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WRITING REQUIREMENTS OF ABSTRACT

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5 Abstract: There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and

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An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 480 words should accompany

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10 S- Editor, L- Editor and E- Editor: Fill out by responsible person.

11 Abstract Contents

11.1 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR EDITORIAL 4

11.2 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR TOPIC HIGHLIGHT 6

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11.3 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR OBSERVER 8

11.4 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR REVIEW 10

11.5 STRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR ORIGINAL ARTICLES 12

11.6 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR CASE REPORT 16

11.7 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 18

11.1 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR EDITORIAL

Role of cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases

Anna Parfieniuk, Robert Flisiak

Anna Parfieniuk, Robert Flisiak, Department of Infectious Diseases and


Hepatology, Medical University of Bialystok, Zurawia Str 14, Bialystok 15-540,
Poland

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Author contributions: Parfieniuk A was responsible for the review of the
literature and initial preparation of the paper, Flisiak R prepared final version
of the manuscript.

Correspondence to: Robert Flisiak, Department of Infectious Diseases and


Hepatology, Medical University of Bialystok, Zurawia Str 14, Bialystok 15-540,
Poland. flisiakr@poczta.onet.pl

Telephone: +48-85-7416921 Fax: +48-85-7416921


Received: April 2, 2008   Revised: June 30, 2008
Accepted: July 7, 2008
Published online: October 28, 2008

Abstract (256 words)

Cannabinoids are a group of compounds acting primarily via CB1 and CB2
receptors. The expression of cannabinoid receptors in normal liver is low or
absent. However, many reports have proven up-regulation of the expression
of CB1 and CB2 receptors in hepatic myofibroblasts and vascular endothelial
cells, as well as increased concentration of endocannabinoids in liver in the
course of chronic progressive liver diseases. It has been shown that CB1

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receptor signalling exerts profibrogenic and proinflammatory effects in liver
tissue, primarily due to the stimulation of hepatic stellate cells, whereas the
activation of CB2 receptors inhibits or even reverses liver fibrogenesis.
Similarly, CB1 receptor stimulation contributes to progression of liver
steatosis. In end-stage liver disease, the endocannabinoid system has been
shown to contribute to hepatic encephalopathy and vascular effects, such as
portal hypertension, splanchnic vasodilatation, relative peripheral
hypotension and probably cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. So far, available evidence
is based on cellular cultures or animal models. Clinical data on the effects of
cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases are limited. However, recent studies
have shown the contribution of cannabis smoking to the progression of liver
fibrosis and steatosis. Moreover, controlling CB1 or CB2 signalling appears to
be an attractive target in managing liver diseases.

© 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

Key words: Hepatic fibrosis; Endocannabinoids; Endocannabinoid receptors;


CB1; CB2

Peer reviewer:

Parfieniuk A, Flisiak R. Role of cannabinoids in chronic liver diseases. World J


Gastroenterol 2008; 14(40): 6109-6114
Available from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/6109.asp
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.6109

11.2 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR TOPIC

HIGHLIGHT

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Effects of ghrelin on interdigestive contractions of

the rat gastrointestinal tract

Hiroshi Taniguchi, Hajime Ariga, Jun Zheng, Kirk Ludwig, Toku Takahashi

Hiroshi Taniguchi, Hajime Ariga, Jun Zheng, Kirk Ludwig, Toku


Takahashi, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin and
Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI 53295, United States

Author contributions: Taniguchi H, Ariga H and Zheng J performed


research; Taniguchi H, Ludwig K and Takahashi T analyzed the data; Taniguchi
H and Takahashi T wrote the paper.

Correspondence to: Toku Takahashi, MD, PhD, Department of Surgery,


Medical College of Wisconsin and Zablocki VA Medical Center, 5000 West
National Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53295, United States. ttakahashi@mcw.edu

Telephone: +1-414-3842000-41472 Fax: +1-414-3825374


Received: October 15, 2008    Revised: October 30, 2008
Accepted: November 6, 2008
Published online: November 7, 2008

Abstract (256 words)

Ghrelin causes interdigestive contractions of the stomach in rats. However, it


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remains unknown whether ghrelin causes interdigestive contractions in the
small intestine. Four strain gauge transducers were implanted on the antrum,
duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum. After an overnight fast,
gastrointestinal (GI) contractions were recorded in freely moving conscious
rats. Spontaneous phase Ⅲ-like contractions were observed at every 13-16
min in rat GI tract. The fasted motor patterns were replaced by the fed motor
pattern immediately after food intake. Two minutes after finishing the
spontaneous phase Ⅲ-like contractions in the antrum, acyl ghrelin (0.8, 2.4
and 8.0 mg/kg per min) was continuously infused for 30 min. Three-five
minutes after the starting ghrelin infusion, augmented phase Ⅲ-like
contractions were observed at the antrum, duodenum, and jejunum. Ghrelin
infusion (0.8, 2.4 and 8.0 mg/kg per min) significantly increased motility index
of phase Ⅲ-like contractions at the antrum and jejunum in a dose dependent
manner, compared to that of saline injection. Thus, it is likely that
exogenously administered ghrelin causes phase Ⅲ-like contraction at the
antrum, which migrates to the duodenum and jejunum. The possible role of 5-
HT, in addition to ghrelin, in mediating intestinal migrating motor complex
(MMC), is discussed.

© 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

Key words: Phase Ⅲ-like contractions; Strain gage transducers; Motility index

Taniguchi H, Ariga H, Zheng J, Ludwig K, Takahashi T. Effects of ghrelin on


interdigestive contractions of the rat gastrointestinal tract. World J
Gastroenterol 2008; 14(41): 6299-6302
Available from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/6299.asp
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.6299

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11.3 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR OBSERVER

Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis

syndrome

Hugh James Freeman

Hugh James Freeman, Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology),


University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1W5, Canada

Author contributions: Freeman HJ contributed all to this paper.

Correspondence to: Dr. Hugh James Freeman, MD, FRCPC, FACP,


Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British Columbia
Hospital, 2211 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver V6T 1W5, Canada.
hugfree@shaw.ca

Telephone: +1-604-8227216 Fax: +1-604-8227236


Received: July 24, 2008 Revised: September 12, 2008
Accepted: September 19, 2008
Published online: November 14, 2008

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Abstract (256 words)

An inflammatory process that involves the sigmoid colonic segment


associated with diverticular disease (SCAD) appears to be a distinct clinical
and pathological disorder. It has been described in older adults, often
presenting with rectal bleeding. Most of the patients seem to respond to
treatment only with a 5-aminosalicylate, but some spontaneously resolve with
no treatment. Endoscopic evaluation usually shows a non-specific
inflammatory process localized in the sigmoid colon alone that may resolve
completely with histologically normal colonic mucosa. Repeated symptomatic
events with discrete episodes of segmental colitis may occur, but most
patients have an entirely benign clinical course. Definition of the underlying
molecular events that occur with SCAD may be critically important in
understanding the critical elements present in a colonic inflammatory process
that can completely resolve without pharmacological or biological treatment.

© 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

Key words: Segmental colitis; Diverticulosis; Crohn’s disease; Natural


history; Ulcerative colitis; Colon cancer

Peer reviewer:

Freeman HJ. Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis syndrome. World

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J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(42): 6442-6443
Available from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/6442.asp
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.6442

11.4 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR REVIEW

Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase: A novel

regulator of intestinal inflammation

Yutao Yan, Didier Merlin

Yutao Yan, Didier Merlin, Department of Medicine, Division of Digestive


Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, 615 Michael Street, Atlanta,
GA 30322, United States

Author contributions: Yan Y and Merlin D contributed equally to this work.

Correspondence to: Didier Merlin, PhD, Associate Professor, Emory


University Department of Medicine Division of Digestive Diseases 615 Michael
Street Atlanta GA 30322, United States. dmerlin@emory.edu

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Telephone: +01-404-7276454 Fax: +01-404-727-5767
Received: May 14, 2008 Revised: July 28, 2008
Accepted: August 3, 2008
Published online: October 28, 2008

Abstract (256 words)

Recently, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been the subject of


considerable research, with increasing attention being paid to the loss of
intestinal epithelial cell barrier function as a mechanism of pathogenesis.
Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) is involved in regulating
barrier function. SPAK is known to interact with inflammation-related kinases
(such as p38, JNK, NKCC1, PKCθ, WNK and MLCK), and with transcription
factor AP-1, resulting in diverse biological phenomena, including cell
differentiation, cell transformation and proliferation, cytoskeleton
rearrangement, and regulation of chloride transport. This review examines
the involvement of Ste20-like kinases and downstream mitogen-activated
protein kinases (MAPKs) pathways in the pathogenesis and control of
intestinal inflammation. The primary focus will be on the molecular features
of intestinal inflammation, with an emphasis on the interaction between SPAK
and other molecules, and the effect of these interactions on homeostatic
maintenance, cell volume regulation and increased cell permeability in
intestinal inflammation.

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© 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

Key words: Inflammatory bowel diseases; WNK; NKCC1; Barrier function;


Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase

Peer reviewer:

Yan Y, Merlin D. Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase: A novel regulator of


intestinal inflammation. World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(40): 6115-6121
Available from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/6115.asp
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.6115

11.5 STRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR ORIGINAL

ARTICLES

Preventive effect of gelatinizedly-modified chitosan


film on peritoneal adhesion of different types

Xie-Lai Zhou, Shan-Wen Chen, Guo-Dong Liao, Zhou-Jun Shen, Zhi-Liang


Zhang, Li Sun, Yi-Jun Yu, Qiao-Ling Hu, Xiao-Dong Jin

Xie-Lai Zhou, Shan-Wen Chen, Guo-Dong Liao, Xiao-Dong Jin,


Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine,
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province, China
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Zhou-Jun Shen, Department of Urology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China

Xie-Lai Zhou, Zhi-Liang Zhang, Yi-Jun Yu, Surgical Department, Clinical


Medical College of Hangzhou Teachers College, Hangzhou 310036, Zhejiang
Province, China

Li Sun, Experimental Center of Medical Science, Hangzhou Teachers College,


Hangzhou 310036, Zhejiang Province, China

Qiao-Ling Hu, Institute of Polymer Composites, Zhejiang University,


Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang Province, China

Author controbutions: The format of this section should be like this: Author
contributions: Zhou XL and Chen SW contributed equally to this work; Zhou
XL, Chen SW, Liao GD, Shen ZJ, Zhang ZL, Sun L, Yu YJ, Hu QL and Jin XD
designed research; Zhou XL, Chen SW, Liao GDand Yu YJ performed research;
Zhou XL and Chen SW contributed new reagents/analytic tools; Zhang ZL, Hu
QL and Jin XD analyzed data; and Zhou XL, Chen SW,and Jin XD wrote the
paper.
Supported by The National Natural Science Foundation of China, No.
50173023

Correspondence to: Xiao-Dong Jin, Professor, Department of Urology, The


First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou
310003, Zhejiang Province, China. addamm@mail.hz.zj.cn

Telephone: +86-571-87236833 Fax: +86-571-87236628


Received: Revised:

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Accepted: Published online:

Abstract (480 words)

AIM (no more than 20 words): To comparatively study the preventive effect of
gelatinizedly-modified chitosan film on peritoneal adhesions induced by four
different factors in rats.

METHODS(no more than 140 words): Chitosan was chemically modified by


gelatinization, and made into films of 60 μm in thickness, and sterilized. Two
hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, Sham-

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operation group (group A), wound-induced adhesion group (group B), purified
talc-induced adhesion group (group C), vascular ligation-induced adhesion
group (group D), and infection-induced adhesion group (group E),
respectively. In each group, the rats were treated with different adhesion-
inducing methods at the cecum of vermiform processes and then were
divided into control and experimental subgroups. Serous membrane surface
of vermiform processes were covered with the films in the experimental
subgroups, and no films were used in the control subgroups. After 2 and 4 wk
of treatments, the abdominal cavities were reopened and the adhesive
severity was graded blindly according to Bhatia’s method. The cecum of
vermiform processes were resected for hydroxyproline (OHP) measurement
and pathological examination.

RESULTS(no more than 294 words. You should present P value where necessary and
must provide relevant data to illustrate how it is obtained, e.g. 2 wk: 0.199 ± 0.026 vs

0.285 ± 0.041 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001): Adhesion severity and OHP level: After 2 and

4 wk of the treatments, in the experimental subgroups, the adhesions were


significantly lighter and the OHP levels were significantly lower than those of
the control subgroups in group B (2 wk: 0.199 ± 0.026 vs 0.285 ± 0.041
μg/mg pr, P < 0.001; 4 wk: 0.183 ± 0.034 vs 0.276 ± 0.03 μg/mg pr, P <
0.001), D (2 wk: 0.216 ± 0.036 vs 0.274 ± 0.040 μg/mg pr, P = 0.004; 4 wk:
0.211 ± 0.044 vs 0.281 ± 0.047 μg/mg pr, P = 0.003) and E (2 wk: 0.259 ±
0.039 vs 0.371 ± 0.040 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001; 4 wk: 0.242 ± 0.045 vs 0.355 ±
0.029 μg/mg pr, P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in
groups A (2wk: 0.141 ± 0.028 vs 0.137 ± 0.026 μg/mg pr, P = 0.737; 4 wk:
0.132 ± 0.031 vs 0.150 ± 0.035 μg/mg pr, P = 0.225) and C (2 wk: 0.395 ±
0.044 vs 0.378 ± 0.043 μg/mg pr, P = 0.387; 4 wk: 0.370 ± 0.032 vs 0.367 ±
0.041 μg/mg pr, P = 0.853); Pathological changes: In group B, the main
pathological changes were fibroplasias in the treated serous membrane
surface and in group D, the fibroplasia was shown in the whole layer of the

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vermiform processes. In group E, the main pathological changes were acute
and chronic suppurative inflammatory reactions. These changes were lighter
in the experimental subgroups than those in the control subgroups in the
three groups. In group C, the main changes were foreign body giant cell and
granuloma reactions and fibroplasias in different degrees, with no apparent
differences between the experimental and control subgroups.

CONCLUSION(no more than 26 words): The gelatinizedly-modified chitosan film


is effective on preventing peritoneal adhesions induced by wound, ischemia
and infection, but the effect is not apparent in foreign body-induced adhesion.

© 2009 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

Key words: Hepatitis B; Tumor necrosis factor-α ; Lamivudine

Peer reviewer:

Zhou XL, Chen SW, Liao GD, Shen ZJ, Zhang ZL, Sun L, Yu YJ, Hu QL, Jin XD.
Preventive effect of gelatinizedly-modified chitosan film on peritoneal
adhesion of different types. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13(8): 1262-1267

Available from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/12/0000.asp


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.12.0000

11.6 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR CASE

REPORT

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Acute ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis: Case report of an

uncommon entity

Wojciech Staszewicz, Michel Christodoulou, Stefania Proietti, Nicolas


Demartines

Wojciech Staszewicz, Michel Christodoulou, Nicolas Demartines,


Service de Chirurgie Viscerale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois,
Lausanne 1011, Switzerland

Stefania Proietti, Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire


Vaudois, Lausanne 1011, Switzerland

Author contributions: Staszewicz W and Christodoulou M contributed


equally to this work; Proietti S contributed to the imaging processing and
analysis; Staszewicz W and Christodoulou M drafted the paper; Staszewicz W
wrote and Demartines N critically revised the paper with an important
conceptual and editorial input.

Correspondence to : Wojciech Staszewicz, Service de Chirurgie Viscerale,


Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne,
Switzerland. wojciech.staszewicz@rsv-gnw.ch

Telephone: +41-27-6039826 Fax: +41-27-6039606


Received: January 22, 2008 Revised: October 13, 2008
Accepted: October 20, 2008

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Published online: October 28, 2008

Abstract (256 words)

Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical


presentations. Its reported incidence varies from 0.05% to 6%. Although there
is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular
disease, some complications are potentially life threatening and require early
surgical treatment. We report a case of an 88-year-old man investigated for
acute abdominal pain with a high biological inflammatory syndrome.
Inflammation of multiple giant jejunal diverticulum was discovered at
abdominal computed tomography (CT). As a result of the clinical and
biological signs of early peritonitis, an emergency surgical exploration was
performed. The first jejunal loop showed clear signs of jejunal diverticulitis.
Primary segmental jejunum resection with end-to-end anastomosis was
performed. Histopathology report confirmed an ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis
with imminent perforation and acute local peritonitis. The patient made an
excellent rapid postoperative recovery. Jejunal diverticulum is rare but may
cause serious complications. It should be considered a possible etiology of
acute abdomen, especially in elderly patients with unusual symptomatology.
Abdominal CT is the diagnostic tool of choice. The best treatment is
emergency surgical management.

© 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

Key words: Jejunal diverticulum; Diverticulitis; Surgery; Tomography

Peer reviewer:

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Staszewicz W, Christodoulou M, Proietti S, Demartines N. Acute ulcerative
jejunal diverticulitis: Case report of an uncommon entity. World J
Gastroenterol 2008; 14(40): 6265-6267
Available from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/6265.asp
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.6265

11.7 UNSTRUCTURED ABSTRACT FORMAT FOR LETTERS TO

THE EDITOR

Nutritional therapy for active Crohn’s disease

Paul A Smith

Paul A Smith, Specialist Registrar in Gastroenterology, North Manchester


General Hospital, Gastroenterology Department, Delaunays Road, Crumpsall,
Manchester, Greater Manchester, M8 5RB, United Kingdom

Author contributions: Smith PA wrote the paper.

Correspondence to: Dr. Paul A Smith, Specialist Registrar in


Gastroenterology, North Manchester General Hospital, Gastroenterology
Department, Delaunays Road, Crumpsall, Manchester, Greater Manchester,
M8 5RB,
United Kingdom. paulsmith5050@hotmail.com

Telephone: +1-61-9240420
Received: April 26, 2008 Revised: July 7, 2008
Accepted: July 14, 2008
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Published online: July 21, 2008

Abstract (256 words)

Nutritional therapy for active Crohn’s disease (CD) is an underutilised form of


treatment in adult patients, though its use is common in the paediatric
population. There is evidence that nutritional therapy can effectively induce
remission of CD in adult patients. Enteral nutrition therapy is safe and
generally well tolerated. Meta-analysis data suggest that corticosteroids are
superior to nutritional treatment for induction of remission in active CD.
However, the potential side effects of such pharmacotherapy must be taken
into consideration. This review examines the evidence for the efficacy of
elemental and polymeric diets, and the use of total parenteral nutrition in
active CD.

© 2008 The WJG Press. All rights reserved.

Key words: Crohn’s disease; Nutrition; Dietary; Treat-ment; Steroids

Peer reviewer:

Smith PA. Nutritional therapy for active Crohn's disease. World J Gastroenterol
2008; 14(27): 4420-4423
Available from: URL: http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/4420.asp
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.4420

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