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Bahareh Jalili Mehrdad Dianati

Centre for Communication Systems Research (CCSR) Centre for Communication Systems Research (CCSR)

Department of Electronic and Electrical Eng., Department of Electronic and Electrical Eng.,

University of Surrey University of Surrey

Guildford, GU2 7XH, Surrey, United Kingdom Guildford, GU2 7XH, Surrey, United Kingdom

b.jalili@surrey.ac.uk m.dianti@surrey.ac.uk

Planning and optimization of 3G networks is more than just always be ongoing optimization during operation and

frequency allocation and coverage planning, due to the nature of maintenance phase.

WCDMA coding. It usually involves solution of an NP-Hard

problem. In this paper we propose an effective method for

optimizing the Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) transmit power,

along with maximizing the number of served users and

minimizing the number of cell sites and compare use of two meta-

heuristic methods: Taboo Search (TS) and Genetic Algorithm

(GA) in planning and optimization of UMTS radio networks.

Categories and Subject Descriptors Figure 1. UMTS Planning and Optimization problem

I.6.3 [SIMULATION AND MODELING]: Applications

Planning phase can be regarded as an optimization problem,

General Terms as the best possible set of sites and parameters should be chosen

Algorithms, Management, Performance, Design, Economics, among a predefined set of candidate site locations and network

Verification. parameters [2]. Compared to 2G systems, there are more

parameters involved in link budget analysis and coverage

Keywords planning of 3G networks [3]. For instance, parameters such as

Planning, Optimization, UMTS, 3G Network, Taboo Search, CPICH power, level of interference, traffic type and distribution,

Genetic Algorithm. soft capacity, and cell breathing, all should be considered in

network planning and optimisation. Typically, this is considered

1. INTRODUCTION to be a special case of knapsack optimization problem, which

In cellular networks, significant cost is associated with Base results in a computationally complex optimization problem that

Station (BS) deployment and operation. By choosing optimum can not be solved by classical techniques. Exhaustive search

number of sites, the costs of network setup and operation and techniques also cannot be applied due to the Non-Polynomial

maintenance can be reduced significantly. Figure 1 shows the growth of the search space. Thus, heuristic search techniques have

UMTS planning and optimization process, which consists of two to be applied to provide sub-optimal solutions [4] in the literature.

main phases: planning and optimization. There is a preparation In [5], a Taboo Search Scheme has been used in an iterative

phase before the planning, in which coverage and capacity method to find the power levels of the signals emitted by BSs,

objectives need to be defined, the network planning strategy to be considering both uplink and downlink. Global optimization of

selected, and the initial design parameters to be agreed on. UMTS Networks has been studied in [6], where in planning the

Planning phase itself comprises of dimensioning and detailed radio access network, the paper considers the uplink optimization

planning [1]. While dimensioning provides rough estimation of using Taboo Search and reaches acceptable results compared to

network layout and required resources, detailed planning deals numerical results derived using CPLEX. In [7], a mathematical

with computation of the detailed parameters for every single site. model is proposed, which is suitable for small size problems, and

uses a local search heuristic to obtain suboptimal solutions. In [8],

randomized and reverse greedy procedures are implemented for

Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for uplink optimization, and TS is used to further improve the results.

personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are In [9], the cell planning problem is formulated as an integer linear

not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that programming problem and a solution based on Taboo Search is

copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy

proposed.

otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists,

requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. This paper applies 2 methods of Genetic algorithm and

"IWCMC’10, June 28– July 2, 2010, Caen, France. Copyright © 2010 Taboo Search for optimization of UMTS Radio Access Networks

ACM 978-1-4503-0062-9/10/06/...$10.00"

in order to be able to compare their efficacy in terms of the quality

143

of the solutions and computational complexity. The aim is to Here, Ut is the total number of users, Us is the number of served

achieve sub-optimal solutions with reasonable computational users, Pt represents total available CPICH power from all sites, Pu

complexity. Our results demonstrate that both proposed solutions is total used CPICH power by all sites, St and So show total

reduce the cost of network deployment and operation by reducing number of sites and total number of “on” sites- in contrast to an

number of sites and used CPICH channel power. At the same “off” site, or a site that does not need to be deployed, indicated

time, they help the network operators to increase their revenue by with a CPICH value of zero- and W1 to W3 represent the weight

increasing the number of served users. The comparison between associated with the parameter we would like to optimize. While

the two algorithms demonstrates that Taboo Search is more Ut, Pt and St are fixed numbers in the system, we intend to find the

efficient, in terms of optimality of the results. However, our sub-optimal values for Us, Pu and So in a way that the objective

results indicate that Taboo search results in slightly more function F ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 ) is maximized.

computational complexity, measured by required run-time.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the 2.1 Genetic Algorithm

proposed solutions are discussed after a brief introduction to Genetic Algorithm is a general-purpose search algorithm based on

system model. Section 3 represents and discusses the simulation the principles of evolution observed in nature. It is a guided,

scenario and the results. Finally, the concluding remarks are given random, heuristic search method which mimics the evolution and

in Sections 4. reproduction concepts as seen in nature and has its roots and even

terminology in Charles Darwin’s Evolution theory introduced in

2. PROPOSED SOLUTION 1858.

System model incorporated in this paper considers a UMTS

network with an area of m × n (km) which needs to be provided

with coverage. In the dimensioning phase a rough estimation of

the number of required sites (St) is made and the operators have a

set of candidate sites; S= {S1, S2,…,St}. Depending on the

requirements, the cell sites can be sectorized in order to improve

frequency reuse, and reduce interference. The cells need to

provide coverage for a total number of Ut users in the area,

according to the traffic model suggested in the dimensioning

phase. Each cell operates at a power of PCPICH, which determines

the coverage and cell boundaries by the amount of power

allocated to the CPICH channel, which can take different values

from a range of discrete power values; PCPICH = {P1, P2,…, Pmax}.

The model just includes case of single operator operating in the

area.

The UMTS planning and Optimization problems can not be

decomposed in to two separate sub-problems of capacity and

coverage planning, and these two should be taken into account

simultaneously. Besides the fact that the system is interference

limited, and there are too many parameters which affect the

network and need to be taken into account simultaneously, makes

this problem an NP-hard problem, which can not be solved in

reasonable complexity and computational times, yet sub-optimal

solutions can be obtained when the problem is tackled by heuristic Figure 2. Optimization model using Genetic Algorithm

algorithms. Here we introduce and use Taboo Search and Genetic

Algorithm in dealing with this problem. In solving a problem with Genetic Algorithm, we need to define

the objective function according to the parameters to be optimized

In this paper, we aim to minimize the cost associated with cell and the problem in hand. Then, we present the possible solutions

sites, by using the minimum number of cell-sites and PCPICH, and as chromosome strings, making sure that all the optimization

maximize the revenue by increasing the number of served users. parameters are placed inside chromosome structure. In the next

Hence, the objective function can be defined as: step, a random population of N chromosomes is generated and the

Link Budget Analysis (LBA) and fitness function evaluation of

max F ( f1 , f 2 , f 3 ) = W1 f1 + W2 f 2 + W3 f 3 (1) each chromosome in the current generation should be performed.

Finally, to generate the N offsprings for the next generation, we

Subject to: repeatedly evaluate the fitness of each chromosome in the

population, using the objective function, then select a pair of

W1 + W2 + W3 = 1 (2) individuals from the current population for mating using a random

selection method (Roulette Wheel, Tournament, Rank selection)

Where and finally, based on crossover probability (Pc) and mutation

probability (Pm), we apply cross over and mutation operators.

Us Pt − Pu St − So

f1 = ; f2 = ; f3 = (3) The flowchart in Figure 2 shows application of GA to our

Ut Pt St problem.

144

2.2 Taboo Search In this paper, binary encoding was used, where each site’s

First introduced by Fred Glover in 1986, Taboo Search is a PCPICH was represented using 2 bits to map different CPICH

meta-heuristic algorithm, which is used in solving combinatorial values, i.e. {0, 24, 30, 33} (dBm). At the beginning of the

optimization problems. Taboo search benefits the use of memory simulation a random CPICH power value is assigned to each

structure, in order to improve the performance of a local search. sector. In each iteration, the optimization algorithm changes the

When a potential solution is found, it is marked as taboo so that corresponding CPICH value and feeds it back to the system. Then

the algorithm does not re-visit that possibility repeatedly. the link budget analysis is performed, and the results are again fed

Like GA, Taboo Search, starts with defining the objective back into the optimization algorithm.

function and a presentation for the possible solution. A set of

possible solutions, called neighbourhood, is then created and

starting from the current solution. Next, LBA is performed and the

objective value is calculated, and the solution, which maximizes

the objective function, is found in that neighbourhood. Finally, a

new neighbourhood, which is a set of solutions that are found by

applying an appropriate transformation of the current solution, is

generated. In order for the algorithm to move away from a local

minimum, the search allows moves resulting in a degradation of

the objective function value, thus avoiding the trap of local

optimality. To prevent the search from cycling, solutions obtained

recently and moves that reverse the effect of recent moves are

considered taboo and they are kept in a “Taboo List” so that these

points are not re-visited in the next k iterations. Figure 3 depicts

the Taboo Search applied in solving our optimization problem.

In our implementation, NPSW (Network Planning Strategies

for Wideband CDMA) [10] is used for calculating the link budget.

Genetic Algorithm/ Taboo Search are used to define different

input parameters to NPSW. NPSW is a static simulator, developed

under MATLAB environment that estimates capacity and

coverage probabilities given a snapshot for user distribution, by

performing iterative uplink and downlink analysis until

converging with predefined quality of service criteria.

3.1 Genetic Algorithm Results

In applying the Genetic Algorithm, rank selection was used,

and the fittest individuals from each generation were kept in the

next generation. Numerous simulations were run in order to find

the optimum values for the governing parameters like Pm, Pc,

population size and number of iterations. Figure 5 shows the

objective function value of the fittest individual and each

generation’s average fitness for 50 iterations and the results of this

optimization can be summarised in Table 1.

Figure 3. Optimization model using Taboo Search Table 1: GA Results summary

3. SIMULATION RESULTS Possible Iteration Iteration

In the performed simulations, seven cell sites are assumed. No. of users 1000 764 797

Each site is divided into 3 sectors. One site is located at the centre Total CPICH 639 579 507

and the other six sites are located on a hexagonal grid, in an area On Sectors 21 19 17

of 13 × 13 Km. A total number of 1000 users are generated and Fitness Value N/A 0.5738 0.6267

are distributed randomly in the area to be covered. Hard blocking As it can be seen in Table 1, the number of served users has

is used if users can not be served. The CPICH power can take increased from 764 users in the initial setup to 797 users in the

different values of PCPICH = {0, 27, 30, 33} dBm with 0 final setup, while used CPICH and number of on air sites has

representing a cell site which is turned off or does not need to be decreased. In order to see the actual effect on the network Figure

deployed. The allocated Bandwidth is 5 MHz, the carrier 6 compares the interference in these two different stages. Red and

frequency of 2GHz, and the chip-rate is 3.84 MHz. The path loss brown shades indicate high levels of interference and we can see

model used is Okumura-Hata (flat earth without area correction that in the initial set up sectors 1, 3, and 9 have high levels of

based on a map) [10] model. The antenna height is assumed to be other to own cell interference (around 90 % to 100 %), and sectors

35 meters, with the user height of 1.5 meters. Figure 4 shows the 2, 10 and 14 have interference levels around 70%, where as, after

setup and initial site and user distributions. the optimization only two sector (3 and 14) with 70% interference

and the for the rest of the network this value is below 50%.

145

iteration and the curve with lower values shows the average

population fitness in each iteration.

The corresponding values of the optimized parameters are shown

in Table 2, where we see that while the number of served users is

highly improved, the used CPICH and the number of “on” sites

have been decreased.

Table 2: TS Results summary

Possible Iteration Iteration

No. of users 1000 735 811

Total CPICH 639 576 525

On Sectors 21 19 17

Fitness Value N/A 0.5541 0.6326

Figure 8 shows the other to own cell interference. As it can be

seen in the initial setup the interference levels are really high, with

two sectors with 100% interference, two sectors with 90%, two

sectors around 80% and one sector around 70% interference.

However, after the optimization, the interference levels are

meaningfully decreased, with only two sites with an interference

level of around 70% and all other sites below 50%.

3.3 Comparisons

The final values of objective function, after completion of the

optimisation process, are good criteria for comparing the results,

acting as a common parameter in both search methods. Figure 9

shows the objective function of different search methods. The

results show that while at the beginning of the search the two

methods improve at the same pace, there is point where Taboo

Search shows better improvement over Genetic Algorithm,

keeping its objective function higher through out the search,

except at iterations around 35, where decrease of the TS objective

Figure 6. GA- Interference in first and last iteration function can be described as the effect of diversification and for

the search moving to new neighbourhoods in order to discover the

3.2 Taboo Search Results search space more thoroughly. As we see, the search then picks up

In applying Taboo, various runs of simulation have been again and finally the search ends with higher value of the TS

performed, in order to fine tune the parameters affecting the objective function.

results. Figure 7 shows the final results. The curve with higher

values shows the objective function value of the solution in each

146

4. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we applied Taboo Search and Genetic Algorithm in

planning and optimization of UMTS radio networks. The

provided results show that in general both methods were

successful in optimizing the network. However Taboo Search has

a much better performance over the GA in all areas and it

improves faster. Not only Taboo Search arrived at better objective

function values in the same number of iterations, but also it

arrived to configurations which could service more number of

users with less power and less “on” sites. The results were verified

in network simulations and improvements could be obviously

seen.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work is supported by the Engineering and Physical Science

Research Council (UK) of the United Kingdom under India-UK

Advanced Technology Centre (IU-ATC) project.

6. REFERENCES

[1] Holma, H. and Toskala, A. “WCDMA for UMTS”. John

Wiley & Sons, Ltd., England, 3rd edition, 2004.

[2] Nawrocki, Dohler, Aghvami, “Understanding UMTS radio

network modelling, planning and automated optimization”

John Wiley & sons, Ltd, 2006.

[3] Laiho, J. Wacher, A. “Radio NW planning process and

methods for WCDMA”, Nokia networks,

http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2002/isbn9512259028/article3.pdf , Jan

2009.

[4] E. Amaldi, A. Capone, F. Malucelli, “Radio planning and

coverage optimization of 3G cellular networks” Sringer, pp

435-447, 2008.

[5] M.E. Aydin, J. Yang, and J. Zhang, “A Comparative

Investigation on Heuristic Optimization of WCDMA Radio

Networks”, Center for Wireless Network Design (CWIND),

Figure 8. Interference in first and last iteration Dept. of Computing and Information Systems, University of

Bedfordshire, UK,

http://www.springerlink.com/content/65044304857l6r5r/fullt

ext.pdf?page=1 , Dec 2008.

[6] M. St-Hilaire, S. Chamberland, S. Pierre,”A Taboo Search

Heuristic for the Global Planning of UMTS Networks,”

IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile

Computing, Networking and Communications, pp 148 – 151,

2006.

[7] M. St-Hilaire, S. Chamberland, S. Pierre, “Uplink UMTS

Network Design , an integrated approach”,

http://www.sciencedirect.com.

[8] E. Amaldi, A. Capone, F. Malucelli, “Planning UMTS base

station location: optimization models with power control and

algorithms’, IEEE Trans. Wireless. Communication, pp.

939–952, 2003.

[9] C. Y. Lee and H. G. Kang, “Cell Planning with Capacity

Figure 9. Objective function: a comparison between TA & GA Expansion in Mobile Communications: A Tabu Search

In terms of computational times, for 50 Iterations, GA and TS Approach”, IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology,

took 19566 and 20456 seconds respectively. The longer time Vol.49, No.5, pp. 1678-1691, Sep. 2000.

associated with Taboo Search can be considered as the time due to [10] Wacher, A. Laiho, J. Sipila, K. Heiska, K. Heikkinen, K.

the extra step in Taboo Search in updating the Taboo List and then "Matlab Implementation of a Static Network Planning Tool

comparing each neighbour against the Taboo List. for WCDMA”, Documentation accompanying the RNP Tool.

147

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