeded the

learning standards received between 13 and 15 points on their rubric showing a high level of

understanding of the material. The 17 students that met the standards received between 10 and 12

points showing a mastery of the material, and the five students that did not meet the standards

received between 5 and 9 points showing a not complete understanding of the material. Samples

of student work for exceeding, meeting, and not meeting the standards are shown in Figures 10,

11, and 12.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 43

Figure 10. Sample of student work that exceeded the standards for the unit. Student showed a

complete understanding of the material and had little to no mistakes.

Figure 11. Sample of student work that met the standards of the unit. Student showed an

understanding of the material and showed little mistakes.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 44

Figure 12. Sample of student work that did not yet meet standards. Student did not show a

complete understanding of the material and did not follow the directions on how to construct

their paragraph.

Once the students finished the written and oral assignments they were then given a short

survey on how they felt about the unit of study. Students were asked seven different questions in

their survey, four were multiple choice questions and three were short answer explanations. One

of the main questions students were asked was if they felt more confident in their ability to

construct a paragraph after the writing unit (see Table 3). This gave students time to reflect on

what they had learned over the unit and how it can help them better themselves in class and

throughout future lessons.

Table 3

Student Evaluation of Self-Advocacy Paragraph


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 45

After looking at the results from the survey students overall agreed that the lesson helped

them understand how to better construct a paragraph. Students were able to share that they felt

that they learned from this lesson, and it helped them gain a better understanding of how to

construct a paragraph. The students were able to gain skills to help them in the construction of

papers later in lessons as well as what it means to be a self-advocate through the use of different

scenarios.

Next Steps

For cycle two, I wanted my students to get a deeper understanding of what self-advocacy

means and what that looks like in real life scenarios. It was important that they were assessing

their own strengths and weaknesses and putting them into their own stories. Through their

understanding of self-advocacy, their ability to advocate for themselves and work towards a

deeper understanding of the material has improved through their work.

A drawback to this lesson was that the students were not given much of an opportunity to

give feedback to one another. It is important that students are getting both positive and helpful

feedback from their peers on their work to help increase their motivation and boost their

confidence to share. With presentations, students can often become nervous to share and to have

positive feedback on their work can help them gain that confidence they need to share out. For a

later lesson, I would extend the time after the presentations to allow for student feedback and

questions.

Through this cycle, I learned even more about my students. They showed a strong desire

to do their best both in their writing and their presenting. They showed to be passionate about

their writing and excited to understand new tools in helping learn how to better self-advocate.
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 46

Self-advocacy is now a common vocabulary word used during class with peers to make sure they

are helping themselves through their lessons and assignments.

Through this lesson, I also learned about myself as a teacher and how teaching about one

lesson can make a big impact on my students and the lessons that they are learning both in and

out of school. I learned that students all have different strengths and weaknesses that can be used

in many different situations and scenarios. I enjoyed getting to see students work together and

find joy in sharing what they worked hard on over the unit. I learned how important it is to create

a safe and inviting learning environment for students to feel comfortable and safe to share their

ideas out to their peers. I enjoyed how the lesson gave me a deeper understanding of my students

and what is important to them. I think it is important to know all your students and what they

each need to be the best educator that you can for your students.

Conclusion

Significance of Research

Through my action research, I found how important it is for students to know that it is

okay to speak up for themselves in class and make sure that they are getting the most out of their

learning experience that they can. Based on the findings from my action research it is important

that we are reminding students what it means to self-advocate and take ownership of their

learning. The majority of the students in my class through self-advocacy lessons feel more

confident in their ability to advocate for themselves and speak up when they are needing help.

Through the lesson, students were learning from one another what it meant to be a self-advocate

and how to make sure they were speaking up for themselves in both academic and personal

settings. It helped them to understand when they needed to know when to ask for help and the

different ways they could advocate for themselves in those situations. These lessons are helpful
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 47

for students of all ages. I learned the importance of students voices in class and how impactful it

can be for their educational experiences.

Limitations

When looking through the research there are multiple limitations that could have

influenced the results of the study. The first limitation that I found is with the tally counts that

were made. I was simultaneously tallying students and their self-advocate behaviors versus all

other behaviors while I was also teaching and helping students. I worked to solve this problem

through filming the lessons and watching back for student data at a later time, though there is

still room for error in my results. There are students that I may have missed out of the video

frame or misunderstood the communication that was happening through the video. With another

study, it would help to have another person that knows what behaviors to focus only on tallying

students during the designated times of the study.

The second limitation from this research study was the sample size. I was working with

one small classroom of 30 students. In order to have more in-depth research following this lesson

there would need to be a larger sample size with more classes of students following the same

lesson plans. Once this study has a larger sample size there will be more data to further

understand the implications that it can have on students.

The last limitation that was found in this study was student’s absences. It was not known

if students would be absent from school on the days that we would be working through the self-

advocacy lessons, leading to students having varying levels of knowledge on the topic. This

would also skew data that was collected from student surveys and assignment scores as some

students were not there on days that data was collected and important lessons were taught.
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 48

Reflection

Through the process of my action research, I have learned a lot about myself and my

students through this study. When first reflecting on my study I learned a lot about myself and

how I teach. I learned the importance of making students feel safe and helped in the classroom.

Once students know that they are in a space that is welcoming and safe they are able to be

themselves and feel comfortable to ask questions, work together, and get help. I also learned how

all students are different and that one method of teaching may work for some students but not all.

When teaching about self-advocacy many students were able to slowly open up and work

towards advocating for themselves and taking more ownership of their work, and some students

were more apprehensive. It is important to make sure all students are getting the educational

materials they need to succeed and some students may need extra guidance to ensure they are

understanding the lessons and feeling confident in their understanding. With this knowledge, I

know going forward with my teaching that it is important to always check for understanding with

students before sending them off to do their work. Checking for student understanding will help

to know which students need more clarification and can help reach those students faster than

walking around and later realizing too late in the lesson.

I also learned a lot about my students throughout my action research study. I learned that

my students are driven and motivated to do well in class, they just need the right tools to get

them going in the right direction. Providing them with these tools gave them more of a voice and

the confidence to let their voice be heard in class. I was able to learn how talented my students

are and what they all feel they are confident in doing and what they feel they do well with.

During these moments of students sharing their strengths and weaknesses, they were able to

learn more about each other as well as themselves. It was also important to see what they felt
RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 49

they needed to improve on and how other students maybe had similar weaknesses as them. They

were thankful to learn new methods to help them know when it is right to ask for help, and how

to go about doing it. Students began asking more questions not only to myself but to each other

when they were working through problems. It was important that they learned to work together

to solve problems and that they were motivated to work together to create situations and

solutions to better help themselves in the future. Students were engaged as they were working on

situations that pertained to themselves and real-life situations. As they were able to learn how to

use their own strengths to help them in the written situations they began to learn how to use those

strengths in real situations within the class.


RUNNING HEAD: STUDENT SELF-ADVOCACY AND MOTIVATION 50

References

Bergold, S., & Steinmayr, R. (2016). The relation over time between achievement motivation

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