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1.

Title:
Investigating an efficiency & effectiveness of Collective Partnership in Strengthening
Community-Based Tourism Management: Evidence from Pu Muen Nai Tribe Village,
Thailand

2. Author :

Ms.Tanya Promburom (the first author)


Faculty of Business Administration,
Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, THAILAND.

3. The paper will be submit for oral presentation

4. This paper is a research paper supported by Chiang Mai University Research Fund

5. An structured abstract, an text abstract and references are follows as this;


Investigating an efficiency & effectiveness of Collective Partnership in Strengthening
Community Based Tourism Management: Evidence from Pu Muen Nai Tribe Village,
Thailand
Tanya Promburom 1, Thongbang Thotsadorn2 and Chookiat Kananusapkul 3

STRUCTURED ABSTRACT

Purpose

This research aims to construct a prototype for the development of ecotourism


management by using community based tourism (CBT) management concept and applying
Business to Business (B2B) marketing strategies to maintain tourism market for the
community and securing the sustainability of ecotourism business.

Design/methodology/approach

Both qualitative research stressing participatory action and quantitative analysis were
used in this study to gather data.

Findings

Findings revealed that ecotourism operators would be able to provide marketing


perspectives and created a market channel for community-managed tourism. The
development of ecotourism marketing from the cooperation between local community and
ecotourism operators had led to the establishment of linkage between the community and the
relevant external business organizations.

Research limitations/implications
As the present research involves with micro level development and it is local-specific,
findings may have limitation for direct application in other ecotourism contexts.

Practical implications
This research has generated concrete benefits for the local community in social,
economic, cultural, as well as environmental aspects. Working in cooperation between
community, ecotourism operators and researchers should be activated at the initial period of
CBT research and development project to permit the joint determination on tourism
development directions.

Originality/value
This research ventured into the application of organizational marketing principles
in the CBT model such that relationship can be established between the relevant external
business enterprises and the community enterprise which enables two parties to jointly

1
Faculty of Business Administration, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, THAILAND.
Tel. 66-053-942109 Fax. 66-053-942103. E-mail: thanya@chiangmai.ac.th
2
Freelance Guide and Long Stay Tour Operator , Chiang Mai, THAILAND.
E-mail: thotsadon@yahoo.com
3
Manager, Natural Focus, Chiang Rai ,THAILAND. E-mail: naturalfocus_ecotour@hotmail.com
develop ecotourism management plans and activities for mutual benefits and sustainable
business operation.

Keywords: community-based tourism management, participatory action, ecotourism


Investigating an efficiency & effectiveness of Collective Partnership in Strengthening
Community-Based Tourism Management: Evidence from Pu Muen Nai Tribe Village,
Thailand
Tanya Promburom 4, Thongbang Thotsadorn5 and Chookiat Kananusapkul 6

AN ABSTRACT TEXT

Purpose

This research aims to construct a prototype for the development of ecotourism


management by using community-based tourism (CBT) management concept and applying
Business-to-business (B2B) marketing strategies. Specifically, it aims to build relationship
between local community and ecotourism operators in order to maintain tourism market for
the community and securing the sustainability of ecotourism business.

Design/methodology/approach

Both qualitative research stressing participatory action and quantitative analysis were
used in this study.

Qualitative components: A content analysis of village history was undertaken. In


addition, local livelihood, culture and tradition were gathered from in-depth interview of key
informants, and participatory observations. Empowerment of the local community to let the
villagers play roles in determining business directions and exercise decision making in the
planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation activities related to the CBT business,
using the discussion forum to draw the ideas and opinions from both community
organization’s members and the other stakeholders.

Quantitative components: Data from questionnaire interviews of samples of homestay


users was used to evaluate tourists’ satisfaction and study of knowledge and understanding of
the community tourism committee members concerning ecotourism and its impacts. Data
was also obtained from interviewing ecotourism operators who have taken tourists to
homestay.

Findings

A prototype for CBT was designed from the participatory action research to drive the
development of tourism management activities. The community involved in the activities to
prepare villager’s readiness in tourism administration and management and in the application

4
Faculty of Business Administration, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, THAILAND.
Phone. 66-053-942109 Fax. 66-053-942103. E-mail: thanya@chiangmai.ac.th
5
Freelance Guide and Long Stay Tour Operator , Chiang Mai, THAILAND.
E-mail: thotsadon@yahoo.com
6
Manager, Ecotour Operator, Chiang Rai ,THAILAND. E-mail: naturalfocus_ecotour@hotmail.com
of B2B marketing strategies to form the relationship between the local community and the
ecotourism operators to get tourism marketing activities moved for the community. Findings
revealed that the ecotourism operators would be able to provide marketing perspectives and
create a market channel for community-managed tourism. The development of ecotourism
marketing from the cooperation between local community and ecotourism operators had led
to the establishment of linkage between the community and the relevant external business
organizations. The above cooperative effort has led to the learning from and exchanging
marketing ideas with tourism business entities. This also enables the community to learn how
to use the tourists’ evaluation results and the practical experience in management difficulties
as inputs for improving the management and administration process and procedures of
community organization and for working in continuity with relevant external business
organizations. The involvement of community organization, ecotourism operators and
researchers from the beginning of this research project development was constructive for the
good inter-relationships among participants. Researchers and ecotourism operators have
played important roles in building concept knowledge and understanding for the community
members to become capable of running sustainable community based tourism business, and
in providing accurate and real information/data as basis for community decision making. The
community organization’s members have exercised their roles and power in jointly making
decision and solving problems through the negotiation and discussion forum in order to
assure the direct communication for mutual understanding in working together.

Research limitations/implications
As the present research involves micro level development and it is local-specific,
findings may have limitation for direct application in other areas having different context but
may be used as a case study for adaptive application in other places.

Practical implications
This research has generated concrete benefits for the local community in social,
economic, cultural, as well as environmental aspects as summarized below:
Economic aspects, In the past 1 year (April 2009- 2010) a total 85 tourists were sent
for homestay in the community, almost entirely being foreign visitors from European
countries, staying two days and three nights, generating additional 160,000 baht income per
year for the community from the average income earned from visitors 1,800 baht/head/visit.
Social and cultural aspects, A Village Tourism Fund was established from collecting
10% of local tourism income and part of the fund will be used for social activities for village
development. Local villagers and youth become aware of the importance of tradition of
wearing tribal costumes and the tribal dance as cultural expression. This helps build the pride
in tribal identity. The rise of traditional tribal music conversation movement and transfer the
arts of playing tribal music instruments to other villagers and village youth. The tribal
handicraft production, having disappeared for 30 years, was restored. Cultural exchange also
has been made with foreign visitors.
Environmental aspects, Village environment has been improved in term of cleanness
and hygiene and the homestay units have been maintained in better hygienic and cleaner
conditions.
Furthermore, this research has given a body of technical knowledge and a prototype
or guideline for further researcher and development of sustainable ecotourism, specifically
the notion that development can be realistic only with the serious cooperation among the
three parties. Working in cooperation among community, ecotourism operators and
researchers which should be called “Colleagues” should be activated at the initial period of
CBT research and development project to permit the joint determination on tourism
development directions. The constant working together process will be instrumental for
building good interaction among the colleagues. Meanwhile the sincerity and fairness on the
part of researchers and ecotourism operators toward the local community will be reciprocated
by the respect and the trust from the latter part, and this relationship is an important
mechanism for cooperative works between external agencies and local people in the
highlands to assure strong and sustainable ecotourism development from the cooperative
efforts.

Originality/value
This research ventured into application of organizational marketing principles in
the CBT model such that relationship can be established between the relevant external
business enterprises and the community enterprise which enables the two parties to jointly
develop ecotourism management plans and activities for mutual benefits and a sustainable
business operation.

Keywords: community-based tourism management, participatory action, ecotourism


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