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Journal of Tropical Pediatrics Advance Access published September 17, 2010

JOURNAL OF TROPICAL PEDIATRICS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, 2010

Evaluation of Mid-upper Arm Circumference in Pre-school


Children: Comparison Between NCHS/CDC-2000 and
WHO-2006 References
by Viviane G. Nascimento,1 Thais Costa Machado,1 Ciro João Bertoli,2 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Vitor E. Valenti,3,4 and
Claudio Leone1
1
Departamento de Saúde Materno-Infantil, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2
Departamento de Medicina, Universidade de Taubate´, Taubate´, SP, Brazil

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3
Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre´, SP, Brazil
4
Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Correspondence: Claudio Leone, Departamento de Saúde Materno-Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São
Paulo, Avenida Dr Arnaldo 715, Cerqueira Ce´sar 01246-904 São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Tel.: þ55-11-30850240,
E-mail: <cleto@usp.br>

Summary
We aimed to evaluate the classification of arm circumference (AC) in pre-school children by using
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/CDC-2000) and World Health Organization
(WHO-2006) references. We evaluated 205 children: weight, height and AC were assessed and the
body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The BMI values were classified into Z-scores by the WHO
referential. The AC was classified into Z-cores by two references, comparing the whole-sample value
and among groups (tercis) of BMI Z-score. The correlation was also evaluated between differences
of AC with BMI Z-score. The WHO referential classified the AC in Z-scores greater than the
NCHS/CDC, which is more specific and less sensitive than the NCHS/CDC for lean children and at
the same time more sensitive and less specific for children with overweight. In conclusion, a significant
difference in the AC classification occurs according to the referential used.

Key words: general paediatrics, international child health, orthopaedics, nutrition, statistics.

Introduction appropriate for growth evaluation. This reference


The arm circumference (AC), also known as brachial also includes new values for brachial perimeter
perimeter, has been proposed as an alternative to classification [8].
select children 5-years old in critical nutritional In order to assess nutritional risk in individuals
state, aiming to identify the risk degree, regardless and populations, researchers compare their data
of age, gender, weight and height [1, 2]. Its measure- with measured values of growth reference [9–12].
ment is an important indicator of mortality prognosis Besides the reference of WHO-2006 for AC, there is
[3–6], especially in cases of severe malnutrition [7]. also the National Center for Health Statistics
Recently, in 2006, the World Health Organization (NCHS) USA [7], restated in 2000 by the Centers
(WHO-2006) estimated new anthropometric param- for Disease Control (CDC) and available on
5 NutStat Epi-Info software.
eters for children aged between 0 and 60 months,
In a single set of individuals, the use of different
proposing a reference considered as the most
benchmarks may produce different risk classifica-
tions, and therefore, create values of nutritional
disorders prevalence in communities, which would
Funding derail any evaluations and comparisons over time
and/or between population [13, 14]. At the moment
Authorship has been granted with the financial that we choose to use a particular anthropometry
support from FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à reference, it is important to know the differences
Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Brazil), # 08/ in risk classification in which it will result when
53142-9. compared to other references. Therefore, this

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doi:10.1093/tropej/fmq076
V. G. NASCIMENTO ET AL.

investigation was undertaken to evaluate the classifi- 2000 by the CDC [13] and available in the NutStat
cation of AC in pre-school children by using two Epi-Info software.
references: NCHS/CDC-2000 and WHO-2006.
Statistical analysis
Methods The comparison of mean AC Z-scores was made by
using paired Student t-test, with a significance level
Study population  ¼ 0.05%. In the analysis of results, we also used the
This analysis is part of a larger cross-sectional study, Pearson correlation coefficient in order to estimate
which aim was to evaluate, by anthropometric correlation between the difference between AC
analysis, growth achieved by a sample of children Z-scores (determined by the two references) and the
aged between 2 and 4 years, who attended at public difference between BMI Z-scores. To calculate
nursery schools in Taubaté city, São Paulo, in 2008. the sample, we used the Power and Sample

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The variables investigated were: weight, height, body Calculations software (v.3.0.1) and statistical analysis
mass index (BMI) and AC. Data collection was was performed by Graph Pad Prism (v. 5.0.2).
performed at the beginning of the school year. We
excluded children who presented history of chronic Results
diseases that could influence their growth. The Mean Z-scores of AC presented a difference of
consent term was sent to all parents or responsible 0.49 Z-scores, the one estimated by the WHO was
by the daycare center, which was duly completed and the highest (p < 0.0001; Table 1).
signed before the start of collection data. This study Figure 1 shows that the classification by the refer-
was approved by the Ethical Committee in Research ence proposed by WHO in 2006 offsets the estimated
of our University. distribution curve to the right, toward higher values
In order to calculate the sample size, we used the of Z-scores than the observed curve of the NCHS/
following parameters: level of the test significance CDC-2000 reference, which in turn is much closer to
 ¼ 5%; test power (1–) ¼ 90% and a minimum the theoretically expected normal distribution.
difference between the mean Z-scores estimated by
the two benchmarks of a quarter standard deviation
(0.25), which resulted in a sample size of 170 children.
Taking into account the possibility of any loss of TABLE 1
data, we added 20% to the total number of children Comparison of arm circumference (AC) Z-scores in
calculated that resulted in a sample of 204 children. 205 pre-school children according to the reference
Children were selected from the list of daycare used: NCHS/CDC – 2000 and WHO – 2006
centers provided by the Department of Education
and Culture of Taubaté in a probabilistic way, Reference Mean Standard Minimum Maximum
deviation
which resulted in a total of 205 children (87 girls
and 118 boys). NCHS/CDC – 2000 0.08 1.16 2.26 4.22
WHO 0.57 1.12 2.00 4.01
Variables evaluation
After obtaining consent from children parents or
responsible, anthropometric data were collected in
the daycare center, according to Lohman et al. [15]
method. The child’s weight was measured by using
the Seca electronic scale with a split of 0.1 g, and
height was measured by stadiometer wall (Seca)
with two meters, centimeters and millimeters subdiv-
ision. The measure of AC was performed with tape
fiberglass extendable using the non-dominant arm of
the child, placing the tape horizontally at the
mid-point between acromion and olecranon. The
measurements were performed by trained profes-
sionals, according to Hauspie technique (2004) [8].
The values of BMI [BMI ¼ weight (kg)/height2 (m)]
in Z-scores were calculated from the reference FIG. 1. Comparison of arm circumference Z-scores
values proposed by the WHO (2006) [8]. AC was distribution for age in pre-school children according
classified in Z scores by two benchmarks: the WHO to the reference used: NCHS/CDC – 2000 and WHO
in 2006 and the reference from the National Center – 2006. Paired Student t-test; p ¼ 0.0001; AC, arm
for Health Statistics (NCHS), USA [7] restated in circumference.

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The differences of mean Z-score in the first, second Discussion


and third tertile of BMI were 0.478, 0.539 and 0.453, The results of this study indicate that when analyzing
respectively, all statistically significant (p < 0.05; AC in pre-school children, depending on the bench-
Fig. 2). mark that is used, it may direct to different interpret-
Figure 3 displays that there was an inverse ations regarding the diagnostic of nutritional status.
correlation between the differences of Z-scores of We suggest that anthropometric assessment alone is
AC and the differences of Z-scores of BMI not sufficient for preparation of definitive diagnosis
(r ¼ 0.2945; p < 0.0001). The regression slope was nutrition; it is just one tool to be considered,
0.0301  0.0068 (p < 0.0001). however, in selection situations it may influence
interventions which were adopted as result of the
epidemiological situation.
AC has been considered an important indicator of

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malnutrition, especially during population screening
because it presents good correlation with BMI and it
is an easy measurement to be performed. Although it
was originally proposed primarily for malnutrition
screening [16, 17], AC was also used as an indicator
of nutritional status in general, including in Z-scores
form, in order to control the influence of gender and
age in its interpretation [7, 18, 19].
In order to assess whether AC could be used
for screening of pre-school obese children a previous
investigation [20] studied 1090 children aged between
12 and 59.9 months and proposed cut-off points
for AC for age because they found no advantage
in using the AC/height ratio. These authors also
suggest its use as a more practical method for
screening of pre-school children who are obese due
to the facility and speed of its attainment in that
population.
FIG. 2. Comparison of Z-score distribution of arm Besides its use in prevalence surveys of overweight
circumference in pre-school children by tertile of and obesity risk and for screening populations, the
BMI according to the reference used: NCHS/CDC arm circumference may also be useful for clinical
– 2000 and WHO – 2006. ANOVA followed by assessment of nutritional status of critically ill chil-
Tukey post-test (*p < 0.05, p < 0.05). dren, since it has good correlation with arm muscle
mass and, thus, with the base nutritional condition of
the children [21]. This may be particularly interesting
when it comes to children admitted to intensive care
units, where it is difficult to precisely evaluate other
anthropometric variables due to their critical condi-
tion, or in cases of children with large tumors or with
large edema, which surely contribute to alter their
real weight [21].
Currently, two references that allow the classifi-
cation of arm circumference in Z-scores are available
(including software to make it more accurately), the
NCHS/CDC-2000 and WHO-2006, which were
drawn from different population samples. The
NCHS/CDC-2000 reference corresponds to the
NCHS, 1977, which were developed in the first half
of the 70s, from a study of children fed with formula
and breast milk differently from the standard recom-
mended by WHO. In 2000, the CDC conducted a
FIG. 3. Correlation of arm circumference Z-scores review of anthropometric references, including a
estimated from NCHS/CDC – 2000 and WHO–2006 new sample of children younger than 3-years old
references in pre-school children according to and modified the mathematical model used for
their BMI Z-scores. Pearson: r ¼ 0.2945 (95% curves generating and smoothing [13]. On the other
CI ¼ 0.4146 to 0.1644); p < 0.0001. R2 ¼ 0.08675. hand, for arm circumference the EpiNut of the

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V. G. NASCIMENTO ET AL.

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