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You are on page 1of 27

- Handout 2 -

Dr Fehmi Cirak (fc286@)

Completed Version

Review of Euler-Bernoulli Beam

■ Physical beam model

midline

■ Key assumptions: beam axis is in its unloaded configuration straight

■ Loads are normal to the beam axis

Page 25 F Cirak

Kinematics of Euler-Bernoulli Beam -1-

■ Assumed displacements during loading

deformed

configuration

reference

configuration

■ Kinematic assumption: Material points on the normal to the midline remain on the normal during

the deformation

■ Slope of midline:

■ The kinematic assumption determines the axial displacement of the material points across

thickness

Page 26 F Cirak

Kinematics of Euler-Bernoulli Beam -2-

■ Introducing the displacements into the strain equations of three-

dimensional elasticity leads to

■ Axial strains

Page 27 F Cirak

Weak Form of Euler-Bernoulli Beam

■ The beam strains introduced into the internal virtual work expression

of three-dimensional elasticity

Page 28 F Cirak

Stress-Strain Law

■ The only non-zero stress component is given by Hooke’s law

■ This leads to the usual relationship between the moment and curvature

■ EI assumed to be constant

Page 29 F Cirak

Finite Element Method

■ Beam is represented as a (disjoint) collection of finite elements

■ On each element displacements and the test function are interpolated using

shape functions and the corresponding nodal values

■ Shape function of node K

■ Nodal values of displacements

■ Nodal values of test functions

introduced into the weak form

■ Note that the integrals in the weak form depend on the second order derivatives of u3 and v

Page 30 F Cirak

Aside: Smoothness of Functions

■ A function f: Ω→ℜ is of class Ck=Ck(Ω) if its derivatives of order j, where

0 ≤ j ≤ k, exist and are continuous functions

■ For example, a C0 function is simply a continuous function

■ For example, a C∝ function is a function with all the derivatives continuous

C0-continuous function C1-continuous function

differentiation

■ The shape functions for the Euler-Bernoulli beam have to be C1-continuous

so that their second order derivatives in the weak form can be integrated

Page 31 F Cirak

Hermite Interpolation -1-

■ To achieve C1-smoothness Hermite shape functions can be used

■ Hermite shape functions for an element of length

■ with

Page 32 F Cirak

Hermite Interpolation -2-

■ Shape functions of Node 2

■ with

Page 33 F Cirak

Element Stiffness Matrix

■ According to Hermite interpolation the degrees of freedom for each element are the

displacements and slopes at the two nodes

■ Interpolation of the displacements

■ Introducing the displacement and test functions interpolations into weak form gives the element stiffness matris

Page 34 F Cirak

Element Load Vector

■ Load vector computation analogous to the stiffness matrix derivation

■ The global stiffness matrix and the global load vector are obtained by assembling the

individual element contributions

■ The assembly procedure is identical to usual finite elements

Page 35 F Cirak

Stiffness Matrix of Euler-Bernoulli Beam

■ Element stiffness matrix of an element with length le

Page 36 F Cirak

Kinematics of Timoshenko Beam -1-

■ Assumed displacements during loading

deformed

configuration

reference

configuration

■ Kinematic assumption: a plane section originally normal to the centroid remains plane, but in

addition also shear deformations occur

■ Rotation angle of the normal:

■ Angle of shearing:

■ Slope of midline:

■ The kinematic assumption determines the axial displacement of the material points across

thickness

Page 37 F Cirak

Kinematics of Timoshenko Beam -2-

■ Introducing the displacements into the strain equations of three-

dimensional elasticity leads to

■ Axial strain

■ Shear strain

Page 38 F Cirak

Weak Form of Timoshenko Beam

■ The beam strains introduced into the internal virtual work expression

of three-dimensional elasticity give

■ Hookes’s law

■ Introducing the expressions for strain and Hooke’s law into the weak form gives

■ shear correction factor necessary because across thickness shear stresses are parabolic

according to elasticity theory but constant according to Timoshenko beam theory

■ shear modulus

Page 39 F Cirak

Euler-Bernoulli vs. Timoshenko -1-

■ Comparison of the displacements of a cantilever beam analytically

computed with the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories

■ Bernoulli beam

■ Governing equation:

■ Boundary conditions:

■ Timoshenko beam

■ Governing equations:

■ Boundary conditions:

Page 40 F Cirak

Euler-Bernoulli vs. Timoshenko -2-

■ Maximum tip deflection computed by integrating the differential equations

■ Bernoulli beam

■ Timoshenko beam

■ Ratio

■ For slender beams (L/t > 20) both theories give the same result

■ For stocky beams (Lt < 10) Timoshenko beam is physically more realistic because it includes the shear

deformations

Page 41 F Cirak

Finite Element Discretization

■ The weak form essentially contains and the corresponding

test functions

■ C0 interpolation appears to be sufficient, e.g. linear interpolation

Page 42 F Cirak

Element Stiffness Matrix

■ Shear angle

■ Curvature

■ Test functions are interpolated in the same way like displacements and rotations

■ Introducing the interpolations into the weak form leads to the element stiffness matrices

■ Shear component of the stiffness matrix

Page 43 F Cirak

Review: Numerical Integration

■ Gaussian Quadrature

■ The locations of the quadrature points and weights are determined for maximum accuracy

■ nint=1

■ nint=2

■ nint=3

■ Note that polynomials with order (2nint-1) or less are exactly integrated

mapping can be used

Page 44 F Cirak

Stiffness Matrix of the Timoshenko Beam -1-

■ Necessary number of quadrature points for linear shape functions

■ Bending stiffness: one integration point sufficient because is constant

■ Shear stiffness: two integration points necessary because is linear

■ Element bending stiffness matrix of an element with length le and one integration

point

■ Element shear stiffness matrix of an element with length le and two integration points

Page 45 F Cirak

Limitations of the Timoshenko Beam FE

■ Recap: Degrees of freedom for the Timoshenko beam

■ Physics dictates that for t→0 (so-called Euler-Bernoulli limit) the shear angle

has to go to zero ( )

■ If linear shape functions are used for u3 and β

■ Hence, since the shear strains cannot be arbitrarily small everywhere, an erroneous shear strain

energy will be included in the energy balance

■ In practice, the computed finite element displacements will be much smaller than the exact solution

Page 46 F Cirak

Shear Locking: Example -1-

■ Displacements of a cantilever beam TWO integration points

# elem. 2 point # elem. 2 point

1 0.0416 1 0.0002

2 0.445 2 0.0008

4 0.762 4 0.0003

8 0.927 8 0.0013

from TJR Hughes, The finite element method.

Page 47 F Cirak

Stiffness Matrix of the Timoshenko Beam -2-

■ The beam element with only linear shape functions appears not to be ideal for very

thin beams

■ For very thin beams it is not possible to reproduce

■ Lets try with using only one integration point for integrating the element shear stiffness matrix

■ Element shear stiffness matrix of an element with length le and one integration points

Page 48 F Cirak

Shear Locking: Example -2-

■ Displacements of a cantilever beam ONE integration point

Thick beam Thin beam

# elem. 1 point # elem. 1 point

1 0.762 1 0.750

2 0.940 2 0.938

4 0.985 4 0.984

8 0.996 8 0.996

Page 49 F Cirak

Reduced Integration Beam Elements

■ If the displacements and rotations are interpolated with the same shape

functions, there is tendency to lock (too stiff numerical behavior)

this problem

order

based e.g. on the Hellinger-Reissner functional

Page 50 F Cirak

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