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Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations

Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi



Sight and Life in collaboration with Wahana Visi Indonesia

for EGGciting Innovations Program

Wednesday, February 13, 2019

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi


A. Background ............................................................................................................... 3
B. Research Rationale and Objectives ............................................................................ 4
C. Methodology............................................................................................................. 5
D. Quality Assurance of Data Collection And Analysis ..................................................... 7
F. Timeline AND BUDGET ............................................................................................. 10
G. Research Organization ............................................................................................ 12
F. Review and Approval Sheet ...................................................................................... 14
1. Annex: Literature Review – Key Insights ....................................................................................... 15
2. Annex: Informed Consent – Qualitative Research (English And Bahasa Version) ........................ 20
3. Annex: Informed Consent – Quantitative Baseline Research (English And Bahasa Version) ....... 23

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

Indonesia is one of the rapidly growing economies in the world with a healthy 5% GDP growth
rate and a population of 261 million. Despite economic progress, malnutrition is a grave
concern - 87 million Indonesians suffer from food insecurity; 15 million women are anemic
and one in every three children are stunted. A wide body of evidence points towards eggs as
the one of the highest nutritionally dense form of foods and recent breakthrough research
studies have shown that an egg a day has potential to significantly improve growth and reduce
stunting. 1
Given the potential of eggs to improve nutrition in the country, World Vision (humanitarian
organization), Royal DSM (a multinational company active in human and animal nutrition) and
Sight and Life (a global nutrition think-tank) joined forces to increase availability, accessibility
and consumption of eggs in Indonesia at the household level by addressing bottlenecks in the
supply chain and boosting consumer demand for eggs. The partnership called EGGciting
Innovations will design and implement a two-year pilot to improve egg consumption of
Pregnant women, Lactating mother and children under five in Central Sulawesi.
Central Sulawesi is one of the 34 provinces of Indonesia with an 80% rural population. We
chose Central Sulawesi to implement the pilot design because of (i) high poverty rates (40%
live on less than $2 a day) (ii) high incidence of malnutrition (Stunting 34.9%)2 (iii) low food
security in the area (iv) and willingness of key influencers (government officials, local
integrators, etc.) in supporting the program.

EGGciting Innovations Partnership

EGGciting Innovations aims to increase availability, accessibility and consumption of eggs at
the household level by addressing bottlenecks in the supply chain and boosting consumer
demand. It is a part of a partnership between Wahana Visi Indonesia (partner of World Vision
in Indonesia), DSM and Sight and Life to encourage adequate consumption of nutritionally
improved foods for populations at risk of micronutrient deficiencies.
Wahana Visi Indonesia
Wahana Visi Indonesia is a Christian humanitarian social organization, working to bring
sustainable transformation in the life of children, families and community. WVI dedicates itself
to cooperate with the most vulnerable communities regardless of their religion, race, ethnicity

1 Iannotti, L. L., Lutter, C. K., Stewart, C. P., Riofrío, C. A. G., Malo, C., Reinhart, G., ... & Waters, W. F. (2017). Eggs
in early complementary feeding and child growth: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics, e20163459.

Indonesia Ministry of Health, 2016, Center of Data and Information : Children U5 Stunting Situation

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

or gender. Currently WVI operates in 59 areas in 10 provinces in Indonesia. There are 8 areas
assisted in the Sulawesi region.
The 24-month EGGciting pilot will help gain agility to scale and fundraise for similar projects
in the future, fulfilling WV Indonesia promise to the communities, Government and donors.
With support of Sight and Life’s business model experts and demand creation specialists, WVI
is using a holistic business approach which includes demand generation strategies to increase
demand and consumption of eggs amongst pregnant and lactating women and children under
5 in two provinces of Sulawesi, namely Palu and Sigi.

Sight and Life

Sight and Life is a Humanitarian Think Tank guided by the vision of a world free from
malnutrition. We focus on linking research to implementation to support positive nutrition
outcomes. Our work involves guiding original nutrition research, disseminating its findings and
facilitating dialogue to bring about positive change in this regard. Demand creation is one of
Sight and Life’s areas of expertise. For more information about Sight and Life, please visit

Royal DSM is a purpose-led global science-based company in Nutrition, Health and Sustainable
Living. DSM is driving economic prosperity, environmental progress and social advances to
create sustainable value for all stakeholders. DSM delivers innovative business solutions for
human nutrition, animal nutrition, personal care and aroma, medical devices, green products
and applications, and new mobility and connectivity.


To determine the scope of the formative research, we reviewed English language and Bahasa
peer-reviewed publications and documents to develop a general understanding of Infant and
Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices and egg consumption among Indonesians including
awareness, knowledge, beliefs and dietary habits of the community. The literature also
provided insights into past and present national and local initiatives to address IYCF practices.
After a synthesis of the existing literature we identified several knowledge gaps that could be
addressed via further elaboration through qualitative and quantitative research. A formative
research will consist into two stages, which are baseline quantitative survey and qualitative
interview. A summary of key insights of the literature review can be found in the Annex of this

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

To ensure that a demand generation strategy for eggs is based on strong evidence about the
target audience in Central Sulawesi, the formative research aims to understand on how eggs
are part of the daily diet and the ways in which foods contribute to good health or other
outcomes that are valued by families in Central Sulawesi. Specifically, we will:

1. Examine awareness, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices amongst pregnant

women, lactating women and caregivers of children under 5 for egg consumption
2. Understand household food purchasing power and decision making with regards to
3. Understand how eggs are used in daily diet/ feeding routine for pregnant women,
lactating women and children under 5.
4. Understand the importance of healthy food choices in pregnancy, lactation, and during
complementary feeding and the relevance of eggs.
5. Identify key community influencers, their role and motivations in offering dietary
advice, and specifically their views on eggs
6. Measure baseline value for high level outcome and goal of the program

Domains of interest
The questionnaire and topic guides will be developed in close consultation with the WVI
project team, upon agreement on the priority topic areas. All final topic guides will be tailored
to each audience segment and questions will be open and close ended.

A mix of quantitative and qualitative research methods has been selected as the most viable
method to gain an in-depth understanding of the target audience, their knowledge, attitudes,
beliefs perceptions and practices around eggs. To enhance the validity of findings, the
research design will be iterative and emergent in that sampling and thematic analysis inform
each other. Our research is conducted in two phases. In the first phase we will conduct a
baseline survey with pregnant women and mothers of children between 6 months and 5 years
of age living in Sigi and Palu. The baseline survey results will be used for monitoring and
evaluation purposes in order to evaluate the impact of the demand creation activities on the
levels of awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practice in relation to egg consumption.
In the second phase we will use in-depth interviews with key informants. The results of the
qualitative research will be used to design an intervention mix to help generate demand for
eggs amongst the target audience.

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

While for qualitative data collection we will use in-depth interviews with key informants, (as
will be explained in the next table) which aim to gain an in-depth understanding of the target
audience, their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and practices around eggs as well
as the context related to child feeding, including egg consumption in the community.
The quantitative baseline survey, will include households with children under 5 and pregnant
women. Systematic random sampling will be used in order to choose eligible respondents for
the study. Number of sample required for study to estimate the egg consumption and KAP
(Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) will follow the formula estimating population proportion
with Finite Population Correction applied:


𝑍∝/2 2 𝑃 (1 − 𝑃)
n : Sample size
𝑍∝/2 : Confidence level (95%= 1,96)
P : Population reference distribution (0.50)
E : Margin of Error (0.05)
N : Total Population – Household with pregnant women and household with children under5

In this calculation, the population reference (P) used is 0.50 which is the proportion with the
largest number of sample. So. with an error of 5% and a confidence level of 95%, the
recommended number of samples to estimate the true proportion for each characteristic are:
317 for households with children under 5 and 220 for households with pregnant women with
the required margin of error (5%) and confidence level (95%). The total sample needed is 537
households, with each sample per-village being as follows:

Village Subdistrict Number Number No. of Population Posyandu Number Number of Number of
of of of Sample Sample
Mother Pregnant Total Male Female Children Required of Required of
Under5 Women U5 Household Household
with with
Children Pregnant
Under5 Women
Sunju Marawola 130 34 1344 679 665 2 155 24 17
Duyu Tatanga 847 211 5703 2870 2833 5 953 155 106
Pengawu Tatanga 750 194 6785 3444 3341 4 876 138 97
Total 1728 440 13832 6993 6839 11 1984 317 220

Household sampling survey will be carried out by systematic random sampling by first
preparing a sampling frame containing eligible household respondents according to the

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

characteristics. Adjustments can be made at any time by considering the availability of

sampling frames while still meeting the principle of representation and sample adequacy.
Meanwhile, purposive convenience sampling will be used for qualitative data collection in
order to interview a broader spectrum of informants, which will be sampled at the household
and community level. The research areas will include the cities of Palu and Sigi. Participants in
Palu will be recruited through Posyandus, with the help of community health volunteers. In
Sigi, participants will be recruited through local Posyandus.
Eligibility criteria is as follows:
- Household-level
- Pregnant women
- Women with children 6 months to 5 years of age
- The husband and one elderly female family member
At the community level
- Religious Leaders
- Front line health workers operating through Posyandus
Table 1. Sample frame In Palu and Sigi.
Audience Segment Palu Sigi
Interviews* Interviews*
Pregnant women 16 16

Mothers of children ages 6 months – 5 year of age 16 16

Spouses of PW and of mothers with children under 5 6 6

Elderly family members living with PW and mothers with
6 6
children under 5
Religious leaders 4 4
Frontline health volunteers operating through Posyandus 4 4
health staff at Puskesmas 4 4
Total number of research participants Palu and Sigi 56 56

*Paired mother-mother (2 friends) interviews might be conducted if preferred by target audience


This formative study is part of a partnership project between DSM, Sight and Life Foundation
and Wahana Visi Indonesia in collaboration with Sight and Life. The Principle Investigator of
this study is Yana Manyuk with Co-PI is Hartati Sinaga.

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

Household Survey (Quantitative)

The process of collecting household survey data will be carried out by 10 trained enumerator
officers using android-based mobile phone technology. Enumerators selection criteria will Commented [MOU1]: How many enumerators, and wher
include education level (minimum Diploma 3), having survey working experience, and are they from? WVI staff or other? please mention.
background check (see appendix "Interview Guide Recruit Enumerator") for child protection. Commented [JS2R1]: 10 enumerators
Enumerator training will be conducted for 2 days and 1 day for field trial. Targeted minimum Commented [MOU3R1]: My comment was not
number of sample will be collected within 8-10 days. The Baseline Survey Enumerators will be addressed here. Please mention where the enumerators will
be recruited from?
divided into two teams with each team led by 2 Field Supervisors who are WVI staff. Daily
evaluation and recap of achievement will be led by each Field Supervisor. Field Supervisors
will check one by one the data on the mobile phone of the enumerators and ensure that each Commented [MOU4]:
question is filled in proper manner before being sent to the server. Sending final data to the
Commented [MOU5]: If we are using mobile technology
cloud server that will be done by each enumerators daily in the afternoon. Enumerators will then why are we budgeting for pen and paper in the
be given the eligible target of the respondent's household to be interviewed obtained from baseline budget?
the sampling process carried out by the Field Supervisor. For households that have children Commented [JS6R5]: Still need stationary for
under five, the respondents who can be interviewed are mothers or caregivers of children respondent’s signature of informed consent, souvenir’s
under5. evidence hand-over (mandatory for accountability-finance
unit) and for taking notes while enumerators training
Quantitative instruments will use the Open Data Kit (ODK) mobile phone data gathering and Commented [MOU7]: This appendix is not mentioned in
will certainly have flows, logics and constraints so that all questions are filled in as expected. the table of contents
Quantitative instruments will be tested before the data collection process. Instrument testing Commented [MOU8]: I think 1 day tranign is more thsn
will be finalized together with the enumerator test field. The training enumerator will be sufficient.
carried out to ensure that the enumerator understands each question, is able to operate ODK, Commented [JS9R8]: We usually conduct 2 days training
guarantees data quality, procedures for sampling and maintains confidentiality and evaluates including HOW TO select household sampling and operate
the interview process in order to find alternative solutions when in the field. Data entered into mobile apps while taking survey. Meanwhile, in the 1st day
will be focusing on substance of instruments
the server will be managed by Data Manager and prepared to be processed by ensuring the
missing data value and provide label and value of variables. Data management and analysis Commented [MOU10]: I don’t see why 5 people need to
be supervised by 2 people?
will use Statistical Package for Social Science - SPSS version 20 software.
Commented [MOU11]: Why are the WVI supervisors not
also collecting the data? This way we can speed up the
Qualitative Interviews
For the purpose of qualitative data collection, 8 enumerators will be trained in qualitative data
collection skills. Out of these 8 enumerators, 2 will be acting in a supervisory role, in addition
to their role as data collectors, and represent world vision staff. Xx additional enumerators
will be hired from Tadulako University. Yana Manyuk, Sight and Life demand creation specialist Commented [JS12]: The discussion has been made by
and PI will provide specialized training in interviewing skills and continuous guidance as well project team with university. Currently, they welcomed this
initiative. Tomorrow they will meet again for discussing this
as backstopping, throughout the data collection and analysis phase. All data will be gathered in more detail.
by the trained enumerators over a period of 5-10 days. Data will be transcribed, translated
Commented [MOU13R12]: @Sairama, please clarify
and analyzed in tranches until data saturation is reached. Each qualitative interview will be how many WVI staff can commit to collecting the data and
conducted by two data collectors, one interviewing the participant and one taking notes. All how many external data collectors need to be hired
in-depth interviews will be audio-recorded. Notes will be taken alongside the audio-recordings
to capture non-verbal cues. Informed consent will be obtained from participants to audio-
tape. Audio tapes of the interviews will be transcribed, omitting identifiers. random spot
checks of transcriptions will be assessed for accuracy by comparing transcriptions to audio-

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

tape recording. All recordings will be destroyed 3 months after the data has been collected.
Transcripts will be stored safely in the WVI office to ensure data protection.
The interview transcripts will be translated into English and analyzed by two expert
consultants, using the following steps:
1) Review observer notes and transcripts, comparing transcripts to audio-tapes to ensure
accuracy of transcription;
2) Load transcripts into NVIVO, a software package that allows text to be numbered,
coded, and sorted;
3) Code data – using a combination of preset codes and emergent codes.
4) Compare codes for inter-observer reliability and adjust how codes are assigned;
5) Write a final report.
6) All data collection instruments (qualitative and quantitative) will be pre-tested as part
of a data collection training (interview skills training) conducted with all data
collectors. For this sole purpose, a random sample of women of child bearing age will
be recruited in Jakarta through WVI’s own channels.
WVI has established cooperation, both in terms of programs and research with Tadulako
University as a State University in Central Sulawesi so that the data collection process will also
be possible to use the resources of researchers at the University of Tadulako, Palu. Commented [MOU14]: Is this confirmed?
Commented [JS15R14]: Yes
Commented [MOU16R14]: @Sairama I am getting
E. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND RESEARCH PERMITS conflicting information here – how many people are
necessary to be hired from this university?
To obtain ethical considerations from the Study, the Research Team intends to submit an can these people also translate the interviews? What is their
ethical review through the Atmajaya University Ethics Commission, Jakarta. All desired level of English?
changes from the Ethics commission in the protocol will be revised and shared with the
research team for discussion. Furthermore, a review of the Ethics Commission will be followed
up and an update or revision of the status will be carried out to obtain an approval letter. In
addition, research permits are needed from each Kesbangpol-linmas (National Political Unity
and Community Protection) Sulawesi Tengah Province. As well as the Program Area
Management and the WVI Program Coordinator in the local operational office also submitted
a permit request to the local local-government, namely the village head or hamlet head and
several community and customary leaders related to the data collection agenda.
The ethics of study were made because this study involved humans as the subject of
information. All studies involving humans must not violate ethical standards that are
universally applicable, but also must pay attention to the various socio-cultural aspects of the
society studied. The ethical clearance proposal of this study aims to protect research subjects/
respondents from physical (threat), psychological (pressure, regret), social (stigma, alienation
from society) hazards and legal consequences (demanded) as a result of participating in
research. The ethics of research is formulated as a guarantee of the validity of information
from participants (respondents) and researchers through informed consent. In addition, ethics
formulates researchers' security guarantees and the confidentiality of participants
(respondents) and government and non-government institutions as data sources.
Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

Data collection in all surveys and in-depth interviews in this study will ask in writing to fill out
informed consent (see appendix 'Informed Consent') to respondents to give their consent to
participate voluntarily in this study. Approval was given in the form of a respondent's
signature. The respondents will be notified that the interview will "last around 45-60 minutes. Commented [MOU17]: The survey will not last this long,
For respondents who cannot write because of disability or illiteracy, the consent to participate this is only valid for the qualitative interviews. How long will
the survey last?
will be explained / read out to the respondent and obtain verbal approval. The respondents
were also told if they decided to participate, questions would be asked according to the Commented [JS18R17]: Estimated time is the same as
that. We will have at least 35 questions, where we plan to
purpose of this study. Respondents will be informed that the information they deliver will be include the food recall question which requires a longer
kept confidential and will not be shared with others. time.

The questions in the instrument, both quantitative and qualitative in this formative study, Commented [MOU19R17]: @Julius @ Sairama: The food
recall question is not necessary as it will not add any value
almost no one gives a significant risk to the research subject (informant). However, if the to the EGGciting demand creation project as previously
informant feels that they feel insecure or feel disturbed during the interview, the informant discussed in detail with the team. IYCF related questions
can directly convey to the enumerator or interviewer. The enumerator and interviewer must that are relevant for the EGGciting demand generation have
been included.
submit the findings to the supervisor. In addition, WVI will provide referral services to
enumerators if it is found that matters related to research ethics, for example found sick
children during interviews in households, violence occurs during group discussions conducted
by the community or the nearest environment informants or other matters.
The results of this study will be used by WVI in order to provide input for implementation of
the EGGciting program in ensuring the effectiveness of the process. Meanwhile, the results of
the information will also be submitted to limited forums or workshops, such as in the district,
provincial or national level in the form of scientific writing, texts or journals. As a nutrition
Think Tank , Sight and Life will use the results of this study to publish in peer reviewed journals
and support evidence of similar programs. Commented [MOU20]: Sight and Life is not a DSM think
tank institution. It is an independent think tank. DSM is the
donor for this program. Sight and Life will use the results of
this study to publish in peer reviewed journals and support
F. TIMELINE AND BUDGET evidence of similar programs.
Commented [JS21R20]: Ok
The timelines presented in this table are tentative and subject to change based on project
management decisions and prioritization of activities (Table 2)

Table 2

February March April May June July PIC

o W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

1 Sairama

2 permit Sairama

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

3 Training, Tati & Julius Commented [JS23R22]: If the baseline data collection
analysis and can be started in the early of March, with the field process
reporting) taking 13 days, and the data analysis-reporting will be taking
time around 3 weeks. So, So it will be targeted for
Qualitative completing DRAFT of abseline report in early April (1st week
of April) – out of time for review and feedback.
4 training for Yana
staff Commented [WU24R22]: Can you give clarification on
this? In the table showed that the baseline report will be
Yana & WVI completed in 2nd week of April, while in your comment
Qualitative Team above stated the report will be available in 1st week of April.
5 data Commented [MOU22]: This is not in accordance with the
collection: timeline we have agreed on as my understanding was the
baseline will be completed in march?

Data Commented [JS26R25]: Ok.

transcriptio Commented [MOU25]: This will only require 4 weeks,
6 Yana
n& not 5

7 Yana Commented [JS28R27]: OK.
nt and
analysis Commented [MOU27]: This will be an intertive process
starting with week one of data collection
8 Reporting Yana
Commented [JS30R29]: Ok.

The total budget for this research is estimated around IDR 1231,570,000 or USD 16,475 Commented [MOU29]: This will take one week.
Commented [WU31]: I guess there is mistyping on the
Phase 1 Baseline Survey IDR’s amount of the total budget. In the budget detail table
Amount Unit Frequency Cost per unit Sub-Total Notes at below, it written IDR 231, 570,000. Please do revision to
(A) (B) (C) (A*B*C) not making confusion. Thank you
Enumerator Fee for Data 537 Questionnai 1 50,000 26,850,000 Periode of data
Collection re collection
within 8-10
Local Transportation 10 Day 2 700,000 14,000,000 Cost Each area
(Car/Bus) Sigi and Palu =
TRAININGS Commented [WU32]: Do we need to pay the enumerator
Meals 15 Person 3 150,000 6,750,000 transport for attending the training? The amount of IDR
Enumerators Transport 10 Person 3 100,000 3,000,000 100.000 per enumerator per day is also quite big.
WVI DME The training will be conducted 2 days in class and 1 day in
Specialist field for the field testing.
ACCOMODATION For the field testing I prefer to facilitate bus or car rather
Airplane Ticket (Jakarta- 1 Person 2 3,000,000 6,000,000 than give them that amount of transportation fee since it is
Palu) cheaper, easier, and manageable. Actually to do the field
Hotel and Accomodation 1 Person 6 500,000 3,000,000 testing, the distance from one house to another house in
the village is not far apart. It can be reached by walk.

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

Souvenirs for Respondent 537 Person 1 30,000 16,110,000
Stationary (Pen, 10 Package 1 50,000 500,000
Notebook, ID Card)
Ethical Clearance Fee 1 Package 1 2,000,000 2,000,000
Phase 2 Qualitative Research
Enumerator Fee for Data 112 Interview 1 150,000 16,800,000
Local Transportation 10 Day 2 700,000 14,000,000
Meals 15 Person 3 150,000 6,750,000
Enumerators Transport 8 Person 3 100,000 2,400,000 Commented [WU33]: My question is the same with the
Field Testing Meals 15 Person 1 150,000 2,250,000 training section in quantitative research

Souevnir for Informant’s 20 Person 1 30,000 600,000

Field Testing
Interpreter Fee for 1 Person 3 3,000,000 9,000,000
Airplane Ticket (Jakarta- 5 Person 2 3,000,000 30,000,000 4 WVI Staff &
Palu) 1 SAL Staff
Hotel and Accomodation 4 Person 10 500,000 20,000,000 4 WVI Staff

Hotel and Accomodation 1 Person 4 500,000 2,000,000 1 SAL Staff

Souvenirs for Informants 112 Person 1 30,000 3,360,000
Stationary (Pen, 14 Package 1 100,000 1,400,000
Notebook, ID Card,
Transcript Translator Fee 112 Package 5 80,000 44,800,000 5 pages per
TOTAL 231,570,000

Commented [MOU34]: @Sairama – please revise all

budgets based on our phone discussion today, kindly make
sure to include in the heading for each phase ( phase 1 and
G. RESEARCH ORGANIZATION phase 2) the team composition which includes data
collectors and if necessary supervisory, although I would
Team Name Roles and Responsibility highly suggest that for c apacity building purposes and for
cost savings and time savings all supevisors also act as data
Executive Team - Irene Marbun (Operation - Agree to the research proposal
Director) - Approve to the structure of the research
- Mitra Tobing (Minisitry team
Quality and Impact Director)

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

- Kalpana Beesabathuni - Approve the assignment of field staff to

(Global Lead - Technology assist in the research process
and Enterpreneurship, Sight - Approve the research report
and Life)
Principal Investigator - Yana Manyuk (Social - Lead research planning
Marketing Specialist, Sight - Develop a research proposal
and Life) - Assist in the design of research instruments
- Provied technical assistance and
- Prepare research report
Research Coordinator - Sairama Saragih (PLEASE - Lead coordination between the researchers
ADD YOUR TITLE) - Coordinating the data validation process
- Disseminate research report and prepare
summary of research findings for easy
dissemination with stakeholders
Co-Principal Investigator - Hartati Sinaga (Monitoring, - Develop a research proposal
Evaluation and Learning - Coordination with the General Manager at
Coordinator, WVI) the zonal level for needed support
- Coordinating the data validation process
- Train household survey enumerator

Researcher - Dr. Maria J Adrijanti (Health - Conduct interviews

Team Leader, WVI) - Document the interview process and
- Dr. Willy Sitompul (Health interview transcript
Specialist, WVI) - Conducting quantitative data analysis and
- Sairama H. Saragih (Health prepare quantitative descriptive report
Coordinator, WVI) (Data Manager) Commented [MOU35]: This is unclear. Who will do the
- Sidik Landobasana (Project data analysis?
Manager, WVI)
Commented [JS36R35]: Julius as a Data Manager for
- Julius Sugiharto (Data
Manager, WVI)

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi


This proposal has been prepared by, Commented [MOU37]: This is a contradiction as in the
table above it says that the proposal has been prepared by
Yana Manyuk, which reflects the reality. Suggest to rephrase
to: This proposal has been approved by…. And prepared by
Yana Manyuk
Yana Manyuk Commented [JS38R37]: Ok
Social Marketing Specialist, Sight and Life

reviewed by,

Sidik Siregar Maria J Adrijanti Cahyo Prihadi Commented [JS40R39]: Cahyo Prihadi is the one who
need to ensure the quality of research & baseline planning
EGGciting Project Manager Health Team Leader-WVI Program Quality and Accountability as in our business process (WVI).
Manager - WVI
Commented [MOU39]: Believe it is enough that this
proposal is reviewed by Sidik and Maria. Please make sure
they both indeed do review this proposal as I believe they
have not seen it yet.

and approved by,

Mitra Tobing Irene Marbun

Ministry Quality and Impact Operations Director

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi


This document summarizes the key insights from English and Bahasa language literature reviews conducted as
part of the demand generation desk review. The insights are grouped by main themes.


1. Food habits, taboos, determinants of food choice for PLW & child feeding practices

- Suboptimal dietary, food safety and child feeding practices overall
- widespread formula use, believed to be healthy, indicator of higher status and wealth
- Active child feeding is low
- Limiting food intake in order to limit fetal growth is common
- Limited knowledge among mothers regarding proper IYCF practices, perceptions of high costs of
healthy diets, and beliefs about child feeding during illness are potential challenges influencing
caregiver feeding practices
Commonly consumed foods during pregnancy:
- Rice, vegetables, tofu and meat are common foods eaten during pregnancy
Taboo foods:
- Taboo foods for pregnant women in Sulawesi, include coconut water, ice, vinegar, octopus, banana
heart, chilies, pineapple, papaya. Taboo foods for breastfeeding women included chilies, shrimp and
- Food taboos are especially common among the biggest ethnic group ‘Kaili’
- Eggs are not reported to be a taboo food in Sulawesi, however in other regions of Indonesia, eggs
have been reported as a taboo for pregnant and lactating women and children under 5. They are
believed to cause skin ulcer and itchiness.
- Women receive information on food taboos from family members and community members, and
women reported needing the permission of their husbands and other close family members (i.e.
parents or mother-in-law) when making food purchases or eating or avoiding certain foods.
- Strong cultural and religious role of family, especially husband: Men can be seen as owner’s of their
wives due to dowry payments.
- Shame and disgrace play a big role in the community. Family (includes husband and other family
members) has a shared responsibility to take care of the married woman, preventing her from making
‘mistakes’ that may disgrace the family. The guidance from the family consist of several prohibitions,
including not allowing male doctors to examine their wives. Elder people or ‘dukun’ (especially the
master of local custom and traditional healer), husband, and family have strong influence on the
behavior of women in Central Sulawesi, including pregnant women. The disobedience with the advice
given by these figures can result in a punishment

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

2. Traditional Indonesian & Sulawesi Diet & Eggs

- Indonesian food is very diverse and involves a lot of spices, fish, vegetables and rice. Common means
of food preparation are to stew, boil, fry and stir-fry.
- Local foods in Central Sulawesi are commonly made from rice, corn, and soybean. Soybean is the
primary commodity of Central Sulawesi after rice and corn and becomes the important source of
plant-based protein for local people.
- Processed food, rice, and fish are most commonly consumed foods in Central Sulawesi
- Fish is considered a relatively low-cost source of protein
Eggs in the diet:
- Eggs are a widely consumed animal sourced food, second to fish among children 12-23 months old
(75%) in Indonesia due to relatively lower cost compared to other animal sourced foods.
- Eggs are not a main component of Indonesian cuisine, but they are present in the diet, often as a side
dish. Common dishes that include eggs are curries, fried rice with fried egg (nasi goreng), rice porridge
with boiled egg, noodles with boiled egg, gado-gado with boiled egg (mixed stir-fry) among others.
There is a popular tea drink called the telur that includes sweeteners and egg yolk.
- Salted egg is a common Indonesian recipe to marinade an egg in salt, prolonging shelf life and giving
the egg more taste.
Eggs as ritual foods:
- Boiled eggs considered a blessing and used as tree decoration and consumed with traditional yellow
and sticky rice during Prophet Muhammad’s birthday or “Maulid Nabi” (November 20th 2018,
November 9th 2019). This tree of eggs is well known as ‘barakah’ (barakah means blessing).
Perceptions & beliefs around eggs:
- Cholesterol concern: many health workers recommend people to limit their eggs intake daily to
prevent them from several diseases such as hypertension
- The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia through Indonesian Balance Dietary Guidelines,
recommends pregnant women, lactating mother, and under five children to consume eggs due to its
good quality of protein content
- There are two kinds of chicken eggs that are popular in Indonesia: native chicken egg and broiler
chicken egg. The native egg is perceived by Indonesian people as the healthier, more delicious, and
fresher compared to the broiler eggs
- Native eggs are cultivated organically and are more expensive due to low production compared to
broiler eggs
Dietary recommendations in the Islam:
- Poultry and eggs are ‘halal’ or permitted foods
- Breastfeeding is encouraged in the Islam until 2 years of age
- Husbands have to support, encourage, and bear the cost for mothers (e.g. clothing and food) for
breastfeeding their children
- Quran stresses that Muslims must pay attention to the quality and quantity of the food they consume

3. Health services and perceptions towards

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

- Posyandu is a community-based health program that provides monthly health monitoring and
nutrition education for children under five
- Nutrition education and growth monitoring of children are factors for attendance
- Posyandsu are considered as 1) affordable (e.g. compared to cost expenses to visit a doctor or
midwife) because of free medical treatment and immunization, 2) important, 3) accessible and thus
reduce transportation cost
- Husbands support wives to visit Posyandus regularly
- The presence of Posyandu rural areas has replaced the roles of traditional healer such as dukun
- Compared to professional health workers such as doctor and midwife, community-based (e.g. kader)
and traditional healers received more trust by people especially those who live in rural areas

4. Cultural Influences in Sulawesi

- The Kaili people is the biggest ethnic population group in Central Sulawesi inhabiting Palu and Sigi
- Kaili people inherit their local wisdom through poem and poetry
- These poem and poetry consist of advice to do good and to obey the norms and the customs they
believe. The advice is delivered by “to tua ngata” or elder people who mastered the local custom
during traditional ceremonies celebration (for instance, during the ceremonies of death, wedding,
harvest, and illness healing).

5. Education, Communication, BCC & Social Marketing

Interventions to increase egg consumption:

- Medi Eggducation: Broiler chicken producer company’s CSR campaign conducted in Palu, Central
Sulawesi, targeting in primary school children
- Eggducation (2): Trouw Nutrition Indonesia, a global company focusing on animal nutrition and
fish feed. Campaign distributed free eggs in Festival Ayam dan Telur in 2014 and aimed to clarify
myths such as 1) consuming too many eggs will cause increased cholesterol and 2) broiler chicken
is injected with growth hormone.
Interventions to support diversified diets:
- GERAK SIGI MANTAP movement to encourage people to utilize their yard so the output can help
increasing people consumption of fruit and vegetable
Social Marketing:
- UNICEF campaign in Central Java (12 months 12/1995-12/1996) based on formative research,
encouraged the daily consumption of eggs and vegetables among mothers and their children
less than two years old through dissemination of simple messages through multiple media
channels. The campaign was successful at increasing consumption of both eggs and vegetables
and improved vitamin A intake and serum retinol status among mothers and children. National
reach and collaboration with Government.
Mass Media Interventions:
- 3 months behavior change intervention designed by researchers (2013) , to improve infant and
young child feeding practices, using television ads, posters, social media, and mother-to-mother
groups. Three television commercials were aired each night on a local television station and

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

focused on a character (Ibu Rumpi) of a gossiping mother who didn’t know about optimal infant
and child feeding. Ibu Rumpi, to her embarrassment, learned about her suboptimal infant after
being told so by her peers. The message intended for viewers was that they would want to avoid
embarrassment in front of their peers by practicing the optimal infant and child feeding practices
and sharing information via “healthy gossip.” The idea behind ‘healthy gossip’ was to reach
women in a communication style that was appropriate to them, sharing messages around
healthy behaviors, like optimal infant and child feeding practices. At the end of the three-month
intervention, authors noted improved dietary diversity and vegetable intake among children 6-
24 months by the end of the three-month intervention
Nutrition Education:
- The $131.5 million USD Community-Based Health and Nutrition to Reduce Stunting Project
implemented by the Indonesia Millennium Challenge Account, supported by the United States
Government and the Government of Indonesia ( 11 provinces including North and West
Sulawesi) from April 2013 to April 2018. The communication activity was provided $4.1 million
USD including the National Nutrition Communications Campaign (NNCC) which was
implemented from 2014-2017 and involved 1) a national mass media campaign and 2) an
interpersonal communication campaign. Key behavior change messages were identified through
formative research including over 3,000 women from 10 provinces. All materials are available
for download on the MCA Indonesia NNCC project website. While consumption of eggs was not
a major focus of the nutrition education messaging, consumption of animal source proteins
including eggs, was encouraged. The impact evaluation will be completed at the end of 2019.
Lessons learned from the communication campaign include: 1) the importance of involving key
stakeholders in a child’s life in messaging (e.g. mothers, fathers, families, women of reproductive
age who may get pregnant) and 2) providing relevant and concise messaging to different
audience (will vary across islands), 3) nutrition messaging should be coupled with existing health
and nutrition services (e.g. Posyandu and Puskesmas), 4) engaging fathers is important to
encourage their active participation in child health and nutrition, and 5) while mothers and/or
families may desire adopt improved IYCF behaviors, they may not have the financial resources
to do so. MCA reports that the television and mass media campaigns have reached over 40
million people
- Formative research in the Baduta Project found that mothers had a poor understanding of child
nutrition, as related to nutrient content of different foods, dietary diversity, introduction of
family foods and food safety concerns. Mothers did not feel confident about their knowledge of
optimal child feeding behaviors. Children were also commonly fed junk foods to pacify them and
give children what they wanted. The formative research also indicated the strong role that
friends’ and family have, as authors indicate that “child rearing is communal and the opinions of
older family members (e.g. grandmothers, mother-in-law, etc.) really matter and are listened to
when it comes to child feeding

6. Background information on avian flu in Central Sulawesi

- Between 2005-2016 168 death cases and 200 infected, as reported by the government of
Indonesia and the WHO

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

- As cited online from UNICEF Indonesia, the human death cases due to Avian Flu in Indonesia was
the highest in the world and 40% of the victims were children under 18 years old
- During 2011, Palu and Sigi were susceptible for avian flu according to the Central Sulawesi
- 31 incidents of avian flu detected in Indonesia during March 2017 (South Sulawesi amongst
- Health Ministry indicated in 2017 that avian flu was the illness they were most concerned
about for public health
- The government of Indonesia has proactively killed millions of birds if an outbreak was suspected
in the area as a measure to reduce risk for spread. It appears that knowledge among the general
public about the risk of avian flu is mixed
- People cannot become infected by avian flu from consuming fully cooked eggs or poultry.
However, if the cooked food becomes contaminated through close contact with poultry, there
may be a risk for inhaling the aerosol virus.

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi


Informed Consent
Primary Qualitative Research of Eggciting Project
Good morning/afternoon, Mr/Mrs ________. We are from Wahana Visi Indonesia. We are working on
a project concerned with nutrition and education in which you could participate/participated. You are
invited to participate in a research study about to feeding practices, health practices, and lifestyles in
Palu and Sigi because you are pregnant, breastfed and or had children under 5 years old. This study is
being conducted by Wahana Visi Indonesia and Sight and Life (SAL)- a global nutrition think-tank.
In this interview we are using a topics guides which containing some question regarding health in order
to understand feeding and health practices and lifestyles of pregnant and Lactating women and
women who had children under 5 years old. Your participation in this research is entirely voluntary. It
is your choice whether to participate or not. The interview/focus group will last 45-60 minutes.
The interview will be audio-recorded in order to accurately capture what is said. If you participate in
the study, you may request that the recording be paused at any time. You may choose how much or
how little you want to speak during the interview. Also, you are not obliged to answer any question
you do not want to, and you may stop the interview at any time.
If you participate in the study, you will receive a package for your time. Participating in this study may
not benefit you directly, but it will help us learn about feeding child practices, health practices and
community’s perception on eggs. The research being done in the community may draw attention and
if you participate you may be asked questions by other people in the community. We will not be
sharing information about you to anyone outside of the research team. The information that we collect
from this research project will be kept private. Any information about you will have a number on it
instead of your name. Only the researchers will know what your number is and we will lock that
information up with a lock and key. All the information we obtain will remain strictly confidential and
your answers and name will never be revealed.
If you have any questions about this study, please contact [Sairama Saragih, 085370032816 AND].
If you have questions about your rights as a research participant, please contact dr. Maria J. Adrijanti
Your signature on this consent form indicates your agreement to participate in this study. You will be
given a copy of this form to keep, whether you agree to participate or not. The second signed consent
form will be kept by the researcher.
“I have read the consent form and all of my questions about the study have been answered. I
understand that the interview will be recorded. I agree to participate in this study. “
Signature: _____________________________________
Date: _________________________________________

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

Statement by the researcher/person taking consent

I have accurately read out the information sheet to the potential participant, and to the best of my
ability made sure that the participant understands that the following will be done:
1. The aim of the study.
2. All their rights during the interview/focus group discussions.
3. All Data will be keep private.
I confirm that the participant was given an opportunity to ask questions about the study, and all the
questions asked by the participant have been answered correctly and to the best of my ability. I
confirm that the individual has not been coerced into giving consent, and the consent has been given
freely and voluntarily.
A copy of this ICF has been provided to the participant.
Print Name of Researcher/person taking the consent________________________

Signature of Researcher /person taking the consent__________________________

Date ___________________________

Formulir Persetujuan
Penelitian Kualitatif Proyek Eggciting
Selamat Pagi/Siang/Sore, Bapa /Ibu ________. Kami dari Wahana Visi Indonesia. Kami sedang
mengerjakan proyek yang berkaitan dengan nutrisi dan pola pemberian makan di mana Anda dapat
berpartisipasi. Anda diundang untuk berpartisipasi dalam studi penelitian tentang praktik pemberian
makan, praktik kesehatan, dan gaya hidup di Palu dan Sigi karena Anda hamil, menyusui dan atau
memiliki anak di bawah 5 tahun. Studi ini sedang dilakukan oleh Wahana Visi Indonesia dan Sight and
Life (SAL) - sebuah pemikir nutrisi global.
Dalam wawancara ini kami menggunakan panduan yang berisi beberapa pertanyaan tentang
kesehatan untuk memahami praktik pemberian makan dan kesehatan dan gaya hidup wanita hamil
dan menyusui dan wanita yang memiliki anak di bawah 5 tahun. Partisipasi Anda dalam penelitian ini
sepenuhnya bersifat sukarela. Ini adalah pilihan Anda apakah akan berpartisipasi atau tidak.
Wawancara akan berlangsung 45-60 menit.
Wawancara ini akan direkam secara audio untuk menangkap secara akurat apa yang dikatakan. Jika
Anda berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini, Anda dapat meminta agar rekaman dijeda kapan saja. Anda
dapat memilih berapa banyak atau seberapa sedikit Anda ingin berbicara selama wawancara. Selain
itu, Anda tidak diwajibkan untuk menjawab pertanyaan yang tidak Anda inginkan, dan Anda dapat
menghentikan wawancara kapan saja.
Jika Anda berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini, Anda akan menerima paket sebagai pengganti waktu
Anda. Berpartisipasi dalam penelitian ini mungkin tidak menguntungkan Anda secara langsung, tetapi
ini akan membantu kami belajar tentang memberi makan praktik anak, praktik kesehatan, dan persepsi
masyarakat tentang telur. Penelitian yang dilakukan di masyarakat dapat menarik perhatian dan jika

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

Anda berpartisipasi, Anda mungkin akan ditanyai oleh orang lain di komunitas. Kami tidak akan
membagikan informasi tentang Anda kepada siapa pun di luar tim peneliti. Informasi yang kami
kumpulkan dari proyek penelitian ini akan dirahasiakan. Setiap informasi tentang Anda akan memiliki
nomor bukan nama Anda. Hanya para peneliti yang akan tahu nomor Anda dan kami akan mnyimpan
informasi dengan baik. Semua informasi yang kami peroleh akan tetap dirahasiakan dan jawaban serta
nama Anda tidak akan pernah diungkapkan.
Jika Anda memiliki pertanyaan tentang studi ini, silakan hubungi [Sairama Saragih, 085370032816 dan].
Jika Anda memiliki pertanyaan tentang hak-hak Anda sebagai peserta penelitian, silakan hubungi dr.
Maria J. Adrijanti (08119318565).
Tanda tangan Anda pada formulir persetujuan ini menunjukkan persetujuan Anda untuk berpartisipasi
dalam penelitian ini. Anda akan diberikan salinan formulir ini untuk disimpan, apakah Anda setuju
untuk berpartisipasi atau tidak. Formulir persetujuan yang kedua yang sudah ditandatangani akan
disimpan oleh peneliti.
“Saya telah membaca formulir persetujuan dan semua pertanyaan saya tentang penelitian telah
dijawab. Saya mengerti bahwa wawancara akan direkam. Saya setuju untuk berpartisipasi dalam
penelitian ini.”
Signature: _____________________________________
Date: _________________________________________

Pernyataan oleh peneliti /orang yang mewawancara:

Saya telah secara akurat membacakan lembar informasi kepada calon peserta, dan sejauh kemampuan
saya memastikan bahwa peserta memahami bahwa hal-hal berikut akan dilakukan:
1. Tujuan penelitian.
2. Semua hak mereka selama wawancara.
3. Semua Data akan dirahasiakan.
Saya mengkonfirmasi bahwa peserta diberi kesempatan untuk mengajukan pertanyaan tentang
penelitian ini, dan semua pertanyaan yang diajukan oleh peserta telah dijawab dengan benar dan
sesuai dengan kemampuan saya. Saya mengkonfirmasi bahwa individu tersebut tidak dipaksa untuk
memberikan persetujuan, dan persetujuan tersebut telah diberikan secara bebas dan sukarela.
Fotocopy formulir ini sudah dipersiapkan kepada responden.
Nama Peneliti/orang yang mewawancara: ________________________
Tanda tangan Peneliti/orang yang mewawancara: __________________________
Tanggal Pengambilan: ___________________________

Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi


Informed Consent
Baseline Survey / Quantitative Research Project EGGciting
Good Morning / Afternoon (respondent's name) ____________________
My name is (enumerator’s name) ___________________ as a enumerator officer from the Wahana
Visi Indonesia (WVI) Operational Office in Palu.
I would like to inform you that you have been randomly selected to participate as respondent in a
survey conducted by Wahana Visi Indonesia in collaboration with Sight and Life. This sheet provides
information about the survey to be conducted and if you agree, we can proceed the interview.
This survey aims to describe the Behavior, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pregnant Women and Mothers
or Caregivers of Children Under5 about Dietary and Feeding Practices of Children and Pregnant
Women. This survey is also to find out how the habits of egg consumption patterns in your household.
You will only be asked questions for about 45-60 minutes without any special treatment or potential
that endangers you or your family. I will use cellphones as a tool to conduct interviews without taking
pictures or recording your voice. Every information and answer given will be kept confidential and will
only be used or presented in general, not individually.
Before the interview began, we needed your consent to participate voluntarily in this survey. The
results of this survey will be useful for WVI in developing a nutritional program in this area so that
children under5 and pregnant women can benefit from proper health and nutrition of programs
according to the needs of the community. You can resign or stop at any time during the interview
process if there are urgent or perceived risks.
At the end of the interview, a souvenir will be given to you as for your participation in this survey.
If there are further questions, please contact Hartati Sinaga via telephone ________
Please sign below if you agree to participate

"I have received information about this survey/interview. I get the opportunity to ask questions and
get satisfying answers. I consent voluntarily to participate in this interview. "



Research Proposal – EGGciting Innovations
Generating demand for eggs in Central Sulawesi

Formulir Persetujuan
Penelitian Kuantitatif Baseline Survey Proyek Eggciting

Selamat Pagi/Siang/Sore (nama responden) ____________________

Perkenalkan nama saya (nama enumerator) ___________________ sebagai petugas pengumpul data
utusan dari Wahana Visi Indonesia (WVI) Kantor Operasional Palu.
Saya ingin memberitahukan bahwa Ibu/Bapak telah terpilih secara acak untuk berpartisipasi sebagai
responden dalam survei yang dilakukan oleh Wahana Visi Indonesia bekerja sama dengan Sight and
Life. Lembar ini menyediakan informasi mengenai survei yang akan dilakukan dan jika Ibu/Bapak
berkenan, dapat menyetujui untuk kami lakukan wawancara.
Survei ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran Perilaku, Sikap dan Pengetahuan tentang Ibu Hamil
serta Ibu atau Pengasuh anak balita tentang Pola Makan dan Pemberian Makan Bayi dan Anak. Survei
ini untuk mengetahui bagaimana kebiasaan pola konsumsi telur di rumah tangga Ibu/Bapak. Ibu/Bapak
hanya akan ditanyakan beberapa pertanyaan selama kurang lebih 45-60 menit tanpa ada perlakuan
khusus atau potensi yang membahayakan Ibu/Bapak serta keluarga. Saya juga akan menggunakan
handphone sebagai alat bantu untuk melakukan wawancara tanpa mengambil gambar atau merekam
suara Ibu/Bapak. Setiap informasi dan jawaban yang diberikan akan kami jaga kerahasiaannya dan
hanya dipergunakan atau disajikan secara general, bukan secara individu.
Sebelum wawancara dimulai, kami memerlukan persetujuan Ibu/Bapak untuk berpartisipasi secara
sukarela dalam survei ini. Hasil survei ini akan bermanfaat bagi WVI dalam mengembangkan program
peningkatan status nutrisi di wilayah Ibu/Bapak sehingga anak balita dan ibu hamil dapat mendapatkan
manfaat program kesehatan dan nutrisi yang tepat sesuai kebutuhan masyarakat. Ibu/Bapak dapat
sewaktu-waktu mengundurkan diri atau berhenti selama proses wawancara apabila ada keperluan
mendesak atau risiko yang dirasakan.
Pada akhir wawancara kami akan memberikan tanda terima kasih atas partisipasi Ibu/Bapak dalam
survei ini.
Jika ada pertanyaan lebih lanjut, dapat menghubungi Hartati Sinaga melalui telpon 081321851986
Silakan tanda tangan di bawah ini.
“Saya telah mendapatkan informasi tentang survei atau wawancara ini. Saya mendapatkan
kesempatan untuk mengajukan pertanyaan dan mendapatkan jawaban yang memuaskan. Saya
menyetujui secara sukarela untuk berpartisipasi dalam wawancara ini.”
Tanda tangan

(nama jelas)