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BULK DEFORMATION

PROCESSES
IN METALWORKING

@2002John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover,


"Fundamentalsof Modern Manufacturinqze'

BULKDEFORMATION
Metalformingoperationswhichcausesignificant
shape
changeby deformation in metalpartswhoseinitial
is bulk ratherthansheet

o Theseprocesses workby stressingmetalsufficiently


causeplasticflowintodesiredshape

o Performed
as cold,warm,andhotworkingoperations
IMPORTANCE
OF BULKDEFORMATION
o In hotworking,
significant
shapechangecanbe
accomplished

o In coldworking,strength
canbe increased
duringshape
change

o Littleor no waste- someoperations


arenearnet shape
or net shapeprocesses
. The partsrequirelittleor no subsequent
machining

FOURBASICBULKDEFORMATION
PROCESSES
i. Rolling- slabor plateis squeezed
between
opposing
rolls

2. Forging- workis squeezedandshapedbetween


opposing dies

3. Extrusion- workis squeezed througha dieopening,


therebytakingthe shapeof theopening

4. Wireand bardrawing- diameterof wireor bar is reduc


by pullingit througha die opening l
l. Rolling
processin whichworkthicknessis reduced
Deformation
by compressive
forcesexertedby two opposingrolls

Directionof workflow
-,--,------_>-

The rollingprocess(specifically,
flat rolling)

THE ROLLS
The rotatingrollsperformtwo mainfunctions:

o Pullthe workintothe gap betweenthemby friction


betweenwork-partand rolls

o Simultaneously
squeezethe workto reducecross
section

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TYPESOF ROLLING
o By geometryof work:
. Flat rolling- usedto reducethicknessof a rectangular
cross-section
. Shaperolling- a squarecross-section is formedinto a
shapesuchas an l-beam

o By temperature
of work:
. Hot Rolling- mostcommondue to the largeamountof
deformationrequired
. Coldrolling- producesfinishedsheetand platestock

lntermediaterolledlom Final rolledlom

Structumlshapes

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7 ct
Bars, rods

Someof the steelproducts


madein a rollingmill
A rollingmill for hot flat
the steel plate is seen as the
glowingstrip extending
diagonallyfrom the lower left
corner
(photocourtesyof Bethlehem
SteelCompany)

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONS
OF
ROLLING
MILLS

(a) 2-highrollingmill ffis


VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONS
OF
ROLLINGMILLS

-%
v 2w),,
(b)

(b) 3-highrollingmill

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONS
OF ROLLIN
MILLS

(c)four-high
rollingmill
VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONS
OF
ROLLINGMILLS

(d)
(d) clustermill

VARIOUSCONFIGURATIONS
OF ROLLIN
MILLS

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rc

(e)tandemrolling
mill $; "
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THREADROLLING
Bulkdeformationprocessusedto form threadson cylindricalpartsby
them betweentwo dies

o Most importantcommercialprocessfor mass producingboltsand

o Performedby cold workingin threadrollingmachines

Advantagesover threadcutting(machining):
. Higherproductionrates
. Bettermaterialutilization
. Strongerthreadsdue to work hardening
. Betterfatigueresistancedue to compressive
stressesintroducedp"v
rolling

THREADROLLING

Finished pan

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Moving di€

Threadrollingwithflatdies: .'!t\\i\:i:,

(1)startof cycle,and(2)endof cycle


+-
RINGROLLING
Deformationprocessin whicha thick-walled ring of smaller
diameteris rolledintoa thin walledring of largerdiameter

o As thick-walledring is compressed,deformedmetalelongates,
causingdiameterof ringto be enlarged

o Hot workingprocessfor largeringsand cold workingprocessfor


smallerrings

o Applications:balland rollerbearingraces,steeltiresfor railroad


wheels,and ringsfor pipes,pressurevessels,and rotating
machinery

o Advantages:materialsavings,idealgrainorientation, a1#
strengthening
throughcoldworking

RINGROLLING

Ring rollingused to reducethe wall thicknessand increasethe diameterof a ring:


(1) start,and (2) completionof process
II. FORGING
Deformationprocessin which work is compressedbetween
two dies

o Oldestof the metalformingoperations,


datingfromabout5000
BC

o Components: enginecrankshafts, rods,gears,


connecting
jet
components, engineturbineparts
aircraftstructural

o In addition,
basicmetalsindustries
useforgingto establish
bgsic
formof largecomponents thataresubsequently machined to riq;
finalshapeandsize

CLASSIFICATION
OF FORGING
OPERATIONS
o Coldvs. hotforging:
. Hot or warm forging - mostcommon,due to the
significantdeformationand the needto reducestrength
and increaseductilityof workmetal
. Cold forging - advantageis increasedstrengththat
resultsfromstrainhardening

o lmpactvs. pressforging:
. Forge hammer - appliesan impactload
. Forge press - appliesgradualpressure

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TYPESOF FORGING
DIES
1, Open-die forging - work is compressedbetweentwo flat dies,
allowingmetalto flow laterallywithoutconstraint

lmpression-die forging - die surfacescontaina cavity or


impressionthat is impartedto workpart,thus constrainingmetal
flow - f/ash is created

s. Fleshless forging - workpartis completelyconstrainedin die


and no excessflash is produced l.F

Lowar dis (9blionary)

1. OPEN.DIEFORGING
Compressionof workpartwith cylindricalcross-section
betweentwo flat dies

o Similarto compressiontest
o Deformation operationreducesheightand increases
diameterof work
o Common names includeupsettingor upsef forging
2. IMPRESSION.DIE
FORGING
Compressionof workpartby dies with inverseof desiredpart shape
o Flash is formed by metalthat flows beyonddie cavity into small gap
betweendie plates
o Flash must be latertrimmedfrom part, but it servesan important
functionduringcompression:
. As flash forms,frictionresistscontinuedmetalflow into gap,
constrainingmaterialto fill die cavity
. In hot forging,metalflow is furtherrestrictedby coolingagainstdie
plates

*"mffi ffi x':;i'""i,jig#;;_


l"F
t t".

:_* gap betweendie plates

IMPRESSION.DIE
FORGING
ADVANTAGESAND LIMITATIONS

o Advantagescompared to machining fromsolidstock:


. Higherproductionrates
. Conservationof metal(lesswaste)
. Greaterstrength
. Favorablegrainorientation in the metal
o Limitations:
. Notcapableof closetolerances
. Machiningoftenrequiredto achieveaccuracies
andfeaturesneeded, suchas holes,threads, and
matingsurfacesthatfit withothercomponents ffii
3. FLASHLESS
FORGING
Compressionof work in punchand die toolingwhosecavitydoes allow
for flash
o Startingworkpartvolumemustequaldie cavityvolumewithinvery
closetolerance
o Processcontrolmoredemandingthan impression-die forging
o Bestsuitedto part geometriesthat are simpleand symmetrical
o Often classified as a precision forging process

Flashlessforging:
(i) just beforeinitialcontactwith workpiece,
(2) partialcompression,and
(3) final punchand die closure

FORGTNG (DROP
HAMMERS
HAMMERS)
o Apply an impact load againstworkpart - two types:
. Gravitydrop hammers- impactenergyfrom fallingweight of a
ram
. Power drop hammers- acceleratethe ram by pressurizedair or
steam
o Disadvantage:impactenergytransmitted throughanvil intofloor of
building
o Mostcommonlyusedfor impression-die forging

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FORGING
PRESSES
o Applygradualpressure
to accomplish
compression
operation- types:
. Mechanicalpresses- convertsrotationof drivemotor
intolinearmotionof ram
. Hydraulicpresses- hydraulicpistonactuatesram
. Screwpresses- screwmechanismdrivesram

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III.EXTRUSION
Compressionformingprocessin whichthe work metalis forcedto flow
througha die openingto producea desiredcross-sectional
shape

o Processis similarto squeezingtoothpasteout of a toothpastetuoe

o In general,extrusionis usedto producelong partsof uniformcross-


sections

o Two basic types of extrusion:


. Directextrusion Rem
. lndirectextrusion ?

Wht;.
Directextrusion u*,
COMMENTS
ON DIRECTEXTRUSION
o Also called forward extrusion
o As ram approachesdie opening,a smallportionof billetremainsthat
cannotbe forcedthroughdie opening
o This extra portion,called the butt, must be separatedfrom extruded
productby cuttingit just beyondthe die exit
o Startingbilletcrosssectionusuallyround,butfinal shape is determi
by die opening

otl c E
(a) Directextrusionto producea hollowor semi-hollowcross-section;(b) ,.-:,,1
hollowand (c) semi-hollowcross-sections
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COMMENTSON INDIRECTEXTRUSION
o Also called backwardextrusionandreverse extrusion
o Limitationsof indirectextrusionare imposedby the lowerrigidityof
hollowram and difficultyin supportingextrudedproductas it exits
die

lndirectextrusionto oroduce

(a) a solid cross-sectionand (b) a hollowcross-section


GENERAL
ADVANTAGES
OF
EXTRUSION

o Varietyof shapespossible,especiallyin hot extrusion


. Limitation:
partcross-section
mustbe uniform
throughout
length
o Grainstructureand strengthenhancedin coldandwarm
extrusion
o Closetolerancespossible, in coldextrusion
especially
o In someoperations,littleor no wasteof material

'i1 )

HOTVS. COLDEXTRUSION
o Hot extrusion- priorheatingof billetto aboveits
Iizationtemperature
recrystal
. This reducesstrengthand increases
ductilityof the
metal,permitting
moresizereductions and more
complexshapes
o Coldextrusion- generallyusedto producediscrete
parts
. The termimpactextrusionis usedto indicatehigh
speedcoldextrusion

!:

li,
::::::::
::::::
A complexextrudedcross-section
for a heatsink
(photocourtesy
of AluminumCompanyof America)..__
*ffi

IV.WIREAND BAR DRAWING

Cross-section of a bar, rod,or wire is reducedby pullingit througha die


opening
o Similarto extrusionexceptwork is pulledthroughdie in drawing(it is
pushedthroughin extrusion)
o Althoughdrawingappliestensilestress,compressionalso playsa
significantrole sincemetalis squeezedas it passesthroughdie
opening

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Figure19.41- Drawingof bar,rod,or wire .si


WIREDRAWINGVS. BAR DRAWING
o Differencebetweenbardrawingandwiredrawingis
stocksize
. Bar drawing- largediameterbar and rod stock
. Wiredrawing- smalldiameterstock- wire sizesdownto
0.03mm (0.001in.)are possible
o Althoughthe mechanicsarethesame,the
methods, equipment,
andeventerminologyare
different

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AND PRODUCTS
DRAWINGPRACTICE

o Drawingpractice:
. Usuallyperformedas coldworking
. Mostfrequentlyusedfor roundcross-sections
o Products:
. Wire'.electricalwire;wire stockfor fences,coat hangers,and
shoppingcarts
. Rodsfockfor nails,screws,rivets,and springs
. Bar sfock metalbarsfor machining, forging,and other
processes

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WIREDRAWING
o Continuousdrawingmachinesconsistingof multipledraw dies
(typically4Io 12) separatedby accumulating
drums
. Each drum (capsfan)providesproperforce to draw wire stock
throughupstreamdie
. Eachdie providesa smallreduction,so desiredtotal reductionis
achievedby the series
. Annealingsometimesrequiredbetweendies

BAR DRAWING
o Accomplished as a smg/e-draft - the stock
operation
is pulledthroughonedieopening
o Beginning stockhaslargediameter
andis a straight
cylinder
o Thisnecessitates a batchtypeoperation

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Hydraulicallyoperateddraw benchfor drawingmetal bars


BULKDEFORMATIONPROCESSES
IN METALWORKING
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