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You are on page 1of 17

Year: THIRD Theoretical : 2 hrs/Week

Tutorial : 1 hrs/Week

Integrated Differential Amplifier, Common Mode Parameters, Bias Methods in Integrated

Circuits, Introduction to op-amp, Circuit Analysis of an op– amp Ideal op-amp , Inverting

Amplifier, Noninverting Amplifier , Feedback Theory Frequency Response, Stability, Gain-

Bandwidth Product, Slew Rate, Offset Currents and Voltages.Voltage Summer,Subtraction,

Controlled Voltage and Current Sources, Integration, Differentiation and Wave Shaping,

Instrumentation Amplifiers, voltage Comparators , Clipping , Clamping and Rectifying Circuits

.

Large-Signal Amplifier 10 Hrs.

Amplifier Classes and Efficiency, Class- (A ),Class- (B ),Class- (AB),Class- (C ), Power BJTs,

Junction Temperature ,Thermal Resistance, Power Dissipation Versus Temperature , Transistor

Case and Heatsink , Power Field-Effect Transistors (VMOS), Integrated Circuit Power

Amplifier.

Oscillators 10 Hrs.

Basic Principles of Sinusoidal Oscillators , Positive Feedback and Oscillation, The Oscillation

Criterion (Barkhausen Criterion ). RC Oscillator: RC Phase-Shift Oscillator and Wien-Bridge

Oscillator. LC and Crystal Oscillator.

Non-Sinusoidal Oscillators and Tim Circuits 10 Hrs.

Schmitt Trigger Oscillator, The 555 Circuit and applications (Monostable Multivibrator ,

Astable Multivibrator, Other Applications).

Filters 6 Hrs.

Types of Filters (Passive and Active, LPF,HPF,BPF,BRF),Chebysheve , Butterworth and Bessel Filters,

Design of n-order Filters.

Tuned Amplifiers 8 Hrs.

Single Tuned Capacitively – Coupled Amplifiers , Time Response of Tuned Amplifiers ,

Inductively – Coupled Tuned Amplifiers , Tapped – Tuned Circuits , Double – Tuned Circuits ,

Tuned – Amplifiers Stability .

Power Supplies and Voltage Regulators 6 Hrs.

Voltage Regulators , Basic Regulator Description, Output Resistance and Load Regulation, Line

Regulation , Series and shunt Voltage Regulators , Switching Regulators , Integrated - Circuit

Regulators , Practical Power Supplies .

References :-

1 - Electronic Devices and Circuits Bogart.

2 – Microelectronic Circuits Sedra / Smith.

3 – Electronic Devices and Circuit theory

Robert L. Boylestad.

4 - Microelectronics / Jacob Millman

5 – Electronic Devices / Floyd.

An oscillator is a circuit that is capable of sustaining an ac output signal

by converting dc power to ac power (power converter in the sense that its

only input is the dc supply potential and its output is a time varying wave

form).

Sinusoidal Oscillators.

If the generated wave forms, is sine wave.

Feedback Oscillators:

R-C Oscillators, Audio frequency Oscillator.

L-C Oscillators, Radio Frequency Oscillator.

Negative – Resistance Oscillators.

If the Generated wave form is saw tooth, square… etc.

e.g. Astable Multivibreators.

A

1. Positive feedback. A f

1 A

Vi

A Vo

Frequency-selective network

β: the Fraction of the o/p feedback to the input.

2. (1-AB)=0 │Aβ│=1 so that A f =∞ at specified frequency f o

This is known as the Barkhausen criteria for oscillator.

١

This means that Aβ= 1+j0

Where A A 1 , 2 , Αβ = A (1 2)

Therefore, to sustain oscillation:

1- 1 2 = 0, 2π, 4π,…

2- A =1

The RC Oscillator

a) The phase shift oscillator.

Op-amp phase shift oscillator.

Rf

+Vcc

Ri C C C

_

Vo

+

R R R

-Vcc

Fig .1

Each of the three RC networks in the F.B. loop can provide a maximum

phase shift of 60 , Oscillation occurs at the frequency where the total phase

shift through the three RC networks is 180 . The inversion of the op-amp,

itself, provides the additional 180 to meet the requirement for oscillation.

C C C

Vin I1 R I2 R I3 R Vout

Fig.2

٢

(R j ) I RI 0 I V

…(1)

2 f C 1 2 3 in

RI 1 ( 2 R j ) I 2 RI 3 0

2 f C …(2)

0 I 1 RI 2 ( 2 R j ) I 3 0 ….(3)

2 f C

In order to get V

out , we must solve for I3 using determinates.

Vout RI 1

3 …(4)

Vin Vin (1 j )(2 j ) 2 (3 2 j )

2fRC 2fRC 2fRC

Combining the real terms and the imaginary terms separately.

V 1 ……..(5)

out

Vin 5 1

(1 ) j( 6 )

2f R C

2 2 2 2 fRC 3 3 3

(2f ) R C

In order to have a 180 phase shift through the network, the first term

must be a negative number and the value of imaginary term must be equal

zero at the frequency of oscillation f o .

6 1 0 …..(6)

2f o RC (2f o )3 R 3C 3

Solving for fo .

fo 1

……....(7)

2 6 RC

٣

V out 1 1

……..(8)

V in (1 5 ) 29

2 f

2

o R2C 2

1

Thus the gain for the feedback network, β =

29

The closed-loop gain of op.amp must be ( 29 )

i.e. A -29 and Aβ=1.

Example (1):-

For the circuit as shown in Fig.3:

a) Determine the value of Rf necessary for this circuit to operate as an

oscillator.

b) Determine the frequency of oscillation.

Rf

+Vcc

Ri 0.001 µf 0.001 µf 0.001 µf

_

50k Vo

or +

5k 10k 10k 10k

-Vcc

Fig.3

Ans.

29

Rf

A 29 Rf = 145 kΩ for Ri = 5KΩ, to prevent Ri from

Ri

loading the value of R, we choose Ri =50 KΩ and find R f .

٤

b) fo 1 6 . 5 kHz

2 6 RC

Other typical network using R and C that produce a phase shift of 180 are

shown:

C C C C

V1 R R R R V2

1 V2 1

f ,

10 V1 18 . 4

2 RC

7

Fig.4

V1 V2

6 V 1

f , 2

2 RC V 1 29

Fig.5

Exercise (1):

Derive the expression for resonant frequency and the expression for minimum

gain for the (Fig.4 and Fig.5), also evaluate this frequency when R=2kΩ and

C=0.01μF?

٥

Exercise (2):

For the circuit shown in Fig.6 (RC phase-shift oscillator using

transistor) RL=3kΩ, Vcc=6V, ICQ=1mA, hfe=hFE=200 and R=10kΩ.

a) Calculate RE, assuming the feedback network does not Load RL.

b) Calculate RB.

c) Find C for W 10rad / sec .

d) Evaluate R2.

Vcc

RB RL C C C

Vout

R R R

CC

RE

Fig.6

VDD

RD

Vout

C C C

R R RS CS

Fig.7

٦

The FET amplifier is biased by RS & RD the voltage

fo 1 ,

1

2 6 RC 29

Fig.8 shows a widely used type of oscillator called a Wien-bridge. The

operational amplifier is used in a noninverting configuration, and the impedance

Z1

blocks labeled and form a voltage divider that determines the feedback

2

ratio. Resistors Ri and R F determine the amplifier gain and are selected to make

the magnitude of the loop gain equal to 1. If the feedback impedances (Z1 and Z2)

are chosen properly, there will be some frequency at which there is zero phase

shift in the signal feedback to the amplifier input V+. Since the amplifier

noninverting, it also contributes zero phase shift so the total around the loops is

zero at the frequency, as required for oscillation.

Fig.8

٧

Fig.9 lead-lag circuit.

j

Z1 R1 …………………………………(1)

c1

j

R2

j c2 j

Z 2 R2 \\ = …………………...(2)

c2 R j c2

c2

2

R2

Z2 …………………………….(3)

j R 2 C 2 1

R2

( )

V Z2 jR2C2 1

VOut Z1 Z 2 ( R j ) ( R2

)

……………(4)

C1 jR2C2 1

1

R2

( )

V jR2C 2 1

VOut RC j ………………(5)

R1 jR1 R2C2 2 2 R2

C1 C1

( )

jR2C 2 1

V R2 ………………(6)

VOut ( R R R C 2 ) j (R R C 1 )

C1

1 2 2 1 2 2

C1

٨

In order for V to have the same phase as VOut , this ratio must be a purely real

number. Therefore, the imaginary part in Equation (6) must be zero. Setting the

imaginary part equal to zero and solving for `gives us the oscillation frequency:

1 1 1

o R1 R2C 2 0 o R1 R2C 2 o

2

o C1 o C1 R1 R2C1C 2 …(7)

1

o

R1 R2C1C2 …………………………………….(8)

1

f f0 ………………………….(9)

2 R1R2C1C2

In most applications, the resistors are made equal and so are the capacitors:

R1 R2 R and C1 C 2 C . In this case , the oscillation frequency becomes:-

1

f fo ……………………(10)

2RC

R R 1

C 3R 3 ……………(11)

R R R j0

C

Therefore, the amplifier must provide a gain of 3 to make the magnitude of the loop

gain unity and sustain oscillation.

1

A 3 ………………………………....(12)

For non-inverting amplifier:

RF R

A 1 3 F 2 ……………………………..(13)

Ri Ri

٩

Exercise (3): Design a wein-bridge oscillator that oscillates at 25 kHz.

2. LC Oscillator circuit.

The Colpitts oscillator

Rf

+Vcc

Ri

_

+

Vout

C1

-Vcc

L

C2

Fig.10

The combination of C1, C2 and L acts as a parallel resonant circuit in

the F.B. loop and the frequency of oscillator is:

1

f

2 LCeq

C 1C 2

C

Where eq (C1 in series with C2)

C1 C 2

The Hartley oscillator

Rf

+Vcc

Ri _

Vout

+

L1

-Vcc

C

L2

Fig.11

١٠

L1, L2 and C act as a resonant Circuit in the F.B. loop. The frequency of

oscillator is.

1

f

2 LeqC

Example (2):-

Identity each oscillator in figures below and determine its frequency of

oscillation.

a. Hartly oscillator Rf

Leq = L1 + L2

+Vcc

1 Ri

_

f

2 Leq C +

Vout

0.4

-Vcc mH

f = 160 kHz 2

0.1 nF

mH

(a)

Rf

+Vcc

Ri

_

+ Vout

400

-Vcc pF

0.1

800 mH

pF

(b)

Fig.12

١١

b. Colpitts oscillator

C 1C 2

C eq

C1 C 2

Ceq = 270 pF

1

f 0.97 MHz

2 LCeq

The Crystal Oscillator

Crystal oscillators offer greater frequency stability than other types. The

crystal oscillator uses a quartz crystal as the resonant circuit.

Ls

Quartz

Cm Crystal

Osci.

(Cp) Rs

Cs

(c) Quartz crystal real symbol.

The crystal will deform if a voltage is placed across their parallel faces.

Similarly, if the crystal is mechanically deform, a voltage will appear across its

opposite faces.

This property of crystal is called piezoelectric effect.

The piezoelectric crystal has a mechanical resonant frequency; its Q

factor is very high.

١٢

Series resonance occurs in the crystal when the reactances in the

series branch are equal.

Parallel resonance occurs, at a higher frequency, when the reactance

of Ls equals the reactance of Cm.

Reactance

+

Inductive

wp

w

ws

Capacitive

_

Fig.14

1

ws : Series resonant frequency. ws

Ls C s

1 1 1

wp : Parallel resonant frequency. wp

Ls Cm Cs

Cm >> Cs

The oscillator frequency is essentially determined by the crystal and not

by the rest of the circuit.

١٣

Example (3):-

A crystal oscillator, (as shown in fig.15), using the crystal as a series

resonant circuit. The impedance of the crystal is minimum at the series

resonance, providing maximum feedback. Cc is a coupling capacitor to

prevent dc voltage from being fed back.

Rf

+Vcc

Ri _

Vout

+

-Vcc

R1 Cc

Fig.15

Example (4) :-

Rf

+Vcc

Ri

_

+ Vout

C1

-Vcc

C2

Fig.16

A modified Colpitts oscillator, (as shown in fig.16), uses the crystal in its

parallel resonant mode. The impedance of the crystal is maximum at parallel

resonance thus developing the maximum voltage across both C1 and C2.

The voltage across C2 is fed back to the input.

١٤

Exercise (4): Sketch a circuit diagram of a phase shift RC oscillator

using BJT & FET. Derive the expression for the frequency of oscillator and

the minimum amplifier gain.

Exercise (5): For a Wien bridge oscillator circuit if the lead-lag network

has the following R=12kΩ and C=0.015μF. Calculate the resonant frequency

and the minimum amplifier gain.

Exercise (6):

Derive the equation of frequency of oscillator for the Colpitts and Hartly

oscillators.

١٥

Negative Resistance Concepts

Negative resistance occurs in electronics when an increase in voltage

results in a decrease in current (a Voltage – Controlled Negative Resistance)

or where an increase in current results in a decrease in voltage (a Current

Controlled Negative Resistance).

dv

r

di

diode. ID 1

slop

r

Ip

Iv

VD

(a) (b)

Fig.17: (a) Tunnel diode symbol, (b) tunnel diode characteristic.

Tunnel diode sinusoidal oscillator.

Vout

I -r

C L

Fig.18

It is suitable for use in microwave oscillators.

١٦

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