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BEE2922

Engineering Lab IV
(Autotronics)
Basic Autotronic Teaching Outline

• The student will learn how to design an automatic controller


using the combination of electronic circuit,switch ,relay,
timer,sensor,ac/dc

Course Outcome For Autotronics

1. Recognize the function of electrical and electronic switches,


relays and sensors
2. Identify the function and operate various types of relay,
switches and transistors
3. Design and demonstrate applied electrical and electronic circuit.
Syllabus
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Introduction to Autotronics
1.1.1 course information
1.1.2 course description
1.1.3 safety- Discipline and attire

2.0 Power source


2.1 AC source
2.2 DC source
2.2.1 Battery overview

3.0 Electrical Switches


3.1 Switch selection –
3.1.1 contact
3.1.2 rating
3.2 Operation method
3.3 Symbols
Syllibus (cont….)
4.0 Diode
4.1 Diode characteristics
4.2 Diode type and applications
5.0 Transistor
5.1 transistor characteristics
5.2 Transistor type and applications
6.0 Relays
6.1 basic concept of relay
6.2 relay construction
6.3 type of relay
6.4 relay application-holding circuit, flip-flop, forward-reverse
circuit
Syllibus (cont….)
7.0 Relay with timer
7.1 basic concept
7.2 construction
7.3 application

8.0 Sensors
8.1 type of sensors- NPN,PNP

9.0 Project
Course Description
In this AUTOTRONICS course, the
student will learn how to design an
automatic controller using combination
of electronic circuit, switches ,relays,
timers, sensors, AC/DC motors,
inverters and PLC.
What is Autotronic?
• generally- in modern engineering, word
“autotronic”, is show the electronic
concept in automobile technology.

• combination of electrical and


electronic switches concept.
Course Outcomes
1. Recognize the function of electrical
and electronic switches.
2. Identify the function and operate
various types of relay.
3. Design and demonstrate applied
electrical and electronic circuit.
4. Practice right attitude and safety
procedures.
Mark Distribution
• Practical reports (Exercises) = 5%
• Quizzes = 5%
• Practical Assessment I = 10%
• Practical Assessment II = 10%
• Practical Assessment III = 10%
• Final Project + Report = 10%

Total (Finalised) = 50%


! Other 50% is provided for Industrial Wiring
Course Syllabus
• Introduction
• Safety
- Discipline and attitude
- General Safety
• Power Source - AC/DC Source
• Battery
- type of Battery
- Battery overview supply
- Load Circuit
- charging and overcharging
- battery maintenance
• Electrical Switches
- Switch selection –rating/ contact
- type of switches – SPDT/DPDT
- Contact –POLE, THROW, WAY,
MOMENTARY, OPEN, CLOSE,
- NC, NO and etc.
• Rating-maximum voltage and current.
Teaching Outline
POWER SUPPLY
BASIC ELEC. LOOP
DC CURRENT
AC SOURCE & DC SOURCE
SWITCH
Switches
How to selecting a Switch?

3 MAJOR features to be considered:-


1. Contacts (e.g. single pole, double throw)
2. Ratings (maximum voltage and current)
3. Method of Operation (toggle, slide, key etc.)
1. Switch Contacts
Several terms are used to describe switch contacts:

9 Pole - number of switch contact sets.


9 Throw - number of conducting positions, single or double.
9 Way - number of conducting positions, three or more.
9 Momentary - switch returns to its normal position when
released.
9 Open - off position, contacts not conducting.
9 Closed - on position, contacts conducting, there may be
several on positions.
9 N.O – (Normally Open) contacts open in normal condition
9 N.C - (Normally Close) contacts closed in normal condition
2. Switch Rating
9 Rated with a maximum
voltage and current
9 AC value are higher – arc
less likely to form
9 Low voltage electronics-
need to check current
rating.
9 The maximum current is
less for inductive loads
(coils and motors) because
they cause more sparking
at the contacts when
switched off.
3. Method of operation
• Toggle switch • Slide switch

• Rotary switch

• Rocker switch • Push Button

• Leaf switch
Switch & symbols
Type of Switch Symbols
Toggle switch,
SPST, (N.O)
Toggle switch,
SPST, (N.C)
Momentary switch/push button
(ON)-OFF / Push-to-make, SPST
Momentary switch/push button
(ON)-OFF / Push-to-break, SPST
Switch & symbols
Type of Switch Symbols
Toggle switch,
SPDT Centre-OFF
Toggle switch,
SPDT,
Toggle switch,
DPST

Toggle switch,
N.C 1

C1

DPDT N.O 1

N.C 2

C2

N.O 2
Switch & symbols
Type of Switch Symbols
Temperature Switch (N.O)

Flow Switch (N.O)

Pressure Switch (N.O)

Limit Switch (N.O)

Level switch (N.C)

Proximity Switch (N.C)

2 position switch /
intermediate switch
Switches in series
• If several on-off switches are connected in series they must
all be closed (on) to complete the circuit.

• The diagram shows a simple circuit with two switches


connected in series to control a lamp.

• Switch S1 AND Switch S2 must be closed to light the lamp.


Switches in Parallel
• If several on-off switches are connected in parallel only one
needs to be closed (on) to complete the circuit.

• The diagram shows a simple circuit with two switches


connected in parallel to control a lamp.

• Switch S1 OR Switch S2 (or both of them) must be closed to


light the lamp.
Exercise
• 3 switches used to control (on/off) 1
set of lamp.
– One walk-way corridor.
– Switch at begin, middle & end of corridor.
– On/Off a set of lamp with any of the
switch.
Solution 1a

S2 S1

S3

LAMP

AC
L1 N
Solution 2a

S2 S1

S3

LAMP

AC
L1 N
Homework
• 4 switches used to control (on/off) 1
set of lamp.
– One hall has 4 doors.
– Door located at each side.
– Beside each door has a switch to control a
set of lamp.
– On/Off a set of lamp with any of the
switch.
Solution Homework

S2 S1

S3 S4

LAMP

AC
L1 N
RELAY
RELAY
• A relay is an electrically operated
switch.
• Consist 2 part:-
– Coil
– Contact

• Contact will activated when the coil is


energize.

• Relays allow one circuit to switch a


second circuit which can be completely
separate from the first.
RELAY
• The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current.

• But, can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to


operate from lower voltages.

• Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a


transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC
current to the larger value required for the relay coil.

• What is “COMM” , “NO” and “NC”???


Choosing Relay
• Physical size and pin arrangement
Make sure the dimensions and pin arrangement are
suitable for your project.

• Coil voltage
The relay's coil voltage rating and resistance must
suit the circuit powering the relay coil. Many relay
have a coil rated for a 12V supply but 5V and 24V
relays are also readily available. Some relays
operate perfectly well with a supply voltage which
is a little lower than their rated value.
Choosing Relay
• Coil resistance
The circuit must be able to supply the current
required by the relay coil.

– Relay coil current = supply voltage/coil resistance

For example: A 12V supply relay with a coil


resistance of 400Ω passes a current of 30mA. This is
OK for a 555 timer IC (maximum output current
200mA), but it is too much for most ICs and they
will require a transistor to amplify the current.
Choosing Relay
Switch/contact ratings (voltage and current)
The relay's switch contacts must be suitable for the
circuit they are to control.
Note that the voltage rating is usually higher for AC,
for example: "5A at 24V DC or 125V AC".

Switch contact arrangement (SPDT, DPDT etc)


Most relays are SPDT or DPDT which are often
described as "single pole changeover" (SPCO) or
"double pole changeover" (DPCO).
Advantages of relays

9 Able to switch AC and DC, transistors can only


switch DC.

9 Can switch high voltages, transistors cannot.

9 Better choice for switching large currents (> 5A).

9 Switch many contacts at once.


Disadvantages of relays
9 Bulkier than transistors for switching small
currents.

9 Cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays),


transistors can switch many times per second.

9 Used more power due to the current flowing


through their coil.

9 Required more current than many chips can


provide, so a low power transistor may be needed
to switch the current for the relay's coil.
Relay operation
+ 24V + 24V

+ 24V ? ? + 24V ? ?

0V 0V
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

0V 0V
Exercise #1

Forward Reverse
(Fwd) (Rev)
Solution for Exercise #1

+ 24V + 24V

0V 12V 0V 12V 0V 0V
Relay - Holding circuit
+ 24V
+ 24V + 24V

+ 24V + 24V
2 + 24V

1
0V 0V 0V

0V 0V
0V

Current can
flows through
these conductor
start

Exercise 2 ACTION?

PUSH 1ST PUSH 3RD


P/B P/B

FULLY FULLY
YES OPEN? CLOSE? YES

NO NO

MOTOR MOTOR
FORWARD REVERSE

PUSH 2ND
WAITING WAITING
STOP
CONDITION CONDITION
P/B

FULLY OPEN FULLY CLOSE


LIMIT SWITCH LIMIT SWITCH
ACTIVE ACTIVE

MOTOR STOP
Solution 2 – step 1
(stop by push button)
+ 24V

+ 24V
+ 24V

0V 12V 0V 12V 0V 0V
Solution 2 – step 2
(stop by limit switch)
+ 24V

FULLY OPEN FULLY CLOSE


L/S L/S

+ 24V
+ 24V

0V 12V 0V 12V 0V 0V
Solution 2 – step 2
(limitation)
+ 24V

FULLY OPEN FULLY CLOSE


L/S L/S

+ 24V + 24V

0V 12V 0V 12V 0V 0V
Solution 2 – step 3
(Final touch up)
+ 24V

FULLY OPEN FULLY CLOSE


L/S L/S

0V 12V 0V 12V 0V 0V
Relay – Flip-flop
• Need to added a capacitor to circuit.

• What that capacitor can do?


– As a temporary battery.
– Charge and discharge
Relay – Flip-flop
+ 24V
0V

+ 24V

0V
+ 24V
0V

+ 24V

Charging
Capacitor

0V
+ 24V
0V

+ 24V

Capacitor
Discharging

0V
Exercise 3
start

S/S = Selector
Switch
No
System ON? No Door Close?
L/S = Limit <S/S 1> <L/S 1>
Switch
yes
Yes
No
Door open?
<L/S 1> No
Reset by S/S 1

Yes
Yes

Red Lamp STOP


Red Lamp Blink
Blink
Buzzer ON
Buzzer OFF
Solution of Ex. 3

How?

Design in your group and do testing on


the testing board. Buzzer isn’t there,
so please replace it with a green light.
TIMER RELAY
TIMER- Connection Diagram
Model: OMRON type AH3-NC

A B

DC
Mode A Operation
Mode B Operation
DIODES
Diode Function
• Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction.

• The arrow of the circuit symbol = direction current’s flow.

• Diodes are the electrical version of a valve.


Forward Voltage Drop
• Electricity uses up a little
energy pushing its way
through the diode.
• There is a small voltage
across a conducting diode,
called the forward voltage
drop.
• The forward voltage drop is
almost constant, so they have
a very steep characteristic
Reverse Voltage Drop
• In a reverse voltage, a perfect diode does not conduct,
but all real diodes leak a very tiny current of a few µA
or less.
• All diodes have a maximum reverse voltage (usually
50V or more)
• Breakdown when diode was fail and pass a large
current in the reverse direction.
Testing a diode
• You can use a multimeter or a simple tester
(battery, resistor and LED) to check that a diode
conducts in one direction but not the other.

A lamp may be used to test a rectifier diode, but do

!
NOT use a lamp to test a signal diode because the
large current passed by the lamp will destroy the
diode!