‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻮم‬

‫درس اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎء‬
‫ذ اﻟﻐﺰیﺰال‬

‫ﺕﺘﺒﻊ ﺕﻄﻮر ﺕﺤﻮل آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬

‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط اﻟﺘﺠﺮیﺒﻲ‬

‫) ﺕﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺡﻤﺾ اﻟﻜﻠﻮریﺪریﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺰیﻮم (‬

‫اﻷهﺪاف‪:‬‬

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‫آﺘﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﻡﺘﻮازﻧﺔ ﻡﺸﺒﺮا إﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ )ﺻﻠﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺋﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻡﺬاب أو ﻏﺎز(‬
‫ﺧﻂ ﺟﺪول ﺕﻄﻮر آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ ) ﻡﺒﺮزا ﻓﻴﻪ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﺒﺪﺋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺘﺤﻮل ‪ ،‬واﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ (‬
‫اﻟﺘﻌﺮف ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﻟﺤﺪي )إن وﺟﺪ ( ﺛﻢ ﺕﺤﺪﻳﺪ اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺐ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ) ﺑﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﺪم اﻷﻗﺼﻰ (‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻂ ﺕﻐﻴﺮات آﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺎدة ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ واﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎرهﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﻌﺪة اﻟﺘﺠﺮیﺒﻴﺔ‬
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‫دورق ﻣﻦ ﺣﺠﻢ ‪ + 250ml‬ﺳﺪاد ﺑﺜﻘﺒﻴﻦ ‪+‬‬
‫ﻣﻨﺼﺔ راﻓﻌﺔ‬
‫‪100ml‬‬
‫آﺄس‬
‫ﺳﺤﺎﺣﺔ ‪250ml‬‬
‫ﻣﺨﺒﺎر ﻣﺪرج ﺑﺴﺪاد‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰان ذو دﻗﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺮار ‪ +‬ﻣﻀﻐﺎط ) ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ درﺝﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﻤﺨﺘﺒﺮ واﻟﻀﻐﻂ اﻟﺠﻮي داﺥﻠﻪ (‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻮل ﺣﻤﺾ اﻟﻜﻠﻮریﺪریﻚ ذو ﺕﺮآﻴﺰ ‪CA = 0,5 mol.l-1‬‬
‫‪(M = 24.3) m = 54mg :‬‬
‫ﺷﺮیﻂ اﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺰیﻮم‬

‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎوﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻡﻌﺎدﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ ‪Mg2+(aq) + H2(g) + 2H2O(l) :‬‬
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‫•‬
‫•‬

‫)‪Mg(s) + 2H3O+(aq‬‬

‫ﻥﻀﻊ ﺷﺮیﻂ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻐﻨﻴﺰیﻮم )‪ (4cm‬وﻥﺤﺪد آﺘﻠﺘﻪ ‪ m =54,1mg‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪورق وﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ اﻟﺴﺤﺎﺣﺔ ﻥﻀﻴﻒ ‪ 15ml‬ﻣﻦ ﺣﻤﺾ اﻟﻜﺒﺮیﺘﻴﻚ‬
‫ﻥﺤﺮك اﻟﺨﻠﻴﻂ وﻥﺴﺠﻞ اﻟﺤﺠﻢ اﻟﻤﺰاح إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺨﺒﺎر اﻟﻤﺪرج ) ﻥﺤﺮس ﻋﻠﻰ أن یﻜﻮن ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻤﺎء ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺨﺒﺎر هﻮ ﻥﻔﺲ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻮض ‪ :‬وذﻟﻚ ﺑﺈﻓﺮاغ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎء ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻮض ﺣﺘﻰ یﺘﺤﻘﻖ اﻟﺸﺮط اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ ( ‪V = 72 ml :‬‬
‫‪T = 22°C‬‬
‫ﻥﻘﺮأ درﺝﺔ ﺣﺮارة اﻟﺤﺠﺮة واﻟﻀﻐﻂ اﻟﺠﻮي ﺑﻬﺎ ‪P =1atm (R =0,082UP) :‬‬

‫اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ واﺳﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬

‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ اﻟﻤﻮﻟﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺷﺮوط اﻟﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ ‪ P.Vm = R.T‬و ﻥﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ‪Vm = 24,1L.mol-1.‬‬
‫ﺡﺠﻢ ﻏﺎز اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﺝﻴﻦ )‪ VT = V(H2) +V(air‬اﻟﺤﺠﻢ اﻟﻤﺰاح هﻮ ﻣﺠﻤﻮع ﺣﺠﻤﻲ ﻏﺎز اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﺝﻴﻦ و اﻟﻬﻮاء اﻟﻨﺎﺕﺞ ﻋﻦ إدﺥﺎل اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻮل ) ‪( 15ml‬‬
‫إذن ‪ V(H2)exp = V - 15,0‬و ‪ V(H2)exp = 72,0- 15,0‬وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪V(H2)exp = 57,0mL‬‬
‫آﻤﻴﺔ ﻡﺎدة اﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺰیﻮم‪m /M=n(Mg) =2,23.10-3 mol :‬‬
‫وﻣﻨﻪ ‪[H3O+]=CA‬إذن ‪n(H3O+) =CA.VA :‬‬
‫‪HCl + H2O:‬‬
‫آﻤﻴﺔ ﻡﺎدة ‪ H3O+‬ﻥﻌﻠﻢ ‪H3O+ + Cl-.‬‬
‫‪n(H3O+)i = 7,50.10-3mol‬‬

‫‪ .5‬اﻟﺠﺪول اﻟﻮﺻﻔﻲ‪:‬‬

‫)‪+ H2(g) + 2H2O(l‬‬
‫‪n(H2)i = 0,0‬‬

‫‪2+‬‬

‫‪n(H2)t = x‬‬

‫‪2+‬‬

‫‪n(H2)f = xmax‬‬

‫‪2+‬‬

‫‪2+‬‬
‫)‪(aq‬‬

‫‪Équation de la réaction‬‬

‫‪+‬‬
‫)‪(aq‬‬

‫‪Mg(s) + 2H3O‬‬

‫‪Mg‬‬

‫‪n(H3O )i = 7,50.10‬‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪n(Mg )i = 0,0‬‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪n(H3O )t = 7,50.10 - 2.x‬‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪n(Mg )t = x‬‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪n(H3O )f = 7,50.10 - 2.xmax‬‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪n(Mg )f = xmax‬‬

‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪+‬‬

‫‪n(Mg)i = 2,23.10‬‬

‫‪n(Mg)t = 2,23.10 - x‬‬

‫‪n(Mg)f = 2,23.10 - xmax‬‬

‫)‪Etat initial (mol‬‬
‫‪Etat à la date t‬‬
‫‪l'avancement est x‬‬
‫)‪Etat final (mol‬‬
‫)‪l'avancement est xmax(mol‬‬

‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻮم‬

‫درس اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎء‬
‫ذ اﻟﻐﺰیﺰال‬
: ‫ اﻟﺘﻘﺪم اﻟﻘﺼﻮي‬.6

2,23.10-3 - x

0

x

2,23.10-3

x

3,75.10-3

=>
-3

7,50.10 - 2.x

0

=> xmax = 2,23.10-3 mol.

Équation de la réaction

‫ اﻟﻤﻐﻨﻴﺰیﻮم إذن هﻮ اﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﻟﺤﺪي‬: ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﻟﺤﺪي‬

+
(aq)

2+
(aq)

Mg(s) + 2H3O

Etat initial (mol)

-3

n(H3O )i = 7,50.10

n(Mg)t = 2,23.10 - x

-3

n(H3O )t = 7,50.10 - 2.x

n(Mg)f = 0,00

n(H3O )f = 3,04.10

n(Mg)i = 2,23.10

Etat à la date t
l'avancement est x
Etat final (mol)
l'avancement est xmax(mol)

Mg

.7
.8

+ H2(g) + 2H2O(l)

+

-3

n(Mg )i = 0,00

2+

n(H2)i = 0,00

+

-3

n(Mg )t = x

2+

n(H2)t = x

+

-3

n(Mg )f = 2,23.10

2+

-3

-3

n(H2)f = 2,23.10

. ‫ ﻷن آﻤﻴﺔ ﻣﺎدﺕﻪ ﻻ ﺕﻨﻌﺪم ﻋﻨﺪ ﺕﻬﺎیﺔ اﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ‬H3O+ ‫ اﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻞ اﻟﻤﻮﺝﻮد ﺑﻮﻓﺮة هﻮ‬.8
: ‫ ﺡﺠﻢ ﻏﺎز اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﺝﻴﻦ اﻟﻨﻈﺮي‬.9
V(H2)the = n(H2)f.Vm

=>

V(H2)the = 2,23.10-3 x 24,1

=>

V(H2)the = 53,7.10-3L

=>

V(H2)the = 53,7mL
: ‫ اﻹرﺕﻴﺎب اﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ‬. 10

−3
−3
∆V ( H 2 ) Vth − Vexp 53,7.10 − 57.10
=
=
Vth ( H 2 )
Vth
53.7.10 −3

= 6,15%

x : ‫ ﻡﺨﻄﻂ ﺕﻄﻮر آﻤﻴﺎت اﻟﻤﺎدة اﻟﻤﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼت ﺑﺪﻻﻟﺔ اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬. 11
+

-3

n(H3O )t = 7,50.10 - 2.x
-3

n(Mg)t = 2,23.10 - x
+

-3

(H3O )t = 7,50.10 - 2.x
-3

n(Mg)t = 2,23.10 - x

Xmax

X ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬

‫درس اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎء‬
‫ذ اﻟﻐﺰیﺰال‬

‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻮم‬

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