You are on page 1of 25

Pembelajaran kooperatif model TGT adalah salah satu tipe atau model pembelajaran

kooperatif yang mudah diterapkan, melibatkan aktivitas seluruh siswa tanpa harus ada
perbedaan status, melibatkan peran siswa sebagai tutor sebaya dan mengandung unsur
permainan dan reinforcement.
Aktivitas belajar dengan permainan yang dirancang dalam pembelajaran kooperatif model
TGT memungkinkan siswa dapat belajar lebih rileks disamping menumbuhkan tanggung
jawab, kerjasama, persaingan sehat dan keterlibatan belajar.
Ada5 komponen utama dalam komponen utama dalam TGT yaitu:

1. Penyajian kelas
Pada awal pembelajaran guru menyampaikan materi dalam penyajian kelas, biasanya
dilakukan dengan pengajaran langsung atau dengan ceramah, diskusi yang dipimpin guru.
Pada saat penyajian kelas ini siswa harus benar-benar memperhatikan dan memahami
materi yang disampaikan guru, karena akan membantu siswa bekerja lebih baik pada saat
kerja kelompok dan pada saat game karena skor game akan menentukan skor kelompok.

2. Kelompok (team)
Kelompok biasanya terdiri dari 4 sampai 5 orang siswa yang anggotanya heterogen dilihat
dari prestasi akademik, jenis kelamin dan ras atau etnik. Fungsi kelompok adalah untuk
lebih mendalami materi bersama teman kelompoknya dan lebih khusus untuk
mempersiapkan anggota kelompok agar bekerja dengan baik dan optimal pada saat game.

3. Game
Game terdiri dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang dirancang untuk menguji pengetahuan yang
didapat siswa dari penyajian kelas dan belajar kelompok. Kebanyakan game terdiri dari
pertanyaan-pertanyaan sederhana bernomor. Siswa memilih kartu bernomor dan mencoba
menjawab pertanyaan yang sesuai dengan nomor itu. Siswa yang menjawab benar
pertanyaan itu akan mendapat skor. Skor ini yang nantinya dikumpulkan siswa untuk
turnamen mingguan.

4. Turnamen
Biasanya turnamen dilakukan pada akhir minggu atau pada setiap unit setelah guru
melakukan presentasi kelas dan kelompok sudah mengerjakan lembar kerja. Turnamen
pertama guru membagi siswa ke dalam beberapa meja turnamen. Tiga siswa tertinggi
prestasinya dikelompokkan pada meja I, tiga siswa selanjutnya pada meja II dan seterusnya.

5. Team recognize (penghargaan kelompok)


Guru kemudian mengumumkan kelompok yang menang, masing-masing team akan
mendapat sertifikat atau hadiah apabila rata-rata skor memenuhi kriteria yang ditentukan.
Team mendapat julukan “Super Team” jika rata-rata skor 45 atau lebih, “Great Team”
apabila rata-rata mencapai 40-45 dan “Good Team” apabila rata-ratanya 30-40

http://gurupkn.wordpress.com/2007/11/13/metode-team-games-tournament-tgt/

2010 EABR & ETLC Conference Proceedings Dublin, Ir

The Effects Of Teams-Games-Tournamen

On Achievement, Retention, And Attitude

Of Economics Education Students

Micheal M van Wyk, University of the Free State, South Africa


Abstract

Cooperative learning, as an instructional methodology provides opportunities for


diverse students

to develop skills in group interactions and in working with others that are needed in
today's world

(Johnson & Johnson, 1990). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects
of the

cooperative learning approach of Teams-Games-Tournaments (TGT) on the


achievement of

content knowledge, retention, and attitudes toward the teaching method.


Cooperative learning

was compared to traditional lecturer teaching learning classroom structure using a


quasi-

experimental design. An achievement test, consisting of items from the Test of


Economic Literacy

(TEL) which is a standardized test of economics content, and an attitude


questionnaire were

administered immediately following instruction on elementary economics. A


retention test was

administered three weeks following the achievement test. TEL scores and first
semester grades in

elementary economics classes were used as covariates to adjust for possible


preexisting

differences between the groups. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed no


significant

difference among the dependent variables (achievement and retention) between


the teaching

methods used. There was no significant difference in student attitudes toward the
teaching
methods.

INTRODUCTORY BACKGROUND

In recent years, South Africa has experienced an important paradigm shift in


education: a teacher-centred

approach has been replaced by a learner-centred approach. Put differently, the


emphasis is now on an Outcomes-

Based Education approach (OBE approach) as the key underlying principle of the
National Curriculum Statement

(NCS) (Van Wyk, 2007). The process associated with reviewing and modernising the
school curriculum for grades

R to 12 commenced in the year 2000 and was aimed at restructuring and rewriting
the interim syllabi into new,

integrated and justified learning programmes. The culmination of the process was
the establishment of a curriculum

for the General Education and Training (GET) and Further Education and Training
(FET) phases, which is known as

the National Curriculum Statement (National Department of Education, 2002).

Within the NCS curriculum, but specifically in Economics, it is of critical importance


that learners learn

how to gather relevant information and to transform such information into


marketable knowledge; in other words,

the learner has to be enabled to identify problems and find solutions to these
challenges by means of creative and

innovative thinking in real-life situations.

To ensure that the outcomes of Economics teaching are achieved, Economics


teachers are compelled to

consider different teaching strategies and methods. By pursuing these new


strategies and methods, Economics
teachers will be enabled to initiate teaching and learning effectively so that
knowledge, skills and positive attitudes

may be optimised among learners in their response to the economic environment.


A large variety of teaching

strategies, methods and techniques are available, but this study focuses on
cooperative learning, which can be

utilised to immense benefit in the teaching and learning situation (Borich, 1996:238-
268; Killen, 2007:159; Steyn,

1985:84).

2010 EABR & ETLC Conference Proceedings Dublin, Ireland

The researcher contends that Economics teachers should strive to present their
subject in ways that are

meaningful and learner centred. If this can be achieved, learners are engaged
effectively in the subject, and an

interest in the learning content may be evoked. By establishing excellent modes of


teaching, such as cooperative

learning, the Economics teacher may create an optimal learning environment to


enable learners as workers to

transfer knowledge and skills into the workplace.

Cooperative learning, as an instructional methodology provides opportunities for


students to develop skills

in group interactions and in working with others that are needed in today's world
(Johnson & Johnson,1990).

According to Johnson and Johnson (1989), cooperative learning experiences


promote more positive attitudes toward

the instructional experience than competitive or individualistic methodologies. In


addition, cooperative learning

should result in positive effects on student achievement and retention of


information (Dishon & O’Leary, 1984;

Johnson & Johnson, 1990; Slavin, 1991). Further, van Week (2007) and McKeachie
(1986) postulates that students
are more likely to acquire critical thinking skills and metacognitive learning
strategies, such as learning how to

learn, work in small group cooperative settings as opposed to listening to lectures.

Excellent and effective teaching demands a host of devices, techniques and


strategies not only to achieve

cross critical outcomes, but because variety, itself, is a desideratum. The


cooperative learning technique of Teams-

Games-Tournaments (TGT) bug bit and infected me with the active and
participative virus. I was exposed to

different cooperative learning techniques such as the TGT, Student Teams


Achievement Divisions (STAD),

economic games and simulations during the Train-the-Trainers program 2005-2007,


presented by the Council on

Economic Education (CEE, 2005:3-5). I was trained in the TGT technique by CEE
faculty staff and came to

appreciate the effectiveness and relevance of TGT in Economics education. My


conscience bothered me for almost a

year. Then I started experimenting with TGT in my classes. I don’t have a fair and
valid excuse for my delayed

enthusiasm.

THEORETICAL LENS

According to Slavin (1987), there are two major theoretical perspectives related to
cooperative learning --

motivational and cognitive. The motivational theories of cooperative learning


emphasize the students'

incentives to do academic work, while the cognitive theories emphasize the effects
of working together.
Motivational theories related to cooperative learning focus on reward and goal
structures. One of the

elements of cooperative learning is positive interdependence, where students


perceive that their success or failure

lies within their working together as a group (Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1986).
From a motivational perspective,

"cooperative goal structure creates a situation in which the only way group
members can attain their personal goals

is if the group is successful" (Slavin, 1990:14). Therefore, in order to attain their


personal goals, students are likely

to encourage members within the group to do whatever helps the group to succeed
and to help one another with a

group task.

There are two cognitive theories that are directly applied to cooperative learning,
the developmental and the

elaboration theories (Slavin, 1987). The developmental theories assume that


interaction among students around

appropriate tasks increases their mastery of critical concepts (Damon, 1984). When
students interact with other

students, they have to explain and discuss each other's perspectives, which leads to
greater understanding of the

material to be learned. The struggle to resolve potential conflicts during


collaborative activity results in the

development of higher levels of understanding (Slavin, 1990). The elaboration


theory suggests that one of the most

effective means of learning is to explain the material to someone else. Cooperative


learning activities enhance

elaborative thinking and more frequent giving and receiving of explanations, which
has the potential to increase

depth of understanding, the quality of reasoning, and the accuracy of long term
retention (Johnson, et al, 1986).
Therefore, the use of cooperative learning methods should lead to improved student
learning and retention from both

the developmental and cognitive theoretical bases.

33

TEAMS-GAMES-TOURNAMENTS (TGT)

Teams-Games-Tournaments were originally developed by David DeVries and Keith


Edwards at the

University of Johns Hopkins as a cooperative learning method (DeVries, Mescon &


Shackman, 1975). It uses the

same teacher presentations and team work as in STAD, but replaces the quizzes
with weekly tournaments, in which

students play academic games with members of other teams to contribute points to
their team scores. Student play

the games at three-person “tournament tables” with others with similar past
records in mathematics. A “bumping”

procedure keeps the games fair. The top scorer at each tournament table brings
sixty points to his or her team,

regardless of which table it is; this means that low achievers have equal
opportunities for success. Hulten and

Devries (1976) conducted a study to determine the relative contribution of team


competition and peer group practice

sessions to the effectiveness of a classroom instructional technique, Teams-Games-


Tournament (TGT), to 299

seventh grade mathematics students participated in an experiment varying reward


system (team vs. individual

competition) with practice mode (group vs. individual). An external control group
was used. Dependent variables
included mathematics achievement on the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) and
four student attitude scales.

Results indicated that Team Competition students improved significantly more on


the SAT, attached more

importance to game success, and reported a higher level of peer group interest and
peer pressure to do well at the

game than did Individual Competition students. Group Practice students did not
differ significantly in their

performance on the SAT from Individual Practice students, but did attach less
importance to game success than

students who practiced individually. When compared to the external control group,
Team Competition students (the

standard TGT treatment) indicated significantly greater improvement on the SAT,


reported a higher expectancy of

success at the game, attached more importance to game success, reported more
interest by peers in their

performance, and were more satisfied with the game task.The group classification
in this cooperative technique is

based on a grouping of four to five students per group. The different groups are
each heterogeneous in respect of the

learners’ abilities, gender and academic performance in the grade group. This
technique works on the principle of a

weekly TGT in the form of games, i.e. an academic spelling tournament, with
learners competing against the

members of other teams to earn team points. The winner in each team earns six
points for his/her team. Poorer

performers compete against poorer performers, and better performers against


better performers. Everyone has an

equal chance at success. Team-mates help one another to prepare, but may not
help one another during the games.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


While cooperative learning as an instructional methodology is an option for
teachers, it is currently the least

frequently used (Johnson & Johnson, 1991; van Wyk, 2007). More than 85% of the
instruction in schools consists of

lectures, seatwork, or competition in which students are isolated from one another
and sometimes forbidden to

interact (Humphreys, Johnson, Johnson & Roy, 1984). Goodlad (1984) reported that
most classroom time is spent in

"teacher talk", with only 10% of the students' classroom time used for reasoning
about or expressing an opinion.

In the new national curriculum model, Economic and Management Sciences (EMS) is
a compulsory learning area

for the General Education and Training phase (grades R-9) for South African schools.
Emanating from this, more

students enrolled for Economics as a high school subject. Currently, Economics is an


elective subject in the FET

phase for grades 10-12. Economic education is a growing subject in secondary


education. The current teaching

strategies that are implemented by economic teachers at the high school level are
outdated and do not pertain to the

ways in which students best comprehend economic content (van Wyk, 2007). It is of
outmost importance that

student teachers at our institution being empowered and exposed to effective


teaching strategies, such a TGT

cooperative learning techniques which was employed in this study.

In a recent study conducted in the Free State Department of Education (FSDoE)


schools, group work has

been used extensively in economic education to provide practice in acquiring both


competence and skills in

interpersonal relations (van Wyk, 2008). The introduction of cooperative learning


strategies in economics has
potential for improving the group activities commonly used in these classes (Hall &
Paolucci, 1972). While

empirical evidence supports the use of cooperative learning with a variety of


subject areas and age groups, the extent

to which these methods are beneficial in home economics education is unknown.


Without empirical evidence to

support the effectiveness of cooperative education in economics, it is likely to be


ignored as an instructional

methodology by economics educators.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the cooperative learning
approach of Teams-

groups-tournaments (TGT) on the achievement, retention of information, and


attitudes toward the instructional

method of selected economics students. The following research questions provided


the specific focus for the study:

1. Was there a difference in achievement, as measured by the researcher


developed achievement test for

students who have been taught by the cooperative learning method, TGT, and those
who were taught by the

traditional lecture method?

34

2. Was there a difference in retention of information, as measured by the


researcher developed retention test

administered three weeks after the end of instruction for students who have been
taught by the cooperative

learning method, TGT, and those who were taught by the traditional lecture
method?

3. Was there a difference in the attitudes toward the teaching method used for
students who have been taught
by the cooperative learning method, TGT, and those who were taught by traditional
lecture method?

METHODOLOGY

Research design: A quasi-experimental research, with partially matched TGT-


experimental and traditional

lecture method groups, was constructed because of its resistance to common


threats to internal validity (Mouton,

2001 & Gray, 2004).

Sampling: Third year BEd-student teachers were identified for the investigation.
Only 110 BEd-students

who were registered for module EEE 112, elementary economics, were selected as
the proportional stratified sample

for the quasi-experimental research. The sample consisted of thirty five percent
(35%), Black (African, Coloured

and Asian) and sixty three percent (63%) White (Afrikaans, English, Chinese and
Portugese) students. Furthermore,

81% of the students were females (N=89) and 19% were males (N=21). The sample
composed of the experimental

Each of the following links will take you to a description of each of the teaching methods. When
you write lesson plans for this course, and when you write unit plans for this course, I expect you
to use these teaching methods. You must include the name of the teaching method you will be
using in each lesson plan. A good unit plan will have a variety of different methods in it.

Basic Lesson Plan Field Trip Inquiry

Predict Observe
Play Debrief Replay Concept Formation
Explain

Concept Attainment Independent Research Role Play

Simulation Jig Saw Concept Web

Discussion Unit Overview Non-Debate


Direct Instruction

TEACHING METHODS

In your EdCur 200.3 course, you will have discussed three different types of curriculum. These
might have been called transmission or technical; transactional or practical; emancipatory or
transformational. In your EdCur 200.3 course, you will have referred to the Saskatchewan
Education document Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Practice. On page 12 of this
book, instructional models are outlined. There are four listed: information processing (which I
will call conceptual), behavioural (which involves direct instruction and most of you are very
familiar with this method), social interaction (which I call co-operative), and personal. If we
substitute the instructional strategy of "experiential" for "personal", we can move along to a chart
I find useful.

Curricular Type Transmission Transaction Transformational

or or or

Technical Practical Emancipatory


(Critical)
Instructional Direct Conceptual
Model Instruction
Co-Operative

Experiential
Learning Theory Behaviourist Constructivist

One should note that a person’s world view is involved in each of these levels. If teacher and
students believe that knowledge is constructed, rather than being “found” out there in the world,
then this class would be more comfortable with transactional curricula, and conceptual and
experiential models. If teacher and students believe the primary role of the school is for people
to learn to get along, then that class would be comfortable with a co-operative model. The
Saskatchewan science curricula are transactional, firmly planted in constructivist learning theory,
and conceptually oriented.

On page 20 of Instructional Approaches: A Framework for Practice, there is a Venn diagram


outlining a number of different instructional strategies. Examining the various instructional
strategies is useful, but to be able to enact, for example, an interactive instruction lesson, I find
that it is necessary to have a clear description of the instructional methods which fall within each
group. A typical error for pre-service teachers is to write in a lesson plan that the class will
discuss concept X. But when I read the lesson plan, I wonder what the students will know about
concept X. To my way of thinking, a discussion is not when one person talks. A discussion
involves multiple voices. If the pre-service teacher were to use one of the described teaching
methods, then that teacher would know what the students knew about concept X. A lively
discussion, with students involved in talking (!) could ensue.

The following table attempts to put the above instructional models, (skip instructional
approaches), and teaching methods in families.

Instructional Experiential Co-Operative Conceptual


Mod
el
Teaching Field Trip All experiential All experiential
Meth Inquiry
Role Play All co-operative
ods Predict Observe Explain
Play Debrief Replay Simulation
Concept Web
Concept Formation
Jig Saw
Concept Attainment
Jig Saw
Independent Research
Homepage 322.3 | Homepage 324.3 | Homepage 327.3 | Homepage 421.3 | Homepage 423.3

Teaching methods can best be defined as the types of principles and methods used for
instruction. There are many types of teaching methods, depending on what information or skill
the teacher is trying to convey. Class participation, demonstration, recitation, and memorization
are some of the teaching methods being used. When a teacher is deciding on their method, they
need to be flexible and willing to adjust their style according to their students. Student success in
the classroom is largely based on effective teaching methods.

Contents

• 1 Diversity in Teaching in the Classroom


o 1.1 Explaining
o 1.2 Demonstrating
o 1.3 Collaborating
o 1.4 Learning by teaching
• 2 Evolution of teaching methods
o 2.1 Ancient education
o 2.2 Medieval education
o 2.3 19th century - compulsory education
o 2.4 20th century
• 3 See also
• 4 References

• 5 External links

[edit] Diversity in Teaching in the Classroom

For effective teaching to take place, a good method must be adopted by a teacher. A teacher has
many options when choosing a style by which to teach. The teacher may write lesson plans of
their own, borrow plans from other teachers, or search online or within books for lesson plans.
When deciding what teaching method to use, a teacher needs to consider students' background
knowledge, environment, and learning goals. Teachers are aware that students learn in different
ways, but almost all children will respond well to praise. Students have different ways of
absorbing information and of demonstrating their knowledge. Teachers often use techniques
which cater to multiple learning styles to help students retain information and strengthen
understanding. A variety of strategies and methods are used to ensure that all students have equal
opportunities to learn. A lesson plan may be carried out in several ways: Questioning,
explaining, modeling, collaborating, and demonstrating.

A teaching method that includes questioning is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a series of
questions to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be taught.
Testing is another application of questioning. A teacher tests the student on what was previously
taught in order to identify if a student has learned the material. Standardized testing is in about
every middle school (i.e. Ohio Graduation Test (OGT), Proficiency Test, College entrance Tests
(ACT and SAT).
Learning can be done in three ways- Auditory, Visual, and Kinesthetic. It is important to try and
include all three as much as possible into your lessons.

[edit] Explaining

This form is similar to lecturing. Lecturing is teaching by giving a discourse on a specific subject
that is open to the public, usually given in the classroom. This can also be associated with
modeling. Modeling is used as a visual aid to learning. Students can visualize an object or
problem, then use reasoning and hypothesizing to determine an answer.

In your lecture you have the opportunity to tackle two types of learning. Not only can explaining
(lecture) help the auditory learner through the speech of the teacher, but if the teacher is to
include visuals in the form of overheads or slide shows, his/her lecture can have duality.
Although a student might only profit substantially from one form of teaching, all students profit
some from the different types of learning.

[edit] Demonstrating

Demonstrations are done to provide an opportunity to learn new exploration and visual learning
tasks from a different perspective. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate ideas in a
science class. A demonstration may be used in the circumstance of proving conclusively a fact,
as by reasoning or showing evidence.

The uses of storytelling and examples have long since become standard practice in the realm of
textual explanation. But while a more narrative style of information presentation is clearly a
preferred practice in writing, judging by its’ prolificacy, this practice sometimes becomes one of
the more ignored aspects of lecture. Lectures, especially in a collegiate environment, often
become a setting more geared towards factorial presentation than a setting for narrative and/or
connective learning. The use of examples and storytelling likely allows for better understanding
but also greater individual ability to relate to the information presented. Learning a list of facts
provides a detached and impersonal experience while the same list, containing examples and
stories, becomes, potentially, personally relatable. Furthermore, storytelling in information
presentation may also reinforce memory retention because it provides connections between
factorial presentation and real-world examples/personable experience, thus, putting things into a
clearer perspective and allowing for increased neural representation in the brain. Therefore, it is
important to provide personable, supplementary, examples in all forms of information
presentation because this practice likely allows for greater interest in the subject matter and
better information-retention rates.

Often in lecture numbers or stats are used to explain a subject but often when many numbers are
being used it is difficult to see the whole picture. Visuals that are bright in color, etc. offer a way
for the students to put into perspective the numbers or stats that are being used. If the student can
not only hear but see what is being taught, it is more likely they will believe and fully grasp what
is being taught. It allows another way for the student to relate to the material.
[edit] Collaborating

Having students work in groups is another way a teacher can direct a lesson. Collaborating
allows students to talk with each other and listen to all points of view in the discussion. It helps
students think in a less personally biased way. When this lesson plan is carried out, the teacher
may be trying to assess the lesson by looking at the student's: ability to work as a team,
leadership skills, or presentation abilities. It is one of the direct instructional methods.

A different kind of group work is the discussion. After some preparation and with clearly defined
roles as well as interesting topics, discussions may well take up most of the lesson, with the
teacher only giving short feedback at the end or even in the following lesson. Discussions can
take a variety of forms, e.g. fishbowl discussions.

Collaborating (kinesthetic) is great in that it allows to actively participate in the learning process.
These students who learn best this way by being able to relate to the lesson in that they are
physically taking part of it in some way. Group projects and discussions are a great way to
welcome this type of learning.

[edit] Learning by teaching


Main article: Learning by teaching

Learning by teaching (German:LdL) is a widespread method in Germany, developed by Jean-Pol


Martin. The students take the teacher's role and teach their peers.

This method is very effective when done correctly. Having students teach sections of the class as
a group or as individuals is a great way to get the students to really study out the topic and
understand it so as to teach it to their peers. By having them participate in the teaching process it
also builds self-confidence, self-efficacy, and strengthens students speaking and communication
skills. Students will not only learn their given topic, but they will gain experience that could be
very valuable for life.

[edit] Evolution of teaching methods


[edit] Ancient education

About 3000 BC, with the advent of writing, education became more conscious or self-reflecting,
with specialized occupations requiring particular skills and knowledge on how to be a scribe, an
astronomer, etc.

Philosophy in ancient Greece led to questions of educational method entering national discourse.
In his Republic, Plato describes a system of instruction that he felt would lead to an ideal state. In
his Dialogues, Plato describes the Socratic method.

It has been the intent of many educators since then, such as the Roman educator Quintilian, to
find specific, interesting ways to encourage students to use their intelligence and to help them to
learn.
[edit] Medieval education

Comenius, in Bohemia, wanted all boys and girls to learn. In his The World in Pictures, he gave
the first vivid, illustrated textbook which contained much that children would be familiar with in
everyday life, and use it to teach the academic subjects they needed to know. Rabelais described
how the student Gargantua learned about the world, and what is in it.

Much later, Jean-Jacques Rousseau in his Emile, presented methodology to teach children the
elements of science and much more. In it, he famously eschewed books, saying the world is one's
book. And so Emile was brought out into the woods without breakfast to learn the cardinal
directions and the positions of the sun as he found his way home for something to eat.

There was also Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi of Switzerland, whose methodology during
Napoleonic warfare enabled refugee children, of a class believed to be unteachable, to learn
- and love to learn. He describes this in his account of the educational experiment at Stanz.
He felt the key to have children learn is for them to be loved, but his method, though
transmitted later in the school for educators he founded, has been thought "too unclear to
be taught today". One result was, when he would ask, "Children, do you want to learn
more or go to sleep?" they would reply, "Learn more!"

[edit] 19th century - compulsory education


Main article: Prussian education system

The Prussian education system was a system of mandatory education dating to the early 19th
century. Parts of the Prussian education system have served as models for the education systems
in a number of other countries, including Japan and the United States. The Prussian model had a
side effect of requiring additional classroom management skills to be incorporated into the
teaching process. [1]

[edit] 20th century

In the 20th century, the philosopher, Eli Siegel, who believed that all children are equally
capable of learning regardless of ethnic background or social class, stated: "The purpose of all
education is to like the world through knowing it." This is a goal which is implicit in previous
educators, but in this principle, it is made conscious. With this principle at basis, teachers,
predominantly in New York, have found that students learn the curriculum with the kind of
eagerness that Pestalozzi describes for his students at Stanz centuries earlier.

Many current teaching philosophies are aimed at fulfilling the precepts of a curriculum based on
Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE). Arguably the qualities of a
SDAIE curriculum are as effective if not more so for all 'regular' classrooms.

Some critical ideas in today's education environment include:

• Instructional scaffolding
• Graphic organizers
• Standardized testing

According to Dr. Shaikh Imran, the teaching methodology in education is a new concept in the
teaching learning process. New methods involved in the teaching learning process are television,
radio, computer, etc.

Other educators believe that the use of technology, while facilitating learning to some degree, is
not a substitute for educational method that brings out critical thinking and a desire to learn.
Another modern teaching method is inquiry learning and the related inquiry-based science.

Elvis H. Bostwick recently concluded Dr. Cherry's quantitative study "The Interdisciplinary
Effect of Hands On Science", a three-year study of 3920 middle school students and their
Tennessee State Achievement scores in Math, Science, Reading and Social Studies. Metropolitan
Nashville Public School is considered urban demographically and can be compared to many of
urban schools nationally and internationally. This study divided students on the basis of whether
they had hands on trained teachers over the three-year period addressed by the study.

Students who had a hands-on trained science teacher for one or more years had statistically
higher standardized test scores in science, math and social studies. For each additional year of
being taught by a hands-on trained teacher, the student's grades increased.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teaching_method

Reading methods
Reading daily news method

Disregard redundant information to save time now.

News is redundant: previewed yesterday...detailed today...summed up tomorrow.

You use the "reading news method", when you are read whether from a report, newspaper,
magazine or newsletter, skip what you already know. Make sure to you get the new information
you need.

Look for the most information to match purpose for reading. A strong purpose immediately
increases speed reading and comprehension. Be clear about what you want, then quickly search
to find it. Don't just read for the sake of reading unless you have chosen to pass leisure time.

Take just 10-20 minute in the morning to review the news. This time constraint gently forces you
to get focused. Come back in the evening to get whatever you "have to" or "want to." You may
discover it to be ancient history by evening.

Reading newspapers method

Read headlines and first paragraphs only.


Review headlines and select articles you want to read based on interest or purpose for reading.
Read the first paragraph to preview the article.

Reporters present 80% of the key information in the opening paragraph. The subsequent
supporting text should be read only as needed. Follow this strategy:

Ask yourself what other specific details you want. Let it go if there are none.

Skim the article for the desired details. "Dip" into the article and read those paragraphs. Don't
read all the words unless you have the luxury of unlimited time.

When finished with an article, go on to the next. This whole process should not take more than
10-15 minutes.

Close reading method

Close reading is the essence of the academic experience. It aims at the mastery of material with
full retention of details. It divides into a number of separate steps, each vital, but ends as a whole.

Before reading a difficult piece of writing, take a few moments to close the eyes and relax while
taking two or three deep breaths. Ask yourself that you can read with full concentration,
recognize key information, and achieve high comprehension quickly to accomplish the needs.
Believe you can, and you will.

This may simply sound like "positive mental attitude." Yet if you do not purposefully affirm the
positive, you may be shutting off your true capacities by subtle anxieties about the task.

For example, if the material is dense and difficult to read, any anxiety about getting through it
can cause lowered performance. The secret is to see the material simply as new and different, not
dense and difficult...and be relaxed about it. Early confusion can create curiosity that guides you
to search for and recognize the information you need. The comprehension and overall reading
performance can increase--all with just a few seconds of preparation.

Reading to learn method

Although many of us believe reading is a passive process we couldn't be more mistaken. Reading
is actually a highly complex process of interaction between the reader and the text. Reading is
the processing of information. To any text we bring our own store of general information based
on our cultural, educational and personal experiences and normally some specific knowledge of
the topic about which we are reading.

We also possess a linguistic competence which includes knowledge of the words, the grammar
of the text and the rhetorical patterns and linguistic conventions which characterize different
types of texts. For example, news stories, poetry and research reports are all distinctly
recognizable text types or genres.
When we read we have a particular purpose in mind and in most cases we have a motivation to
read, for instance looking up a timetable to catch a train to Bathurst on Friday to attend a friend's
wedding. However, we use different strategies to assist us in our reading according to the
purpose. We would not read a newspaper the same way as we would read a Physics chapter or a
poem.

There are different types of reading "styles" and we make choices about the most appropriate
style according to our purpose. Skimming involves moving our eyes rapidly over the page to get
the gist of what the text is about. This skill can be used to skim a particular book or article to see
if it is useful. This technique is used to judge material after rapid inspection.

Two approaches to help you learn to skim are described below.

1. Scanning is the strategy we use when searching for a specific piece of


information such as dates or names. This kind of reading is particularly useful
when you are researching a topic. You can use this strategy to check through
catalogues, scan a contents page and index to see if a particular item is
mentioned. Check the abstract or the introduction or conclusion of a
chapter/article for key words to see how relevant the text is to your purpose.
2. Intensive reading is the style we employ when we want to gain a detailed
understanding of the information contained in the text. Extensive reading is
the term used to describe the strategies used for reading longer texts either
for pleasure or for information. The full range of strategies, skimming,
scanning and reading for detail are employed by the reader according to the
individual text and interest in the various parts.

The reading style we employ to any text is dependent upon the type and content of the text as
well as our purpose in reading. It's important to use these strategies appropriately and flexibly for
maximum benefit.

Following are a number of exercises to practice some of these strategies.

Exploratory reading method

Exploratory reading is the half-way point between skimming and close reading, and it's similar to
pleasure reading. You want to acquaint yourself with the subject, but you do not need complete
understanding and retention. Perhaps you are reading supplementary material which you will not
be held accountable for, or perhaps you only need to gain general knowledge from a text which
will be available if you need to look up specific references. In exploratory reading, read as
quickly as possible. Keep your mind on the material. Upon finishing each section of the material,
pause to rest the eyes. See if you can summarize what you have just read. The ability to
summarize is another skill which can be developed only by practice.
How to tackle reading those huge computer books

Spend some time reading the chapter headings and sub-headings from the index page. Get
familiar with the framework of the book, how the book is organized and broken down into it's
sub sections, and the overall feel of the book.

Skim the book. What is meant by skimming is to casually read over each page without trying to
remember the material. Read a sentence here, a sentence there, look at a diagram here, a diagram
there. Look for new terminology that you haven't come across before, look at diagrams and
graphs and get a feel for the topic. This will help you get a feel for the new terminology before
you have to really study the concepts, as well as help you ascertain the sequence within the book
that these new concepts are introduced. Skimming will also help you to locate specific charts,
diagrams or tables later on.

After you have skimmed the book, read the entire book through superficially. Only concentrate
on the sections of the book that you already know or understand, and completely skip over
entries in the book that you don't. This includes entire pages, paragraphs, diagrams etc. Anything
that you come across that you don't understand, skip it. Even if it means skipping more than 50%
of the book, it doesn't matter. This is just the first reading - so don't get swamped trying to take in
something that you don't understand. That can come later.

Lastly, read the book again and this time study the material. This will essentially be the third
time that you've looked at the book, and a lot of the content, the structure and the feel of the book
will be familiar to you. You should be able to tackle the entire book much easier.

Academic strategy for textbooks and research reports

Determine a purpose. What is it that you want to get from the printed page? Terms and
definitions? Problem and solution? Research method? Preview the printed pages to see how the
ideas are organized. Read the title, the introduction, and the headings. Read the conclusion if
there is one. Where will you find the information that you want for the purpose you set? Point
your pacer and start reading the introduction. You can race through that because you already read
it.

It becomes the pace car in your race. Read rapidly, only slowing down when you approach
something relevant to the purpose you set. After you read a page or a section, mark the lines or
words that you want to remember. If you mark text as you read, you are likely to let it become a
nervous habit and mark nearly everything until the page becomes a sea of yellow. That slows
you down and serves no utilitarian purpose after you finish reading. When you reach the end of
the last page, quickly look back at the marked text for a rapid review. This should answer the
question or purpose that you set before you started reading.

How to read the reports you love to hate.

In just 11-13 minutes you can get 80% of what you must know from even the most difficult
reports. Here's how you can do it now, quickly and easily:
• At the end of the day, take 2 minutes to glance through the report's layout,
table of contents and ending. Decide on 3 things you must know from this
report.
• STOP! Do not read further. Flip the pages in front of your eyes like a fan 2 or
3 times. Make a guess where you will find the answers. Leave it alone until
tomorrow.
• In the morning take no more than 7 minutes to search for and read the key
points you felt you had to know.
• Double check to determine if there are any additional "life or death" needs
associated with this report. If yes, spend no more than 4 more minutes now
and maybe 5-7 minutes the next day.

How to read a novel method

That is Assigned for a Book Report Book Help: Read any information on the book cover or in
the forward that gives you ideas about the content of the story or about the author's reasons for
writing the book.

Outside Help: Read articles about the book that are provided in magazines, in newspapers, on the
Internet, or at the library reference room. On the other hand, some pamphlets of notes are helpful
while others are poorly written. Significance of Chapter One: Read the first chapter slowly and
carefully. It should introduce the main character and the problem or conflict that he/she faces.
Most of the rest of the book will describe the attempts to deal with this problem. Notice the
relationship between the location/setting of the story and the character's problem. The first
chapter also develops some character traits and introduces other characters who influence
attempts to resolve issues. Time Management: Plan how much of the book you will read at one
sitting. If you become seriously restless after thirty minutes, plan to read for thirty minutes at a
time. A more mature plan is to read one chapter at a time.

Determine what time of day you will always read. For example, you may prefer to read during
the thirty minutes before dinner in the evening. Mark a symbol for the reading assignment on the
kitchen wall calendar or on your bedroom wall calendar. Each time you finish reading, draw an
X through the symbol on the calendar.

The average student reads a novel at the rate of about 300 words per minute. One page in a
paperback novel contains about 350 words. Therefore, if a chapter is about 20 pages long, you
may assume that it will take you a little over 20 minutes to read it at a rate of not quite one page
per minute. Notes for the Book Report: After you read a chapter, write a summary paragraph
about the events in that chapter. Add a comment about anything else you think is significant such
as the appearance of a new character. After you finish the last chapter, you should have a
summary of the entire book composed of those chapter summaries that you wrote. The wisdom
of having read everything now allows you to write a paragraph that introduces the book and a
paragraph for the end of your report where you draw some conclusions about how the character
attempted to deal with the conflicts and about what the character or the reader learned about
human nature during the story.
Study Guides: Some teachers provide a study guide for the book report. If so, read the study
guide after you read chapter one and get an idea of any specific details you may need to note. Or
they may tell you that you will take a test on the book in order to receive credit for reading it. If
so, use the pen as you read to place a check mark in the margin next to any names or facts that
you may need to memorize after you finish the book.

Book Marks and Pacers: If you like to use a book mark on the lines as you read, consider placing
the marker above the line instead of below it. This allows your eyes to move faster and increases
reading speed. Some people may need to place the marker below the line because their eyes need
guidance moving from the end of the line to the beginning of the next line.

A pacer such as the finger or a pen point tends to drag your focal point across the line to increase
speed and reduce regressing back to re-read text. Regressions are usually emotional rather than
necessary for understanding. Of software, sometimes you truly need to re-read. Remember that
you are not reading math or science. You are reading fiction and do not need the detailed
precision that you do while reading those subjects.

Talk About What You Read: If you are a social learner, it may help if you and a parent or friend
read using the same time management schedule. Then you can discuss the story and talk about
your opinion of what the character did in that chapter. Talk about whether or not you would you
have done the same thing? Was their behavior heroic or foolish? Compare your summary
paragraph with your friend's. Perhaps your discussion made you aware that you omitted
something important that you can add to your summary.

How read math texts

There are a few lucky folks who seem to learn even the hardest math almost effortlessly. The rest
of us can only envy them and try to pick their brains. I doubt that you would be here if you were
one of them. That means that you are like the majority of us who cannot learn math without
working hard at it. Don't fool yourself into thinking that you can get by without working at it.
You will only get yourself into more trouble than you can climb out of by mid-semester.

Do the homework exercises. Many professors do not require you to hand in the homework's. The
homework are for your benefit, not the professor's. You cannot learn to play the piano without
endlessly practicing scales. You cannot make the football team without endlessly running wind
sprints. You cannot learn to paint without endlessly painting still life's. Math is no different. The
exercises will train your mind and sharpen your intuition. So do the work. It will pay off in the
end.

Math books are meant to be read slowly. Evelyn Woods never had to read a serious math text.
You cannot speed read it and expect to get any benefit out of it at all. When you encounter a new
concept in a math book, do not expect to understand it on the first reading, no matter how
carefully your read it. You should go over each difficult paragraph several times. If you are still
uncomfortable with it, read ahead a page or so, then come back to the difficult passage. And
remember that math books are meant to be read with paper and pencil in hand. Use the paper and
pencil to work through any steps that the book skips over.
Always use a pencil to do math homework (and exams). Don't ever try to do math in ink. You
will make mistakes. Everybody does. So be equipped to clean them up. If you like mechanical
pencils, great. If you prefer the old wooden kind, then sharpen several of them before you start
each homework. Make sure you have a clean, usable eraser as well.

Although neatness might not get you extra points, it does help keep you from confusion. Keep
your work organized. Skip a line (or even two) between each row of written calculations. You
will be surprised at how much easier it will be for you to follow your own work when it's not so
densely packed onto the page. Paper is cheap. Don't be afraid to use lots of it.

Your greatest assets are in the class with you. Your classmates are in the same boat as you.
Organize a study group. Try to coax at least one of the top students in the class into your group. I
recommend that the group size be three to five. Try to meet at least once per week. You will be
working together on homework's and comparing your lecture notes.

You don't want to be in the group that works on math in between beers and Monday Night
Football plays. Choose as your group-mates those who have a serious attitude.

When you form the group, it might be a good idea to inform your professor that you have done
so and who are the group members. You should explain that if all of you turn in the same wrong
answer on a particular homework problem, it's because you worked on it together.

In your group activity, take turns. See if you can find a room with a whiteboard. Have one person
get up and do a problem on the board, explaining what he or she is doing as the problem unfolds.
If the person at the board gets stuck, the others in the group should try to provide hints or ask the
person at the board telling questions. If the person at the board is doing fine, the others in the
group should challenge him or her. Make the problem-doer justify each step orally. If anybody in
the group does not understand a step, the person at the board ought to be able to explain it to his
or her satisfaction.

When one person is done with a problem, somebody else gets up and does the next one on the
board. And nobody weasels out.

You will be tested as an individual. Despite the helpfulness of your group activities, in the end
your grade will be based upon your individual performance at solving problems. Following your
group get-togethers, be sure to go solo on a few exercises.

Try to see more than just procedures. Again I urge you, learn the concepts, and the procedures
will seem obvious. And try to have some fun with it. Humanity invented math largely because it
is fascinating. Be fascinated.

Activate reading method

During activation we stimulate the brain probing the mind with questions and exploring parts of
the text to which we feel most attracted. We then super read the most important parts of the text
by scanning quickly down the center of each page or column of type. When we feel it is
appropriate, we dip into the text for more focused reading to comprehend the details. In dipping,
we allow our intuition to say, Hey, turn to the last paragraph on page 147! Yes, that is the one.
The ideas you want are right there. Other activation techniques developed while reading this
book include rhythmic perusal, skittering, and mind mapping. These also help us gain access to
the deeper impressions established by photo reading. When we activate, we involve our whole
brain, connect the text with our conscious awareness, and achieve our goals for reading.

http://www.ababasoft.com/speedreading/reading_methods.htm