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COMMUNICABLE DISEASE NURSING - An agent that prevents bacterial multiplication but does not kill

SUMMER REVIEW microorganisms

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE
CHAIN OF INFECTION
 Disease caused by an infectious agent that are transmitted
directly or indirectly to a well person through an agency, vector or
inanimate object

CONTAGIOUS DISEASE
 Disease that is easily transmitted from one person to
another
INFECTIOUS DISEASE
 Disease transmitted by direct inoculation through a break in
the skin

INFECTION INFECTIOUS AGENT


-Entry and multiplication of an infectious agent into the tissue of the  Any microorganism capable of producing a disease
host RESERVOIR
INFESTATION
- Lodgement and development of arthropods on the surface of the
 Environment or object on which an organism can survive
and multiply
body
PORTAL OF EXIT
ASEPSIS  The venue or way in which the organism leaves the
- Absence of disease – producing microorganisms reservoir
SEPSIS MODE OF TRANSMISSION
- The presence of infection  The means by which the infectious agent passes from the
portal of exit from the reservoir to the susceptible host
MEDICAL ASEPSIS PORTAL OF ENTRY
- Practices designed to reduce the number and transfer of  Permits the organism to gain entrance into the host
pathogens SUSCEPTIBLE HOST
- Clean technique  A person at risk for infection, whose defense mechanisms
SURGICAL ASEPSIS are unable to withstand invasion of pathogens
- Practices that render and keep objects and areas free from
microorganisms STAGES OF THE INFECTIOUS PROCESS
- Sterile technique  Incubation Period – acquisition of pathogen to the onset of
signs and symptoms
 CARRIER – an individual who harbors the organism and is  Prodromal Period – patient feels “bad” but not yet
capable of transmitting it without showing manifestations of the experiencing actual symptoms of the disease
disease  Period of Illness – onset of typical or specific signs and
symptoms of a disease
 CASE – a person who is infected and manifesting the signs
and symptoms of the disease  Convalescent Period – signs and symptoms start to abate
and client returns to normal health
 SUSPECT – a person whose medical history and signs and MODE OF TRANSMISSION
symptoms suggest that such person is suffering from that particular CONTACT TRANSMISSION
disease  Direct contact – involves immediate and direct transfer
 CONTACT – any person who had been in close association from person-to-person (body surface-to-body surface)
with an infected person  Indirect contact – occurs when a susceptible host is
exposed to a contaminated object
HOST DROPLET TRANSMISSION
- A person, animal or plant which harbors and provides nourishment  Occurs when the mucous membrane of the nose, mouth or
for a parasite conjunctiva are exposed to secretions of an infected person within a
RESERVOIR distance of three feet
- Natural habitat for the growth, multiplication and reproduction of VEHICLE TRANSMISSION
microorganism  Transfer of microorganisms by way of vehicles or
contaminated items that transmit pathogens
ISOLATION AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION
- The separation of persons with communicable diseases from other
 Occurs when fine particles are suspended in the air for a
persons
QUARANTINE long time or when dust particles contain pathogens
- The limitation of the freedom of movement of persons exposed to VECTOR-BORNE TRANSMISSION
communicable diseases  Transmitted by biologic vectors like rats, snails and
mosquitoes
 STERILIZATION – the process by which all microorganisms TYPES OF IMMUNIZATION
including their spores are destroyed
 ACTIVE – antibodies produced by the body
 DISINFECTION – the process by which pathogens but not  NATURAL – antibodies are formed in the presence of
their spores are destroyed from inanimate objects active infection in the body; lifelong
 CLEANING – the physical removal of visible dirt and debris  ARTIFICIAL – antigens are administered to stimulate
by washing contaminated surfaces antibody production
 PASSIVE – antibodies are produced by another source
CONCURRENT  NATURAL – transferred from mother to newborn through
- Done immediately after the discharge of infectious materials / placenta or colostrum
secretions  ARTIFICIAL – immune serum (antibody) from an animal or
TERMINAL human is injected to a person
- Applied when the patient is no longer the source of infection
SEVEN CATEGORIES OF ISOLATION
BACTERICIDAL
 STRICT- prevent highly contagious or virulent infections
- A chemical that kills microorganisms
BACTERIOSTATIC  Example: chickenpox, herpes zoster
 CONTACT – spread primarily by close or direct contact
CD-Bucud 1
 Example: scabies, herpes simplex If the patient flexes the hips and knees in response to the
 RESPIRATORY – prevent transmission of infectious manipulation, positive for meningitis
distances over short distances through the air KERNIG’S SIGN
Place the patient in a supine position, flex his leg at the hip and knee
 Example: measles, mumps, meningitis then straighten the knee; pain and resistance indicates meningitis
 TUBERCULOSIS – indicated for patients with positive
smear or chest x-ray which strongly suggests tuberculosis
 ENTERIC – prevent transmission through direct contact with
feces
 Example: poliomyelitis, typhoid fever
 DRAINAGE – prevent transmission by direct or indirect
contact with purulent materials or discharge
 Ex. Burns
SIGNS AND SYMPTOM
 UNIVERSAL – prevent transmission of blood and body-fluid
borne pathogens
 Example: AIDS, Hepatitis B

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

ENCEPHALITIS MENINGITIS MENINGO


URTI: COCCEMI
ENCEPHALITIS Vas
MEN
cough, sore
MAIN PROBLEM pete
throat, - Acute infection
- Inflammation of - Inflammation of rash
fever,
SIGNS AND the bloodstream
SYMPTOMS
the brain the meninges trun
headache, developing vascu
Stiff neck extr
ETIOLOGIC AGENT nausea and Nuchal
- Streptococcus
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS vomiting
OF ENCEPHALITIS
- Staphylococcus
Photophobia
- Arboviruses Opisth DIAGNOSTIC EXAM

- Pneumococcus  Informed consent

Virus enters neural


bacillus cells
 Empty bowel and bladder

Lethargy
 Fetal, shrimp or “C” position
- Tubercle Brudzi  Spinal canal, subarachnoid space between L3-L4 or L4- L5
 After: bedrest
 Flat on bed to prevent spinal headache

INCUBATION PERIOD - Neisseria meningitidesMEN


ENCEPHALITIS
Convulsions Kernig
5-15 days in
Disruption 1-10 days
Perivascular 3-4 days
Inflamma
cellular
MODE OF TRANSMISSION congestion reaction
TREATMENT MODALITIES
INCIDENCE
Bite of infected
functioningSIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MENINGITIS
mosquito Dexamethasone
5-10Respiratory
years old droplets
< 5 yea
Lethargy Headache Mannitol
Fever
Convulsions Sore thro
Photophobia Anticonvulsan
Seizures Vomiting
THREE SIGNS OF MENINGEAL IRRITATION
OPISTHOTONUS
Stiff neck Antipyretics
State of severe hyperextension and spasticity in which an individual’s
head, neck and spinal column enter into a complete arching position
BRUDZINSKI’S SIGN
Place the patient in a dorsal recumbent position and then put hands
behind the patient’s neck and bend it forward.
PREVENTION CD-Bucud 2

ENCEPHALITIS MENINGITIS MENINGO
Recovery within 72 hours and the disease passes by
unnoticed
PRE-PARALYTIC OR MENINGETIC TYPE

COCCEMI
 Slight involvement of the CNS
 Pain and spasm of muscles
 Transient paresis
 (+) Pandy’s test (increased protein in the CSF)

NURSING MANAGEMENT PARALYTIC TYPE


 CNS involvement
 Flaccid paralysis
1. Side boards
1. Comfort: quiet, 1. Respiratory


Asymmetric

2. Close contacts
Affects lower extremities
 Urine retention and constipation
well-ventilated isolation 24-72
 (+) HOYNE’S SIGN (when in supine position, head will fall
back when shoulders are elevated)

room hours after onset H – ouse


of antibiotic I – nfected perso
2. Skin care:
POLIOMYELITIS RABIES TETANUS
therapy
RABIES
PRODROMAL/INVASION PHASE
kissing
cleansing bath,  Fever
 Anorexia

change in  Sore throat


2. Room protected S – ame daycare
 Pain and tingling at the site of bite
 Difficulty swallowing
position
MAIN PROBLEM against  bright
EXCITEMENT OR NEUROLOGICAL PHASE
Hydrophobia (laryngospasm) center
 Aerophobia (bronchospasm)

Acute infection of lightsviral


Acute disease
 Delirium
Acute infectious
3. Eliminate  Maniacal
 Drooling
behavior
S – hare mouth
themosquito
CNS – muscle of the TERMINAL
CNS –PARALYTIC
OR by PHASE disease
 Patient becomes unconscious
with syst
instruments
spasm, paresis and 3. Safety:
saliva of side-lying
infected neuromuscular
Loss of urine and bowel control
breeding sites:  Progressive paralysis

paralysis position and


animals
 Death
3.
effectsAntibiotics as
POLIOMYELITIS
CULEX RABIES
raisedPOLIOMYELITIS
side rails
TETANUS
prophylaxisRA
mosquito
ETIOLOGIC AGENT Rhabdovirus Clostridium teta
INCUBATION PERIOD
Legio debilitans 2-8 weeks
Bullet-shaped Anaerobic
COMPLICATION
7-21 days Affinity
Distanceto of CNS
bite to Adult: 3 days-3
Gram positive
brain Paralysis of weeks R
Killed byrespiratory
sunlight, muscles Drumstick FA
UV light, formalin
Extensiveness of the Neonate:
appearance 3-30 d
POLIOMYELITIS RABIES
bite TETANUS
ResistantPOLIOMYELITIS
to
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
RA
Resistance of the
antibiotics 1. Throa
host
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS 1. TREATMENT
Stool culture
R – MODALITI
isus sardon 2. Floure
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
1. Abortive type
- Direct contact with
1. Prodromal /
2. CSF culture
1. Analgesics 1. Loca
O – pistothonu
antibo

Biteinvasion
infected feces 3. Negri b
2. Pre-paralytic of an infected trea
Direct inoculatio
- Direct contact with phase2. Morphine Tthrough
– rismus
animal ISOLATION PRECAUTION a broke
wou
or meningetic
POLIO
respiratory
ABORTIVE TYPE secretions
 Does not invade the CNS

typewith soiled
 Headache 3.Enteric heatskin
Moist isolation Res
- Indirect
 Sore throat
2. Excitement / C – onvulsions 2. Acti
linens and articles application iso
neurological imm CD-Bucud 3

3. Paralytic type H – eadache


POLIOMYELITIS RABIES TETANUS
BIRD FLU
COMPLICATIONS
NURSING MANAGEMENT Severe viral pneumonia
1. Enteric isolation 1. Adequate
Acute respiratory
1. Isolation ai
distress
syndrome
2. Proper disposal 2. Optimum 2. Quiet, semi-d
of secretions
POLIOMYELITIS comfort
RABIES environment
TETANUS
Fluid accumulation BIRD FLU
in
3. Moist hot packs 3. Restful alveolar sacs sudde
3. Avoid
TREATMENT MODALITIES
environment
PREVENTION
4. Firm / 1. If the dog is 1. stimuli
Asepticand l
1. Amantadine/Rimantadin
nonsagging
Salk vaccine bed 4. Emotional breathing
Severe
healthy difficultie
handling of
- Generic flu drugs
support umbilical co
5. Suitable body 2. If the dog dies or
- Inactivated - H5N1
signs developed resistanc
alignment 5. shows
Concurrent
Multiple organ failuretox
2. Tetanus
polio vaccine suggestive of BIRD (TAMIFLU)
FLU
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
6. Comfort and and2.terminal
Oseltamivir immunizati
rabies
- safety
Intramuscular disinfection
BIRD FLU Zanamavir
PREVENTION
3. If dog is not DEATHSARS
(RELENZA)
3. Antibiotic
Sabin vaccine - Primary treatment
MAIN PROBLEM 1.Culling – killing
available for of
prophylaxis
observation
- Within 2 days at onset of
-FluOral polio
infection in birds that sick
A or exposed
new
symptoms type of atypical
- Penicillinpneum
vaccine
affects humans that infects the lungs
4. Have domestic
birds
3- months
150
dog NURSING
BIRD FLU mgto BID- Erythromycin
MANAGEMENT
x 2 days
- Per orem WHAT TO DO WITH A PERSON SUSPECTED TO HAVE BIRD
1 year old
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
2.• Banning- of
FLU

immunized
Isolation
Tetracycline
BIRD FLU SARS
Face mask on the patient
Avian influenza virus, H5N1 Corona virus



importation of
Caregiver: use a face mask and eye goggles/glasses
Distance of 1 meter from the patient
Transport the patient to a DOH referral hospital

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


INCUBATION PERIOD •
birds (Executive
REFERRAL HOSPITALS
National Referral Center – Research Institute for Tropical

order # 280)
Medicine (RITM) (Alabang, Muntinlupa)

Body weakness or muscle


• Luzon – San Lazaro Hospital (Quiricada St., Sta. Cruz,
Manila)
3-5 days • 2-8 days
Visayas – Vicente Sotto Memorial Medical Hospital

pain
MODE OF TRANSMISSION 3. Cook chicken
SARS
(Cebu City)
• Mindanao – Davao Medical Center (Bajada, Davao City)
SUSPECT CASE

Cough
Inhalation of feces and thoroughly
1. A person presenting after 1 November 2002 with a history of:


Respiratory droplets
High fever >38 0C AND
Cough or breathing difficulty AND
discharge of an infected bird
Difficulty breathing
CD-Bucud 4
• Suffocation, cyanosis or death
 One or more of the following exposures during the 10 days
WOUND OR CUTANEOUS DIPHTHERIA
prior to the onset of symptoms:
• Yellow spots or sores in the skin
 Close contact, with a person who is a suspect or
probable case of SARS PERTUSSIS
CATARRHAL STAGE
 History of travel, to an area with recent local
transmission of SARS • Lasts for 1 to 2 weeks
 Residing in an area with recent local transmission of • Most communicable stage
SARS • Begins with respiratory infection, sneezing, cough and
2. A person with an unexplained acute respiratory illness resulting fever
in death after 1 November 2002, but on whom no autopsy has been
performed :
• Cough becomes more frequent at night
AND PAROXYSMAL STAGE
• Lasts for 4 to 6 weeks
 One or more of the following exposures during the 10 days
prior to the onset of symptoms: • Aura: sneezing, tickling, itching of throat
 Close contact, with a person who is a suspect or • Cough, explosive outburst ending in “whoop”
probable case of SARS • Mucus is thick, ends in vomiting
 History of travel, to an area with recent local • Becomes cyanotic
transmission of SARS
• With profuse sweating, involuntary urination and
 Residing in an area with recent local transmission of exhaustion
SARS CONVALESCENT STAGE
PROBABLE CASE • End of 4th-6th week
1. A suspect case with radiographic evidence of infiltrates • Decrease in paroxysms
consistent with pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome on Chest
x-ray.

2. A suspect case of SARS that is positive for SARS coronavirus by


DIPHTHERIA
one or more assays.

3. A suspect case with autopsy findings consistent with the


pathology of SARS without an identifiable cause. DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
 SCHICK’S TESTS
DIPHTHERIA PERTUSSIS
- Susceptibility and immunity to
MAIN PROBLEM diphtheria
Acute bacterial disease -ID of dilute diphtheria toxin (0.1
cc) Repeated attacks of spasmod
DIPHTHERIA
characterized by the elaboration coughing
of an exotoxin (+) local circumscribed area of
COMPLICATIONS
redness, 1-3 cm
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
Toxins inTEST
MALONEY’S the bloodstream
DIPHTHERIA
Corynebacterium diphtheriae or PERTUSSIS
Bordetella pertussis
Klebs-Loeffler bacillus -Determines hypersensitivity to
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS diphtheria anti-toxin
Myocarditis Peripheral Bro
INCUBATION PERIOD -ID(epigastric
of 0.1 cc fluidparalysis
toxoid pneu
Types: DIPHTHERIA or chest (tingling, (fe
2-5 days Stages: -(+) area 7-14 days
pain) of erythema in 24 hoursco
numbness,
1.Nasal
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
NASAL DIPHTHERIA
1. Catarrhal TREATMENT paresis) MODALITIES
• Bloody discharge from the nose

2.Tonsilopharyngeal

1. Diphtheria
1. Respiratory
Excoriated nares and upper lip
droplets anti-toxin
TONSILOPHARYNGEAL DIPHTHERIA
• Low grade fever Heart
2. Paroxysmal Resp
Decreased
2. Direct contact with-respiratory
Requires skin testing
• Sore throat

•3.Laryngeal
• Bull-neck appearance
failure secretions
in or
3.with
Convalescent
Pseudomembrane- Group of pale yellow membrane over

arr
tonsils and at the back of the throat as an inflammatory

4.Wound or 3. Indirect - Early


contact administration
respiratory
articles
response to a powerful necrotizing toxins
LARYNGEAL DIPHTHERIA
rate


Hoarseness
Croupy cough aimed at neutralizing the


cutaneous
Aphonia
toxin present in the
Membrane lining thickens à airway obstruction
DEATH
circulation before it is CD-Bucud 5

absorbed by the tissues


DIPHTHERIA PERTUSSIS
AMOEBIASIS
NURSING MANAGEMENT MAIN PROBLEM
1. Isolation: 4-6 weeks from
1. Isolation: 14 days (until onset of illness of the large
Protozoal infection
2-3 cultures, 24 hours
intestine
apart) 2. Supportive measures
(bedrest, avoid
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
2. Bedrest for 2 weeks
MUMPS
excitement, dust, smoke
MAIN PROBLEM
An acute contagious disease, with swelling of one or both of the AMOEBIASIS
Entamoeba
and warmhistolytica
baths)
3. Care for nose and
parotid glands
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
Filterable virus of paramyxovirus group

throat (gentle swabbing) SIGNS


INCUBATION PERIOD
12-26 days -3. AND(during
Prevalent
Safety inSYMPTOMS
areas with ill
MODE OF TRANSMISSION

4. Ice collar (decrease pain sanitation


paroxysms, patient
Respiratory droplets
PERIOD OF COMMUNICABILITY
1. Acute amoebic
6 days before and 9 days after onset of parotid swellingdysentery
of sore throat)
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
should by
-Acquired notswallowing
be left alone)
PRODROMAL PHASE
F-ever (low grade) - Diarrhea alternated with
5. Diet (soft food, small
H-eadache
4. constipation
Suctioning (kept at
M-alaise
- Trophozoites: vegetative form
frequent feedings)
PAROTITIS bedside for emergency
F-ace pain
E-arache
S-welling of the parotid glands
AMOEBIASIS
-- Cyst
Tenesmus
use)
: infective stage
COMPLICATIONS
• - Bloody mucoid
DIAGNOSTIC TESTSstools
Orchitis – the most notorious complication of mumps
• Oophoritis – manifested by pain and tenderness of the


abdomen
CNS involvement – manifested by headache, stiff neck, 2. Chronic amoebic 1. Stool ex
dysentery
delirium, double vision
• Deafness as a result of mumps
NURSING MANAGEMENT
1. Prevent complications 2. Blood e


Scrotum supported by suspensory
Use of sedatives to relieve pain
- Enlarged liver
− Treatment: oral dose of 300-400 mg cortisone followed by
3. Sigmoidoscopy
100 mg every 6 hours
- Large sloughs of intestinal

2. Diet
Nick in the membrane

- Soft or liquid diet


AMOEBIASIS
tissues accompanied by
- Sour foods or fruit juices are disliked
3. Respiratory isolation TREATMENT
hemorrhage MODALITIES
4. Comfort: ice collar or cold applications over the parotid glands may
relieve pain
NURSING MANAGEMENT
5. Fever: aspirin, tepid sponge bath
6. Concurrent disinfection: all materials contaminated by these
secretions should be cleansed by boiling 1. Metronidazole – drug
1. Ent
7. Terminal disinfection: room should be aired for six to eight hours
of choice
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
2. Boi
2. Tetracycl
drin
3. Chloramp
3. Ha
4. Sex
CD-Bucud 6

5. Avo
CHOLERA CHICKENPOX
TYPHOID FEVE
MAIN PROBLEM
MAIN PROBLEM
Acute bacterial disease of the A highly
An infection affecting
contagious the
disease
GIT characterized by profuse characterized
Peyer’s patches of the sma
by vesicular
secretory diarrhea intestines
eruptions on the skin and
ETIOLOGIC AGENT mucous membranes
CHOLERA CHICKENPOX
TYPHOID typhi
ETIOLOGIC AGENTFEVE
Vibrio cholerae Salmonella Vari
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
INCUBATION PERIOD PERIODFever (ladder-like)
OF COMMUNICABILITY
INCUBATION PERIOD
Rice-water stool
1 to 3 days One daydays
10-21 before
1 to 3 eruption
weeks
Rose spots
of 1 st lesion and five days
Abdominal
MODE cramps MODE
OF TRANSMISSION OF TRANSMISSION
Diarrhea
after appearance of last1. D
CHOLERA
Vomiting crop
1. Fecal-oral CHICKENPOX
TYPHOID FEVE
transmission 2. D
TYPHOID STATE
2. 5 F’s SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
TREATMENT MODALITIES 3. I
Intravascular SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
1.Chloramphenicol
Sordes
1.Lactated Ringer’s PROD
Dehydration • Rashes : Centrifugal
drug of choice
solution Subsultus Tendinum
PERIO
distribution
Shock 2. Ampicillin/
Coma vigil
- Feve
2. Oral rehydration •Rash stages: macule
Amoxicillin –- Head
for
CHOLERA
therapy
CHICKENPOX
TYPHOID FEVE
Carphologia
papule vesicle
typhoid carriers
NURSING MANAGEMENT
pustule - Mala
crust
3. Antibiotic therapy COMPLICATIONS
3. Cotrimoxazole – f
1. Maintain and restore the fluid
- Tetracycline – drug SCARRING severe– most
cases with
common
and electrolyte balanceassociated with
•complication;
Pruritus
of choice relapses
staphylococcal or streptococcal
2. Enteric isolation
infections from scratching
- Cotrimoxazole
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

3.
- Chloramphenicol Sanitary disposal of
NECROTIZING excretaFASCIITIS
most severe complication
CD-Bucud 7

4. Adequate provision of safe


- Soft palate to mucus membrane

CHICKENPOX HERPES ZOSTE


MEASLES
TREATMENT MODALITIES
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
1. Antihistamines – 4. Corticosteroids – anti-
2. ERUPTIVE
inflammatorySTAGE
and decreas
symptomatic relief of itching
Rashes pain
Ex. Diphenhydramine - Elevated papules
(Benadryl) - Ex. Prednisone
Begin on the face ZOSTE
and behind
CHICKENPOX HERPES
MEASLES
the ears
- Spread
2. Analgesics to trunk and
and antipyretics
NURSING MANAGEMENT extremities
COMPLICATIONS
Color: Dark red – purplish hue
Ex. Acetaminophen
Strict isolation – yellow brown
P
3. Antiviral
Prevent secondary infection
neumonia
3. Stage
agentsof– Convalescence
for patient to
(cut less pain and faster
experience- Desquamation
fingernails short, wear mittens)
O titis
resolution- ofRashes media
lesions whenfrom
fade usedthe
within
face
EliminateMEASLES
itching: calamine GERMAN MEASLES
downwards
48 hours of rash onset MEASL
lotions, warm baths, baking soda Severe
Ex. Acyclovir diarrhea (leading
(Zovirax)
pastePROBLEM
MAIN to dehydration) TREATMENT MODALITIES

A contagious
Encourage notexanthematous
1.Vitamin A – helps
A benign communicable
going to school: Encephalitis
disease
usually 7with
dayschief symptoms to
prevent eye damage
exanthematous disease cau
the upper respiratory tract and blindness
by rubella virus
Disinfection of clothes and linen
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
MEASLES
with nasopharyngeal discharges MEASLES
2. GERMAN
Antipyretics –MEASL
for
Filterable virus of
by sunlight or boiling
fever Rubella virus
paramyxoviridae NURSING MANAGEMENT
PERIOD OF COMMUNICABILITY
3. Penicillin – given
INCUBATION PERIOD
4 days before and 5 days after only when
One week 1. secondary
Darkened
before rood
and four
10-12 days 14-21 dayssets in
infection
the appearance of rashes after the appearance of rasb
2. Diet: should
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
SIGNS
KOPLIK’S AND
SPOT SYMPTOMS
(Rubeola) Droplet method3. Warm saline
1.SCABIES
- Bluish white spots surrounded by a red halo
MAIN PROBLEM eye irritation
2. Direct contact with ofrespiratory discharges
- Appear on the buccal mucosa opposite the premolar teeth
PRE-ERUPTIVE STAGE mite resultingPRE-ERUPTIVE
FORCHEIMER’S SPOTS (Rubella)
- small, red lesions
Infestation the skin produced by the burrowing action STAGE
of a parasite
in skin irritation and formation of vesicles and pustules

3. Indirect with soiled linens 4. For fever: tep


ever and articles
ETIOLOGIC AGENT

Cough F
Sarcoptes scabiei

pyretics CD-Bucud 8

Coryza Headache
INCUBATION PERIOD

AIDS
Within 24 hours
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Direct contact
Indirect contact

Sarcoptes scabiei
1. Yellowish white in color
2. Barely seen by the unaided eye
3. Female parasite burrows beneath the epidermis to lay eggs
4. Males are smaller and reside on the surface of the skin
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
• Thin, pencil-mark lines on the skin OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
• Itching, especially at night
• Rashes and abrasions on the skin
PRIMARY LESIONS
NODULAR LESIONS
1. Pneumocystis carinni
SECONDARY LESIONS
TREATMENT MODALITIES pneumonia
AIDS
• SCABICIDE : Eurax ointment (Crotamiton)
• PEDICULICIDE : Kwell lotion (Gamma Benzene
Hexachloride) – contraindicated in young children and
pregnant women 2. Oral candidiasis
• Topical steroids
• Hydrogen peroxide : cleanliness of wound
• Lindane Lotion
NURSING MANAGEMENT 3. Toxoplasmosis


Apply cream at bedtime, from neck to toes
Instruct patient to avoid bathing for 8 to 12 hours
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS


Dry-clean or boil bedclothes
Report any skin irritation
4. Acute/chronic diarrhea
• Family members and close contact treatment
• Good handwashing
• Terminal disinfection 5. Pulmonary tuberculosis
SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
MALIGNANCIES
AIDS AIDS
SYPHILIS
1. Kaposi’s sarcoma
2. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
MAIN PROBLEM
Final and most serious stage Infectious disease caus
of HIV disease, which causes
severe damage to the immune
by a spirochete
system AIDS AIDS
SYPHILIS
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
MODE OF TRANSMISSION SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Retrovirus – Human T-cell
• Sexual
lymphotropic virus III contact – oral, anal orpallidum
Treponema
(HTLV-3) vaginal sex

INCUBATION PERIOD
•Blood transfusion
3 to 6 months to 8 to 10 years 10-90 days
•Mother -to-child CD-Bucud 9
AIDS CHLAMYDIA
SYPHILIS
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURESCOMPLICATIONS Women

1.ELISA 1.Dark Field Pelvic


Illumination Ectop tes
2. Western blot
AIDS CHLAMYDIA
SYPHILIS S
3. RIPA 2. Flourescent
TREATMENT MODALITIES Treponemal
TREATMENT MODALITIES
Men
1. Penicillin G Benzathine
4.
1. PCR
Antivirals Antibody
1. Azithromycin
Ep
- Disease < 1 year: 2.4 M
NewbornAbsorption
(Zithromax) Test
once in two injection site
- Shorten the clinical
Conjunctivitis
- Disease > 1 year: 2.4 M
course, prevent CANDIDIASIS
-Otitis
Drug of choice because
3.media
inVDRL
2 injection sites x 3 do
CHLAMYDIA
complications, prevent Pneumonia GONORRHEA
of single-dose treatment
development of 2. Doxycyclineand
effectiveness – if allergic
lower
MAIN cost penicillin
PROBLEM
latency, decrease
MAIN PROBLEM
3. Tetracycline
transmission
Sexually transmitted2.disease
Mild Doxycycline
superficial
caused by a fungal
bacteria
- if allergic to penicillin
- Example: Zidovudine infection- Secondary
CANDIDIASISdrug ofof muco
Purulent inflammation
-membrane
Contraindicated for
choice surfaces
(Retrovir)
CHLAMYDIA
ETIOLOGIC AGENT GONORRHEA
pregnant women
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
Chlamydia trachomatis MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Neisseria gonorrhea
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Women
INCUBATION PERIOD
Candida
1. albicans
Rise in glucose as in
Women Bleeding after intercourse
2-3 weeks (males) diabetes mellitus
Abdominal or pelvic pain 2-10 days
INCUBATION
Burning PERIOD
sensation during
2. Lowered body
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS (Candidiasis)

Asymptomatic
Bleeding after intercourse urination
ONYCHOMYCOSIS
and (females)
• Red, swollen darkened nailbeds

2-3 weeks
resistance as invaginal
cancer
• Purulent discharge
• Separation of pruritic nails from nailbeds
in-between
MODE menses
OF TRANSMISSION Yellow or bloody
DIAPER RASH
• Scaly, erythematous, papular rash
discharge
• Covered with exudates

Sexual contact:3.Oral,
Increase
vaginalinorestrogen
Unusual vaginal discharge CD-Bucud 10
anal sex
level in pregnant women
• Appears below the breasts, between fingers, axilla, groin
and umbilicus
THRUSH
• Cream-colored or bluish-white patches on the tongue,
mouth or pharynx
• Bloody engorgement when scraped
MONILIASIS
• White or yellow discharge
• Pruritus
• Local excoriation
• White or gray raised patches on vaginal walls with local
inflammation

CANDIDIASIS HERPES SIMPL


TREATMENT MODALITIES

1. Antifungals 1. Antivirals
- Fluconazole (Diflucan) - Acyclovir (Zovirax)
- Ketoconazole (Nizoral)
- Imidazole (Nystatin)
- Used for oral thrush
- 48 hours until
symptoms disappear
- Cotrimoxazole

CD-Bucud 11
VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES
DENGUE
DENGUE MALARIA
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
MAIN PROBLEM
1. TORNIQUET TEST
An acute febrile disease - An acute
Screening testand chronic parasi
for dengue
- Adisease DENGUE
test for the tendency for blood
capillaries to break down or produc
The most DENGUE
common arboviral
petechial
The most
MALARIA
hemorrhage
deadly vector-born
illness transmitted globally
- disease by
Performed in the worldthe skin of
examining
TREATMENT MODALITIES
the forearms after the arm veins
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
INCUBATION PERIOD P. Falciparum
have been occluded– for
125days
minutes
Dengue virus types 1, 2, 3 and 4 1. Analgesics
Plasmodium andfalciparum
antipyretics
- To detect unusual capillary fragility
3-14 days P. Vivax – 14 days
- acetaminophen
Chikungunya virus Plasmodium
2. PLATELET COUNT vivax
SCHISTOSOMIASIS
2. Volume
P. Ovale
- Confirmatory
expanders
– 14 days
testovale
for dengue
DENGUE
O’nyong’nyong virus Plasmodium MALARIA
- Used in the treatment of
-intravascular
Decreased
P. Malariaecount – is30confirmatory
volume days
deficits
West Nile
MODE virus
OF TRANSMISSION Plasmodium malariae
- Example:
MAIN Lactated Ringers
PROBLEM
VECTOR
Bite of an infected mosquito
3. Blood transfusion – for severe
A slowly progressive disease
Aedes aegypti bleeding Anopheles flavirostris
caused
Blood bytransfusion,
a blood fluke contamina
(Aedes albopictus) syringetherapy
4. Oxygen or needle
SCHISTOSOMIASIS
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
DENGUE 5. Sedatives
MALARIA
Trans-placentally
White stripes on the back and 1. SCHISTOSOMA
Brown in color JAPONICUM
legs (Tiger mosquito) - Intestinal tract, endemic in the
INCUBATION
Philippines PERIOD
SIGNS AND(2SYMPTOMS
Day biting hours after sunrise
At
2.
Night2 biting
least
SCHISTOSOMAmonths (9 PM-3 AM)
MANSONI
and 2 hours before sunset) FEVER
FEVER - Africa
Breeds on clear, flowing and
Breeds on clear stagnant water MODE OF TRANSMISSION
shaded streams
CHILLS
HEADACHE 3. SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM
- Middle East countries likeIngestion
Iran and Iraq
MALAISE
Urban-based PROFUSE SWEATIN
Rural-based CD-Bucud 12

Skin penetr
SCHISTOSOMIASISSCHISTOSOMIASIS
LEPTOSPIROS

VECTOR TREATMENT MODALITIES


Oncomelania quadrasi 1. Praziquantel (Biltricide)
1. Thrives in fresh water - Taken for 6 months
FILARIASIS

SCHISTOSOMIASIS
stream MAIN PROBLEM
LEPTOSPIROS
A parasitic disease
ETIOLOGIC AGENT
caused by an African eye worm

- 1 tablet
Wuchereria
Brugia malayi
bancrofti BID for 3 months
2. Clings to grasses and leaves
Brugia timori
INCUBATION PERIOD
- 1 tablet OD for 3 months
8 to 16 months
MODE OF TRANSMISSION
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
3. Greenish brown in color ACUTE STAGESeptic or Leptospiremic St
Person-to-person by mosquito bites

• Lymphadenitis (inflammation of lymph nodes)



ACUTE
4. Size isSTAGE
Lymphangitis (inflammation of lymph vessels)
as big as the smallest • Male Fgenitalia
– ever (remittent
affected leading to funiculitis, epididymitis
and orchitis (redness, painful and tender scrotum)
grain of palay CHRONIC STAGE
• Develop 10-15 years from onset of first attack
1. Cercarial dermatitis H –(swelling
• Hydrocele eadacheof the scrotum)

SCHISTOSOMIASIS
(swimmer’s itch) LEPTOSPIROS
• Lymphedema (temporary swelling of the upper and lower
extremities)
M – (enlargement
• Elephantiasis yalgiaand thickening of the skin of
the upper and lower extremities, scrotum and breast
2. Katayama syndrome
N – ausea
LABORATORY EXAMINATIONS
• Nocturnal blood examination (NBE) – taken at patient’s
C - ough
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
residence/hospital after 8PM
Immune or Toxic Stage
V an–antigen
method; omiting
• Immunochromatographic test (ICT)
test done at daytime
– rapid assessment

TREATMENT
H – eadacheSTAGE
CHRONIC and fever •
-CLasts for 4 to 30 days
Diethylcarbamazine Citrate (DEC) or HETRAZAN – an
– ough
individual treatment kills almost all microfilaria and a good
proportion of adult worms.
A – norexia and lethargy PREVENTION AND CONTROL
• Measures aimed to control vectors
1. Hepatic: pain, abdominal
-CIritis,
– hestheadache, pain meninge
• Environmental sanitation such as proper drainage and

SCHISTOSOMIASIS
R – ash LEPTOSPIROS
distension, hematemesis, melena
manifestations
• Spraying with insecticides
PREVENTION AND CONTROL
cleanliness of surroundings

2. Intestinal: fatigue, abdominal pain, •• Measures aimed to protect individuals and families:
M - yalgia - Oliguria, anuria with ren
Use of mosquito nets
dysentery • Use of long sleeves, long pants and socks
failure
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES •• Application of insect repellants
Screening of houses
3. Urinary: dysuria, urinary
frequency,
1. hematuria
Fecalysis - Shock, coma and congest
heart failure
4. Cardiopulmonary: palpitations,
dyspnea on exertion
2. Kato-Katz Technique
5. CNS: seizures, headache, back
3. Cercum
pain ova precipitin test
and paresthesia
(COPT) CD-Bucud 13