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Brent Hospital and Colleges Incorporated

Episcopal Diocese of Southern Philippines


COLLEGE OF NURSING

LDP I-B
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY LECTURE

PRELIM
I. AN OVERVIEW OF ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
A. Definition of Terms
1. Anatomy – is derived from the Greek words meaning: “tomos”- to cut; “ana”- up.
– is the study of the parts of the living organism and their relationship to each other.
– “ structures”
2 Techniques to Study Anatomy
A. Gross Anatomy - The study of large “easily observable” structures, such as the heart, bones,
or skin.
Subdivisions:
a.1 Regional Anatomy-all structures in one part of the body(ex. abdomen)
a.2 Systemic Anatomy-gross anatomy of the body studied by system.
a.3 Surface Anatomy-study of internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin.

B. Microscopic Anatomy - The study of “very small” structures of the body like cells and tissues.
- can only be viewed by a microscope
Subdivisions:
b.1 Cytology-study of cells b.2 Histology-study of tissues

2. Physiology – is derived from the Greek words meaning: “physio”- nature; “ology”- the study of.
– is the study of how the body and its parts work or function.
– “ function”
– Like anatomy, physiology has many subdivisions: for example: cardiac physiology (studies the function of
the heart which acts as a muscular pump to keep blood flowing throughout the body.

B. Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology


In reality anatomy and physiology are tied to each other. The structure of something often relates to its function and
vice versa. Structure determines what functions can actually take place. The inside of the lungs is an example of this. The
sacs inside the lungs are not muscular and therefore can not pump air into them. These are however very thin. It is this
thin structure that allows the exchange of gases to take place in the lungs.

C. Levels of Structural Organization

1. Chemical Level-involves interactions between atoms and their combinations into molecules.
Atoms- the ultramicroscopic building blocks of matter. Atoms combine with one another to form molecules.
2. Organelle-is a structure contained within a cell that performs one or more specific functions.
3. Cellular Level-Molecules in turn, associate in specific ways to form microscopic cells, the basic unit of
life.
4. Tissue- is a group of cells with similar structure performing the same function.
5. Organ-composed of two or more tissue types that together perform one or more common functions.
6. Organ System- composed of multiple organs that cooperate to accomplish a common goal.
7. Organismal Level- The 11 organ systems make up the living body or the organism.
- the highest level of organization in a living thing.
D. Organ System Overview

1. Integumentary System-includes: skin, hair, sweat and oil glands.


Major Functions:–covers the body
–senses changes outside the body
– helps regulate body temperature
2. Skeletal System-made up of bones, cartilages, joints
Major Functions:–supports
–protects
– houses blood forming tissues

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3. Muscular System -composed of muscles and tendons.
Major Functions:–support
–protection
– movement
- posture
- body heat
4. Nervous System-made up of brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors.
Major Functions:–integrates information
–responds to stimuli or irritants
– detects changes
- sends messages (impulses) through the body
5. Endocrine System- made up of hormone-secreting glands( like pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland,
thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, ovary)
Major Functions:– The endocrine system controls body activities like the nervous system, but
works much more slowly.
-They in part control of: growth, reproduction, food use by cells.
6. Cardiovascular System- made up of : blood vessels and heart
Major Functions: - transport
- distribution of oxygen, hormones, nutrients, and other substances
7. Lymphatic System- consist of: Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes, Thymus, Spleen, tonsils
Major Functions:- drains excess tissue fluid
-cleanses the blood
-houses cells of immunity
8. Respiratory System - made up of: lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, nasal passages and bronchi
Major Functions: - keeps the body supplied with oxygen, which is necessary for the body to
obtain energy
- removes carbon dioxide
8. Digestive System-consist of the : Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, rectum other accessory organs
such as the liver and pancreas
Major Functions:- It receives, breaks down, and absorbs nutrients
-removal of unused food through the anus
-to reclaim water
9. Urinary System- consist of: Kidneys, Ureters, Urethra and Bladder
Major Functions:- Removes waste from blood
- Flushes nitrogen containing waste from the body
- helps maintain electrolyte balance
- Regulating the acid-base balance (pH) of the blood
10. Reproductive System- *Male consist of: scrotum, Testes, penis, accessory glands like the prostate, vas
deferens
*Female consist of: ovary, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
Overall Function: to produce offspring

E. Characteristics of Life

1. Necessary Life Functions


a. Maintaining Boundaries- Every organism must be able to keep its insides distinct from its
outside. Every organism has a cell membrane around each of its cells to accomplish this task.
The human body as a whole has the integumentary system to do this.
b. Movement -locomotion, propulsion (peristalsis), and contractility
c. Responsiveness/Irritability- is the ability to sense changes (stimuli) and then react to them.
*If you were to burn your hand on the stove you would quickly and involuntarily pull your hand
back when carbon dioxide in your body reaches toxic levels, breathing is increased to remove
it.
*Nerves are responsible for most of our body's responsiveness; however each cell has some
degree of responsiveness.
d. Digestion- this is the process of breaking down food into simple molecules that can then be
absorbed.
e. Metabolism- refers to all chemical reactions within the body and its individual cells.
*Some examples include: the breakdown of complex sugars to simple ones, making larger
structures from smaller ones, like the conversion of amino acids to proteins and using nutrients and
oxygen to produce ATP ( the energy rich molecule used to power the cells activities)

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*In the human body metabolism depends on: The digestive system to provide nutrients, the
respiratory system to provide oxygen, the cardiovascular system to distribute these substances
throughout the body and the endocrine system uses hormones to regulate metabolism.
f. Excretion- The process of removing waste. These wastes are non useful substances produced
during digestion and metabolism. Two examples of system that help in excretion:
*digestive system- rides the body of indigestible food residue in the form of feces
*urinary system- disposes of nitrogen-containing metabolic waste in the form of urine
g. Reproduction- the production of offspring, this occurs at two levels:
*Organismal- making a new organism
*Cellular- making new cells to replace old ones or growth
h. Growth - an increase in size, this is usually accomplished by an increase in cells. For growth to
occur cells must be made faster than cells die.

a. Survival Needs
i. Nutrients- Taken in via diet, used for energy and cell building: carbohydrates
primarily for energy, Proteins used for structure, Fats used for cushion,
reserve fuel, and to a lesser degree in structure, Minerals and vitamins are
required for chemical reactions that take place in the cells and for oxygen
transport in the blood.
ii. Oxygen-in aerobic organisms such as ourselves to release energy from foods,
this energy is then used to drive other metabolic processes.
iii. Water- Accounts for 60-80 % of body weight, provides fluid base for body
secretions and excretions, helps regulate body temperature, and provides a
medium for metabolic processes to take place.
iv. Body Temperature- Must be maintained at around 37º C (98ºF). Below this
temperature metabolism will slow down and finally stop. Above this
temperature reactions proceed too rapidly and proteins begin to break down
at either extreme death will result.
v.
Atmospheric Pressure- is a result of the weight placed on the body due to
the air surrounding it. At lower atmospheric pressures such as at high
altitudes where the air is thinner, gas exchange occurs to slowly to drive
cellular metabolism.
*In humans heart action is due to hydrostatic pressure (the pressure a liquid
exerts) which produces blood pressure.
b. Homeostasis

Homeostasis-is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in an ever-changing outside
world.
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
-Communication throughout the body is essential for homeostasis to be possible.
-The Variable is the event or factor being regulated.
-All homeostatic control mechanisms have at least 3 components:
1. Receptor- this is like a sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the environment
2. Control Center- This determines the level at which a variable is to be maintained. It also
analyzes the information sent from the receptor and then determines the appropriate response.
3. Effector- This provides the means for the control center to respond and restore balance.

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- There are two basic types of homeostatic control mechanisms:

1. Negative Feedback the output shuts off the original stimulus.

2. Positive Feedback the output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus.

Homeostatic Imbalance -is the disturbance f homeostasis or the body’s normal equilibrium caused
by disease.

The Language of Anatomy

I. Anatomical Position and Directional Terms

Anatomical Position- The position the body is assumed to be in when discussing anatomy, unless otherwise noted.
The body is erect with feet parallel, and arms hanging at sides with palms facing outward.

Directional Terms- refers to the body in the anatomical position regardless of its actual position.

Important Directional Terms:

a. Superior and Inferior-toward and away from the head, respectively

b.Anterior and Posterior-toward the front and back of the body

c.Medial, Lateral and Intermediate-toward the midline, away from the midline, and between a more medial
and lateral structure

d. Proximal and Distal-closer to and farther from the origin of the body

e. Superficial and Deep-toward and away from the body surface

II. Regional Terms

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III. Body Planes and Sections

1. Sagittal Section or Lateral Plane-divides the body


into left and right halves. Sagittal cuts are made along the
lengthwise or longitudinal plane.
- sagittal cut that divides body into equal left and right
halves can also be called a median section or midsagittal
section.
2. Frontal Section or Coronal Plane- made along the
lengthwise plane and divides the body into anterior and
posterior sections (front and back or ventral and dorsal).
3. Transverse Section/ Axial plane/ Cross section-
results from cuts made along the horizontal plane and
divides the body into superior and inferior (top and
bottom).

IV. Body Regions

1. Appendicular Region- includes the limbs and their girdles.


a. Upper Limb-is divided into arm, forearms, wrist, hand
- is attached to the body by the shoulder or pectoral girdle.
b. Lower Limb- is divided into thigh, leg, ankle, foot
- is attached to the body by the hip or pelvic girdle.
2. Axial Region- consists of the:
a. Head
b. Neck
c. Trunk- can be divided into:
c.1 thorax c.3 pelvis
c.2 abdomen

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Body Cavities or Spaces

I. Dorsal Body Cavity


a. Cranial Cavity
b. Spinal Cavity

II. Ventral Body Cavity


a. Thoracic Cavity
b. Abdominopelvic Cavity
b.1 Abdominal Cavity

b.2 Pelvic Cavity

Prepared by:

ALEXA C. ABIDIN, R.N.

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