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T. Van Flandern*

Meta Research, 6327 Western Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20015-2456

X. S. Yang†

Faculty of Engineering, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom

共Received 30 July 2002; published 27 January 2003兲

Gravitational and other anomalies seen repeatedly in connection with solar eclipses have led to speculation

about a possible gravitational shielding effect as the cause. Here we show that an unusual phenomenon that

occurs only during solar eclipses, rapid air mass movement for the bulk of the atmosphere above normal cloud

levels, appears to be a sufficient explanation for both the magnitude and behavior of the anomaly previously

reported in these pages.

I. INTRODUCTION the Moon shielded part of the Sun’s gravity, this should in-

crease the acceleration of nearby objects toward the Earth by

A very accurate Foucault-type pendulum slightly in- decreasing the component toward the Sun.

creases its period of oscillation and/or changes its plane of

swing 共by up to 13.5o ) at sites experiencing a partial eclipse II. ANALYTICAL MODEL

of the Sun, as compared with any other time. This effect was

first noticed by Allais over 40 years ago 关1兴, and both it and As veterans of many eclipse expeditions, we were keenly

related phenomena are now named after him. Some such aware of the sharp temperature drop that accompanies solar

effect has been seen at several eclipses since then, but also eclipses, with onset soon after the partial phase begins. This

not seen at other eclipses. In recent years, an anomalous temperature drop creates air-mass movement into and out of

eclipse effect on gravimeters has become well-established the eclipse zone. This is analogous to what happens for a

even under controlled environmental conditions 共especially meteorological front with a large temperature differential on

pressure兲 关2兴, which some of the pendulum experiments did either side in the absence of rapid air circulation to stabilize

not have. Several exotic explanations have been proposed, the two regions of unequal-pressure air. However, in normal

the most interesting of which is a possible shielding effect of meteorological conditions, only the lower atmosphere in and

the Sun’s gravity while the Moon is partly in front of the below the cloud decks is strongly affected by large blocks of

Sun. The size of the effect as measured with a gravimeter air with a pressure differential. But over 90% of the atmo-

during the 1997 eclipse was roughly (5 –7)⫻10⫺9 g 丣 , sphere’s mass is above the cloud levels. This high atmo-

where g 丣 is the acceleration of gravity at the Earth’s surface sphere never experiences a comparable sudden temperature

共about 1000 cm/s2 ). So the acceleration of gravity from the drop in a limited geographic region except at times of solar

Earth seems to decrease during solar eclipses by about eclipses because it is normally always in continuous, unob-

(5 –7)⫻10⫺6 cm/s2 关3,4兴. 共See Fig. 1.兲 scured sunlight by day. Eclipses partially shut off a heat

However, the upper limit on any gravitational shielding is source for the atmosphere above the clouds within the

now set by Lageos satellites, which suffer an anomalous ac- Moon’s penumbral 共partial eclipse兲 shadow, and that lost

celeration of only about 3⫻10⫺10 cm/s2 during ‘‘seasons’’ heat creates a relatively steep temperature gradient at alti-

where the satellite experiences eclipses of the Sun by the tudes where such a phenomenon normally never exists. Air

Earth 关5兴. This seems to rule out the possibility that the can then be forced to move in total volumes much larger than

eclipse effect on gravimeters might be gravitational in the are otherwise possible.

interesting sense, such as a shielding effect. But interpreting Confirming that air-mass movement in fact happens,

any manifestation of the Allais pendulum effect as gravita- hourly data recorded on the day of the 1999 eclipse from a

tional shielding was always problematic because it failed to site in the partial eclipse zone 共north latitude 38.1° , east lon-

explain why the effect set in well before the partial stage of gitude 20.6° , maximum eclipse magnitude 80%) shows that

an eclipse began and lasted at least half an hour after it atmospheric pressure increased sharply by at least 0.6% dur-

ended; why it had two large excursions in local gravity, one ing the eclipse 共from 979 to 985 g/cm2 ), returning to pre-

near the beginning and one near the end of the partial phase, eclipse levels afterward 关6兴. 共See Fig. 2.兲 Unfortunately, the

with little effect near mid-eclipse; and why the effect would hourly data does not have very good time resolution, and is

act as a decrease in the Earth’s gravity instead of an apparent for a location roughly 700 km from the path of totality. But it

increase. Because the Sun’s gravity opposes the Earth’s, if gives important clues about the magnitude of the air mass

movement.

From the kinetic theory of gases, for any given rms speed

*Email address: tomvf@metaresearch.org of air molecules v̄ and air density , pressure p is given by

†

Email address: x.s.yang@swansea.ac.uk p⫽ 13 v̄ 2 . 共This is because pressure changes affect all three

T. VAN FLANDERN AND X. S. YANG PHYSICAL REVIEW D 67, 022002 共2003兲

local acceleration of gravity 关4兴.

dimensions, so the pressure change in one dimension, such moves at the same speed as the Moon when projected per-

as downward, is reduced by a factor of three 关7兴.兲 If we pendicular to the surface, or faster when projected obliquely.

differentiate this pressure formula, divide by the original for- From that speed we must subtract the speed of the observer

mula, and rearrange terms, we get a relation between per- on the rotating Earth, which is generally in the same direc-

centage changes: ␦ / ⫽ ␦ p/ p⫺2 ␦ v̄ / v̄ . We do not have tion, but is never faster than 500 m/s at the equator. So on

measurements of v̄ during the eclipse, but it varies with the balance, we see that the Moon’s shadow is always moving at

square root of absolute temperature, which obviously goes supersonic speeds relative to ground observers.

The result is that warmer air from outside the eclipse zone

down during the eclipse. If we assume v̄ drops by the same

is continually trying to rush toward the cooler regions just

0.6% change as the pressure rises, this would imply a net

inside the shadow, increasing the total mass of air over the

change in air density of 1.8%. Other physically reasonable

ground below. But that air never gets a chance to penetrate

assumptions can lead to percentage changes in air mass rang-

very deeply before the shadow has rushed onward, carrying

ing from 1.2% to 2.4%; but we will use this median value of

the high-altitude ‘‘front’’ with it faster than air can travel.

1.8% for our further analysis.

Hence, the ground barometric pressure is seen to rise during

Simple reasoning suggests that the cooler air inside the

the eclipse, but the amount will be a complex function of the

eclipse zone will decrease in volume 共increasing in density兲

eclipse geometry. Of course, the shadow cools a much larger

in accord with Boyle’s law as its temperature drops, creating

volume of air than can be above the observer’s horizon. So

a ‘‘low’’ pressure region with the unusual character that it

the production of gravity anomalies at the observer will be

would extend to great altitudes. This leaves room for warmer

dependent on what the upper atmosphere is doing locally as

air from outside the eclipse zone on all sides of the advanc-

the shadow approaches, covers, and recedes. But we can be

ing shadow of the Moon to flow rapidly into the eclipse zone

and fill the volume emptied by the cooler, denser air there.

This is what happens on a smaller scale across meteorologi-

cal fronts. When ‘‘highs’’ and ‘‘lows’’ collide, winds are cre-

ated that attempt to equalize those discordant pressures. Note

that for eclipses, the redistribution of air mass would affect

broad areas well outside the eclipse zone through this pro-

cess because those areas are the reservoir from which the

extra air mass would be drawn.

If the shadow were static or slowly moving, air would

flow deep into the eclipse zone until pressures equalized

again for the higher density of air mass present. The greatest

density would be found in the center of the shadow where

the eclipse is total. However, reality is far from a static situ-

ation. The speed of sound is 330 m/s at sea level, and nor- FIG. 2. Hourly barometric pressure measures. Bars mark first

mally changes little with altitude. But the speed of the Moon contact, middle of eclipse, and last contact for the 1999 August 11

relative to the Earth averages close to 1000 m/s. The shadow solar eclipse, as measured at a site in Kefallonia, Greece.

022002-2

ALLAIS GRAVITY AND PENDULUM EFFECTS DURING . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW D 67, 022002 共2003兲

over many such spherical shells with exponentially decreas-

ing density from the ground up. If r is the radius of the Earth

and q is the distance from point P to point Q, then the dis-

tance from O to Q is r⫹z. We will also need the two angles

Q-O-P⫽ ␣ and Q-P-O⫽  . An element of atmosphere with

mass dm at point Q will exert an acceleration on point P of

magnitude da⫽Gdm/q 2 , directed toward the mass element,

where G is the universal gravitational constant. We can re-

solve this into horizontal and vertical components and inte-

grate over all mass elements in the whole atmosphere or any

subset of them to get the total acceleration caused by the air

FIG. 3. Geometry of Earth’s atmosphere near a particular place. mass considered.

O⫽ Earth’s center; P⫽ observation place; Q⫽ point in atmo- First let us examine the forces for normal air symmetri-

sphere; r⫽ Earth’s radius; z⫽ height of atmosphere point Q above cally placed around an observer at point P. By symmetry, the

ground; q⫽ distance from P to Q. ␣ and  are angles of the triangle horizontal components 共in the x-coordinate and y-coordinate

at O and P, respectively. directions perpendicular to the z-coordinate direction兲 must

average to zero. So we can limit our consideration to just the

confident that the air mass movement usually makes the vertical component of the acceleration in the z-coordinate

gravity anomaly an upward-pointing force relative to normal direction 共positive upward from the ground兲, for which da z

air 共i.e., a weaker downward acceleration of Earth’s gravity兲 ⫽⫺Gdm cos /q2. Then the mass element is dm

because air drawn from huge volumes well outside the ⫽2 r 2 sin ␣d␣dz, where is the mean density of air in the

eclipse zone is concentrated into a smaller volume on the shell, dz is the vertical thickness of the mass element in the

periphery of that zone. Correspondingly, the air deficit over a z-coordinate, rd ␣ is the width of a ring of mass elements of

wider region outside the eclipse zone should produce a slight radius r centered on the OP axis, and 2 r sin ␣ is the cir-

rise in the local gravitational acceleration—an effect sug- cumference of the same infinitesimal ring of atmosphere.

gested by the data in Fig. 1 for about an hour before the first With this setup, we need only integrate over ␣ from 0 to to

trough and about an hour after the second trough. sum all mass elements at a given height z, and then integrate

From these considerations, we see that air mass flow dur- over all heights z from 0 to ⬁. So the total vertical accelera-

ing eclipses might have the right qualitative behavior to ex- tion a z at point P caused by the atmosphere is

冕 冉 冕 冊

plain the observed Allais gravity anomaly because it occurs

mainly near the periphery of the eclipse zone and is in the ⬁ sin ␣ cos 

right direction. The following question now arises: Can an a z ⫽⫺2 r 2 G d ␣ dz. 共1兲

excess air mass of order 1.8% during eclipses be enough to

0 0 q2

produce a gravitational force of the observed magnitude?

This question has not previously come up because the Working with the triangle in the figure, we can eliminate q

gravimeter was usually protected from any direct effects of and  for the independent variable ␣ . The relations we need

temperature and barometric pressure changes. However, we are

see here that air mass movement toward an eclipse zone can

in principle produce a gravitational effect from which the q 2 ⫽ 共 r⫹z 兲 2 ⫹r 2 ⫺2r 共 r⫹z 兲 cos ␣

gravimeter cannot be shielded. ⫽z 2 ⫹2r 共 r⫹z 兲共 1⫺cos ␣ 兲 , 共2兲

To understand the geometry intuitively, we note that the

normal net force of the entire atmosphere on an observer is

q 2 ⫺2rz⫺z 2 共 r⫹z 兲共 1⫺cos ␣ 兲 ⫺z

zero because, to good approximation, the atmosphere is a set cos  ⫽ ⫽ , 共3兲

of spherical shells each of uniform density; and the net force 2qr q

on any point inside any uniform spherical shell is zero. The

net force of the air above the observer’s horizon is obviously 共 r⫹z 兲 sin ␣

upward. The net force of the rest of the air around the globe sin  ⫽ . 共4兲

q

below the observer’s horizon exactly cancels the upward

force. Although that air is much farther away, its mass is 关Equation 共4兲 would be needed for the horizontal force,

much greater than the air mass above the observer. So which we will not develop further here.兴 To simplify our

changes in this distant air mass below the observer’s horizon integrand, we will substitute a new independent variable

cannot be neglected in calculating the gravitational effects of ⫽1⫺cos ␣. Then d ⫽sin ␣d␣, and the range of integration

air on the observer. must proceed from ⫽0 to ⫽2. Making all these substitu-

In Fig. 3, let P be any given surface point 共e.g., the ob- tions, Eq. 共1兲 becomes

server兲, O be the origin at the center of the Earth, and Q be

冕 冉 冕 冊

a point in the atmosphere at a height z above the ground. For ⬁ 2 共 r⫹z 兲 ⫺z

the moment, we will approximate the atmosphere as if it a z ⫽⫺2 r 2 G d dz. 共5兲

were a spherical shell of uniform density with infinitesimal 0 0 关 z ⫹2r 共 r⫹z 兲 兴 3/2

2

022002-3

T. VAN FLANDERN AND X. S. YANG PHYSICAL REVIEW D 67, 022002 共2003兲

tional to ⫺1/r 2 . When that constant is factored out, the re-

maining integral is then a dimensionless quantity ␥ (0⬍ ␥

⭐1). The value of ␥ is ⫹1 when evaluated at either ⫽0 or

⫽2, showing that the whole atmosphere gives zero net

force. ␥ has a value nearer to zero in between. To good

approximation, the z dependence of this interior integral can

be neglected for just the portion of the atmosphere above or

near the observer’s horizon. For that air, the exterior integral

becomes simply

⫺ ␥ 0 e ⫺z/h dz⫽⫺ ␥ 0 h, 共6兲 Moon’s shadow axis S onto a plane through the center of the Earth

0 perpendicular to a line from P.

density at sea level. This gives the solution we seek, a z pressure changes in the 1999 eclipse.

⫽2 G ␥ 0 h. The equation to be numerically integrated will be similar

For computation, we adopt these numerical values: G to Eq. 共1兲 except that we cannot assume circular symmetry of

⫽6.672⫻10⫺8 cm3 /g s2 共universal gravitational constant兲, the atmosphere around the observer. Moreover, we have no

r⫽6.37⫻108 cm 共radius of the Earth兲, 0 ⫽1.29⫻10⫺3 information about how air mass flow may change with height

above ground, so we will assume that all change occurs at

g/cm3 共mean sea level density of dry air at standard tempera-

the scale height, about 8.5 km up. With those alterations, the

ture and pressure兲, h⫽8.5⫻105 cm 共scale height at a typical

equation we will integrate becomes

surface temperature of 16 °C) 关8兴. ␥ ⫽⫹1.0 共its maximum

value兲. From these, we derive the value a z ⫽4.6

冉冕 冊

⫻10⫺4 cm/s2 , which is the upward-directed gravitational ac-

celeration of the observer due to the atmosphere above his

horizon.

a z ⫽⫺r 2 Gh 冕

0

2 共 r⫹z 兲 ⫺z

关 z 2 ⫹2r 共 r⫹z 兲 兴 3/2 0

2

共 rs兲d d.

共7兲

III. NUMERICAL MODEL

Now the effect of the atmosphere might easily have been Two of these quantities need further definition. First, the

too weak by many orders of magnitude to be of further in- factor of 2 in the y-coordinate integral shown earlier,

terest here. But instead we see that this numerical value is 2 r sin ␣, is here replaced with the interior integral in Eq.

already nearly 100 times bigger than the size of the eclipse 共7兲, where is defined in Eq. 共8兲. This integral must be

effect we are seeking, verifying that we are dealing with integrated numerically because of the variations in the atmo-

quantities of a sufficient order of magnitude to produce the spheric density . The r sin ␣ part of this factor is already

gravitational anomaly seen. However, this coefficient is the incorporated in the exterior coefficient and the exterior inte-

total upward acceleration for a non-eclipse situation. The gral. Second, the density of an element of atmosphere can

standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1035 g/cm2 . vary at every point as a function of projected distance of the

The increase of barometric pressure by 0.6% signifies that element from the Moon’s shadow axis, r s . To compute this

more air mass has moved into the eclipse zone, increasing its latter distance, we project the observer, the atmosphere ele-

density by roughly 1.8%. So the upward acceleration might ment, and the shadow axis onto a plane passing through the

change by a comparably small percentage, i.e., about 8.3 center of the Earth perpendicular to the line from Earth’s

⫻10⫺6 cm/s2 ). And this is indeed close to the magnitude of center to the observer, and examine the geometry in Fig. 4.

the observed changes, (5 –7)⫻10⫺6 cm/s2 . We have there- Viewed from space at any given moment, the Moon’s

fore verified that air mass movement is quantitatively and penumbral shadow 共wherein observers see at least part of the

qualitatively of the correct size and character to explain the Sun’s disk obscured兲 encloses a certain volume of atmo-

gravitational anomalies seen at the times of eclipses. sphere which then cools, compresses, and draws more air in

Unfortunately, computing the details of how air masses from the surrounding regions. The radius of this conical pen-

move during an eclipse would be a non-trivial meteorologi- umbral shadow near the Earth’s surface is typically about

cal problem, one we will not attempt here. What we can do 3.5⫻108 cm. The shadow usually encompasses an even

that is less demanding is to set up a numerical integration of larger area on the ground because the Earth’s surface is nor-

the effect of air mass changes meeting the constraints de- mally inclined at some arbitrary angle 共up to 90° ) to the

scribed above to determine their calculated effect on a shadow cone, making the projected shadow elliptical in

gravimeter, for comparison with the observed effect. So we shape. So for any given projected distance of the observer

will assume that the air mass flow at subsonic speeds creates from the shadow axis, X 共which is the distance PS in the

a region of higher air mass near the shadow edges with an figure兲, we can calculate the x,y coordinates of the distance

exponential drop-off to either side, and with the magnitude SQ. This would immediately be the distance r s we seek if

of this excess air mass scaled approximately by the measured the projected shadow were circular. But it is elliptical and

022002-4

ALLAIS GRAVITY AND PENDULUM EFFECTS DURING . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW D 67, 022002 共2003兲

merical integration of changes in the force of the

atmosphere on an observer during the 1997

eclipse. This simulation uses plausible-but-

assumed air mass movements with magnitude

and extent chosen to give a best fit to the 1997-

eclipse gravimeter data, but consistent with quali-

tative reasoning and measured 1999-eclipse pres-

sure changes. Compare with Fig. 1.

elongated along the line to the observer SP if the observer is well be the entire explanation of the effect. However, the

in the path or totality. So given r,X, ␣ , , , the relations we gravitational anomaly discussed here is only a few parts per

need are these: billion of Earth’s own gravitational force, so it is about a

factor of 100 000 too small to explain the Allais excess pen-

x Q ⫺x P ⫽r sin ␣ cos , y Q ⫽r sin ␣ sin , dulum precession or the change in pendulum swing period

共an increase of 1/3000兲 that sometimes shows up during

x S ⫺x P ⫽X, r s ⫽ 冑共 x Q ⫺x S 兲 2 cos2 ⫹y Q

2

. 共8兲 eclipses. But the relatively sharp changes in barometric pres-

sure during an eclipse can certainly create local air mass

We now assume our air mass model, which will consist of movement at ground level, for example, into or out of a

a ring of denser air near the edge of the penumbral shadow building. So experiments that were shielded only from tem-

共radius r p ), with a normal curve distribution having ampli- perature changes but not pressure changes may have experi-

tude k and half-width r h . For example, a typical model enced an extra and unexpected driving force from local air

would be of this form: movement perhaps responsible for these changes, whereas

2 other experiments with better controls would not have expe-

⫽ 0 共 1⫹ke ⫺[(r s ⫺r p )/r h ] 兲 . 共9兲 rienced them. This is also consistent with the pendulum ef-

We then adopt two sets of values for k and r h that give the fect showing up most often in the early experiments, but

best fits to the data in Fig. 1, one set for before mid-eclipse having no unambiguous detections within the past 30 years

and the other for after. 关The two k values differ because when consciousness of the importance of controls was more

changes during the three hours between first and last con- widespread.

tacts, which slows the progress of the eclipse near the latter, The explanations presented here for the Allais gravity and

allowing more time for air mass movement. The k value pendulum anomalies can be tested and further refined. For

adopted were 0.013 and 0.018, while r h ⬇900 km works well example, we would learn more about air mass movement

for both contacts.兴 The results of the two numerical integra- unique to eclipses by sending balloons to high altitude and

tions with those parameter values are presented together in measuring actual changes in wind speeds and air movement

Fig. 5. This shows that plausible air mass movement models at different locations and altitudes above sea level. This will

can reproduce the observations, especially since the larger permit more realistic air movement modeling. In the mean-

value from this fit to the 1997 gravimeter data 共0.018兲 is the time, the much smaller anomalous acceleration seen in data

same as that inferred from measured pressure changes in the from the first two Lageos satellites still looks like a good

1999 eclipse 共1.8%—see discussion of Fig. 2兲. Only future candidate for a possibly real gravitational shielding effect

data collection can assess whether or not the real atmosphere 关9–11兴. The Allais gravity and pendulum effects, however,

behaves as these models do. are clearly not associated with gravitational shielding.

We can therefore conclude that air mass movement during The first author 共T.V.F.兲 thanks the Meta Research Board

solar eclipses is a significant effect that cannot be neglected and members for financial support, with a special thanks to

when trying to explain the Allais gravity anomaly, and might Tim Seward.

关1兴 M. Allais, C. R. Acad. Sci. URSS 244, 2469 共1959兲; 245, 1875 关2兴 Decrypting the eclipse: A solar eclipse, global measurements

共1959兲; 245, 2001 共1959兲; 245, 2170 共1959兲; 245, 2467 共1959兲. and a mystery, http://science.nasa.gov/newhome/headlines/

022002-5

T. VAN FLANDERN AND X. S. YANG PHYSICAL REVIEW D 67, 022002 共2003兲

关3兴 Chinese scientists gravitate toward African solar eclipse, http:// 共Springer-Verlag, New York, 2000兲, p. 260.

www.spacedaily.com/news/china-01zi.html 关9兴 T. Van Flandern, Astrophys. Space Sci. 244, 249 共1996兲.

关4兴 Q. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. D 62, 041101共R兲 共2000兲. 关10兴 http://metaresearch.org/cosmology/gravity/possiblenew

关5兴 D.P. Rubincam, J. Geophys. Res., 关Atmos.兴 95, 4881 共1990兲. propertiesofgravity.asp

关6兴 G. Georgatos, Meta Res. Bull. 8, 47 共1999兲. 关11兴 T. Van Flandern in Pushing Gravity: New Perspectives on Le

关7兴 R. N. Varney, in Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd ed., edited by R. Sage’s Theory of Gravitation, edited by M. Edwards 共Apeiron

G. Lerner and G. L. Trigg 共VCH, New York, 1991兲, pp. 601– Press, Montreal, 2002兲, pp. 93–122.

605.

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