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# Fundamentals of Machining,

Lesson Outcomes

## By the end of this lesson, students should be able

to understand:
• The concept of machining
• Cutting mechanism
• Chip types and characteristics
• Cutting forces and their significance
• Cutting tool materials and their properties
• Inserts, their advantages and their shape
characteristics
• Cutting fluids: advantages, types and applications
Lesson Outcomes (cont.)

## • Cutting tool materials and their properties

• Inserts, their advantages and their shape
characteristics
• Cutting fluids: advantages, types and
applications
Machining definition:
The process of material removal from the
surface of a workpiece by chip formation
Machining and
finishing processes
Dimensional tolerances of various
machining processes
Cutting Models

## Orthogonal Cutting Oblique cutting

(2D model) (3D model)

## In orthogonal cutting, the chip slides

directly up the face of the tool, in oblique
cutting, the chip is helical and at an angle
i, called the inclination angle
(a) Orthogonal cutting with a well-defined shear plane
(b) Orthogonal cutting without a well-defined shear plane
Chip formation (2D Model)

## 1. Tool move to left at velocity V,

and depth of cut, to
Fig (a) shows the schematic
illustration of the basic mechanism 2. Shearing occurs along shear
plane
of chip formation by shearing. (b)
Velocity diagram showing angular 3. Chip is formed
relationships among the three 4. Chip pushed up the rake face
speeds in the cutting zone. by the chip forming below
5. Chip breaks
4 types of chips produced:
1. Continuous chip
2. Built up edge
3. Serrated or segmented chip
4. Discontinuous chip
Type of chips produced
1. Continuous chip
– Continuous chips usually are formed
with ductile materials, machined at
high cutting speeds (V) and/or high
rake angles ( ).
– Produce good surface finish
– Chips tend to tangle around tool
holder, fixtures
– Change cutting parameters or use
chip breakers to reduce chip length
Type of chips produced
2. Built up edge
– Workpiece material deposited on tool tip
– As it gets large, it BUE breaks away:
some carried by chip, some deposited on
workpiece
– Reduces quality of surface finish and
dulls tool point
– A thin & stable BUE can protect rake
face and reduce tool wear
– Can be reduced by: Increase cutting
speed, decrease depth of cut, increase
rake angle, use a sharp tool, use cutting
fluid, use cutting tool that has low
chemical affinity with workpiece material
Type of chips produced
3. Serrated or segmented
– Semi-continuous chips
– Occurs in metals with
low thermal conductivity and
strength that decrease sharply
with temperature (eg: titanium)
Type of chips produced
4. Discontinuous chip
• Chip is segmented
• May be due to:
– Brittle workpiece material, or
materials that contain hard
inclusions
– Very low or very high cutting
speeds
– Large depths of cuts
– Low rake angles
– No cutting fluid
– Vibration/chatter due to low
stiffness
Cutting Forces and Power
Why study cutting forces and power?
• Machine tool design
• Workpiece selection
• Machine tool selection
Cutting Forces and Power

## • The thrust force, acts in a direction normal to the cutting speed.

• These two forces produce the resultant force, R, as can be seen from the
force circle.
• The resultant force can be resolved into two components on the tool face:
a friction force, F, along the tool-chip interface and a normal force, N,
perpendicular to it.
• Note also that the resultant force is balanced by an equal and opposite
force along the shear plane and is resolved into a shear force, and a
normal force.
Tool wear and tool failure
• Adverse conditions (due to cutting) affect
tool wear lead to tool failure
Where
• Adverse conditions are: is temp
– High temp along rake face highest?
Why?
– Contact stresses

Chip sliding
along rake
face

Rubbing along
Localized workpiece
stress at tip
Effects of elevated temperatures

## • Effect on cutting tool: lower

strength/hardness/stiffness/wear resistence,
plastic deformation change in shape
• Effect on workpiece: dimensional change
part accuracy, material properties
Tool wear and tool failure
Types of tool wear/failure:
1.Flank wear
2. Crater wear
3. Nose wear
4.Notching
5. Plastic deformation of the tool tip
6. Chipping, and gross fracture
Tool wear and tool failure
Flank wear and crater wear:
Tool wear and tool failure
1. Flank wear
– Due to : high temp and rubbing along workpiece that
– Described by the Taylor equation:
VT n d x f y = C
speed tool life depth
feed A constant
of cut

## The time required to

develop a certain wear
stage, VB (allowable wear
land)

2. Crater wear
– Due to: high temp and chemical affinity with workpiece
Tool wear and tool failure
Equation for tool wear:
Tool life curves
VT d f = C
n x y

1
Vα n
T
The recommended cutting speed
for a high-speed steel tool is
generally the one that yields a tool
life of 60 to 120 min, and for a
carbide tool, it is 30 to 60 min.
Tool wear and tool failure
3. Nose wear is the rounding of a sharp tool,
due to mechanical and thermal effects. It
dulls the tool, affects chip formation, and
causes rubbing of the tool over the
workpiece, raising its temperature and
possibly inducing residual stresses on the
machined surface.
4. Notching.
Scale and oxide layers on a workpiece
surface contribute to notch wear, because
these layers are hard and abrasive.
Tool wear and tool failure
6. Chipping, and gross fracture
-A small fragment from the cutting edge of
the tool breaks away.
• Small: Microchipping/macrochipping
• Large: Gross chipping/fracture and
catastrophic failure
-Due to : mechanical shock, thermal
fatigue*
Machinability of materials
Factors that affect machinability of materials:
1. Surface finish and surface integrity of part
Geometric feature Material properties:
eg: Fatigue life,
Corrosion resistance
2. Tool life – most important factor
3. Force and power requirements
4. Chip control
Machinability of materials
How is tool life rating determined?

obtain T=60 min

## 2. The cutting speed at T=60min is used as

the tool life rating
Cutting Tools
Types of material used Cutting tool properties:
as cutting tools:
• Carbon & medium 1. Hot hardness: resistance
alloy steels to permanent
deformation
• High speed steel 2. Toughness: resistance to
• Cast cobalt alloys impact. Ability to absorb
• Carbides energy without failure
3. Thermal shock
• Coated tools resistance.
• Alumina ceramics 4. Wear resistance
• Cubic boron nitride 5. Chemical stability: does
• Diamond not react with workpiece
material
Cutting tool properties
Trends in cutting tool properties
Cutting tool property trend
Cutting Tools
• High-speed steel tools are shaped in
one piece and ground to impact various
geometric features such tools include
drill bits and milling and gear cutters.
• Fig 22.2 shows the typical carbide
inserts with various shapes and chip-
breaker features. The holes in the
inserts are standardized for
interchangeability in toolholders.
Inserts

Tool wear

Need to change
tool
-Multiple cutting
Take tool from points
Carbon steel & tool room
-Can easily change
HSS tools to a different
machined to cutting point
desired shape Time consuming
Inserts
Insert shapes
The figure below shows the relative edge strength and tendency for
chipping of inserts with various shapes. Strength refers to the cutting
edge indicated by the included angles.

The figure below shows the edge preparation for inserts to improve
edge strength.
Coated tools
1. Lower friction
3. Higher resistance to wear and cracking
4. Acting as a diffusion barrier
5. Higher hot hardness and impact resistance

Types of coatings:
1. Titanium nitride
2. Titanium carbide
3. Ceramics
4. Multiphase coatings
5. Diamond coatings
6. Etc.
Cutting Fluids
1. Reduce friction and wear, thus improving tool life and
the surface finish of the workpiece.
2. Cool the cutting zone, thus improving tool life and
reducing the temperature and thermal distortion of the
workpiece.
3. Reduce forces and energy consumption.
4. Flush away the chips from the cutting zone, and thus
prevent the chips from interfering with the cutting
process, particularly in operations such as drilling and
tapping.
5. Protect the machined surface from environmental
corrosion.
Cutting Fluids
Types of cutting fluids:
1. Oils (also called straight oils) including mineral, animal, vegetable,
compounded, and synthetic oils typically are used for low-speed
operations where temperature rise is not significant.
2. Emulsions (also called soluble oils) are a mixture of oil and water
and additives, generally are used for high-speed operations because
temperature rise is significant. The presence of water makes
emulsions very effective coolants.
3. Semisynthetics are chemical emulsions containing little mineral oil,
diluted in water, and with additives that reduce the size of oil
particles, making them more effective.
4. Synthetics are chemicals with additives, diluted in water, and
contain no oil.
Methods of cutting fluid
applications

## The need for a cutting fluid depends on the severity of the

particular machining operation, which may be defined as the
level of temperatures and forces encountered, the tendency
for built-up edge formation, the ease with which chips
produced can be removed from the cutting zone, and how
effectively the fluids can be applied to the proper region at
the tool–chip interface.
Methods of cutting fluid
applications
• Depending on the type of machining operation, the
cutting fluid needed may be a coolant, a lubricant,
or both.
• The effectiveness of cutting fluids depends on a
number of factors, such as the type of machining
operation, tool and workpiece materials, cutting
speed, and the method of application:
– Flooding
– Mist
– High pressure systems
– Through the cutting tool system
Application of cutting fluids
Summary
• Machining: The process of material removal from
the surface of a workpiece by chip formation
• When tool moves along a workpiece at a certain
depth of cut plastic deformation and shearing
• 4 major chip types are continuous chips, built up
edges, serrated chips and discontinuous chips
• Studies of cutting forces are important in machine
tool design, workpiece selection and machine tool
selection
Summary (cont.)
• A great variety of cutting tool materials exists with
varying degrees of hardness, toughness, wear
resistance and chemical stability
• Inserts allow easy change when worn out. Inserts
with larger included angles are stronger and less
likely to break
• Cutting fluids reduce friction & wear, reduce
cutting forces, remove chips and protect
workpiece against corrosion
• Cutting fluids must be applied correctly to harness