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Mobile operating system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A mobile operating system, also known as a mobile OS, a mobile platform, or a handheld operating
system, is the operating systemthat controls a mobile device or information appliance—similar in principle to
an operating system such as Windows, Mac OS, or Linux that controls a desktop computer or laptop. However,
they are currently somewhat simpler, and deal more with the wireless versions of broadband and local
connectivity, mobile multimedia formats, and different input methods.

Typical examples of devices running a mobile operating system are smartphones, personal digital
assistants (PDAs), tablet computers andinformation appliances, or what are sometimes referred to as smart
devices, which may also include embedded systems, or other mobile devices and wireless devices.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 History

• 2 Market Projection

• 3 Mobile Navigation

• 4 Smartphone Operating

Systems

○ 4.1 Market Share by

OS

• 5 Smartphone OS Comparison

• 6 Feature Phone Operating

Systems

• 7 See Also

• 8 References

• 9 External Links

[edit]History

The increasing importance of mobile devices has triggered intense competition amongst software giants such
as Google, Microsoft, andApple, as well as mobile industry leaders Nokia, Research In Motion (RIM),
and Palm, in a bid to capture the largest market share pre-emptively.[1]
With the release of the iPhone in 2007, Apple significantly disrupted the mobile industry and effectively ushered
in a new era of smartphone operating systems that focus on user experience and rely on touch-based
interaction. In November 2007, Google formed the Open Handset Alliance with 79 other hardware, software,
and telecom companies to make inroads into the smartphone market through its new Android operating
system.[2] Though its reception was mainly positive from the media and public, the release of Android created a
rift between Apple and Google, eventually leading to the resignation of Google's CEO, Eric Schmidt, from
Apple's board of directors.[3]

Since the launch of both Apple's iOS and Google's Android, the smartphone market has exploded in popularity
and in May 2010, accounted for more than 17.3% of all mobile phones sold.[4] This has led to greater consumer
awareness of the various mobile operating systems, with telecoms and manufacturers regularly advertising the
advantages of their OS. As of January 2011, Google holds 33.3% of the smartphone market worldwide,
demonstrating amazing growth for Android which held only 4.7% a year earlier. Nokia, Apple, RIM, and
Microsoft hold 31%, 16.2%, 14.6%, and 3.1% respectively.[5]

[edit]Market Projection

Mobile platforms are in the nascent stage and any projection regarding market growth is hard to make at the
present time. However, a clear trend is the surging growth of mobile operating systems which are developed for
smart devices, rather than for feature phones. As of February 2011, Nokia has announced a partnership with
Microsoft which effectively ends the development of Symbian OS, the most popular feature phone OS, by the
end of 2011 in favor of Windows Phone.

It is noteworthy that Intel is taking the initiative to focus on portable devices other than mobile phones. They
are Mobile Internet Devices (MID) and Ultra-Mobile PC (UMPC). Meantime, Palm abandoned its plan to
develop Foleo, which was to be a companion device for a smartphone.

[edit]Mobile Navigation

Canalys has estimated that in 2009 the installed base of smartphones with integrated GPS was 163 million
units worldwide, of which Nokia accounted for more than half (51%), having shipped cumulatively 83 million
GPS devices. On January 22, 2010, Nokia released a free version of Ovi Maps in an effort to increase its
number of users.

[edit]Smartphone Operating Systems


Table showing most of the current mobile operating systems for smartphones, PDAs and netbooks in 2010

Share of worldwide 2010 Q4 smartphone sales to end users by operating system, according toCanalys.[6]

Operating systems that can be found


onsmartphones include Nokia's Symbian,Google's Android, Apple's iOS, RIM'sBlackBerry
OS, Microsoft's Windows
Phone, Linux, Palm/HP's WebOS,Samsung's Bada, Nokia's Maemo andMeeGo among many others. Android,
Bada, WebOS and Maemo are built on top of Linux, and iOS is derived from theBSD and NeXTSTEP operating
systems, which are all related to Unix.
The most common operating systems(OS) used in smartphones by Q3 2010 sales are:

The Symbian OS and its successorSymbian platform from the Symbian Foundation (36.6% Market
Share Sales Q3 2010)[7] (open public license)

Symbian has the largest share in most markets worldwide, but lags
behind other companies in the relatively small but highly visible North
American market.[8] This matches the success of its largest
shareholder[9] and customer,Nokia, in all markets except Japan. In Japan
Symbian is strong due to a relationship with NTT DoCoMo, with only one
of the 44 Symbian handsets released in Japan coming from Nokia.[10] It
has been used by many major handset manufacturers,
including BenQ, Fujitsu, LG, Mitsubishi,Motorola, Nokia, Samsung, Sharp,
and Sony Ericsson. Current Symbian-based devices are being made
by Fujitsu, Nokia, Samsung, Sharp, and Sony Ericsson. Prior to 2009
Symbian supported multiple user interfaces, i.e. UIQ from UIQ
Technologies, S60 from Nokia, and MOAP from NTT DOCOMO. As part
of the formation of the Symbian platform in 2009 these three UIs were
merged into a single platform which is now fully open source. Recently,
though shipments of Symbian devices have increased, the operating
system's worldwide market share has declined from over 50% to just over
40% from 2009 to 2010.

Android from Google Inc. (25.5% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)[7] (open
source, Apache)

Android was developed by a small startup company that was purchased


by Google Inc., and Google continues to update the software. Android is
an open source, Linux-derived platform backed by Google, along with
major hardware and software developers (such as Intel, HTC, ARM,
Samsung, Motorola and eBay, to name a few), that form the Open
Handset Alliance.[11] Release on November 5th 2007, the OS has a
following among programmers.[12] There have been seven releases of
Android- Android 1.0, 1.5, 1.6, 2.0, 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3. All are nicknamed
after a dessert item like Cupcake (1.5) or Frozen Yogurt (2.2). Most major
mobile service providers carry an Android device.
The Apple iPad tablet computer uses a version of iOS.

Since the HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1) was introduced, there has been an
explosion in thenumber of devices that carry Android OS. From Q2 of
2009 to the second quarter of 2010, Android's worldwide market share
rose 850% from 1.8% to 17.2%.

iOS from Apple Inc. (16.7% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)


[7]
(closed source, proprietary)

The Apple iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad all use an operating system
called iOS, which is derived from Mac OS X. Third party applications were
not officially supported until the release of iOS 2.0 on July 11th 2008.
Before this, "jailbreaking" allowed third party applications to be installed,
and this method is still available. Currently all iOS devices are developed
by Apple and manufactured by Foxconn or another of Apple's partners.

RIM BlackBerry OS (14.8% Market Share Sales Q3 2010)


[7]
(closed source, proprietary)

This OS is focused on easy operation and was originally designed


for business. Recently it has seen a surge in third-party applications and
has been improved to offer full multimedia support. Currently Blackberry's
App World has over 15,000 downloadable applications.

Windows Mobile from Microsoft (2.8% Market


Share Sales Q3 2010)[7][13] (closed source,
proprietary)
The Windows CE operating system and Windows Mobile middleware are
widely spread in Asia. The two improved variants of this operating
system, Windows Mobile 6 Professional (for touch screen devices)
and Windows Mobile 6 Standard, were unveiled in February 2007. It has
been criticized for having a user interface which is not optimized for touch
input by fingers; instead, it is more usable with a stylus. However, unlike
iPhone OS, it does support both touch screen and physical keyboard
configurations.

Windows Mobile's market share has sharply declined in recent years to


just 5% in Q2 of 2010.[14] Microsoft is phasing out the Windows Mobile OS
to specialized markets and is instead focusing on it's new platform,
Windows Phone.

Windows
Phone from Microsoft (negligible
Market Share Sales in October 2010)
(closed source, proprietary)

On February 15th, 2010 Microsoft unveiled its next-generation mobile


OS, Windows Phone 7. The new mobile OS includes a completely new
over-hauled UI inspired by Microsoft's "Metro Design Language". It
includes full integration of Microsoft services such as Windows
Live, Zune, Xbox Live and Bing, but also integrates with many other non-
Microsoft services such as Facebook and Google accounts. The new OS
platform has received some positive reception from the technology press.
[15][16][17]
As Windows Phone 7 is a new platform, there is no backwards
compatibility with Windows Mobile applications and some power-user
features that were in Windows Mobile will not be present until near-future
updates.
The Palm
Pre running HP (formerly Palm)web
OS. HP purchased Palm in 2010.

Linux operating system (open


source, GPL) (2.1% Market Share
Sales Q3 2010, non-Android
Linux-based OS's only)[7]

Linux is strongest in China where it is used by Motorola, and in Japan,


used by DoCoMo.[18][19] Rather than being a platform in its own right, Linux
is used as a basis for a number of different platforms developed by
several vendors, including Android, LiMo, Maemo,Openmoko and Qt
Extended, which are mostly incompatible.[20][21] PalmSource (now Access)
is moving towards an interface running on Linux.[22] Another platform
based on Linux is being developed by Motorola, NEC, NTT
DoCoMo, Panasonic, Samsung, and Vodafone.[23]

Palm
webOS from HP (certain
parts open sourced)
and Palm OS/Garnet
OS from Access Co. (closed
source, proprietary)

Palm webOS is Palm's next generation operating system. PalmSource


traditionally used its own platform developed by Palm Inc. Access Linux
Platform (ALP) is an improvement that was planned to be launched in the
first half of 2007. It will use technical specifications from the Linux Phone
Standards Forum. The Access Linux Platform will include an emulation
layer to support applications developed for Palm-based devices.

bada from Samsung


Electronics (closed
source, proprietary)

This is a mobile operating system being developed by Samsung


Electronics. Samsung claims that bada will rapidly replace its proprietary
feature phone platform, converting feature phones to smartphones.The
name 'bada' is derived from 바다, the Korean word for ocean or sea. The
first device to run bada is called 'Wave' and was unveiled to the public
at Mobile World Congress 2010. The Wave is a fully touchscreen phone
running the new mobile operating system. With the phone, Samsung also
released an app store, called Samsung Apps, to the public. It has close to
3000[24] mobile applications.

Samsung has said that they don't see Bada as a smartphone platform, but
as a platform with a kernel configurable architecture, which allows the use
of either proprietary Real-time operating system (RTOS) kernel, or the
Linux kernel. Though Samsung plans to install bada on many phones, the
company still has a large lineup of Android phones.

MeeGo from
Nokia and Int
el (open
source, GPL)

At the 2010 Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, Nokia and Intel both
unveiled 'MeeGo' a brand new mobile operating system which would
combine the best of Moblin and the best of Maemo to create a truly open-
sourced experience for users across all devices. As of 2011, Nokia has
announced that it will no longer be pursuing MeeGo and will instead adopt
Windows Phone 7 as its primary mobile OS.

Maemo
from N
okia (o
pen
source,
GPL)

Maemo is a software platform developed by Nokia


for smartphones and Internet Tablets. It is based on the Debian operating
system.

Maemo is mostly based on open source code, and has been developed
by Maemo Devices within Nokia in collaboration with many open source
projects such as the Linux kernel, Debian and GNOME.

Maemo is based on Debian GNU/Linux and draws much of


its GUI, frameworks and libraries from the GNOME project. It uses
theMatchbox window manager and the GTK-based Hildon as its GUI
and application framework.

Limo
[edit]M
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Share
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Source Year Symbian An

Gartner [25]
2010 37.6%

Gartner [25][26]
2009 46.9%

Gartner [26][27]
2008 52.4%

Gartner [27]
2007 63.5%
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[edit]F
eatur
e
Phon
e
Oper
ating
Syste
ms

Commo
n
operatin
g
systems
for featur
e
phones i
nclude N
okia
OS with
user
interface
s S30 or
S40.[96] S
40
offers A
PIs for J
ava ME.
[96]

[edit]S
ee
Also
 Tabl
et
com
pute
r

 Sma
rtph
one

 Sma
rt
TV

 Nucl
eus
RTO
S
[edit]R
efere
nces
1. ^ Can
Mac OS

succeed

as a
mobile

platform?

2007-01-

22

2. ^ Google
Enters

the

Wireless

World
3. ^ Breakin'
up is hard

to do:

Schmidt

leaves

Apple

board

4. ^ Mobile
market

up,

smartpho

nes up,

Android

and

iPhone

way up

5. ^ Android
tops

everyone

in 2010

market

share;

2011 may

be

different

6. ^ http://w
ww.canal

ys.com/pr

/2011/r20

11013.ht

ml

7. ^ a b c d e f
"Gartner

Says
Worldwid

e Mobile

Phone

Sales

Grew 35

Percent in

Third

Quarter

2010;

Smartpho

ne Sales

Increased

96

Percent".

Gartner,

Inc. 2010-

11-10.

Table 2.

Retrieved

2011-02-

21.

8. ^ North
American

Market

9. ^ Symbia
n

Sharehol

ders

10. ^ Symbia
n Facts

11. ^ http://w
ww.openh

andsetalli

ance.com
/oha_me

mbers.ht

ml

12. ^http://w
ww.pcwor

ld.com/bu

sinesscen

ter/article/

146450/d

evelopers

_praise_a

ndroid_at

_google_i

o.html?

tk=rl_noin

form

13. ^ "CEO
Ballmer

Reportedl

y Says

Microsoft

'Screwed

Up' with

Windows

Mobile". e

Week. 28

Septemb

er 2009.

14. ^ [1]

15. ^ http://w
ww.engad

get.com/2

010/02/15

/windows-
phone-7-

series-is-

official-

and-

microsoft-

is-

playing-

to/

16. ^ http://gi
zmodo.co

m/547180

5/window

s-phone-

7-series-

everythin

g-is-

different-

now

17. ^ http://w
ww.crunc

hgear.co

m/2010/0

2/15/wind

ows-

phone-7-

series-

our-take/

18. ^ Shippin
g Linux-

based

Phones

at Techn

ology

News

Daily
19. ^ Microso
ft

Excluded

from

DoCoMo

at The

Register

20. ^ Incomp
atibility in

Mobile

Linux

at OS

News

21. ^ Search
Mobile

Computin

22. ^ Runnin
g on

Linux

23. ^ Motorol
a Press

Release

on

Partnersh

ip on

Linux

Platform

24. ^ Samsu
ng s8530

Wave II

review

25. ^ a b "Gart
ner Says
Worldwid

e Mobile

Device

Sales to

End

Users

Reached

1.6 Billion

Units in

2010;

Smartpho

ne Sales

Grew 72

Percent in

2010".

Gartner,

Inc. 2011-

02-09.

Table 2.

Retrieved

2011-02-

16.

26. ^ a b "Gart
ner Says

Worldwid

e Mobile

Phone

Sales to

End

Users

Grew 8

Per Cent

in Fourth

Quarter

2009;
Market

Remaine

d Flat in

2009".

Gartner,

Inc. 2010-

02-23.

Table 2.

Retrieved

2011-02-

16.

27. ^ a b "Gart
ner Says

Worldwid

Smartpho

ne Sales

Reached

Its Lowest

Growth

Rate With

3.7 Per

Cent

Increase

in Fourth

Quarter of

2008".

Gartner,

Inc. 2009-

03-11.

Table 4.

Retrieved

2011-02-

16.
28. ^ List_of_
CLI_lang

uages

.Net CLI

Language

29. ^ Android
Issues

Tracker

30. ^ Symbia
n

Foundatio

n is

completin

g its

transition

to a

licensing

body

31. ^ Maemo
Issues

Tracker

32. ^ MeeGo
Issues

Tracker

33. ^ Android
Issue

3732:

Search

Improve

contact

searchAn

droid

Issue
3393: No

Unicode

support

on SMS

sendingA

ndroid

Issue

9199:

SQLite3

Unicode

Case not

working

(only

ASCII

case

works)

(include

ICU

support)

34. ^ iOS 4
features:

Spell-

check

and text

replace

35. ^ Android
Issue

10332:

Retrospe

ctive spell

checking

on all

input

fields as

an OS
feature

(input

device

agnostic)

36. ^ http://w
ww.engad

get.com/2

010/10/20

/windows-

phone-7-

review/

37. ^ Android
Issue

8880:

Keep

open

URLs/win

dows on

shutdown

or crash

38. ^ iOS will


not

search

Contacts

notes

field

39. ^ Android
Issue

3732:

Only

search

Contacts

name

field but
not any

other

fieldAndro

id Issue

2518:

Calendar

app has

no

search.

40. ^ a b Bonn
ie Cha

(27

October

2010). "T

op 5

things I

dislike

about

Windows

Phone

7". CNET.

41. ^ WP7 on
HTC

Mozart -

Unable to

search for

additional

Contact

fields - by

design or

bug?

42. ^ Notes
search

not

available
in BB

Torch

43. ^ Android
Issue

1273: IP

Proxy

Settings

for Wifi

Network

44. ^ iOS 4:
Understa

nding

data

protection

45. ^ Android
Issue

8686:

Add

support

for

ActiveSyn

c Device

Encryptio

n Policy

Requirem

ent

46. ^ Microso
ft

Windows

Mobile

encryptio

47. ^ Galen
Gruman
(8

Novembe

2010). "W

indows

Phone 7

lacks on-

device

encryptio

n". InfoW

orld.

48. ^ BlackB
erry

Stored

Data

Security

49. ^ Apple -
iPhone in

Business

Integratio

50. ^ Android
Sync

Communi

cation is

not

encrypted

51. ^ Standar
d

BlackBerr

encryptio

n
52. ^ Android
Issue 66:

OpenSyn

c desktop

synchroni

sation

support

53. ^ Palm
needs to

develop a

Palm Pre

desktop

sync

applicatio

n.

54. ^ How to
Sync

Windows

Phone 7

with

Outlook

55. ^ Maemo
Sync

56. ^ Nilay
Patel

(2009-03-

17). "iPho

ne finally

gets copy

and

paste!".E

ngadget.

57. ^ Android
Issue
3190:

Improve

copy-

paste in

Browser/

WebView

58. ^ Microso
ft

Windows

Phone 7

does not

have

copy/past

59. ^ http://w
ww.engad

get.com/2

010/10/11

/copy-

and-

paste-

coming-

to-

windows-

phone-7-

in-early-

2011/

60. ^ Does
Bada OS

have Cut,

Copy &

Paste?

61. ^ Phat^Tr
ance
(2009-05-

23). "iPho

ne: Undo

Typing –

Cool

feature in

iPhone

3.0".

dailymobil

e.

62. ^ Android
Issue

6458:

Enhance

ment:

Undo

63. ^ Android
Issue

4575:

Phone

number

linking to

dialer

64. ^ Safari
for iOS

needs a

text size

preferenc

e and text

reflow

65. ^ Palm,
please

add Text

Reflow to
the Web

Browser

66. ^ Uploadi
ng files

using

HTML file

input on

iphone

67. ^ Android
Issue

2519:

Browser

should

support

file

uploads

(input

type="file"

68. ^ Android
Issue

8261:

Unified

Inbox

(Gmail &

other

mailboxes

in 1

place)

69. ^ Android
Cloud To

Device

Messagin

g
70. ^ Push
Notificatio

ns for

Windows

Phone

71. ^ Android
does not

natively

support

voice

command

s, but

Google

provides

a cloud

based

closed

source

implemen

tation

(Voice

Actions

for

Android)

that will

only work

when

online An

droid

Issue

11062:

Offline

voice

command

s for
opening

apps,

controllin

g music

player,

and

making

calls

72. ^ Android
Issue

14462:

Sound

Recorder

does not

work on

backgrou

nd

73. ^ Android
Issue

2117:

Enhance

ment: Call

Recorder

74. ^ Android
Issue

9507:

Basic

video

editor (at

least time

trim and

split)

75. ^ a b c "Wi
ndows
Phone 7

OS

review:

From

scratch".

GSM

Arena. 8

October

2010.

76. ^ http://w
mpoweru

ser.com/h

ackstethe

ring-

come-to-

htc-wp7-

handsets-

htc-hub-

comes-to-

all-other-

wp7-

devices/

77. ^ Android
Issue

4471:

Download

able

maps for

offline

navigatio

n/location

78. ^ http://m
obilitydige

st.com/tur

n-by-turn-
directions

-comes-

to-

windows-

phone-

via-a-to-

b-free/

79. ^ http://w
ww.maxi

mumpc.c

om/article

/features/

smartpho

ne_face-

_ios_vs_a

ndroid_vs

_blackber

ry_vs_ma

emo

80. ^http://blo
gs.micros

oft.co.il/bl

ogs/alex_

golesh/ar

chive/201

0/07/14/si

lverlight-

for-

windows-

phone-7-

tombstoni

ng.aspx

81. ^ Finally,
Bluetooth

keyboard
support

for the

iPhone

82. ^ KeyPro
-

Bluetooth

keyboard

manager,

12/09/09

83. ^ Bluetoo
th

Keyboard

s On

Windows

Phone 7

84. ^ [2]

85. ^ Android
Issue

1386:

Feature

req:

support

WPA2-

Enterpris

e with

EAP

extension

86. ^ Screen
shot#iOS

87. ^ Android
Issue

6547:
Screen

shots

88. ^ How to
make

Windows

Mobile

screensh

ots?

89. ^ Take a
screensh

ot on

Windows

Phone 7

90. ^ http://w
mpoweru

ser.com/h

ome-

brew-

delivers-

againscre

en-shot-

functionali

ty-arrive-

on-the-

htc-hd7/

91. ^ Screen
shot for

Symbian

OS

92. ^ Stewart
Mitchell, "

Android

lets

developer
s work

closer to

the

metal", P

C Pro,

11/02/11

93. ^ http://w
ww.anand

tech.com/

show/296

9/window

s-phone-

7-series-

the-

anandtec

h-

guide/13

94. ^ http://de
veloper.a

ndroid.co

m/sdk/ind

ex.html

95. ^http://wi
ki.maemo

.org/Docu

mentation

/Maemo_

5_Final_S

DK_Instal

lation#Ins

talling_M

aemo_5_

SDK_usin

g_GUI_In

staller
96. ^ a bhttp://
www.foru

m.nokia.c

om/Techn

ology_To

pics/Devi

ce_Platfor

ms/Series

_40/

[edit]E
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