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Abstract Volume

Congress

Mexico-City, 20 - 24 June 2006


Editors

Jochen Bundschuh María Aurora Armienta


(Germany/Argentina/Costa Rica) (Mexico)

Prosun Bhattacharya Jörg Matschullat


(Sweden) (Germany)

Peter Birkle Ramiro Rodríguez


(Mexico) (Mexico)

International Society of
Groundwater for Sustainable Development
1

Welcome to the vestigated. Recently, in Nicaragua – a country


International Congress where the groundwater arsenic problem was not
“Natural Arsenic assumed to exist – elevated groundwater As-
in Groundwaters concentrations as well as As-related health ef-
of Latin America” fects were detected. However, the actual number
of people at risk for chronic As-toxicity is not yet
Dear Participant, known. This current status of insufficient knowl-
edge on As-occurrence and related health risks
On behalf of the whole organisational team, we deserves attention.
welcome you heartily to this congress which
tands in the tradition of the San Diego confer- The sustainable land-use and agricultural prac-
ences and the conference held in Santiago de tices in the Latin American countries are region-
Chile – all dedicated to a better understanding ally threatened by the use of As-contaminated
of arsenic-related problems and challenges. irrigation water. Elevated levels of natural As in
groundwater from geogenic sources is therefore
At the same time, we welcome you to Mexico- an issue of primary environmental concern,
City, and we hope that you will enjoy both the which limits the use of these resources for drink-
enlightening atmosphere of the congress and the ing or other purposes, and hinders socio-
relentless dynamics of this fascinating capital. economic growth. Hence there is a need to im-
prove our understanding of the genesis of As-rich
The Congress groundwaters, constraints on the mobility of As
in groundwater and other environmental com-
In many parts of the world groundwater resour-
partments, As-uptake from soil and water by
ces – a backbone for human development – natu-
plants, As-propagation through the food chain,
rally contain elevated levels of arsenic (As).
health impacts on human beings, life stock, and
These As-concentrations often exceed the World
other animals, assessment of environmental
Health Organisation (WHO) guideline value of
health risks and impacts, and As-removal tech-
10 µg L-1. Severe health effects have been asso-
nologies, to improve the socio-economic status of
ciated with elevated As-concentrations in
the affected regions.
groundwater used for drinking purposes. Many
people in low income countries, particularly in
South East Asia and Latin America, are most
severely affected. There is increasing evidence of Interdisciplinary Platform Objective
various susceptibility factors, e.g., malnutrition.
The goal of the international congress "As 2006"
Arsenic in groundwater poses one of the most is to bring together geo-scientists, specialists
important environmental health risks of the from public health, from chemical and engineer-
present century. Several million people depend- ing sciences involved in arsenic-related issues.
ing on arsenic-containing groundwater for
The regional focus of attention is dedicated to
drinking purposes are at increased risk of arse-
Latin America.
nic-related health effects. So far, most research
focussed on As-related cancer effects. More The conference serves as a platform for discus-
information about other health effects is needed sion and exchange of scientific knowledge and
and on susceptibility. ideas to identify future research targets needed to
During the last decade, As-rich groundwaters in improve the understanding of (1) the occurrence
South and South-East Asia have received much and mobility of arsenic in groundwater, (2) the
attention. However, the situation seems to be health impacts and risks when using this water
equally important in Latin America, where the for drinking or irrigation purposes, and (3) to
number of studies is still relatively low, and the develop, evaluate, select and apply the most
extent and severity of As-exposure in the popu- suitable remediation methods, which means
lation only marginally evaluated. Arsenic occur- adapted to the hydrogeological and hydrogeo-
rence in groundwater in Argentina, Bolivia, chemical properties of the aquifer, the specific
Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, and hydrochemical composition of the groundwater,
other Latin American countries need to be in- the social conditions and the economic situation
2

of the affected population and the respective Content


water service providers.
The international congress is designed to (1) Welcome address 1
create interest within the Latin American coun- Author list 3
tries, affected by the presence of arseniferous
aquifers, (2) to address the international scien- Abstracts 7
tific community in general, (3) to update the Topic list 89
current status of knowledge on the dynamics of
natural arsenic from the bedrock and soils via
aquifers and groundwater to food chain, (4) to
continue the important worldwide forum on
improved and efficient techniques for As-
removal in regions with elevated arsenic levels
in groundwater, and (5) to increase awareness
among administrators, policy makers and com-
pany executives, and to improve the interna-
tional cooperation on that topic. However, we
strongly encourage all other researchers work-
ing on arsenic elsewhere in the world to con-
tribute, which would strengthen this global
issue.

On behalf of the organizing comittee

Jochen Bundschuh, María Aurora Armienta,


Prosun Bhattacharya , Jörg Matschullat,
Peter Birkle and Ramiro Rodríguez

International Society of
Groundwater for Sustainable Development
3

Alphabetical list of authors with page Cama J...........................................................15


location in this abstract volume Cano-Aguilera I ............................................15
Canyelles C ...................................................16
Acarapi C J ................................................... 21 Carrizales Yañez L..................................46, 62
Acosta-Saavedra L ....................................... 79 Caselli AT .....................................................29
Aguilera-Alvarado AF.................................. 15 Castro de Esparza ML.............................16, 18
Aguirre RJ ...................................................... 7 Castro-Larragoitia J.......................................53
Aguirre V...................................................... 22 Caussy D .......................................................19
Agusto M...................................................... 29 Cebrián ME.................................26, 45, 52, 79
Ahmed KM......................................... 7, 11, 39 Cerbon M ......................................................62
Alam MGM .................................................. 80 Čerňanský S ..................................................19
Alfaro-De la Torre MC................................. 53 Chandrajith R ................................................84
Alonso MS.................................................... 50 Charlet L .................................................64, 65
Altamirano Espinoza M.................................. 8 Chavez C.......................................................22
Andrade G .................................................... 83 Choi H...........................................................60
Aranyosiová, M ............................................ 19 Ciminelli VST.........................................20, 77
Arenas H MJ................................................. 21 Conde P.........................................................79
Armienta MA ................................... 10, 36, 52 Cornejo P L .............................................21, 88
Avena M................................................. 43, 64 Corona M ......................................................70
Ávila Carrera ME ......................................... 28 Cortina JL......................................................16
Balczewski A.................................................. 7 Cruz L ...........................................................52
Bandara A..................................................... 84 Cumbal LH.............................................. 22 (2)
Banerjee K...................................................... 7 d´Hiriart J ......................................................24
Barberá R...................................................... 42 Dahmke A ...............................................40, 41
Barahona F ................................................... 44 Daus B...........................................................40
Barnes RM.................................................... 88 De Haro-Bailón A .........................................31
Barrera A ...................................................... 33 de Oliveira Couto e Silva N ..............23, 47, 53
Bastías JM .............................................. 36, 83 de Oliveira Vilhena MJ .................................48
Bastida M ..................................................... 79 Del Razo LM. 28, 33, 34, 35, 38, 45, 55, 69, 81
Beltrán-Hernández RI................................... 45 Del Río-Celestino M .....................................31
Berdón V ...................................................... 62 del Valle Hidalgo M................................24, 32
Bhattacharya P...................... 11, 12, 39, 59, 80 Deschamps E...............................23, 43, 48, 51
Bianco de Salas G......................................... 28 Deshpande L .................................................23
Billib M ........................................................ 37 Díaz Sch O ....................................................25
Birkle P .................................................. 12, 13 Díaz-Villaseñor A ...................................26, 52
Blesa MA...................................................... 24 Doušová B...............................................26, 27
Bonorino G................................................... 43 Driehaus W .....................................................7
Boochs PW................................................... 37 Ebert M ...................................................40, 41
Bovi Mitre G .......................................... 28, 69 Espinosa M................................................8, 28
Briones-Gallardo R................................. 46, 82 Esteller MV...................................................49
Bruha T......................................................... 27 Estévez J .......................................................81
Bundschuh J ....................11, 12, 13, 44, 54, 80 Etchichury MC..............................................50
Caetano LM.................................................. 20 Falcón CM ....................................................50
Caldeira C L ................................................. 20 Farías SS .....................................28, 29, 54, 69
Calderón-Aranda ES..................................... 79 Farré R ..........................................................42
Calderón-Hernandez J ............................ 46, 62 Fazio AM ......................................................29
4

Fernández DS ............................................... 32 Izquierdo-Vega JA ........................................38


Fernández RG............................................... 30 Jacks G.................................................... 11 (2)
Fernández-Cirelli A...................................... 53 Jakariya M...............................................11, 39
Fierro V ........................................................ 88 Jara-Marini ME .............................................40
Figueroa L .................................................... 88 Jiménez I .......................................................33
Flores-Valverde E......................................... 10 Jonsson L ......................................................11
Font R........................................................... 31 Kanel S..........................................................61
Freitas SHD .................................................. 77 Kanel SR .................................................60, 61
Fuitová L ...................................................... 26 Kannel PR .....................................................61
Gabrio T ....................................................... 48 Kinniburgh DG .............................................76
Gaiero D ....................................................... 65 Köber R...................................................40, 41
Galindo MC .................................................. 32 Koloušek D .............................................26, 27
Gallaga-Solorzano JC................................... 48 Königskötter H..............................................66
García JW..................................................... 50 Korban Ali M..................................................9
Garcia ME .............................................. 13, 54 Krüger T........................................................37
García MG.............................................. 24, 32 Kumar M.......................................................59
García-Chavéz E........................................... 33 Laparra JM ....................................................42
García-Montalvo EA ........................ 28, 34, 81 Lara-Castro RH.............................................53
García-Rico L ......................................... 40, 69 Leonhardt Palmiere HE.................................43
Garcia-Vargas G........................................... 81 Lienqueo A H................................................21
Germolec DR................................................ 81 Limbozzi F ....................................................43
Giarolli F ................................................ 40, 41 Limón JH ......................................................35
Giménez E .................................................... 49 Litter MI........................................................24
Giordano M .................................................. 35 Lòpez DL ......................................................44
Giuliano G .................................................... 85 Lopez-Bayghen E..........................................70
Gonsebatt ME......................................... 35, 62 López-Carrillo L ...........................................79
Grygar T ....................................................... 26 López-Sánchez JF ...................................67, 68
Guadarrama JC ............................................. 33 López-Zepeda JL ..........................................44
Gutiérrez Ospina G....................................... 35 Lucho-Constantino C ..............................45, 55
Gutiérrez-Ojeda C ........................................ 35 Luna AL ........................................................79
Gutiérrez-Ruiz M ................................... 44, 65 Lundell L.......................................................11
Haque N........................................................ 15 Machado-Estrada BP.....................................46
Hasan MA .............................................. 11, 39 Machovič V.............................................26, 27
Hasan MT..................................................... 59 Maciasa AE...................................................48
Helal Uddin M.............................................. 59 Madé B..........................................................85
Hernández JC ............................................... 51 Mahlknecht J.................................................68
Hernández H................................................. 36 Maldonado Reyes A......................................47
Hernández M ................................................ 62 Mansilla H...............................................21, 88
Hernández-Ramosa I .................................... 48 Marcus M ......................................................44
Hernández-Zavala A............................... 34, 81 Marijuan L ....................................................51
Herrera C ...................................................... 36 Mariño E .......................................................73
Hiriart M................................................. 26, 52 Martaus A................................................26, 27
Holländer HM .............................................. 37 Martin RA ...............................................12, 80
Hossain MA.................................................... 9 Martín Romero F.....................................44, 65
Hossain MM................................................. 59 Mata E...........................................................63
Hugo M ........................................................ 57 Matin Ahmed K ............................................38
5

Matschullat J .......................................... 23, 48 Poggi-Varaldo HM..................................45, 55


Mattusch J .................................................... 40 Ponce RI........................................................28
Mejia JA ....................................................... 63 Pradhan B......................................................56
Merchant H................................................... 33 Preziosi E ......................................................85
Merino MH................................................... 50 Prieto-García F..............................................45
Micete S........................................................ 10 Puigdomènech AP.........................................16
Monroy-Fernández MG................................ 82 Punti A ..........................................................16
Monroy-Torres R.......................................... 48 Pupo I............................................................81
Montero A .................................................... 81 Queriol H ......................................................35
Montero Ocampo C ...................................... 47 Quintanilla J ..................................................57
Monterrosa J................................................. 44 Rahman IMM................................................59
Montoro M R.............................. 25, 31, 42, 69 Ramanathan AL ............................................59
Morales L ..................................................... 16 Ramírez E......................................................52
Morales VR .................................................. 62 Ramirez P......................................................62
Morell I......................................................... 49 Ransom L ......................................................44
Moreno C...................................................... 32 Raßbach K.....................................................48
Morrison GM................................................ 15 Recabarren G E .............................................25
Moscuzza C .................................................. 53 Rema P ............................................................9
Mridha MAU................................................ 59 Reséndiz I......................................................52
Mugica V...................................................... 52 Reyes Agüero JA ..........................................46
Muñoz O................................................. 36, 83 Rinderknecht-Seijas N ..................................55
Nahar S......................................................... 39 Rocha CA......................................................51
Navarrete R .................................................. 35 Rocha-Amador DO .......................................62
Navarro C ME .............................................. 62 Rodríguez R ............................................36, 63
Nazim Uddin M............................................ 59 Rodríguez V ..................................................35
Nicolli HB .............................................. 50, 76 Román-Ross G ........................................64, 65
Novák M....................................................... 80 Ruales J .........................................................69
Núñez S N .................................................... 25 Rubio R ...................................................67, 68
Oberdá SM ................................................... 51 Rüde TR........................................................66
Orihuela DL.................................................. 51 Ruiz-Chancho MJ ...................................67, 68
Ortega MA.................................................... 70 Ruiz-Gonzalez Y...........................................68
Ortiz E .......................................................... 52 Sacchi G ........................................................64
Ostrosky-Wegman P......................... 26, 52, 70 Sancha AM........................................16, 68, 69
Oswaldo R .................................................... 57 Sánchez-Peña LC ..............................33, 38, 69
Pande S......................................................... 23 Sánchez-Soto M ............................................26
Pant, KK ................................................. 71, 72 Sandoval M ...................................................70
Pastene O R .................................................. 25 Santiago-Garcia EJ........................................48
Pauli C .......................................................... 64 Sarvinder Singh T ...................................71, 72
Pažout V ....................................................... 27 Sastre-Conde I...............................................45
Pelallo-Martínez NA .................................... 53 Schulz CJ ......................................................73
Pérez-Carrera A............................................ 53 Segura B........................................................33
Pérez-Mohedano S ....................................... 51 Selim HM......................................................74
Petrusevski B................................................ 30 Senapati K.....................................................75
Pflüger JC..................................................... 54 Sen Gupta AK ...............................................22
Pilar Asta M ................................................. 15 Servant RE ....................................................28
Pimentel A.................................................... 55 Ševc J ............................................................19
6

Shi F ............................................................. 11
Silva A.......................................................... 77
Silva J ........................................................... 43
Silva JCJ....................................................... 77
Smedley PL .................................................. 76
Sordo M........................................................ 70
Soria de Paredes GN..................................... 78
Soriano T ...................................................... 44
Soto-Peña GA............................................... 79
Soto-Peredo CA............................................ 38
Sracek O ..................................... 11, 12, 32, 80
Stummeyer J ................................................. 37
Sulovsky P.................................................... 80
Tineo A......................................................... 50
Tipan R......................................................... 22
Tofalo OR..................................................... 50
Tokunaga S................................................... 80
Torres E ........................................................ 16
Tripathi P...................................................... 59
Urík M .......................................................... 19
Valcárcel L ................................................... 81
Valenzuela OL.................................. 28, 34, 81
Vasconcelos O.................................. 23, 43, 77
Vázquez-Rodríguez G .................................. 82
Vega L .......................................................... 79
Vélez P D ................................... 25, 31, 42, 69
Vieira Alves T .............................................. 51
Vilches S ...................................................... 83
Villaamil E ................................................... 69
Villalobos M........................................... 44, 65
Vithanage M................................................. 84
Vivona R ...................................................... 85
Von Brömssen M.......................................... 11
Wajrak M...................................................... 85
Wallschläger D ....................................... 86, 87
Weerasooriya R ............................................ 84
Weidner U .................................................... 48
Welter E.................................................. 40, 41
Yadav PK ..................................................... 87
Yañez J ................................................... 21, 88
Zhang H........................................................ 74
Zuñiga O....................................................... 62
7

1. Me arsenic adsorption technology 2. Management of shallow groundwater


– A review of long-term performance in arsenic: Bangladesh experiences
full-scale applications from Stadtolden- K M Ahmed
dorf to Phoenix
Department of Geology, University of Dhaka,
Roman J. Aguirre1, Kashi Banerjee1, Aaron Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh kmahmed@udhaka.net
Balczewski1, Wolfgang Driehaus2
1
U.S. Filter, 1728 Paonia Street, Colorado Presence of arsenic at concentrations above
Springs, CO 80915, USA Bangladesh drinking water standards has
2
GEH, Germany emerged as serious public health hazard
where at least 30 millions people are ex-
In anticipation of the upcoming lower limit posed. This is because of about 30% of
of 10 µg L-1 for Arsenic issued by the country’s domestic hand tube wells pumping
USEPA many utilities and private water water with arsenic concentrations above 0.05
companies are investigating their treatment mg L-1. Despite enormous variability in spa-
options. A recent search of arsenic removal tial and vertical distribution of arsenic in
solutions on the internet identified 307,000 groundwater, there are certain geological
websites pages offering ‘arsenic treatment’. provinces which are less affected compared
It can be stated that while most websites to some severely affected ones. Also there
promised the ‘latest and greatest’ solution are certain aquifers which are almost fully
to arsenic removal, full scale experience safe compared to others which are almost
and commercial availability of many prod- entirely unsafe. There are forecasts of sig-
ucts is non-existent or extremely lacking. nificant increase in cancer and other arsenic
As the plethora of adsorption media and related diseases in the coming years. Access
revolutionary treatment approaches have to safe water coverage has come down to
gained most of the attention in the market 70% from 97% due to arsenic occurrences in
place, successful, full-scale long-term oper- shallow groundwater which is the main
ating experiences have not been published source of potable water in the country.
for many new technologies. Since first detection in 1993, lots of activi-
This paper will in detail focus on long- ties have been carried out by GOB, UN
term, full-scale arsenic adsorption installa- agencies, development partners and NGOs.
tions in Germany, United Kingdom, India A large number of research initiatives have
and the United States. Overall operating also been taken by local and overseas uni-
performance, influent and finished water versities and institutions. A large number of
quality, waste disposal options employed, papers have been published covering various
site conditions and regional challenges will aspects of the arsenic in groundwater which
be examined and compared. Included in the have certainly the enhanced the knowledge
analysis are comments from the operating base about occurrences, distribution and
staff providing their view point of the over- remediation of the menace. However, still
all system. there are debates about the origin and release
mechanism and possible consequences of
drinking high arsenic water. And the scale of
mitigation does not match with the magni-
tude of the problem.
This paper aims to review the existing
knowledge base on various aspects of arse-
nic occurrences in Bangladesh groundwater
along side critically reviewing the efforts by
8

government and other agencies. As the una extensión de 52 km2. El área comprende
arsenic problem occurs in many other coun- 15 comunidades con un total de 3225 habi-
tries, particularly in South and East Asia, tantes (INEC,1995) y una tasa de cre-
Bangladesh experiences would be useful in cimiento del 2.6% anual.
designing mitigation strategies in other
Características generales. Las rocas expues-
countries. For example, Bangladesh has
tas presentan una intensa alteración hidro-
adopted a National Arsenic Policy and Ac-
termal. Fallas y fracturas NE y NW próxi-
tion Plan for mitigation of the issue. Such a
mas a la superficie son verdaderos conductos
policy can be adapted to other countries.
y fuentes para que el contaminante entre al
Another commendable task carried out by
medio acuífero.
the World Bank supported Bangladesh
Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project is Métodos de investigación. Se realizaron
testing of more than 5 million wells all over análisis físico-químicos del agua subterránea
the affected regions of the country. Despite y arsénico total en rocas, suelos y aguas. Se
questions about the validity of such tests hizo reconocimiento geológico, para conocer
using field kits, there good examples of las condiciones geomorfológicos, estructura-
using these data is designing village based les y la zonificación de la alteración hidro-
mitigation strategy. Also various other re- termal. Se usó geofísica (magnetometría)
search initiatives and mitigation options para identificar posibles estructuras aso-
can be useful to countries who are trying to ciadas a las concentraciones de As en las
understand and manage the problem. aguas subterráneas.
Principales hallazgos.
3. Distribución de la contaminación 1- Las principales concentraciones de arsé-
natural por arsénico en las aguas nico en roca, suelo y agua se asocian a
subterráneas de la subcuenca Suroeste procesos singenéticos (primarios) y epigené-
de El Valle de Sebaco-Matagalpa, ticos (secundarios), evidenciados a lo largo
Nicaragua de fallas y fracturas NE y E-W principal-
M. Altamirano Espinoza
mente.

Centro para la Investigación de Recursos 2- Desde el punto de vista físico químico, las
Acuáticos –Universidad Nacional Autónoma de muestras analizadas en los 25 pozos
Nicaragua (CIRA/UNAN), Managua 4598 estudiados son consideradas aguas de buena
Nicaragua; maximinaa@hotmail.com calidad. (CAPRE,1994). Un total de 16 po-
zos (64%) se clasifican como aguas bicar-
Un problema ambiental serio en Nicaragua bonatadas cálcicas.
es la concentración natural de arsénico en
3- Las mayores concentraciones de arsénico
las aguas subterránea próximos a áreas
se encuentran asociadas a sistemas de fallas
mineralizadas por procesos hidrotermales
secundarias E-W las cuales favorecen la
producto de la dinámica de Nicaragua Oc-
formación de micro estructuras que influen-
cidental, donde el proceso de subducción
cian las características propias del acuífero
de la placa de Cocos por debajo de la placa
especialmente el espesor y la profundidad
del Caribe es el motor principal de la for-
del basamento.
mación de la Depresión de Nicaragua, la
principal estructura geológica regional, en 4- De los 57 muestras de agua captadas, el
cuyo margen oriental externo ocurre el 36% presentan concentraciones de arsénico
Valle de Sébaco y el área de estudio en la total (10 a 122 µg L-1) que sobrepasan el
parte SW. Entre estas áreas podemos ubicar valor guía establecidos para agua de con-
la parte suroeste del Valle de Sébaco, con sumo humano. En el 93% de las muestras de
9

aguas, el arsénico se encuentra como ar- using an interview schedule from 85 users
senatos con un estado de oxidación (V) y el from Ghosh Gaon union under Dhobawra
7% se encuentran como arsenito (III), el upazilla of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh
cual es la especie más toxica y móvil de between the times of Jan/2004 to Feb/2005.
arsénico. The most of the users are middle aged illiter-
ate low income farmers. The large percent of
5- En la comunidad de El Zapote se encon-
respondent (50.3%) has no knowledge about
traron las mayores concentraciones de
arsenic diseases. There were no social/family
arsénico. En rocas y suelos, las concentra-
problem faced by the users during using of
ciones de arsénico total detectadas fueron
two bucket filter and has no arsenic patients.
de 14.98 µg g-1 y 57.19 µg g-1 respecti-
Only 12.9% of the tubewells are bearing
vamente, en el agua fue de 122.15 µg L-1.
arsenic concentration over danger level. The
Dos muestras comparativas de suelo,
unacceptability index (U.I) of 10-items of
ubicadas fuera del área de estudio, en la
arsenic removal unit (two bucket filter
entrada a Mina La India y en los
method) ranged from 110.6 to 295.3 against
alrededores de la comunidad Agua Fría,
a possible range 0 to 300. The score of 6 U.I
presentaron concentraciones mayores y
exceeded 250. Among the causes ‘Very low
similares a la de El Zapote con concentra-
flow of water through two bucket filter’ was
ciones de 95.2 y 59.5 µg g-1 respectiva-
found high unacceptability index (U.I) of
mente
295.3, while, ‘Repair-Maintenance and Re-
6- La presencia de arsénico en los suelos placement of Sand, Coal and brick particles
evidencia el origen desde fuentes naturales. is not available’ was second ranked order
El contacto de la población con el xeno- (UI =287.2), ‘More time required to fill up a
biótico ocurre de forma permanente no solo Jar of water’ the third (U.I = 286) and ‘Eas-
en la ingesta de agua si no en su actividad ily Block out of filters and Screens’ the
cotidiana incrementando el riesgo toxi- fourth ranked order (U.I = 284.9). However,
cológico. all the remaining indices of unacceptability
were found above 150 except one which was
110.6. From the overall unacceptability of
4. Unacceptability of the Two Bucket the users revealed that 18.8 percent of users
Arsenic Removal Filter in Dhobawra, shown medium high unacceptability, 63.5
Bangladesh percent users high and 17.6 percent very
M. Anwar Hossain1, Pulok Rema2 and M. high unacceptability. There is 100 percent
Korban Ali2 users’ currently consuming tubewells water
1
from their own tubewells. The acceptability
Department of Farm Structure, Faculty of index (A.I) revealed that the No. 1 rank or-
Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Bang- der obtained by the statements of ‘water is
ladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-
clean and pure’ with an acceptability index
2202, Bangladesh
2
Faculty of Agricultural Engineering &
of 298.4. The No. 2 and No. 3 rank order
Technology, Bangladesh Agricultural Univer- obtained by the statements of ‘Water is safe
sity, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh; for use and ‘Easily available in all time’ with
anwar_bau@yahoo.com the acceptability index of 296.5 and 268.1
respectively. From the overall acceptability
This study aimed to determine the reasons it is found that 32.9 percent of users have
why people unaccepting the arsenic re- highly accepted the tubewells water instead
moval technology (two bucket filter) and of two balti method, 64.7 percent users’ me-
the causes why people return back for using dium highly and only 2.4 percent users’ me-
tubewells water instead of arsenic removal dium accepted.
technology’s water. Data were collected by
10

These research findings has recommended time, rock: water ratio, and rock sizes. Re-
to the decision makers and NGO for evalu- sults showed a 90% decrease on the arsenic
ating the unacceptability and sustainability concentration treating 1 liter of water with
before supplying or install the arsenic re- 10 g rock of a size <0.5 mm. Experiments
moval technology in a particular area. were run during one hour, but removal took
place within the first minutes. Clean water
was removed and contaminated water was
5. Feasability of arsenic removal from again added to the same rocks. This proce-
polluted water using indigenous geologi- dure was repeated several times, obtaining
cal materials the same efficiency of As removal up to the
M.A. Armienta1, S. Micete2, E. Flores- fifth addition of water. Use of rock particles
Valverde2 0.84-1.00 mm decreased As content to 0.057
1 mg L-1 or less, within 5 minutes. Particle size
Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional
played a relevant role in the column experi-
Autónoma de México. Circuito Exterior C.U.,
México 04510 D.F.
ments. Use of particles <0.5 mm hindered
victoria@geofisica.unam.mx the water flow. Packing with rocks 0.84 mm
2
Posgrado en Ciencias e Ingeniería Ambien- to 1.00 size allowed an adequate water flow,
tales, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, and produced an As concentration of 0.025
México D.F. mg L-1 in the outflow.
Use of the Soyatal limestone rocks at Zi-
Arsenic concentrations above the Mexican
mapán has several advantages: this type of
drinking water standard have been meas-
rock is abundant in the area, is of easy har-
ured in deep wells used for potable supply
vesting and of easy milling. Limestones may
at Zimapán, México. Arsenic contamina-
be used for a domestic water-treatment. The
tion in these wells is produced by natural
same rocks may be used five times to clean
processes. Lack of productive non-contami-
new batches of contaminated water. Packed
nated wells and surface water bodies in the
columns may be used on site to treat the
area, gives few alternatives to As pollution.
water pumped from the polluted wells.
Currently, good quality water from a well
Waste rocks may be disposed on tailings
located about 25 km from Zimapán, is
located at Zimapán town, and contribute to
pumped 400 m height and mixed with wa-
increase their pH and control acid mine
ter from a well (Z5) containing 0.5 mg L-1
drainage.
As, to supply potable water. Variations on
the proportion of water from each source
results on variable As concentrations, being
0.15 mg L-1 in February 2005. Iron oxides
and zeolites are the geological materials
most used to remove arsenic at other pol-
luted sites. However, the geology of Zi-
mapán with abundant limestone outcrops,
prompted to study their As removal poten-
tial. Besides, previous studies have shown
the capacity of limestones from this area to
remove arsenic.
The feasibility of the Soyatal limestone to
produce clean water from the deep well Z5
was determined with batch and column
tests. Batch tests were performed varying
11

6. Targeting safe aquifers in Matlab Up- Fetot and Mn. The concentration of Astot
zila, Bangladesh – Validating the initia- range between below detection limit to 355
tives of local drillers µg L-1. The groundwater samples were clas-
sified in accordance with the four groups of
P. Bhattacharya1, M. von Brömssen1, M.
the color of the sediments (black, white,
Jakariya1,2, L. Jonsson1, L. Lundell1, G.
offwhite and red) at the screen depths of the
Jacks1, K.M. Ahmed3 and M. A. Hasan3
wells. Four different groups of sediments
1
KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic were characterized by a distinct scale of
Research Group, Department of Land and groundwater composition governed by the
Water Resources Engineering, KTH, SE- redox characteristics.
100 44 Stockholm, Sweden; prosun@kth.se
2 Groundwater extracted from black sediments
NGO-Forum for Drinking Water Supply
was most reduced, followed by white, off-
and Sanitation, 4/6, Block-E, Lalmatia,
white and red where the groundwater was
Dhaka 1207, Bangladesh
3 less reduced. The reddish/yellowish color of
Department of Geology, Dhaka University,
the sediments and low concentrations of
Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
dissolved Fe in groundwater at these depths
Natural arsenic (As) is encountered in suggest a relatively oxidised condition. In
groundwaters from the shallow aquifers of these sediments, most of the Fe is likely to
Holocene age in Bengal Delta Plain (BDP) be present as coatings on the framework
of Bangladesh above the safe drinking wa- grains as oxyhydroxides, which impart red-
ter standard of WHO (10 µg L-1). Ground- dish/yellowish colour to these sediments,
waters with elevated As levels are ab- thereby have the ability to adsorb As. We
stracted. In our ongoing studies in Matlab believe that it is possible to target safe aqui-
Upazila of SE Bangladesh, it is observed fers by combining the indigenous knowledge
that local drillers prefer to install tube wells and techniques of the local drillers along
based on the characteristics of the aquifer with modern geological and hydrogeochemi-
sediments. The present paper attempts to cal expertise.
link the groundwater composition to the
redox characteristics of the sediments that
7. Groundwater characteristics in the
would validate the initiatives of the local
shallow aquifers of Huhhot region in In-
drillers to identify and target the relatively
ner Mongolia, PR China: Implications on
oxidized aquifers for installation of As-safe
the mobilisation of arsenic
tube wells.
Prosun Bhattacharya1*, Fei Shi1, Ondra Sracek2,
The Holocene aquifers in Matlab Upazila is Gunnar Jacks1 and Jochen Bundschuh3
characterized by a sequence of sediments 1
with considerable heterogeneity in terms of KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Re-
search Group, Department of Land and Water
grain size, color and mineralogy. In gen-
Resources Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Hög-
eral, a thick layer of grey (herein after re- skolan, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden;
ferred to as black) sediments with thickness prosun@kth.se
varying between 40-50 m, overlies a se- 2
Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of
quence of sediments characterized by Science, Masaryk University, Kotlařská 2, 611
white, off-white and red colors. The 37 Brno, Czech Republic
3
groundwater is near-neutral (pH = 6-7) and Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, Apartado
predominantly of Ca-Mg-HCO3 or Na-Cl- Postal 10032, 1000 San José, Costa Rica
HCO3 type. The groundwater was generally
reducing with low concentrations of SO42- Elevated arsenic (As) concentration in
and NO3- but with high concentrations of groundwater is becoming a worldwide prob-
lem. In Huhhot Alluvial Basin (HAB) in
12

Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic of could have been caused by anthropogenic


China, a population of over a million is contamination due to the sanitation practices.
exposed to severe health risk due to the The PO43- concentration ranges between 0.04
consumption of groundwater with high As to 2.6 mg L-1.
concentration. In some arsenic seriously
Total As concentration ranged from below
affected areas, As concentration reach 1491
detect limit (5.2 µg L-1) to 141 µg L-1. In 28
µg L-1, 149 times over WHO’s drinking
of the investigated wells, As levels exceeded
water guideline value for As and exceed the
WHO’s guideline value 10 µg L-1 and 17
Chinese drinking water standard by a factor
wells exceeded Chinese standard 50 µg L-1.
of 30 times. Due to the acute shortage of
Among the 42 groundwater samples of the
safe water supply and inefficient water
shallow aquifers only three complied with
management system, people are compelled
the WHO drinking water guideline value for
to drink groundwater with high As concen-
As. The dominant species in the groundwater
tration. Long period ingestion of water with
was As (III). In the 29 wells of Tie Men
high As concentration have lead to chronic
Jing, the concentration of Fe and Mn –
arsenic poisoning among the residents of
exceeded the WHO’s guideline value by a
the region. This present work deals with the
factor of 10.
hydrogeochemical characterisation of the
groundwater of the shallow alluvial aqui- The aquifers are composed of Quaternary
fers and their implications on the chemistry (mainly Holocene) fluvial and lacustrine
and its relation to the mechanism of As sediments. High As occurring in anaerobic
mobilization in the HAB. groundwater in low-lying areas is associated
with high concenrations of dissolved Fe and
Groundwater samples were collected dur-
Mn. Improved water supply system, em-
ing October 2003, from 29 sites in the vil-
ployment new water and energy resources,
lage of Tie Men Jing, located about 100 km
poverty fighting and expertise cooperation
from Inner Mongolia’s capital Huhhot. The
are recommended to solve Huhhot basin
pH, redox potential (Eh), temperature and
rural area’s drinking water problem.
electrical conductivity were measured at
sites while major ions, trace elements in-
cluding As total and As (III) were analyzed 8. The abundance of natural arsenic in
in laboratories at the Royal Institute of deep thermal fluids of geothermal and
Technology and Stockholm University in petroleum reservoirs in Mexico
Sweden. Groundwater is generally neutral
to alkaline and the pH varies from 6.67 to Peter Birkle1 and Jochen Bundschuh2
8.7. The redox potential (Eh) lies between 1
Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas, Gerencia
74 and 669 mV. The electrical conductivity de Geotermia, Avenida Reforma 113, Col.
(EC) range varies from 581 to 5200 µS cm- Palmira, Cuernavaca, 62490 México;
1 birkle@iie.org.mx
. Temperature ranges from 9.1 to 13.5 °C. 2
Depths of wells are from 4 m to 75 m. Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad ICE,
Groundwater is mostly of Na-Mg-HCO3- Apartado Postal 10032, 1000 San José, Costa
Rica
Cl-type and dominated by HCO3- and Cl- as
the predominant anions. The concentrations In general, little data is available on the
of SO42- range between 0.3 and 172.8 mg L- metal and non-metal composition of thermal
1
and there is a trend of decreasing sulfate groundwater in Mexican geothermal and
concentrations with increase in well depth. petroleum reservoirs. The abundance of
The levels of NO3- were lower than the hydrothermal minerals at the volcanic reser-
WHO´s guideline value of 50 mg L-1 in 27 voir of the Los Azufres geothermal field
wells. These high NO3- concentrations (State of Michoacán, Central Mexico), as
13

well as arsenic concentrations between 5.1 257,000 mg L-1 TDS), arsenic concentrations
mg/L and 24.0 mg L-1 in geothermal brines (< 0.003 to 0.047 mg L-1) are relatively low.
indicate the importance of dissolution and This effect can be attributed to the carbonate
exchange processes between hot fluids and host rock type – calcareous sandstone, dolo-
arsenic-enriched host rock. Elevated natural mitized mudstone and brecciated and frac-
arsenic concentrations of up to 3.9 mg L-1 tured dolomite units from lower-upper Cre-
in surface manifestations - hot springs and taceous period - with little ore content and
fumaroles - are probably related to the ver- hydrothermal mineralization. Relatively low-
tical ascent of convective fluids towards the temperature reservoir conditions around
surface. Deep waters from the Los Hu- 130°C prevent major geochemical reactions.
meros geothermal field, located in the east-
Concluding remarks about the origin of ar-
ern part of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt,
senic in Mexican deep reservoirs, the studied
show a depth-related increase of arsenic
geothermal fluids are strongly affected (Los
concentrations from 3.9 mg/L (e.g., Well
Azufres and especially Los Humeros fluids)
H-1) towards 162 mg L-1 (Well H-12).
by water-rock interaction processes under
Lower mineralized waters form part of a
elevated temperatures conditions (> 280°C).
liquid-dominated, bicarbonate reservoir
Although fluid salinization is relatively low
type at a depth from 1,025 m to 1,600 m
(maximum TDS: 15,000 and 2,000 mg L-1,
a.s.l., whereas deeper wells (800 – 100 m
respectively), the combination of physical
a.s.l.) produce a two-phase fluid. Arsenic-
and chemical conditions causes an enrich-
bearing minerals are not reported. The
ment in metal and non-metal concentrations
dominance of sandstones in the sedimen-
In contrast, low saline to hypersaline waters
tary basin of the Cerro Prieto geothermal
in Mexican oil reservoirs (maximum TDS:
field, State of Baja California, NW-Mexico,
257,000 mg L-1) are less concentrated in
explains the presence of relatively low As-
arsenic, which must be attributed to the
concentrations from 0.25 to 1.5 mg L-1 in
sedimentary host rock type and lower tem-
reservoir fluids, although bottomhole tem-
peratures conditions.
peratures are extremely elevated (max.
370°C). In order to avoid environmental
impacts of arsenic-enriched, deep geother- 9. Rural Latin America —A forgotten
mal fluids with the surface environment, it part of the global groundwater arsenic
is essential to maintain a closed production problem?
cycle between extraction wells, energy
generation and reinjection wells. J. Bundschuh1, M.E. García2, P. Birkle3
In contrast, deep fluids from petroleum International Technical Cooperation Program,
reservoirs in SE-Mexico are less enriched CIM (GTZ/BA), Frankfurt, Germany —Instituto
Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), UEN, PySA,
in arsenic in comparison to geothermal
Apartado Postal 10032, 1000 San José, Costa
reservoir fluids in Mexico. The reservoirs Rica; jochenbundschuh@yahoo.com
of Pol-Chuc, Abkatun, Batab, Caan, and 2
Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas,
Taratunich, located 80 km off-shore the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, P. Box
Gulf coast, reach maximum As- 10201, La Paz, Bolivia,
concentrations of 2.01 mg/L at a depth maugegarcia@hotmail.com
3
from 2,910 to 4,658 m b.s.l. Formation Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas, Gerencia
de Geotermia, Avenida Reforma 113, Col.
water from the Cactus, Nispero and Sitio Palmira, Cuernavaca, 62490 México
Grande oil reservoirs (State of Tabasco) are
located at a depth from 3,670 to 4,315 m In different countries of Latin America as
b.s.l. Although mineralization of these flu- Argentina, Chile, México, and Peru at least 4
ids can reach hypersaline conditions (up to million people are permanently drinking
14

water with elevated arsenic concentrations In decreasing order of importance, it is either


in a magnitude, which converts the issue in related to (1) the presence of arsenic in the
some of the countries as in Argentina and aquifer sediments, related to volcanism
Mexico into a public health problem. So (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Nicaragua,
e.g. in Argentina and Chile over 1% of the Mexico, El Salvador), (2) mining activities
population is exposed to the problem, (Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Mexico), (3) electro-
whereas in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Costa lytic metal producing processes (Brazil), and
Rica, El Salvador, and Guatemala, arsenic (4) agricultural activities (arsenic containing
in drinking water is proved, but the pesticides).
numbers of persons affected are yet
This paper comprises of 3 parts: First it gives
unknown. In other Latin American
a country-by-country state of art overview
countries, the existence of the groundwater
on the occurrence of arsenic in the
arsenic problem is not yet known. This was
groundwaters and surface waters used for
for example the case of Nicaragua where
drinking purposes in Latin America,
the arsenic exposure of population from
including the respective arsenic sources, the
groundwater and related severe health
numbers of persons exposed and affected,
effects, was detected just two years ago.
and the respective already observed and
Additionally it must be taken into account
future possible health effects. In each case
that with advances in the modern analytical
the need and the possibilities of mitigating
methods for arsenic at low levels of
the impact are discussed.
concentrations, and with the introduction of
new national arsenic limits of 0.01 mg L-1, The second part discusses the experiences
as already introduced by Nicaragua and from the until now applied remediation
being planned to be implemented Mexico, methods for both, applications in urban and
it is expected that in future arsenic will be rural areas, and the third block deals with
detected also in several countries with future needed measures to mitigate the
elevated concentrations, where it was drinking water arsenic problem of "Rural
presumed until now to be arsenic safe, and Latin America". Therefore remediation
that numbers of people exposed will methods as well as the identification of safe
significantly increase. water resources free of arsenic are addressed
as possible solutions.
Although that the arsenic drinking water
problem is already solved in most urban Special emphasis is drawn on the fact, that
areas by installing corresponding treatment —at first— it is not a technological problem
plants, practically no action was performed to be solved. First, the local, national au-
by the authorities or international and thorities of the affected countries and the
bilateral cooperation agencies to mitigate bilateral or international cooperation agen-
the arsenic problem for the rural cies must recognize groundwater arsenic in
population, making especially the dispersed the rural areas of Latin America as one of the
living rural population, which drinks most important natural health risks of the
arsenic-contaminated water — often present century. They must recognize that
without being aware of its toxicity — to the groundwater arsenic is an issue and a prob-
most disadvantaged group and to an lem that would challenge the UN Millen-
emerging target for further actions to nium Development Goals of sustainable
reduce the arsenic exposure. development on a global scale, and therefore
consider doing its utmost to better equip
In most of the these countries, the problem
people for life in those parts, where ground-
is of natural origin, related to arsenic occur-
water arsenic affects population and their
rence in groundwater containing up to
sustainable development.
several mg As L-1, used for drinking water.
15

In order to mitigate the groundwater arsenic present in solution and affect the arsenopy-
problem in rural areas, it must be consid- rite dissolution. Moreover, the toxicity of an
ered, that the most sustainable strategies for arsenic rich solution will depend on the oxy-
the management of water supply systems gen content interacting with either the ar-
are executed by the communities itself. senopyrite surface or with solutions.
Such is especially applicable in rural areas
Ongoing experiments are aimed to obtain the
with small communities. It requires partici-
temperature effect on the arsenopyrite disso-
patory development strategies comprising
lution rate. Nanoscale techniques, such as in
community consultation for problem defini-
situ AFM experiments and XPS surface
tion, involvement in investigation and plan-
analysis will be used to understand the
ning and in the execution and maintenance
mechanisms governing the overall oxidative
of the constructions. This needs a strong
dissolution reaction.
technical assistance or expertise. Often with
little education and assistance, communities
can be highly motivated to take action to 11. Fe-modified light expanded clay ag-
develop and manage local water infrastruc- gregates (LECA) for the removal of arse-
ture in a sustainable way. If this is not nic from aqueous solutions
achieved, even successful arsenic remedia-
tion programs may be abandoned soon by Irene Cano-Aguilera1*, Nazmul Haque1,2, Al-
the local users, as it could be recently ob- berto F. Aguilera-Alvarado1 and Gregory M.
Morrison2.
served in the case study of Nicaragua.
1
Facultad de Química, Universidad de Guana-
juato, Noria Alta S/N, C.P. 36050, Guanajuato,
10. Preliminary results on the dissolution Gto., México; irene@quijote.ugto.mx
2
kinetics of arsenopyrite (FeAsS) Water Environment Transport Department,
Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296,
Jordi Cama and Maria Pilar Asta Göteborg, Sweden
Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera”,
CSIC; Barcelona, E-08028 Catalonia, EU Iron modified materials have been proposed
as a filter medium to remove arsenic com-
Arsenopyrite oxidative dissolution contrib- pounds from groundwater. This study was
utes arsenic to waters. The effects that envi- investigated the removal of arsenic from
ronmental factors (e.g., pH, content of iron aqueous solutions by iron-coated light ex-
and sulphate, dissolved oxygen and surface panded clay aggregates (LECA). Kinetic ex-
reactivity) exert on the arsenopyrite de- periments were performed to investigate the
composition are studied by means of non- sorption mechanisms. More than 80% of ar-
stirred flow-through experiments at pH senic adsorbs to Fe-LECA within one hour.
from 1 to 3 and variable DO content. Equilibrium is slowly approached within the
Steady-state dissolution rates are calculated next 5 hours. At equilibrium, low redox po-
based on the release of arsenic and iron into tential and a pH value of >6.0 clearly repre-
solution. In the pH range studied proton sents a favorable media (iron hydroxides) to
concentration has no or little influence on adsorb arsenic by Fe-LECA. The experimen-
the arsenopyrite dissolution. On the con- tal data fitted the pseudo-first-order equation.
trary, the decrease in dissolved oxygen For a 1 mg L-1 of arsenic concentration, the
concentration up to PO2 approx. 0% rate constant k1 of pseudo-first-order was
strongly diminished the arsenopyrite rate at 0.098 min-1 that represents a rapid adsorption
pH 3. to reach equilibrium early. Surface complexa-
tion and ion exchange proposed to be the
Arsenic and iron species in solution (e.g.,
major arsenic removal mechanisms. Column
As(III), As(V), Fe(II), and Fe(III)) may be
16

experiments were conducted under different cación de algunas medidas de fácil uso y
bed depths, flow rates, coating duration and bajo costo para mejorar la calidad del agua
initial iron salts concentration for coating en esta zona rural de bajos ingresos.
were tested to optimize the arsenic removal
El presente trabajo presentará los estudios
efficiency by Fe-LECA column. Volumetric
realizados para determinar el nivel de con-
design as well as higher hydraulic detention
taminación de una serie de pozos de las
time was proposed to optimize the efficiency
comunidades afectadas de San Juan de Li-
of the column to remove arsenic. In addition,
may y una primera aproximación a la iden-
concentrated iron salts and longer coating
tificación del origen del As en las aguas.
duration was also found very influencing
parameter for arsenic removal. The maxi- Finalmente el trabajo proporciona una serie
mum arsenic accumulation was found 3.31 de recomendaciones para la remoción de las
mg of As g-1 of Fe-LECA when the column aguas de los contaminantes identificados,
was operated at a flow rate of 10 ml min-1 especialmente del arsénico.
and the LECA was coated with 0.1M FeCl3
suspension for 24 h coating duration.
13. Presencia de arsénico en el agua de
bebida en América Latina y su efecto en la
12. Evaluación de alternativas a la salud pública
mejora de la calidad del agua de pozos María Luisa Castro de Esparza
en las comunidades rurales de San Juan
de Limay, Nicaragua Asesora Regional en Aseguramiento de la
Calidad y Servicios Analíticos. CEPIS / SDE /
Caterina Canyelles1, Ester Torres1, Laura OPS; Calle Los Pinos 259, Urbanización
Morales1, Clàudia Puigdomènech1, Anna Punti1, Camacho, La Molina, Lima, Perú;
Jose Luis Cortina1, Ana Maria Sancha2 mesparza@cepis.ops-oms.org
1
Department of Chemical Engineering , Univer-
sitat Politècnica de Catalunya, ETSEIB, Av. En varios países de América Latina como:
Diagonal, 647, E-08028 Barcelona (España); Argentina, Chile, México, El Salvador;
jose.luis.cortina@upc.edu Nicaragua, Perú y Bolivia por lo menos
2
División de Recursos Hídricos y Medio cuatro millones de personas beben en forma
Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y permanente agua con niveles de arsénico que
Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, ponen en riesgo su salud en tal magnitud que
Chile en algunos de los países se ha convertido en
un problema de salud pública.
En los últimos años el centro de Salud de
San Juan de Limay, que atiende a decenas Este trabajo constituye una recopilación
de miles de persona anualmente, ha esta- bibliográfica de la problemática del arsénico
blecido que el agua de algunos pozos de las en el agua de bebida y sus efectos en la salud
comunidades del municipio está contamina- de las personas expuestas. Situación que se
das. La población tiene enfermedades con necesita atender a fin de minimizar sus
síntomas característicos de elevada presen- efectos y disminuir el arsenicismo en las
cia de microorganismos patógenos, y muy zonas afectadas.
posiblemente de arsénico, además de otros Se describe la presencia del arsénico en el
contaminantes. Con objeto de tomar medi- ambiente y en las fuentes de agua para
das urgentes, el centro de salud del MINSA consumo humano se debe a factores
(Ministerio de Salud) promovió el estudio naturales de origen geológico (México,
de evaluación de la calidad del agua de Argentina, Chile, Perú, Nicaragua) a
diferentes pozos ubicados en las comunida- actividades antropogénicas que involucran la
des campesinas afectadas, estudiar la apli- explotación minera y refinación de metales
17

por fundición (Chile, Bolivia y Perú), El consumo de agua con arsénico a largo
procesos electrolíticos de producción de plazo conlleva a efectos crónicos y a la gen-
metales de alta calidad como cadmio y cinc eración de arsenicismo. El tratamiento in-
(Brasil), y en menor proporción en la volucra proporcionar al paciente agua de
agricultura en el empleo de plaguicidas bebida libre de arsénico. El siguiente paso es
arsenicales orgánicos (México). monitorearlo y asegurarse de que no esté
expuesto a este elemento. Otros tratamientos
Como se conoce en la mayoría de los casos
propuestos son la quelación y la mejora de la
la presencia de arsénico en aguas superfi-
nutrición.
ciales y subterráneas de América Latina es
natural y está asociada al volcanismo terci- Su toxicidad depende del estado de oxidación,
ario y cuaternario desarrollado en la Cordil- estructura química y solubilidad en el medio
lera de Los Andes. Proviene de la biológico. La escala de toxicidad del arsénico
disolución de minerales, la erosión y desin- decrece en el siguiente orden: arsina > As+3
tegración de rocas y por deposición atmos- inorgánico > As+3 orgánico > As+5 inorgánico
férica (aerosoles). En el agua puede encon- > As+5 orgánico > compuestos arsenicales y
trarse en su forma trivalente y pentavalente. arsénico elemental. La toxicidad del As+3 es
10 veces mayor que la del As+5 y la dosis
En el agua de bebida, por lo general el
letal para adultos es de 1-4 mg As kg-1. Para
arsénico se encuentra en la forma de
las formas más comunes como AsH3,
arsenato y puede ser absorbido con
As2O3, As2O5 esta dosis varía en un rango
facilidad en el tracto gastrointestinal en una
entre 1,5 mg kg-1 y 500 mg kg-1 de masa
proporción entre el 40 y 100%. El arsénico
corporal.
inorgánico ingerido es absorbido por los
tejidos y luego se elimina progresivamente Se ha demostrado que los niños son más
por metilación a través de los riñones, en la sensibles que los adultos a la toxicidad por el
orina. Cuando la ingestión es mayor que la arsénico y son los más afectados por el ar-
excreción, tiende a acumularse en el ca- senicismo, por problemas de desnutrición y
bello y en las uñas. precario saneamiento en las zonas rurales
dispersas (pobres). La población más
Las principales rutas de exposición de las
afectada es la población dispersa ubicada en
personas al arsénico son la ingesta e inha-
el área rural que consume agua sin ningún
lación. Es acumulable en el organismo por
tratamiento y desconoce el riesgo al que está
exposición crónica, y a ciertas concentra-
expuesta. Se requiere que las autoridades de
ciones ocasiona alteraciones de la piel con
salud, ambiente y saneamiento planifiquen
efectos secundarios en los sistemas nervioso,
los servicios de aprovisionamiento de agua y
respiratorio, gastrointestinal, y hematopoyé-
promuevan e intervengan en la ejecución de
tico y acumulación en los huesos, músculos y
programas de prevención y control de ries-
piel, y en menor grado en hígado y riñones.
gos del consumo del agua de bebida con
Estudios toxicológicos y epidemiológicos niveles de arsénico superiores a los re-
confirman la información anterior e indican comendados. Los programas deben involu-
que la ingestión crónica de arsénico en el crar la participación de las autoridades,
agua de bebida genera lesiones en la piel, la comunidad y sistemas locales de salud.
hiperpigmentación e hiperqueratosis palmo
plantar; desórdenes del sistema nervioso;
diabetes mellitus; anemia; alteraciones del
hígado; enfermedades vasculares, cáncer de
piel, pulmón y vejiga.
18

14. Remoción del arsénico en el agua para tiva (arcilla verde natural, arcillas activadas,
bebida y biorremediación de suelos zeolita natural y activada y carbón de hueso.
María Luisa Castro de Esparza Chile es el país con más experiencia en el
Asesora Regional en Aseguramiento de la tratamiento de agua para distribución urbana,
Calidad y Servicios Analíticos. CEPIS / SDE / cuentan con cuatro plantas de remoción de
OPS; Calle Los Pinos 259, Urbanización arsénico del agua de abastecimiento (0,40 µg
Camacho, La Molina, Lima, Perú; L-1) que tratan en conjunto 2000 L s-1 y
mesparza@cepis.ops-oms.org producen agua potable con 0,040 mg As L-1.
Han evaluado la mejora del sistema agre-
Varios países de América han reportado la gando osmosis inversa (postratamiento) y
existencia de población expuesta crónica- desalinización. En Perú hay una planta de
mente a concentraciones de arsénico en remoción de arsénico que trata el agua con
agua de bebida, superiores a las previstas cloruro férrico y ácido sulfúrico.
por la normatividad de los países. Es el
caso de Canadá, Estados Unidos, Chile, El CEPIS/SDE/OPS, ha desarrollado y pat-
Perú, Bolivia, México, El Salvador y Nica- entado el producto ALUFLOC que es una
ragua. Algunos de estos países han resuelto mezcla de un oxidante, arcillas activadas y
total o parcialmente el problema de dis- un coagulante (sulfato de aluminio ó cloruro
posición de tecnología, dependiendo de que férrico). Es una metodología simple y de
la población afectada fuera rural o urbana. bajo costo que permite remover a nivel
domiciliario el arsénico natural presente en
Existen alrededor de 14 tecnologías para las aguas subterráneas que son usadas como
remover arsénico del agua con eficiencias agua de bebida por la población rural. Se
del 70 al 99%. Los métodos de coagu- lograron niveles de remoción de hasta un
lación-floculación y ablandamiento con cal, 98%, usando como coagulantes Al2(SO)3.
son los más usados en grandes sistemas y and FeCl3.
no exclusivamente para remover el arsé-
nico. En pequeños sistemas pueden ser Para la remediación de suelos de zonas con-
aplicados el intercambio iónico, alúmina taminadas se ha estudiado la capacidad de
activada, osmosis inversa, nanofiltración y algunos vegetales para absorber y concentrar
electro diálisis inversa. Las tecnologías las sustancias tóxicas. La Universidad de
emergentes son: arena recubierta con óxi- Florida ha identificado un helecho que ab-
dos de hierro, hidróxido férrico granular, sorbe arsénico del suelo contaminado que
empaques de hierro, hierro modificado con hiper acumula este elemento.
azufre, filtración con zeolita, adición de Las tecnologías de recuperación y estabili-
hierro con filtración directa y remoción zación de arsénico en lodos, suelos y
convencional de hierro y manganeso. residuos de actividades industriales por lo
En Latinoamérica los estudios han estado general son precipitados con cal y soda cáus-
orientados al uso de la coagulación tica. Luego separación por sedimentación
química: con sulfato de aluminio, cal y/o filtración. En México han obtenido un
hidratada y poli electrolito de sodio y han compuesto de arsénico insoluble y que tam-
logrado tenores de arsénico a 0,12-0,15 mg bién se puede emplear como materia prima
L-1. Con coagulación directa sobre filtro y en la formulación de productos solidificados
con coagulación-floculación han logrado para ser usados en construcción o dispuestos
alcanzar valores bajo 0,05 mg L-1. En la en un relleno sanitario.
remoción mediante adsorción han em- Para afrontar la problemática del agua de
pleado hematitas y materiales con alto con- bebida, se debe tener en cuenta las caracte-
tenido de hierro y superficies de carga posi- rísticas de las fuentes, la adecuación del
19

agua, forma de distribución y/o consumo y arsenic poisoning. A review of the epidemi-
las variantes de la tecnología a emplear ological data shows that there is a need for
considerando las características propias del internationally accepted criteria based on
lugar. evidence in the following areas: Exposure
assessment, case-definition and case man-
En los países de Latinoamérica existe ex-
agement. This paper reviews the existing
periencia y capacidad para el desarrollo de
epidemiological evidence for standard case
tecnología, pero limitada por la carencia de
definition and management and presents
recursos financieros, facilidades y sobre
WHO strategic goals to meet these objec-
todo políticas de estado que faciliten y ori-
tives. Data will be presented on the formula-
enten el desarrollo de la tecnología que
tion and validation of standard regional pro-
conlleve a la solución efectiva de proble-
tocol for case definition and case manage-
mas o satisfacción de las necesidades exis-
ment. Other mitigation strategies including
tentes.
applied research and community empower-
La población más afectada se encuentra ment will also be presented.
dispersa en el área rural consume agua sin
ningún tratamiento y desconoce el riesgo al
que está expuesto. Es necesario desarrollar 16. Microbial volatilization of arsenic
estudios piloto en forma permanente y sos- Čerňanský S, Urík M, Ševc J1, Aranyosiová M2
tenida hasta lograr una solución definitiva 1
que pueda ser recomendada para su imple- Institute of Geology, Faculty of Natural Sci-
mentación en los programas nacionales de ences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Mlyn-
ská dolina G, 842 15, Bratislava, Slovakia,
remoción de arsénico en el agua de bebida.
cernanskys@fns.uniba.sk
2
International Laser Center, Bratislava, Slovakia
15. The World Health Organization nor- Microorganisms have evolved diverse
mative roles in mitigating health impacts strategies to overcome the toxic effects of
of arsenic in South East Asia arsenic including microbial volatilization
Deoraj Caussy through biomethylation and bioreduction.
Department of Sustainable Development and The biological volatilization may be possibly
Healthy Environment, Department of Evidence applied as method for arsenic removal from
for Information and Policy, World Health Or- contaminated localities. Microscopic fila-
ganization, Office of the South East Asia, mentous fungi participate in this process as a
World Health House, Ring Road, New Delhi part of microbial community. Because of
110 002, India; caussyd@searo.who.int their low nutrition demand, adaptability,
high intensity and diversity of metabolism
Ground water contamination, in excess of represent dominant biopotential for envi-
the World Health Organization (WHO) ronment, which is realized in effecting of
guideline value of 0.01 mg L-1, has been transformation and mobility of arsenic.
observed in many parts of the world includ-
ing India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Myanmar, Our studies have shown that the efficiency of
Nepal, China, Taiwan and Vietnam among arsenic removal is influenced by tempera-
others. In the South East Asia Region of ture, pH value, presence of oxygen, bioavail-
WHO, it is currently estimated that about ability and concentration of arsenic, and
40 million persons may have been exposed dominant species of filamentous fungi. For
to contaminated ground water at various quantification of arsenic removal and identi-
concentrations of arsenic and almost a fication of arsenic metabolites in vitro the
quarter of a million exposed subjects are cultivation system of different fungi
already showing overt symptoms of chronic (Neosartorya fischeri, Aspergillus clavatus,
20

A. niger, Talaromyces wortmanii, T. flavus, ment of As-containing solutions involves


T. viride, Penicillium glabrum) and cultiva- As(III) oxidation, followed by fixation of the
tion media enriched by desired amount of resulting As(V) in a solid phase. The most
arsenic (0,25 – 15 mg) was prepared. Fun- common residues are the crystalline ferric
gal strains were originally isolated from arsenates (e.g., scorodite, FeAsO4.2H2O)
sediments from locality Pezinok – Kolársky produced in the hydrothermal processing of
vrch (Slovakia) that is contaminated with refractory gold ores, or the arsenical ferrihy-
arsenic. Total arsenic concentrations of drites formed by precipitation of arsenic at
sediments were 363-1650 mg kg-1. After a moderate temperatures. The latter involves a
desired time of cultivation (10, 30 and 60 neutralization of arsenic-rich acidic solutions
days) under different conditions (pH value, and generates large volumes of ferric hy-
temperature) the total arsenic in cultivation droxide/gypsum sludge (e.g., 3-6% As).
medium and mycelium was measured using Arsenic immobilization by scorodite precipi-
Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption tation under ambient pressure has been pro-
Spectrometry (HG AAS). The removal of posed as an alternative to the ferrihydrite
arsenic from cultivation system through process but the studies have been mostly
microbial volatilization varied between 10 limited to relatively concentrated solutions
– 70% of the initial amount of arsenic de- (10 g As L-1) and batch systems. The present
pending on cultivation conditions and fun- work investigated the removal of arsenic
gal species. from dilute solutions (1 g L-1 As) produced
in the washing tower of the gas released in
For detailed chemical analysis of biological
the roasting of a refractory gold ore. It was
samples (mycelia) with focus on specific
demonstrated that industrial solutions with
arsenic metabolites was used Secondary
low arsenic concentrations (1.1 – 0.1 g L-1)
Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), an analyti-
could be treated in one stage of scorodite
cal method based on the time of flight prin-
precipitation under ambient pressure condi-
ciple. Instrument ION-TOF, SIMS IV with
tions, with a removal in a range of 80.5 to
unique parameters (spatial resolution 100
94.6%. Precipitation was carried out at 95°C.
nm, mass resolution > 9000 m/Dm) was
In order to reach a molar Fe/As ratio of 1,
used in cooperation with International La-
required for scorodite precipitation, iron (II)
ser Center in Bratislava.
sulfate was added, followed by As(III) and
Volatile arsenicals have been identified Fe(II) oxidation with H2O2. In order to con-
during a cultivation period from myceliar trol supersaturation and to avoid homogene-
head gas in cultivation system by using ous nucleation that yields amorphous ferric
sorption tubes Anasorb CSC (USA). arsenate pH was adjusted according to the
initial arsenic concentration. The removal
increased with the increase of the scorodite
17. Enriched arsenic precipitates ob- seed concentration and became approxi-
tained from diluted industrial solutions mately constant (85-88%) in a range of 20 to
Ciminelli, Virgínia1, Caldeira, Cláudia Lima1; 80 g L-1 of seeds. It was shown that a surface
Lara, Michelle Caetano1 area higher than 270 m2 g-1 As in solution
1 was necessary to promote an arsenic removal
Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineer-
of approximately 85%. Gypsum was an ef-
ing, UFMG, Rua Espírito Santo, 35, 30160-030
Belo Horizonte, Brazil; fective seed only in concentrated arsenic
ciminelli@demet.ufmg.br solutions (10 g L-1). A procedure to achieve
claudia@demet.ufmg.br high yields of arsenic removal in continuous
system was established. Due to the low rate
Arsenic is a frequent toxic element released of crystal growth, the recycle of seeds was
during processing of sulfide ores. The treat- required. The precipitation was favored by
21

the excess of iron, due to the increase of 1200 a 1300 µg L-1. Este tipo de contami-
initial supersaturation obtained under these nación ha afectado en forma crónica a las
conditions. For a Fe:As molar ratio of 2:1 poblaciones rurales asentadas en la zona
and 1:1, 86% and 70% of the arsenic was norte del país, ocasionando diversos proble-
removed from the solution, respectively. mas a la salud de sus habitantes. Debido a la
The TCLP tests suggested that ageing plays baja densidad poblacional que poseen estos
an important role on scorodite TCLP- dis- pueblos no es factible la utilización de tec-
solution, which decreased from 13.66 mg nologías de alto costo, compleja mantención
As L-1 to 0.1 mg As L-1 after 8 hours of u operación para lograr abastecer de agua
precipitation reaction in batch tests. Scoro- potable a estas localidades, que es el objetivo
dite was the only phase identified by micro- de este trabajo.
Raman and X-Ray diffraction analyses of
Esta problemática ha originado un interés
the precipitates. Advantages and difficulties
creciente en el desarrollo de metodologías de
of the ambient-pressure scorodite precipita-
remoción útiles para disminuir niveles de
tion with respect to industrial applications
arsénico a concentraciones adecuadas para el
are discussed.
consumo humano y se ajuste a los niveles
máximos de arsénico permitidos, por norma-
18. Remoción de arsénico de aguas tivas nacionales e internacionales (NCh 409 =
naturales del valle de Camarones 50 µg As L-1, OMS = 10 µg As L-1).
mediante procesos inducidos por Este estudio comenzó con el tratamiento de
radiación solar: tecnología de aguas sintéticas que poseían una concen-
descontaminación aplicable a recursos tración de arsénico de 500 µg L-1 y con ex-
hídricos al norte del Desierto de posición a luz artificial obteniendo resulta-
Atacama, Chile dos del 80-90% de remoción.
Lorena Cornejo P.1, 2, Hugo Lienqueo A.2, Jorge En seguida se trabajó el diseño, adaptación y
Acarapi C.2, Maria J. Arenas H.2, Héctor Man- posterior aplicación de una metodología de
silla3, Jorge Yañez3 remoción simple y económica mediante en-
1
Universidad de Tarapacá, Facultad de sayos de laboratorio univariados en la ciudad
Ciencias, Departamento de Química, Arica- de Arica. Para ello se realizaron análisis
Chile, Casilla 7-D; lorenacp@uta.cl. fisicoquímicos a las muestras de aguas natu-
2
Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el rales a fin de conocer su composición, y así
Desierto, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica-Chile. trabajar con muestras sintéticas de igual
3
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad de matriz. Las variables estudiadas fueron
Concepción, Chile
hierro (FeSO4), citrato (C6H5Na3O7), pH,
remoción en presencia y ausencia de luz
Los poblados de Camarones, Esquiña e
solar y tiempo de exposición solar. El hierro
Illapata se encuentran insertos en el valle
y el citrato fueron posteriormente reem-
de Camarones al norte del Desierto de Ata-
plazados por materiales de uso casero acce-
cama, Chile. Son beneficiados con las
sible al poblador rural.
aguas naturales de su única fuente de re-
curso hídrico el río de Camarones y diver- Finalmente, se realizaron los ensayos de
sos flujos menores de agua, como ver- remoción “in situ”con muestras de aguas
tientes y pozos que los habitantes utilizan reales del valle de Camarones. La informa-
para suplir sus necesidades de consumo ción recopilada fue evaluada, utilizando un
personal, animal y riego. Dichas aguas software de optimización basado en métodos
presentan una contaminación natural de de superficie de respuesta (MSR).
Arsénico, proveniente de las zonas cordil-
leranas, con concentraciones en el rango de
22

La determinación de la concentración de other thermal sources in Ecuador’s Andean


arsénico remanente en solución, en todos Region can contain this toxic element.
los casos, fue mediante espectroscopia de
The objective of this study is to determine arse-
absorción atómica con generación de
nic concentrations in thermal waters from the
hidruros.
North-Center Andean Region of Ecuador, its
En conclusión, con la metodología pro- chemical speciation and mobilization during the
puesta se obtuvo una remoción de arsénico travel towards rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. With
mayor al 99% en terreno, presentándose this information we will make a map to localize
como una interesante alternativa que rinde thermal waters with concentrations above the
logros favorables en la descontaminación Ecuadorian maximum concentration level (50
del recurso hídrico para consumo de los µg L-1). In next stage of this study, we will in-
habitantes del Valle de Camarones. vestigate with local sorbents for selective arse-
nic removal such as zeolite or allophane rich
clay. Our research will be aimed to treat thermal
19. Monitoring concentrations, speci- waters that are used as sources of drinking water
ation, and mobility of arsenic in geo- in rural areas.
thermal sources of Ecuador´s North-
Center Andean Region
Luis H. Cumbal, Vladimir Aguirre, Ricardo 20. Polymer-supported Fe(III) oxide
Tipan and Carlos Chavez nanoparticles: A robust, reusable and
arsenic-selective sorbent
Research Center Escuela Politecnica del
Ejercito, Sangolqui, Ecuador; Luis H. Cumbal1 and Arup K. Sen Gupta2
luis.cumbal@espe.edu.ec 1
Research Center of Escuela Politecnica del
Ejercito, Sangolqui, Ecuador
It is well known that arsenic contamination 2
Department of Civil & Environmental Engineer-
has emerged as a worldwide problem due ing, Lehigh University, 13 E. Packer Ave., Beth-
to pollution of groundwater and surface lehem, PA 18015, USA;
water. In several areas of Mexico and luis.cumbal@espe.edu.ec
Chile, groundwaters have been contami-
nated with arsenic of volcano origin. In Many nanoscale inorganic particles (NIPs)
Ecuador, the Andean Region is surrounded such as hydrated Fe(III) oxides, Mn(IV)
by volcanoes and geothermal waters and oxides, elemental Fe, magnetite, etc.; show
some of them are used as sources of drink- excellent properties conducive to selective
ing water particularly in rural areas. After removal of target compounds from contami-
petroleum contamination of a lake that is nated water bodies. Extremely high surface
fed by geothermal waters, its water was area to volume ratio of these tiny particles
characterized and arsenic concentrations offers favorable kinetics for selective sorp-
oscillated between 390 and 670 µg L-1. At tion and redox reactions. However, these
that time, it was thought that arsenic was nanoparticles cannot be used in fixed-bed
petroleum origin; however, our research columns, in-situ reactive barriers and in
group recently measured arsenic in that similar plug flow configurations due to ex-
lake and found concentrations in the range cessive pressure drops and poor durability.
of 330 and 900 µg L-1. In addition, it was Harnessing these NIPs within polymeric
found that nearby thermal waters such as El beads offers new opportunities that are ame-
Tambo swimming pool, Jamanco reservoir, nable to rapid implementation in the area
and Rio Tambo watershed contained be- environmental separation and control. While
tween 970 and 5080 µg L-1 of arsenic. the NIPs retain their intrinsic sorp-
These findings eventually indicate that tion/desorption, redox, acid-base or magnetic
23

3
characteristics, the robust polymeric sup- Department of Metallurgical and Materials En-
port offers excellent mechanical strength, gineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,
durability, and favorable hydraulic proper- UFMG, Brazil; olívia@demet.ufmg.br
4
ties. In this investigation commercially Fundação Ezequiel Dias-FUNED, Laboratório
available cation and anion exchangers were de Contaminantes Metálicos, Belo
used as host materials for dispersing nano- Horizonte,MG,Brazil; niltoncs@funed.mg.gov.br
scale Hydrated Fe(III) Oxides (HFO)
within the polymer phase using a simple Globally, millions of people are at risk from
thermochemical technique. The resulting adverse health effects of arsenic from both
polymeric/inorganic hybrid sorbent parti- acute and chronic exposure. Although most
cles were subsequently used for arsenic of the As exposure comes from drinking
removal in the laboratory. The major find- water, other important sources are through
ing of this study reveals that an anion ex- food, soil and air. In Brazil, arsenic anoma-
changer as a support of dispersed HFO lies are related to geological structures, and
particles offered considerably higher arse- the additional dissipation due to centuries of
nate removal capacity compared to a cation gold mining and smelting activities. Most of
exchanger, all other conditions remaining the gold is associated with arsenopyrite and
the same, the difference in selectivity and to a lesser extend with pyrite. Although not
removal capacity can be attributed to func- as severe and not exclusively water-related
tional groups of polymeric supports. In as in Bangladesh and West Bengal, As-
addition, hybrid polymers are amenable to enrichments were recently detected in envi-
efficient regeneration; thus, assuring their ronmental and biological media in the Iron
reuse in several sorption/desorption cycles. Quadrangle, Minas Gerais state. This project
On the other hand, rubbing tests demon- presents the mitigation actions to improve
strate that HAIX-M particles do not lose the situation, starting with an environmental
mechanical resistance and there is no fines and health perception study which led to an
formation. Besides, sorption tests using environmental educational program. Next,
HAIX-M particles reveal an excellent and appropriate tailings deposits management
simultaneous removal of arsenic and per- was started to improve control of tailings
chlorate. Consequently, HAIX-M sorbents with very high As concentrations, and to
are media with enormous potential to be slow down As-dissipation into the environ-
used in community water supplies to selec- ment. Additionally, a water treatment plant
tively remove arsenic and other toxic is under construction to avoid the ingestion
ligands. via As-loaded particulates in drinking water.

22. Speciation and instrumental analytical


21. Mitigation actions as a result of As
methods as effective analytical tools for
exposure investigations in Brazil quantification of arsenic in drinking water
Eleonora Deschamps1, Jörg Matschullat2, Olivia
Leena Deshpande and Sunil Pande
Vasconcelos3, Nilton de Oliveira Couto Silva4
1 National Environmental Engineering Research
Environmental Agency of the Minas Gerais
Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur, India;
State - FEAM, Av. Prudente de Morais 1671,
gem_neeri@rediffmail.com
Santa Lucia,30380-000, Belo Horizonte, Brazil;
eleonorad@feam.br
2 Arsenic in ground water has been well rec-
Interdisciplinary Environmental Research
ognized as a serious public health hazard in
Center, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Brenn-
hausgasse 14, D-09599, Freiberg, Germany; various parts over the globe. Despite recent
matschullat@ioez.tu-freiberg.de developments in the quantification of arsenic
in water, the method involving generation of
24

arsine, colour development with Silver consumption. These waters show arsenic
Diethyldithiocarbamate (SDDC) and meas- concentrations that exceed the Argentine
uring colour spectrophotometrically, still standard requirements for drinking water.
remains the method of choice in the domain The SORAS method (Solar Oxidation and
of public health laboratories. Removal of Arsenic) is based on the photo-
chemical oxidation of As(III) to As(V) pro-
This paper presents development of spec-
duced by reactive oxygen species formed in
trophotometric method with modified glass
Fe/citrate containing systems, followed by
assembly for arsine generation. Recovery
As(V) adsorption onto the precipitated
studies of arsenic have been carried out in
iron(hydroxides). SORAS method provides
presence of various cations and anions. For
an economical technology to eliminate arse-
validation of the method, its precision and
nic until the allowable limits.
accuracy was determined by analyzing
synthetic water samples. Also an attempt In the present work, the efficiency of As re-
has been made to study substitute for pyri- moval by solar oxidation was assessed using
dine, which is a hazardous solvent used in synthetic waters of known ionic composition
the conventional SDDC Method. and shallow groundwater samples. As the
concentration of iron in the tested waters is
A rapid Hydride Generation-Inductively
very low and the photooxidation of As (III) at
Coupled Plasma (HG-ICP) spectrometric
pH between 6 and 8 is favoured by citrate,
method has been developed using the ICP
studies changing the sources of iron and
spectrometer, which serves as an efficient
amounts of citrate were made. Citrate was
analytical tool for the monitoring of low
added in the form of lemon juice.
levels of arsenic in raw and potable waters.
The HG-ICP method is precise and accu- Tests carried out with synthetic waters of
rate as per the international norms. This similar composition to the study waters
method can be routinely adopted for the showed an excellent removal, ranging be-
analysis of arsenic in water samples. tween 90-60%. The efficiency of removal
was much lower in well waters, between 60-
30%. Results showed the influence of the
23. Arsenic removal by solar oxidation in water matrix and the source of iron supply,
groundwaters of Los Pereyra, Tucumán both factors related to the precipitation of
Province, Argentina iron (hydr)oxides.
Josefina d´Hiriart1, María Gabriela García2, The influence of organic matter, HCO3- con-
Margarita del V. Hidalgo1, Marta I. Litter3, tent and the initial As concentration on the
Miguel A. Blesa 3,4 precipitation of (hydr)oxides and on the
1
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto AsO43- adsorption was assessed. An increase
Miguel Lillo, Universidad Nacional de Tu- in the concentration of HCO3- enhanced As
cumán, Argentina removal and Fe(III) precipitation, whereas
2
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Natu- an increase of organic matter produced only
rales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argen- a slight decrease in both factors. Removal
tina
3 efficiency decreased with the increase of the
Unidad de Actividad Química, Centro Atómico
Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía initial As concentration.
Atómica The effect of different Fe sources on the
4
Universidad Nacional de San Martín, efficiency was analyzed using synthetic goe-
Argentina thite, Fe-oxide rich sandstones and pelites,
packing wire, and nails. Removal varied
Shallow groundwaters from Los Pereyra, between 30 to 90% depending on the ex-
Tucumán, are normally used for human perimental conditions and the nature of the
25

iron source. Results obtained using non- determinación de arsénico total (AsT) en las
galvanized packing wire are prominent, due muestras liofilizadas (0.25 g) se realizó me-
to the short solar exposure time and the diante mineralización por vía seca y
absence of color or turbidity in the final medición del analito mediante EAA – GH y
treated water. flujo de inyección (EAA – GH – FI). La
concentración de arsénico inorgánico (AsI),
fue determinada a través de digestión ácida,
24. Concentración de arsénico total e su posterior extracción (CHCl3, 10 mL) y
inorgánico en el sistema agua – alga – cuantificación a través de EAA – GH – FI.
trucha Altas concentraciones de As en el agua re-
Oscar Díaz Sch.1*, Nelson Núñez S.2, Estela sultaron en las muestras recolectadas tanto
Recabarren G.1, Rubén Pastene O.1, Dinoraz en noviembre del 2000 (0.07 – 0.28 mg L-1)
Vélez P.3, Rosa Montoro M.3 como en noviembre del 2001 (0.05 – 0.92
1 mg L-1) dependiendo del lugar de recolec-
Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 40,
Correo 33, Santiago, Chile;
ción. En el alga recolectada en noviembre de
odiaz@lauca.usach.cl 2000 se encontró concentraciones de AsT
2
Programa Indígena CODELCO, Chile (54.02 – 98.03 µg g-1 b.s.) y AsI (41.53 –
3
Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de 100.55 µg g-1 b.s.), mientras que las obteni-
Alimentos (IATA), Valencia, España das en noviembre de 2001 fueron 64.74 –
86.43 µg AsT g-1 b.s. y 36.90 – 59.70 µg AsI
El curso del río Loa, ubicado en la II g-1 b.s.. Altos valores del factor de bioacu-
Región de Chile, presenta condiciones mulación de AsT en el alga (86 – 1281) y de
ecológicas especiales, particularmente de- AsI (42 – 1004) fueron determinados, así
bido a las altas concentraciones de As en el como el porcentaje de AsI, respecto al AsT,
agua, salinidad y drenaje de los suelos. El fluctuó entre 46 – 103%. Se observó que las
objetivo de este trabajo, consistió en concentraciones de AsT y AsI, dependen de
estudiar el comportamiento del arsénico y las respectivas concentraciones existentes en
su forma inorgánica más tóxica (AsIII + el agua. Los niveles de AsT y AsI en la
AsV), en el sistema agua – alga –trucha en trucha, fueron mayores en el tronco (16.02
un área del curso del río Loa. Muestras de µg AsT g-1 y 2.40 µg AsI g-1 b.s.), observán-
agua del río Loa, hábitat natural del alga dose que el AsI representa sólo el 15% del
(Durvillea sp) y la trucha (Orcorhynchus total, a diferencia de lo que se apreció en el
mykiss), fueron recolectadas en el mes de alga. Se concluye que existe transferencia
noviembre del 2000 y 2001, en una canti- del metaloide, del agua al alga y la trucha, no
dad suficiente para asegurar la confiabili- evidenciándose tal situación entre el alga y la
dad de los resultados. Las muestras de agua trucha, posiblemente debido a que no existe
(500 mL en botellas de vidrio) y del alga una relación trófica entre ambos.
fueron obtenidas desde 5 lugares del curso
del río. Cinco ejemplares de trucha fueron
recolectados desde el río mediante red de
captura y luego cada organismo fue evis-
cerado y separada la cabeza, tronco y cola.
Todo el material biológico fue lavado con
agua destilada, envasado en bolsas de poli-
etileno y congelado (-20°C) hasta ser
liofilizado. La concentración de As en el
agua fue medida directamente mediante
espectrofotometría de absorción atómica
por generación de hidruros (EAA-GH). La
26

1
25. Sodium arsenite impairs insulin se- Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague,
cretion and transcription in pancreatic Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague 6;
β-Cells Barbora.Dousova@vscht.cz
2
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS, CZ-250 68 Řež
Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor1, M. Carmen Sánchez-
Soto2, Mariano E. Cebrián3, Patricia Ostrosky- Adsorption of arsenic from aqueous envi-
Wegman1 and Marcia Hiriart2 ronment on clay surfaces becomes more and
1
Department of Genomic Medicine and Envi- more important for economic reasons. Most
ronmental Toxicology, Instituto de Investiga- of the considered natural alumosilicates be-
ciones Biomédicas; long to low-cost and environmentally ac-
andreadv@biomedicas.unam.mx ceptable materials.
2
Department of Biophysics, Instituto de
Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Two methods using FeII and FeIII salts were
Autónoma de México. applied to the alumosilicate pre-treatment to
3
Section of Environmental Toxicology, CIN- improve their sorption efficiency to AsV and
VESTAV, IPN, Mexico City, México AsIII species. In the first case three samples
concerning natural kaoline from the Merkur
Chronic arsenic exposure by drinking water quarry, Czech Republic, calcined at 550 °C
has been epidemiologically associated with for 3 hours, raw clinoptiolite-rich tuff from
several complex diseases and recently with the Nizne Hrabovce deposit, Slovakia, and
type 2 diabetes. In the present study we ana- zeolite P prepared from fly ashes were ex-
lyzed the impairment of insulin secretion in posed to concentrated solution of FeII (0.6 M
single adult rat pancreatic β-cells treated FeSO4·7H2O) for 24 hours. Within that proc-
with sodium arsenite. Insulin secretion was ess, Fe2+ ions are oxidized to Fe3+ ions and the
evaluated in vitro in a subchronic exposure mineral surface is covered with FeIII (oxido-
model during 72 and 144 h in the presence hydr)oxides whose high affinity for the AsV
of 1 and 5 µM sodium arsenite, in which cell adsorption is well known. In all investigated
viability was not significantly affected. systems the efficiency of AsV sorption in-
Basal insulin secretion was not modified creased significantly after the FeII treatment,
with 72 h treatment, but was reduced with 5 i.e. from about 15% to more than 90%.
µM sodium arsenite for 144 h. Glucose-
In the second procedure, the sorbents were
stimulated insulin secretion decreased in a
prepared from raw bentonite obtained from a
dose-dependent manner in such a way that
mineral deposit in Cerny Vrch, Czech Re-
cells were not longer able to distinguish
public. The bentonite was pre-treated with
between different glucose concentrations.
solutions of FeIII (0.025 M Fe(NO3)3·9H2O,
We further demonstrated that 5 µM sodium 10 min; sample a) and partly hydrolyzed
arsenite can reduce insulin mRNA expres- Fe(NO3)3·9H2O (0.025 M Fe(NO3)3·9H2O
sion. Our data indicate that by impairing 0.05 M NaOH, overnight; sample b). The
pancreatic β-cell functions arsenic might sorption efficiency of FeIII-treated bentonite
contribute to the development of type 2 dia- to AsV increased from ~16 % in original
betes. bentonite to ~78% (sample a, treated ben-
tonite containing Fe3+ in cation exchangeable
positions) and to ~95% (treated bentonite
26. Characterization of Fe-treated clays with Fe3+ in cation exchangeable positions
and zeolites as effective As sorbents and in ferrihydrite).
B. Doušová1, T. Grygar2, A. Martaus1, D.
Koloušek1, L. Fuitová1, & V. Machovič1 The treatment of clays and zeolites by Fe is a
very simple method opening new possibili-
ties in effective and cheap decontamination
of As-polluted aqueous systems. The indi-
27

vidual Fe species in the sorbents, namely with a defined amount of alkaline agent
Fe3+ ions in cation exchangeable positions (NaOH, Na2CO3 or Ca(OH)2) to pH value ~
and in hydrous ferric oxides were identified 5.0. The precipitation ran under the summary
by voltammetry of microparticles, diffuse equation:
reflectance electronic spectroscopy, high-
2Fe2+ + O2 + 5OH- + H3O+ = 2FeO(OH) +
temperature X-ray diffraction, and chemi-
4H2O (I)
cal extraction by Ni-edta complex, i.e. by
novel methods, which are specific and suf- During the first precipitation more than 90%
ficiently sensitive to detect molecular and of presented arsenic is adsorbed as AsV on
oligomeric species in the sorbents. The the iron oxihydr(oxides) surface immedi-
characterization of the solid phase with ately, forming the inner-sphere complexes.
above mentioned methods will permit to About 30 – 40% of precipitated iron enables
identify the actual As-sorbing species and the quantitative removal of arsenic from
to tailor the sorbents with the optimal sorp- mining water. The “arsenic“ mass from the
tion properties. first step is than separated by decantation
and/or filtration.
The final treatment of mining water runs in
27. Two-step in situ decontamination of
the second step. The liquid residue after the
mining water enriched with As and Fe
first step is precipitated with lime Ca(OH)2
B. Doušová, T. Bruha, A. Martaus, D. to the pH value ~ 8.5. While arsenic was
Koloušek, R. Pažout, V. Machovič, substantially removed by the first precipita-
Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, tion, the other components including residual
Technická 5, CZ-166 28 Prague 6; iron, manganese, zinc and sulfates are pre-
Barbora.Dousova@vscht.cz cipitated quantitatively during the second
step. The mass of the second precipitate
The suggested method enables the effective depends strongly on the amount of alkaline
removal of arsenic from strongly contami- agent used in the second step. The first step
nated mining water, resulting from former – second step precipitate ratio varies about
ore mining activity at Kutna Hora, central 1:4. The higher concentration of sulfates in
Bohemia. The average chemical composi- the final treated water relates to the applica-
tion of mining water is in Table 1. tion of sodium alkalies in the first step. The
Table 1: Average composition of the raw water solubilities of NaOH and Na2CO3 are
mining water from Kaňk locality substantially higher in comparison with
Ca(OH)2 solubility.
Concentration
Compound The study of AsV - Fe - SO42- changes in
[g L-1]
Fe 5.752 relation to the pH value enables to estimate
Zn 1.589 the optimal conditions of the process, i.e. to
Cu 2.7x10-5 produce the minimal mass of toxic precipi-
As 0.054 tate while keeping ecological limits of
Mn 0.166 treated water. The two step decontamination
Cd 2.27x10-4 of arsenic enriched mining water improves
SO42- 17.665 ecological and economical aspects of the
Insoluble comp. 0.295 current technology.
pH 3.5 - 4.1
The two-step process includes partial pre-
cipitation of contaminated water with a
small amount of alkaline agent. In the first
step the raw water is partially precipitated
28

28. Subchronic exposure to fluoride complex, that can reduce the bioavailability
modifies the arsenic metabolism and and increase the half life time in the organ-
renal oxidative damage in mice ism for both elements.
Maribel Espinosa, Eliud A. García-Montalvo, The subchronic exposure to iAs or F- caused
Olga L. Valenzuela and Luz M. Del Razo oxidative stress, the exposure to both ele-
Toxicology, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico City ments caused increase levels of renal GSH.
Nevertheless, in the As-F co-exposure GSH
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and fluoride (F-) are concentrations were less than those caused
ubiquitous elements. Their co-exposure is by the single exposure to each xenobiotic.
frequent in several endemic areas due to the Besides this, the renal TBARS was higher in
natural contamination of well water sup- the iAs exposure group, whereas in the ex-
plies destined for the human consumption. posure to F- group the renal TBARS was
In Mexico and other areas; has been re- increase only at the second week of expo-
ported that the co-exposure of these two sure; this effect was similar in the co-
elements in high concentrations in the wa- exposed group to As-F-.
ter can cause typical toxic effects of arseni- In future studies to evaluate the biotransfor-
cism and endemic fluorosis. mation and the toxic effects caused by iAs
The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure, the co-exposure to F- need to be
oxidative stress of the repeated co-exposure considered.
to arsenite (As3+) and F- in renal tissue of
female C57BL/6 mice, which were divided
in four groups and exposed daily via ga- 29. Evaluación de riesgo toxicológico
vage during 6 weeks with: a) water (control asociado a la ingesta de aguas
group); b) 3 mg As3+ kg-1 day-1 of sodium naturalmente contaminadas con arsénico
arsenite, c) 10 mg F- kg-1 day-1 of sodium y otros oligoelementos tóxicos en La Puna,
fluoride, and d) both As3+ and F-, (3 mg Argentina
As3+ kg-1 day-1 and 10 mg F- kg-1 day-1), Silvia S. Farías1, Graciela Bovi Mitre2, Rebeca I.
respectively. Urine samples were collected Ponce2, María E. Ávila Carrera2, Gladi Bianco de
every two weeks (2, 4 and 6 weeks) and Salas1, Roberto E. Servant1
levels of F- and the trivalent and pentava- 1
Unidad de Actividad Química, Centro Atómico
lent arsenical species were performed. Fur- Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía
thermore, at the end of exposure the arsen- Atómica. Av. Gral. Paz 1499. B1650KNA-San
ical species (AsIII+V, MAsIII+V, DMAsIII+V) Martín. Pcia. de Buenos Aires. Argentina
2
were determined in kidney homogenate. Grupo InQA- Investigación Química Aplicada.
Facultad de Ingeniería. Universidad Nacional de
Considering the pro-oxidants antecedents Jujuy. Gorriti 237-(4600) S. S. de Jujuy- Pcia de
associated to the exposure with iAs and F-, Jujuy. Argentina.
oxidative stress biomarkers at renal level
were evaluated such as glutathione (GSH) El presente trabajo fue realizado entre mayo
concentrations, also the renal oxidative de 2001 y julio de 2003 en el Noroeste de la
damage was evaluated through lipid per- República Argentina. A partir de imágenes
oxidation (TBARS). satelitales, se estudió un área de 20 000 km2
The results showed that the As3+-F- co- en la zona de La Puna salto- jujeña y otra de
exposure modified the pattern of arsenical unos 10 000 km2 en la zona de los valles y
species excreted and modified the urinary sierras sub- andinas, en las que se realizó un
excretion of the F-. These results suggesting muestreo bajo normas de calidad, para
an interaction between the As3+ and the F- comparar los tenores de As, B, V y F- y
through the possible formation of As-F estimar el riesgo asociado a su ingesta.
29

Las muestras, provenientes de fuentes su- prendidas entre 1 y 30 µg kg-1 peso/día, para
perficiales y subterráneas fueron analizadas adultos, y entre 4 y 80 µg kg-1 peso/ día, para
mediante ICP-OES, para determinar As, B el caso de niños, valores que podrían llegar a
y V y cromatografía iónica para evaluar F-. superar en algunos casos el LOAEL para
En la Puna se detectaron valores de hasta 2 riesgo cancerígeno (15 µg kg-1 peso/día).
mg/L As, mientras que en los valles las Se propone la realización de un mapa de
concentraciones de As nunca fueron may- riesgo para estos elementos, la evaluación de
ores que el límite establecido por el Código los pobladores por médicos dermatólogos y
Alimentario Argentino (50 µg L-1 As). Las psicólogos que efectúen pruebas neurocon-
concentraciones de B asociadas a los ductuales, especialmente en niños, así como
máximos tenores de As treparon hasta 50 también la implementación de un sistema de
mg L-1 B, las de F- alcanzaron valores de abatimiento sencillo y económico aplicable a
hasta 4 mg L-1 F-, en las muestras captadas poblaciones rurales dispersas.
en La Puna, superando así los máximos
permitidos por dicha Ley (1 y 2 mg L-1, (*riesgo no-cancerígeno, relacionado con
respectivamente). Y, contrariamente a lo lesiones dérmicas y efectos neurológicos)
descrito en estudios anteriores realizados en
Llanura Pampeana, no se ha observado
correlación entre As y V, encontrándose 30. Arsénico y otros elementos tóxicos en
concentraciones que nunca fueron mayores aguas termales, lagos, vertientes y aguas
de consumo, en las cercanías del volcán
que 100 µg V L-1 en las dos zonas
Copahue, Argentina
estudiadas.
Ana María Fazio1, Silvia S. Farías2, Alberto T.
Una vez identificada el área impactada por Caselli1, Mariano Agusto1
estos contaminantes se evaluó la dosis de 1
exposición para caracterización de riesgos Departamento Ciencias Geológicas. Facultad de
no- cancerígenos para la población ex- Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de
Buenos Aires. Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón
puesta, discriminando entre adultos y niños,
2.1428EHA Buenos Aires, Argentina
que por sus condiciones físicas y su menor 2
Unidad de Actividad Química, Centro Atómico
peso corporal, constituyen el grupo de Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía
mayor riesgo. Atómica. Av. Gral. Paz 1499. B1650KNA- San
Los resultados informados se discuten en Martín. Pcia. de Buenos Aires. Argentina
relación con una estimación preliminar de
El Copahue, es un volcán activo de 2297
riesgo toxicológico al que están expuestos
metros de altura, localizado en la parte
los grupos poblacionales estudiados con-
oriental de la zona volcánica de Los Andes,
siderando únicamente la ingesta de agua
al Sur-Oeste de la República Argentina. La
como vía de exposición para estos con-
presencia de un lago ácido en el cráter,
taminantes críticos, especialmente el arsé-
fuentes termales ácidas de elevada tempera-
nico.
tura y un campo geotermal, son las
Para ese elemento, en la zona de los valles, expresiones superficiales de un sistema
los valores de dosis para adultos y niños hidrotermal volcano-magmático. La princi-
(0.8-2.0 µg kg-1 peso/día, respectivamente), pal fuente termal, de características ácidas y
nunca superaron el LOAEL- mínima con- elevada temperatura emerge alrededor de
centración con la que se observan efectos 100 metros por debajo del lago del cráter y
tóxicos (LOAEL para riesgo no- can- alimenta al llamado “Río Agrio”, que
cerígeno * = 2.6 µg kg-1 peso corporal / descarga 12 kilómetros más abajo en el Lago
día), mientras que en la zona de La Puna se Caviahue, un espejo de agua ácida de origen
determinaron valores de estas dosis com- glacial.
30

Desde el invierno de 2003 se han venido ellos como “curativas”; y a prohibir su utili-
realizando muestreos estacionales, bajo zación en el caso que los tenores de As y
normas de calidad, para observar las otros elementos tóxicos, superen los valores
variaciones en las concentraciones de establecidos por la legislación vigente al re-
aniones y de cationes presentes en las aguas specto.
bajo estudio, de forma de poder establecer
tácticas de monitoreo.
31. Arsenic removal using ferric chloride
Las muestras, provenientes de fuentes su- and direct filtration
perficiales y subterráneas fueron analizadas
mediante espectroscopia de emisión- R. G. Fernández1, B. Petrusevski2
plasma inductivo de argón para determinar 1
Centro de Ingeniería Sanitaria - Facultad de
As, Al, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Rosario.
La, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, Y Riobamba 245 bis – 2000 Rosario – Argentina;
y Zn; mediante cromatografía iónica para cis@fceia.unr.edu.ar
2
evaluar F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-, y se empleó UNESCO-IHE - Institute for Water Education.
absorción atómica en llama para cuantificar PO Box 3015 – NL-2601 DA Delft – The
Na, K, Ca y Mg. Netherlands; b.petrusevski@unesco-ihe.org

Los tenores de As observados superaron en Arsenic is a carcinogenic metalloid that is


muchos casos valores de 5 mg As mL-1, currently regulated in drinking water. The
para muestras captadas durante el invierno. levels of arsenic in finished water in an ex-
Se hallaron concentraciones significati- isting water treatment plant are exceeding
vamente menores de este elemento, para the current regulation of 10 µg L-1. One of
muestreos realizados en otras épocas del the available technologies for arsenic re-
año. Asimismo, se observaron variaciones moval from groundwater is adsorption onto
estacionales para la mayoría de los otros coagulated flocs and in this field, ferric chlo-
elementos estudiados, muchos de ellos con ride is the most commonly used coagulant
niveles de toxicidad comparables al del As. for arsenic removal. This research work was
Una vez identificado el patrón de variación conducted to explore a suitable conventional
de las concentraciones de los diferentes treatment technology for arsenic removal
elementos a lo largo del año se procedió a from given groundwater in order to reduce
establecer una frecuencia de muestreo para the filtrate arsenic concentration to less than
monitorear las aguas de consumo, y las 10 µg L-1.
aguas termales a las que están expuestos Bench scale jar test experiments and pilot-
miles de turistas que acuden cada año, a scale investigations were carried out to
este Centro Termal, durante períodos se- evaluate and improve the coagulation / floc-
manales o quincenales, en busca de alivio culation process for arsenic removal using
para el caso de patologías reumáticas y ferric chloride. Model water that represented
óseas, de terapias anti- estrés ó simple- the water from the existing water treatment
mente de merecido descanso y relajación. plant was used to investigate the effects of
Los resultados obtenidos se han informado a different conditions of pH, coagulant doses,
las autoridades sanitarias para que alerten a arsenic speciation, initial arsenic concentra-
los turistas sobre los peligros inherentes a la tion, temperature, and flocculation condi-
exposición prolongada a aguas naturalmente tions on the arsenic removal efficiency by
muy contaminadas, durante los baños ter- coagulation / flocculation process. Based on
males que practican diariamente y por largos these bench scale experiments, a direct filtra-
períodos de tiempo; a evitar la ingesta de tion technique to separate the formed flocs
esas aguas, consideradas por muchos de was considered as the most suitable floc
31

separation system to be applied after coagu- M. galloprovincialis Lmk. represents an


lation/flocculation process. A direct filtra- important resource for fishery in Spain. This
tion pilot plant was operated to evaluate the production places Spain as the second pro-
efficiency of arsenic removal. ducer of mussel of the world, after China. In
addition, Spanish export trade for mussel is
The results of series of jar test experiments
increasing quickly, mainly in Europe, where
showed that As(V) could be completely
countries as Belgium imports over 12000 kg
removed with iron doses higher than 2 mg L-
1 of M. galloprovincialis every day.
for filtered samples and at pH value about
7.0. The lower efficiencies obtained for un- Among the metals and metalloids present in
filtered samples indicate that settling mecha- the environment, arsenic (As) stands out
nisms are not effective enough to ensure because of its toxicological potential. Arse-
complete removal of As(V), even when nic is found in food in various chemical
using very high doses of coagulant. In agree- forms that differ in their degree of toxicity
ment with the results of previous studies, it and pathologies associated with it. The most
was found that As removal efficiency in- toxic forms of As are the inorganic ones
creased with the coagulant dose. Addition- (iAs), i.e., As(III) and As(V), which are con-
ally it was also observed that under the sidered human carcinogens.
given conditions As(III) removal efficiency
Thus, concern for food safety in relation to
was much lower (up to 60%) compared to
iAs occurrence in foods currently calls for
As(V) removal efficiency (90 - 100%).
exhaustive controls of these molecular forms
Direct filtration with iron doses of 2 mg L-1 in a variety of food products. The standard
at pH value about 7.0, could reduce As(V) methodologies for iAs determination offer a
levels from 50 to 4 µg L-1 or less without high level of precision but at the same time
any risk of iron or turbidity increasing in show some handicaps, such as high cost of
the filtered water within a reasonable fil- analysis, slowness of operation, destruction
terrun length. of the sample, and use of hazardous chemi-
cals. The availability of fast methodologies
Direct filtration using ferric chloride as
to quantify iAs levels in different kinds of
coagulant, could be an appropriate technol-
foods would contribute to the drawing up of
ogy to reduce arsenic levels below 10 µg L-1
legislation to guarantee the healthiness of
for the given groundwater.
foods with respect to this metalloid.
One approach to the consecution of such
32. Rapid, clean and low-cost assessment objectives is made through the use of Visi-
of inorganic arsenic in the mussel Mytilus ble-Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (VIS-NIRS).
Galloprovincialis Lmk. by visible and VIS-NIRS is a valuable technique that offers
near-infrared spectroscopy speed and low cost of analysis, and also the
Rafael Font1, Dinoraz Vélez2, Mercedes Del sample is analyzed without using chemicals.
Río-Celestino3, Antonio De Haro-Bailón1, Rosa The spectral information obtained from sam-
Montoro2 ples can be used for prediction of the iAs,
1 once appropriate calibration equations have
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (CSIC).
Alameda del Obispo s/n. 14080, Córdoba, Spain
been prepared from sets of samples analyzed
2
Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de by both VIS-NIRS and conventional analyti-
Alimentos (CSIC), Apartado 73, 46100, Burjas- cal techniques.
sot (Valencia), Spain We present in this work the potential of VIS-
3
CIFA, Junta de Andalucía, Apdo. 4240, 14080
NIRS to predict iAs in different matrices of
Córdoba, Spain
animal and plant origin. Mathematical mod-
els (calibration equations) were developed
32

over the spectral data jointly with the iAs mobilization in the aquifers. Geochemical
concentrations in the samples, by using evidence suggests that, after being released
Modified Partial Least Squares (PLSm) into groundwater, the concentration of arse-
regression. On the basis of the coefficients nic in solution is controlled by pH. Arsenic
of determination (R2) shown by the equa- is preferentially scavenged by adsorption on
tions in the validation, and also of the stan- Fe (hydr)oxide coatings under acidic to neu-
dard deviation to standard error of predic- tral pH conditions. The concentration of
tion in the validation (RPD), the equations fluoride depends on the fluorite solubility
obtained displayed a high predictive ability and also on pH-dependent adsorption with
to determine iAs in such matrices. Our adsorption minimum at high pH values.
results suggest that both, the VIS (chomo-
In the province of Tucumán, the loessic layer
phores) and NIR (X-H, where X= C, O, N)
is restricted to the first 30 meters of the Qua-
regions of the spectrum from the matrices
ternary sequence. As a consequence, most
used to conduct this work, contain relevant
shallow groundwater is contaminated by
information that can be related to the iAs
high levels of As and F-. Groundwater in
concentration in the samples. This pioneer-
deep confined aquifers is considered to be
ing use of VIS-NIRS to predict the iAs
suitable for human consumption. However,
content in biological matrices represents an
in the southern part of the province several
important saving in time and cost of analy-
wells show from intermediate to high con-
sis.
centrations of As (between 10 to 79 µg L-1)
and high concentrations of F- (between 0.6
33. Intermediate to high levels of arsenic and 6.0 mg L-1). These wells that penetrate
and fluoride in deep geothermal aquifers saturated layers as deep as 500 mbs, show
from the northwestern Chacopampean ground water temperatures above the annual
Plain, Argentina average in the region. Some authors pro-
posed that the heat is supplied from a basal-
María Gabriela García1, César Moreno2, Diego tic layer located 7000 mbs.
Sebastián Fernández3, María Cristina Galindo2
Ondra Sracek4 and Margarita del Valle Hidalgo2 The geochemistry of As and F- in deep aqui-
1 fers shows certain characteristics that are not
Centro de Investigaciones Geoquímicas y de
completely coincident with those described
Procesos de la Superficie. FCEFyN. Universi-
dad Nacional de Córdoba in the rest of the Chacopampean plain.
2
Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia en Unlike in shallow groundwaters, the concen-
Química Aplicada. Tucumán. FCN e IML. trations of As increase with increasing depth
Universidad Nacional de Tucumán. Tucumán, and temperature. The same trend is observed
Argentina. Córdoba, Argentina for F-, but the relation with depth is not such
3
Servicio Geológico Minero Argentino, Delega- clear. Furthermore, As shows direct linear
ción Tucumán correlation with sulphate and reverse correla-
4
Dep. of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Sci- tion with bicarbonate and calcium. F- is
ence, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic poorly correlated with arsenic, but highly
correlated with chloride and sodium. It also
High levels of natural occurring arsenic and shows reverse correlation with calcium.
fluoride in groundwaters from the Chaco- Concentrations of F- increase at increasing
pampean plain have been assigned to the pH and decreasing Eh, but this trend is less
presence of volcanic shards spread within evident for As.
the loess matrix. The primary source of
these elements has not been determined yet The primary source of As and F- in the deep
but there is almost a clear understanding confined aquifers can be associated with
about the mechanisms that promote their volcanic Tertiary sediments that are sup-
33

posed to be in the deepest part of the sedi- tem, which could be in some extent respon-
mentary sequence. The up-flow of geo- sible for the neurotoxic alterations reported.
thermal fluids through structural conduits is Our aim was to assess the relation of the
considered negligible because ground water distribution of iAs and its metabolites, its
chemistry matches those of volcanic sedi- oxidative damage, nerve conduction and
ments. The mobilization of As does not histological characteristics of the peripheral
seem to be controlled only by the pH, but sural nervous of rat subchronic exposure to
also by other factors such as the presence of arsenite. Wistar male rats (200 g body
As-rich primary source sediments. The weight) received sodium arsenite (10 mg kg-1
concentration of F- is not affected by the bw/day, gavage, for 30 days). Thiobarbituric
precipitation of fluorite as its supersatura- acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and dis-
tion is never reached due the removal of tribution of iAs and its metabolite in sural
Ca2+ by the precipitation of calcite and/or nerve were evaluated at the end of 30 days of
cation exchange. exposure. Sural nerve conduction studies
were performed for measurement the com-
pound action potentials and transversal sec-
34. Lipoperoxidative damage, nerve con- tions using standard electrophysiological and
duction and histological characteristics histological techniques. The results revealed
of sensory sural nerves of rats exposed to oxidative damage in sural nerve as compared
arsenite from control group (p<0.0001). Dimethyl
Erika García-Chavéz1; Bertha Segura2; Horacio arsenic was the predominant metabolite of
Merchant3; Luz C. Sánchez-Peña1; A. Barrera1, iAs (∼95%) in peripheral nervous tissue.
Jose C. Guadarrama4, Ismael Jiménez4 and Luz
Meanwhile, the compound action potential
M. Del Razo1
evoked in exposed nerves showed a consid-
1
Toxicology, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico. 2 FES- erable reduction area (~18%; p<0.05) and
Iztacala, UNAM, Mexico,3IIB-UNAM, Mex- conduction velocity (~18%; p<0.05). These
ico,4Physiol., Biophys. & Neurosci., Cinvestav- electrophysiological finding were well sup-
IPN, Mexico
ported by the histological observation of
reduction in axon diameter (~34.8%;
Although the remarkable interest on toxico-
p<0.01) and myelin sheath thickness of ax-
logical properties of inorganic arsenic
ons (~40%; p<0.01), as compared with those
(iAs), it has limited amount of information
of control nerves.
on the capacity of this metalloid to interact
and cause structural and functional altera- Our results may indicate that the high con-
tions of the nervous system. Previous stud- centration of DMA in rat peripheral nerves
ies have demonstrated that humans exposed causes demyelinating and axonal changes
to iAs affect the central nervous system and altering the generation and propagation of
can produce peripheral neurotoxicity. Gen- action potentials in peripheral nerves and
eration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is those effects could result in decreased
the major mechanism by which arsenic transmission of sensory information from
exerts its toxicity in a variety of tissues. peripheral receptors to the spinal cord.
ROS has been demonstrated in rat brain
exposed to iAs, although their role in the
peripheral nervous system is not fully es-
tablished. In addition, the adverse effects of
arsenical exposure have not been related to
the presence of methylated arsenic species
(MAs and DMAs) formed during the iAs
metabolism and distributed in nervous sys-
34

35. Arsenite biotransformation in mice represent a practical significance because


feed with selenium deficient diet and many human populations are simultaneously
exposure to arsenite exposed to As through drinking water and
Eliud A. García-Montalvo, Olga L.Valenzuela,
different levels of Se mainly in the diet. The
Araceli Hernández-Zavala, Luz M. Del Razo aim of this study was to evaluate the bio-
transformation and distribution of As and
Cinvestav-IPN, Toxicology; Mexico City, their relationship with stress oxidative events
Mexico
in function of the deficient SeMet concentra-
tion in weanling female C57BL/6 mice feed
Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental
by 42 days with Se deficient diet (0.02 mg
toxicant in several parts of the world, the
Se kg-1) and exposed daily to 6 mg As kg-1
main way of exposure is through the drink-
day-1 for 9 consecutives days. Oxidative
ing water or industrial emissions. In hu-
stress biomarkers at hepatic level were
mans, like in most mammalian species,
evaluated such as GSH and GPx concentra-
inorganic arsenic (iAs) is methylated to
tions; also the renal oxidative damage was
methylarsonic acid (MMAV) by AsIII-
evaluated through lipid peroxidation
methyltransferase (AS3MT) using S-
(TBARS).
adenosylmethionine (SAM) as a methyl
group donor. The MMAV through alterna- Se deficiency group had not alteration in the
tive reductions form methylarsonous acid urinary and liver concentration of arsenicals
(MMAIII) which is methylated by AS3MT comparing with diet Se sufficient (0.2 mg Se
and SAM producing dimethylarsinic kg-1) but, increases the urinary relative pro-
(DMAV) which again by alternative reduc- portions of iAsIII, iAsV, MMAIII, and MMAV
tion produce dimethylarsinous (DMAIII). accompanied by decreases in DMAIII and
The main mechanism of toxic action related DMAV. In addition, increases the relative
with the exposure to iAs and the produced proportion of iAs and decreases DMA pro-
metabolites, mainly the trivalent arsenicals portion in liver.
species are linked with the reactive oxygen The Se deficient group exposed to arsenite
species (ROS) who are the responsible of decreases the concentration of hepatic GPx.
the stress generation and oxidative damage. However, this decrease was not associated to
On the other hand, selenium (Se) is an es- the presence of hepatic oxidative damage
sential constituent of the antioxidant system suggesting the possibility of DMA metabo-
that allows the survival of whom in a rich lite could be the responsible of oxidative
oxygen environment where the free radicals damage observed in mice exposed to arsenite
can damage the biological molecules. Is an and feed with Se sufficient diet.
essential micronutrient for humans because Se deficiency in the diet affected the arsenite
it is an important component of antioxi- biotransformation pattern and its relation
dants enzymes as glutathione peroxidase with stress oxidative markers.
(GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR).
Like As, Se is a metalloid which undergoes
similar metabolic conversions, the inor-
ganic species as selenate (SeIV) and selenite
(SeVI), are reduced by glutathione (GSH) to
yield hydrogen selenide (H2Se), H2Se
serves to produce the organic selenium
compounds of interest in health and nutri-
tion. Since the metabolic interactions be-
tween As and Se are complex and it would
35

36. Neurotoxicity of arsenic heimer’s, Parkinson and schizophrenia. Bio-


María E. Gonsebatt, Verónica Rodríguez, Jorge
transformation of arsenic in brain could also
H. Limón, Roxana Navarrete, Hielen Queriol, alter the homeostasis of SAM and its inter-
Magda Giordano, Gabriel Gutiérrez Ospina y mediate metabolites, including methionine,
Luz Maria Del Razo choline, folate, and vitamins B6 and B12,
some of which are important substrates or
Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas e Insti-
tuto de Neurobiología, UNAM, CINVESTAV,
cofactors in neurotransmitter metabolism or
IPN México; margen@servidor.unam.mx in the development of the CNS especially in
more susceptible individuals such as children
Epidemiological studies demonstrate that and older people.
inorganic arsenic exerts other adverse ef-
fects that do not involve the induction of
cancer such as injury to the peripheral and 37. Arsenic origin determination by geo-
central nervous systems. Arsenic crosses chemical modeling: Region Lagunera
the blood brain barrier and might accumu- aquifer system, Mexico
late in brain where it could be metabolized Carlos Gutiérrez-Ojeda
to monomethyl (MMA) and dimethyl Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua,
(DMA) arsenic forms. In mammals, bio- Paseo Cuauhnáhuac 8532, Jiutepec, Morelos,
methylation by the arsenic methyltrans- 62550 México.; Tel (+52 73) 194000 ext
ferase (As3MT) occurs in two steps: 1) the 793/805; Fax (+52 73) 194341 / 193422
reduction of pentavalent species to triva-
lency in the presence of glutathione (GSH) The elevated arsenic concentrations found in
or thioredoxin and 2) the oxidative methy- the groundwater of the alluvial aquifer of the
lation whereby inorganic arsenic is con- Region Lagunera, northern Mexico, have been
verted to MMA, DMA and trimethyl attributed to several potential sources:
(TMAO) arsenic forms using S-adenosyl hydrothermal activity, use of arsenical
methione (SAM) as the main methyl donor. pesticides, mining activities and sedimentary
To investigate the possibility that arsenite origin.
was methylated in brain, we treated mice
Arsenic concentrations range from 0.003 to
with different doses of sodium arsenite and
0.443 mg L-1 (mean of 0.074 mg L-1; stan-
observed the generation of methylated spe-
dard deviation 0.099). Extensive areas of the
cies not only in the animals but also in
alluvial aquifer have concentrations quite
brain organotipic cultures. Arsenic is me-
above 0.03 mg L-1, the Mexican Maximum
tabolized in mouse brain, mostly to DMA
Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking wa-
in a dose related manner. Also, contrary to
ter. The highest concentrations are found in
what have been shown in “vitro” inhibition
the lagoonal deposits located in the north-
of glutathione reductase, a key enzyme in
eastern part of the basin, as well as towards
the maintenance of GSH pool, was ob-
the northwestern and southeastern areas.
served only at very high doses of arsenite.
Besides the toxic effects of the accumula- Previous studies have showed that arsenic is
tion of methylated arsenicals in neural tis- naturally occurring and its most probable
sue, both GSH and SAM are important origin is due to extinct intrusive hydrothermal
molecules not only in the biochemistry of activity. Geochemical modeling were used in
arsenic but in the physiology of the nervous this work to show that under natural and
system. Thus, arsenic metabolism could unchanged conditions, the evaporation of
diminish the GSH pool in the central nerv- surface water carried by the Nazas and
ous system, a condition that is associated to Aguanaval Rivers (0.00201 < As < 0.01766
neurodegenerative processes such as Alz- mg L-1) could have contributed to the elevated
36

groundwater arsenic concentrations (0.003 < Salamanca. There are not alternative water
As < 0.443 mg L-1) found in the lower parts supply sources.
of the closed basin.
The local aquifer is composed by 3 perme-
The idea was to select two water samples; able units, forming a multilayer aquifer sys-
one representative of the surface water (from tem. A shallow formation, an intermediate
reservoirs) and the other of the groundwater one, semi confined, and a deep unit, con-
of the area where elevated arsenic fined. The shallow water table is located 18-
concentrations have been found. Then, 19 m depth. The intermediate water table is
artificially evaporate the surface water by found to 35-45 m. Clay, gravel and sand
multiplying its analytic chemical data by the composed the shallow and intermediate aq-
chloride ratio between both samples. A uifers, whereas volcanic material formed the
modified version of the aqueous speciation deep unit.
program WATEQF was used to determine
The arsenic concentration in the 3 units is
the saturation indices of plausible minerals
variable. The space distribution looks to be
(phases) of both the evaporated surface water
controlled by a fault originated by subsidence.
and the groundwater. The geochemical
A local fast recharge through the fault system
program NETPATH was then used to deter-
can affect the As concentration.
mine the net geochemical mass-balance
reactions between the evaporated surface The deep aquifer As could be associated to
water (initial water) and the groundwater the sequence of volcanic rocks. Its ground-
(final water). water is thermal. The As detected in the in-
termediate formation, exploited for urban
The results show that evaporation of 51.51
supply could be natural and anthropogenic.
liters of surface water from the Nazas River
would produce one liter of well 1387; this Taken into account these chemical character-
would require the precipitation of calcite istics some alternatives for aquifer manage-
(43.86 mmol) and fluorite (1.46 mmol), ment are proposed.
dissolution of gypsum (6.60 mmol), outgas-
sing of CO2 43.19 mmol), and an exchange
of 1 mmol of calcium (entering the aqueous 39. Estudio del efecto de los procesos
solution) per every 0.42 mmol of sodium, termicos sobre la concentración de
2.46 mmol of potassium and 4.01 mmol of arsénico total, arsénico inorgánico en los
magnesium (leaving the aqueous solution). productos pesqueros
C. Herrera†; O. Muñoz*†; J,M. Bastias‡;

38. Arsenic distribution in the multi- †Centro de Estudios en Ciencia y Tecnología de


layer aquifer of Salamanca, México Alimentos, Universidad de Santiago de Chile,
Casilla 33074, Correo 33 Santiago;
H. Hernández, R. Rodríguez and A. Armienta omunoz@lauca.usach.cl
‡ Departamento de Ingeniería en Alimentos,
Geophysics Institute, UNAM; Earth Sciences
Universidad del Bío-Bío, Casilla 447, Chillán,
Postgraduate Program UNAM, Mexico
Chile; jobastias@ubiobio.cl
Salamanca is located in Central Mexico,
El presente estudio determinó el efecto de
Guanajuato state, in the Subprovince Bajio
los procesos térmicos utilizados en el
Guanajuatense in the Physiographic Prov-
cocinado habitual sobre la concentración de
ince Eje Neovolcanico. The geologic envi-
arsénico total, y arsénico inorgánico en cinco
ronment is defined by volcanic and sedi-
especies marinas de mayor consumo en la
mentary rocks from Tertiary to Recent.
ciudad de Santiago (Choritos, Almejas,
Groundwater is the only water supply for
Cholgas, Jurel y Congrio negro), Se
37

utilizaron cinco muestras de cada especie y 40. Subsurface treatment of arsenic in


tres tratamientos (crudo, hervida y al groundwater – laboratory scale
horno). La determinación de Arsénico total experiments
se realizó por digestión por vía seca, En el Holländer, H.M.*; Boochs, P.-W.*; Stummeyer,
caso del arsénico inorgánico, se utilizó un J.**; Billib, M.*; Krüger, T.*
procedimiento de extracción por solventes, *
obteniendo en todos los casos resultados Institute of Water Resources Management, Hy-
drology and Agricultural Hydraulic Engineer-
reproducibles y representativos.
ing, University of Hannover, Germany;
Para la determinación analítica se utilizó un hollaender@iww.uni-hannover.de
**
Espectrofotómetro de Absorción Atómica Federal Institute of Geosciences and Natural
(AAS) Varian A 55 acoplado a generación Resources (BGR), Hannover, Germany
de hidruros.
Objectives. High arsenic concentrations in
En las muestras crudas, la mayor concen- groundwater (up to 8500 µg L-1) have been
tración de metales se encuentra en los bi- found at a military site. It should be investi-
valvos (6.18-15.19 µg g-1, base seca (bs) de gated whether a subsurface groundwater
As total; 0.11-0.23 µg g-1, bs de As inor- treatment (in-situ treatment) can be applied
gánico), los peces obtuvieron menores con- to remove the arsenic. The procedure is
tenidos de ambos metales (1.69-5.61 µg g-1, based on the injection of iron and oxygen
bs de As total; 0.08-0.12 µg g-1, bs de As enriched water into the aquifer to precipitate
inorgánico). the arsenic together with the iron.
El Análisis de ANOVA por especie (Chori- Methods. Laboratory experiments were
tos, Almejas, Cholgas, Jurel y Congrio carried out at batch reactors using natural
negro), de los resultados obtenidos en groundwater with high arsenic concentra-
relación a los tres tratamientos utilizados tions from the contaminated site. Different
(crudo, hervida y al horno), tanto para arsé- iron compounds containing Fe(II), Fe(III) or
nico total como para arsénico inorgánico, Fe0-particles have be mixed with the water
presentaron un valor de P<0.05 indicando and were aerated for several hours. The de-
que existen diferencias estadísticamente tection of arsenic was separated into As(III),
significativas entre los tratamiento. Por lo As(V) and organic As.
tanto, al someter los productos pesqueros a
procesos térmicos se producen modifica- Results. The results showed that it is impos-
ciones en el contenido de Arsénico total, las sible in this case to precipitate the arsenic
que se atribuyen a la suma de efectos con- without adding additional iron (removal of
trarios: concentración debido a la pérdida arsenic was below 2%) because the iron
de peso del alimento, la cual es mayor en el which is naturally in the groundwater is too
caso de productos horneados, y por pérdida low. Fe(II) showed the best results. The re-
del arsénico soluble debido a la eliminación duction of arsenic was nearly 80%. The pre-
de exudados. Con respecto al arsénico inor- sents of ammonium was reducing the arsenic
gánico se suma el efecto de transforma- to only 40%. This is caused by the oxygen
ciones que pueden ocurrir en las especies demand of the nitrification process. The
orgánicas a inorgánicas. precipitant Fe(III) had only a small effect in
reducing the arsenic concentration (less than
10%). Fe0-particles can be also used to re-
duce the arsenic. The reduction was ob-
served of 60%.
Conclusions. The removal of arsenic by
injecting oxygen into the aquifer without an
38

additional precipitant is impossible at the therefore, can have a detrimental effect on


contaminated site because the natural iron insulin resistance caused by subchronical
content is very low. But first laboratory arsenite exposure.
experiments showed that it is possible to
In the present study we evaluated the endo-
remove high arsenic concentrations with
crine function and oxidative damage in pan-
adding additional iron as participant. Best
creas of male Wistar rats (200 g body
results were observed using Fe(II) or Fe0-
weight) feed with Se deficient diet (0.02 mg
particles.
Se kg-1) and exposed to sodium arsenite at
Further investigations will be carried out to 1.7 mg kg-1 12 h by gavage for 90 consecu-
optimize the iron concentration and to tive days. Rats received the Se deficient diet
transfer the results to a field experiment at twenty days before the administration of first
the military site. dose of arsenite and continued for 90 days of
arsenite exposure. At the end of the treat-
ment, glucose, insulin and glucagon concen-
41. Effects of selenium deficiency on dia- tration in serum were quantified. A simple
betogenic action of arsenite in rats method to quantify insulin resistance was
Jeannett A. Izquierdo-Vega1, Claudia A. Soto- assessed through the measurement of glu-
Peredo2, Luz C. Sánchez-Peña1, and Luz M. Del cose and insulin (fasting glucose [mmol/L]
Razo1 X fasting insulin [mU L-1]/22.5). Oxidative
1 stress biomarkers at pancreatic level were
Toxicología, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico
2
Sistemas Biológicos, UAM-Xochimilco, Mexico
evaluated such as glutathione and the activ-
ity of seleno-enzyme thioredoxin reductase
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element (TrxR); also the pancreatic oxidative damage
for animals and humans, it play important was evaluated through lipid peroxidation
role in the protection against oxidative (TBARS).
damage. In addition, it is an insulin-like The insulin resistance caused by subchronic
trace mineral that regulate homeostasis of arsenite exposure in rats feed with Se suffi-
the glucose. cient diet (0.2 mg Se kg-1) was no exacer-
Selenium deficiency is one of the factors bated in Se deficiency. Rats exposed to ar-
related to diabetes, malnutrition, low corpo- senite and fed with Se deficiency had value
ral weight, muscular dystrophy, rheumatoid of insulin resistance of 14.10 ± 5.04 vs
arthritis and diseases associated to the pres- 13.17± 4.79 obtained in Se sufficiency; these
ence of oxidative stress. The metabolic and values were significantly higher than those
toxicological interactions between arsenic of their respective Se-deficient and Se-
(As) and Se have been reported in many sufficient control groups (1.84± 1.35 vs
experimental studies. It would represent a 3.34± 1.19).
practical significance because many human Independent of arsenite exposure, the Se-
populations are simultaneously exposed to deficient diet caused stress and oxidative
As through drinking water and different damage in pancreas. Besides, pancreatic
levels of Se mainly in the diet. There are oxidative damage was significantly higher in
recent epidemiologic studies that have as- rats subchronically exposed to arsenite with
sociated chronic exposure to inorganic low Se status than rats with Se adequate diet.
arsenic with an increase in the prevalence The changes may be related to the decreased
of diabetes mellitus. In a previous study, activity of TrxR, selenoenzyme with anti-
we showed that the subchronic exposure to oxidative functions.
arsenite in rats causes insulin resistance.
Our aim was evaluate if deficiencies of Se, Se deficiency in the diet intensifies the pan-
creatic oxidative damage but did not alter the
39

hiperinsulinemia caused by subchronic the main objectives of the project was to test
arsenite exposure. all the tube well water of the study area and
to develop recommendation about the influ-
ence of time series and seasonal fluctuation
42. Occurrence, distribution and tempo- of arsenic concentration in tube well water.
ral variation of the concentrations of The current study synthesizes the data gen-
arsenic in groundwater from Jhikor- erated from the BRAC’s community-based
gachha Upazila, Bangladesh arsenic mitigation pilot study in Jhikor-
M. Jakariya1*, Kazi Matin Ahmed2, M. Abul gachha Upazila with financial support from
Hasan2, Sultana Nahar2 and P. Bhattacharya3 UNICEF and the Department of Public
1 Health Engineering (DPHE) of the Govern-
Research and Evaluation Division (RED),
ment of Bangladesh. In the present study, we
BRAC, 75 Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangla-
desh; jakariya@ngof.org, prosun@kth.se
present the salient characteristics about the
2
Department of Geology, Dhaka University, occurrence, distribution and time trends of
Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh the variations in arsenic concentration in the
3
KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Re- tube wells of Jhikorgachha Upazila in
search Group, Department of Land and Water southwestern Bangladesh.
Resources Engineering, KTH, SE-100 44
Stockholm, Sweden The present study reveals subtle changes in
the levels of arsenic concentration in the
Arsenic contamination, in fact, has become tube well water. The decrease in the concen-
a global issue of public health as it has been tration of arsenic occurred in almost 50% of
encountered in many countries and regions the wells of Jhikorgachha Upazila while
under varying conditions. The presence of 46% of the wells showed an increase in the
arsenic in groundwater has lead to wide- levels of arsenic. However in 4% of the
spread concern in Bangladesh. According wells the no change in the arsenic concentra-
to the information gathered through the tion was observed. The highest concentration
extensive work of various agencies, at least increase in the analyzed tube well water was
one third of the countries domestic hand 91 µg L-1 with a mean increase of 15.7 µg L-
1
tube wells yield water at concentrations and the lowest decrease was ca. 128 µg L-1
above the Bangladesh limit of 50 µg L-1 with a mean decrease of ca. 19 µg L-1.
and more than 60% of the wells exceed the Therefore, it can be said from the findings of
WHO provisional guideline value of 10 µg the present study that arsenic concentration
L-1. Since detection of arsenic contamina- in tube well water might increase or decrease
tion in 1993, various studies have provided with time; however these results indicate that
useful information regarding origin, occur- there is a strong tendency of a reduction in
rence, distribution and the factors control- the levels of arsenic concentration with time
ling the mobilization of arsenic in ground- depending on the local hydrogeological con-
water. Studies have been undertaken to find ditions.
sustainable mitigation of the arsenic prob-
lem in Bangladesh. In the process, new
concerns such as change of arsenic concen-
trations with time and transfer of arsenic
through irrigation need proper attention.
BRAC completed a community based arse-
nic mitigation study in Jhikorgachha
Upazila, which was started in early 1999
and completed in December 2001. One of
40

43. Distribution of arsenic in three geo- the sites show a similar concentration of
chemical fractions of surface sediments arsenic in the EF and OMF fractions, but
from coastal sites of Sonora, Mexico slightly higher in Caborca and Hermosillo
M.E. Jara-Marini and L. García-Rico
sites. Both sites are associated to agricultural
districts, it is possible that arsenic has been
Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y mobilized from deep volcanic deposits into
Desarrollo, A.C; Division of Food Science, km the watertable that is used for agriculture and
0.6, Carretera a la Victoria, PO Box 1735,
drinking needs in the cities. Arsenic concen-
Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 Mexico
trations detected may be also related to fertil-
izers that could be used in intensive agricul-
Arsenic is widely distributed in marine
ture. These arsenic concentrations ranges
environments and their interaction proper-
were similar to those reported in non-
ties are determined by chemical and
polluted sediments. Highest (p<0.05) mean
physiochemical parameters, as well as its
concentration of arsenic (>95%) was de-
toxic effects in the marine organisms. An
tected in the RF and then potentially
indirect metal toxicity evaluation has been
bioavailable arsenic was of minimal toxic
performed by operational fractionation
risk. However, arsenic may mobilize to
using selective chemical extraction solu-
bioavailable fractions by changes in envi-
tions. Sonora is one of the principal fishery
ronmental factors (e.g., pH, salinity and re-
producers in Mexico and in a previous
dox potential), increasing its toxic potential
study, a range of 0.09-7.71 µg g-1 of total
to biota and producing bioaccumulation. In
arsenic was detected in surface sediments
conclusion, the sites studied are pristine in
of oyster farms of the Sonora state. For this
arsenic levels but is important to keep moni-
reason, the aim of this study was evaluate
toring sediment, water, and biomonitor or-
arsenic distribution in geochemical frac-
ganisms to detect alterations of arsenic
tions of surface sediment of four oyster
bioavailability.
culture sites in the Sonora coast using a
three step microwave sequential extraction
scheme. Fifty-four surface sediment sam-
44. Using permeable compost barriers for
ples were collected from February to Au-
accelerated release of arsenic from con-
gust 1999. A microwave selective extrac-
taminated sites
tion scheme was used. Arsenic concentra-
tion was determined in exchangeable (EF), Ralf Köber1, Jürgen Mattusch2, Birgit Daus2,
bound to organic matter (OMF) and resid- Edmund Welter3, Francesca Giarolli4, Markus
ual (RF) fractions by hydride vapour gen- Ebert1 & Andreas Dahmke1
eration coupled to an atomic absorption 1
Institute of Geosciences, University of Kiel,
spectrophotometer. Duplicates, blanks and Ohlshausenstrasse 40, 24118 Kiel,Germany;
standard reference material were analyzed rk@gpi.uni-kiel.de
2
during the procedure. Statistical analysis UFZ – Environmental Research Center
were performed using ANOVA-General Halle/Leipzig, Germany
3
HASYLAB/DESY, Hamburg, Germany
Linear Model, Fisher´s LDS mean com- 4
Agency for Environmental Protection and for
parison and Pearson correlations. The total Technical Services, Rome; Italy
mean arsenic range of concentration (EF-
RF) was 0.10-6.59 µg g-1. By study sites The bulk of arsenic (As) in the solid phase is
wide ranges were also detected (µg g-1): frequently associated with iron (hydr)oxides
Puerto Peñasco 0.08-6.20, Caborca 0.11- at contaminated sites. Slow desorption of As
5.35, Hermosillo 0.14-7.30 and Guaymas from iron (hydr)oxide sorption sites can be
0.07-8.68. No significant Pearson correla- problematic because this contaminates
tions (p>0.05) were detected. Furthermore, ground water for decades and longer. Vari-
41

ous studies ascribed increasing dissolved sulfide can be supplied not only by compost
As concentrations to the transformation of based PRBs but also by direct injection of
iron (hydr)oxides into iron sulfides which solutions with high sulfide concentrations,
was initiated by dissolved sulfide that sulfide flushing has a wide range of applica-
originated from microbial sulfate reduction. tion for source treatment of arsenic.
We investigated if this processes can be
utilized as a source treatment approach
using compost based permeable reactive 45. Sulfide – A controlling species for
barriers (PRB) which are located upstream treatment of As by zero valent iron
of contaminated areas and promote micro-
R.F.Köber1, E. Welter2, F. Giarolli3, M. Ebert1 &
bial sulfate reduction, or if sulfide supply A. Dahmke1
rather causes precipitation of arsenic sul- 1
fides which would decelerate the As re- Institute of Geosciences, University of Kiel,
lease. Ohlshausenstrasse 40, 24118 Kiel,Germany;
rk@gpi.uni-kiel.de
2
Two sets of column experiments, composed HASYLAB/DESY, Hamburg, Germany
3
of sequential columns connected by tubing Agency for Environmental Protection and for
were performed. The first column of sys- Technical Services, Rome
tem 1 was filled with organic matter (40%
compost, 33% chaff, 27% wood chips), the Several investigations showed an encourag-
second with As bearing aquifer sediment ing potential for the removal of arsenic (As)
from a former fuchsine production site and from groundwater by granular zero-valent
the third with ZVI. In system 2 (reference), iron (ZVI). Even though microbial sulfate
which was run to compare the As release reduction (MSR) is a known and omnipres-
without preset organic matter, the first col- ent process in ZVI-PRBs, most of these stud-
umn contained As contaminated sediment ies did not consider the presence of dissolved
and the second ZVI (As removal by ZVI sulfide. These studies showed that sorption
shall be discussed in a separate presenta- of As to iron (hydr)oxide corrosion products
tion). is the predominant mechanism under such
conditions. Contrasting to those former stud-
The As bearing aquifer sediment showed ies, we investigated the applicability of this
no significant decrease in As content after method and the nature of the As bonding
420 days of percolation with sulfide-free under conditions with dissolved sulfide.
artificial ground water. In contrast, water Sulfide can lower the corrosion rate by pre-
that previously passed through organic cipitation of iron sulfide layers and thereby
matter and exhibited sulfide concentrations decrease the formation of new iron
of 10-30 mg L-1 decreased the As content in (hydr)oxide sorption sites for As. Secondly
the sediment for 87% within 360 days. X- As can get incorporated in these iron sul-
Ray diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray absorp- fides. Thirdly As and sulfide could be pre-
tion spectroscopy (XAS) investigations cipitated as As sulfides like realgar, orpiment
showed that no arsenic sulfides precipi- or arsenopyrite. And fourthly the formation
tated, although saturation indices for arse- of thio-arsenic (As-S) species can either
nic sulfides occasionally were near equilib- diminish the removal from solution by in-
rium. The speciation of dissolved As creasing the solubility of As, or otherwise it
(measured by IC-ICP-MS) changed from can enhance the As removal by sorption of
initially As(V) dominated to As(III) domi- negatively charged thio-arsenic species to
nated immediately after starting the sulfide positively charged surfaces. Because of
flushing, which increases the mobility of those divergent effects on the long-term
As. The resulting solution could appropri-
ately be treated by zerovalent iron. Because
42

performance, it was important to investi- Humans are fundamentally exposed to arse-


gate the influence of MSR and sulfide. nic, a metalloid widely distributed in nature,
through the ingestion of food. The toxicity of
Three column tests containing ZVI were
arsenic depends on its chemical form –
performed for the term of one year (with
hence the importance of As speciation in the
cis-DCE as a co-contaminant). The input
assessment of toxicological risk. The studies
solutions contained either predominantly
of arsenic in foods have mainly focused on
As(III) (2-200 mg L-1) or predominantly
the characterization of As species in raw
As(V) (4-10 mg L-1). Arsenic outflow con-
products. However, to date there have been
centrations decreased from initially 30-100
no antecedents of studies on the bioavailabil-
µg L-1 to concentrations of below 1 µg L-1
ity of arsenic and its chemical species in
as a result of decreasing outflow pH with
foodstuffs.
time. XANES and EXAFS spectra indi-
cated that As in the solid phase was not Three groups of foods have been selected for
only directly coordinated with oxygen like estimating the bioavailability of arsenic:
in adsorbed or coprecipitated arsenite and algae (due to their high As content); fish
arsenate. Samples with high sulfur content (due to its important contribution to As in-
showed an additional bonding for which take); and rices (since the latter constitute
EXAFS data exhibited a peak between 2.2 the main source of As for over 50 million
and 2.4 Å. This bonding most likely origi- people). Simulated gastrointestinal digestion
nated from direct coordination of sulfur or has been used to assess bioaccessibility
iron with As that is incorporated in iron (maximum soluble concentration of the ele-
sulfides or from adsorbed thio-arsenic spe- ment) as a prerequisite to absorption, with
cies. The formation of this sulfidic bonding the incorporation of an in vitro cell culture
supports removal of As by ZVI since sul- (Caco-2 cells, a validated intestinal epithelial
fide production by MSR is ubiquitous in model) to estimate retention and transport,
ZVI-PRBs. Whereas degradation of cis- with the purpose of affording an improved
DCE significantly decelerated with time approximation to the actual in vivo situation.
half life-times for As removal were rela-
The bioaccessibility of arsenic and its
tively constant. Association of As with
chemical species in the analyzed foods is
sulfur is likely to account for the fast and
high (>60%) – thus reflecting high solubility
constant As removal that makes As re-
and availability for absorption in the gastro-
moval by ZVI-PRBs a much more durable
intestinal medium. Cooking does not modify
process than degradation of chlorinated
the chemical species or reduce bioaccessibil-
aliphatics.
ity. Based on the bioaccessible fraction of
the foods studied, the cellular retention of
46. Bioavailability of arsenic species in arsenic is seen to be very low (1-6%), with
food: practical aspects for human health comparatively superior transport perform-
risk assessments ance (4-18%) of the different species.

Laparra, J.M.1, Vélez, D.1 *, Barberá, R.2, Farré, The studies conducted may be regarded as a
R.2, Montoro, R.1 pioneering effort in the evaluation of the
1
toxicological risk posed by arsenic and its
Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technol- chemical species in foods, by contemplating
ogy (CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100 - Burjassot (Va-
the bioavailability of As as it is found in
lencia), Spain
2
Nutrition and Food Chemistry. Faculty of food prepared for actual consumption.
Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Avda.
Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100 - Burjassot
(Valencia), Spain
43

47. Investigation of arsenic accumulation 48. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic in the


by vegetables and ferns from As- regional Loessic aquifer in the southwest
contaminated area in Brazil of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
Helena Eugênia Leonhardt Palmiere1, Olivia Fabiana Limbozzi1, A. Guillermo Bonorino2 and
Vasconcelos2, Julio Silva2, Eleonora Marcelo J.Avena1
Deschamps3 1
Departamento de Química, Universidad
1
Nuclear Technology Development Centre/ Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253; (B8000CPB)
National Commission for Nuclear Energy Bahía Blanca, Argentina; limbozzi@criba.edu.ar,
(CDTN/CNEN) Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, mavena@uns.edu.ar
2
Brazil; help@cdtn.br Departamento de Geología, Universidad
2
Department of Metallurgical and Materials Nacional del Sur, San Juan 670; (B8000ICN)
Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Bahía Blanca, Argentina; bonorino@uns.edu.ar
Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil;
olivia@demet.ufmg.br The phreatic water of the regional aquifer in
3
Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente-FEAM, the southwest of Buenos Aires province is
Av.Prudente de Morais, 1671, 30380-000,Santa the source of water for both the agricultural
Lucia, Belo Horizonte,MG, Brazil; production systems and the supply of drink-
eleonorad@feam.br
ing water of all the rural populations of the
region. Much of the water witdrawaled from
In Brazil hydrothermal gold deposits in the
the aquifer contains naturally occurring As
state of Minas Gerais, contain varying pro-
from the plio-pleistocene loessic sediments
portions of gold bearing sulfides, such as
in levels higher than WHO guideline value
arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyhrrotite. Soil and
and the Argentine national standard.
sediments around gold ore deposits and
mining areas present positive anomalies An investigation has been carried out to ex-
(median concentrations > 100 mg kg-1) and amine occurrence of arsenic and mecha-
wide ranges (<20 to 2000 mg kg-1) even in nisms of As release to groundwater at the
densely populated area. Total arsenic con- Napostá Grande drainage basin of the Sierras
centrations in soil, plants and vegetables Australes’ occidental drainage slope.
were determined by graphide furnace
Total arsenic, iron, major cations and anions
atomic absorption spectrometric (GFAAS),
were measured in water samples collected
inductively coupled plasma mass spec-
from holes and/or wells with windmills or
trometry (ICP-MS), neutron activation
submergible pumps and interstitial water
(NA), and by energy dispersive spectrome-
extracted from sediments of vadose zone
try (EDS). The ferns Pteris Vittata and Pity-
through immiscible liquids displacement
rogramma calomelanos extract arsenic from
method. Arsenic contents were determinated
the soi and translocate it onto their fronds
also in sediments, volcanic glass and cal-
showing higher arsenic concentration in the
cretes to delineate interrelationships.
leaves (from 102 to 2585 µg g-1) than in the
rhizoid (from 55 to 128 µg g-1). All vegeta- Total arsenic concentrations range between 1.5
bles from private gardens investigated pre- and 204.6 µg L-1 (mean value: 72.2 µg L-1) in
sent increased As-uptake in both their edi- groundwater, 10.7 and 375.4 µg L-1 (176.8 µg
ble and non-edible parts. Enrichments dif- L-1) in interstitial water, 3.0 and 10.0 mg L-1 (5.8
fered between species but reached elevated mg L-1) in sediments, 7.6 and 21.3 mg L-1 (14.0
values. mg L-1) in calcrete, and between 2.2 and 5.0 mg
L-1 (3.2 mg L-1) in volcanic glass. Among the
investigated groundwater samples, 90% exceed
the WHO guidelines value at full length of the
basin, including the upper basin.
44

Very weak correlations with iron contents sediments of Ilopango lake have been sampled
suggest that redox processes containing and analyzed for main cations and heavy met-
iron and arsenic are not dominant mecha- als, especially B and As. For the waters, B con-
nism controlling As release to groundwater. centrations range from 1.5 to 8.7 mg L-1 and
Instead, arsenic groundwater correlates As concentrations from 0.15 to 0.77 mg L-1,
positively with alkalinity, so that bicarbon- with the higher values to the South and lower
ate leaching could be the main mechanism values close to Cerros Quemados Islands (at
to mobilize arsenic in a loessic aquifer. the lake center), where the last volcanic activ-
ity happened in 1880. In comparison, the As
concentrations in the sediments was high at
49. Volcanic pollution of Arsenic and Cerros Quemados (86 mg kg-1 sediment),
Boron at Ilopango Lake, El Salvador which also has the lowest concentration of or-
D.L. López1, L. Ransom1, J. Monterrosa2, T. ganic matter. The sediment sample collected
Soriano3, F. Barahona3, J. Bundschuh4 close to the confluence of Rio Chaguite show
high concentrations of B, As, and Li (3.4 g kg-1,
Department of Geological Sciences, Ohio Uni-
103 and 55 mg kg-1 of sediment respectively)
versity, Athens, Ohio 45701, USA;
lopezd@ohiou.edu
as well as other heavy metals. These results
1 suggest that two sources of As and other heavy
Fundacion de Amigos del Lago de Ilopango,
San Salvador, El Salvador, Central America metals can be identified for Ilopango waters.
2 One is the internal sediments of the lake that
Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias
y Humanidades, Universidad de El Salvador contain the volcanic products of the last erup-
3, 4
International Technical Cooperation Pro-
tions of this caldera and are rich in As and B,
gram, CIM (GTZ/BA), Frankfurt, Germany; and the other is the material transported to the
jochenbundschuh@yahoo.com lake by the Chaguite River. Leaching and ero-
3
Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), sion from the volcanic deposits of the lake
UEN, PySA, Apartado Postal 10032, 1000 San basin as well as possible anthropogenic inputs
José, Costa Rica could be the sources for the river loads. The
ash of the last calderic eruption of Ilopango
Ilopango lake in central El Salvador, Cen- (about 2000 years ago) cover all El Salvador
tral America, has an area of 184.9 km2 and and part of Central America and could be the
maximum depth of 240 m. source of As contamination for other aquifers.
More than 300,000 inhabitants live in the
drainage basin of the lake and use its water 50. The use of synchrotron-based micro-
even when high concentrations of B and As X-ray techniques to determine arsenic
make this water unsuitable for human con- speciation in contaminated soils
sumption. High deforestation, fertilization,
and industrialization in the lake basin con- Jorge Luis López-Zepeda1, Mario Villalobos1,
tribute to the environmental degradation of Matthew Marcus2, Margarita Gutiérrez-Ruiz1,
and Francisco Martín Romero1
Ilopango. The lake has seasonal stratification.
1
Between November and March the lake Grupo de Bio-Geoquímica Ambiental, LAFQA,
shows almost isothermal and oxygenated Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, 04510, D.F.,
conditions. High wind velocities and slightly México; jllz@servidor.unam.mx
2
lower air temperatures during this time of the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory, MS 2R0222, Berkeley,
year produce convective water movement
California, 94720-8199 USA
and mixing of the water column. In compari-
son, from March to November, high air tem-
Molecular-scale speciation of environmen-
peratures and low wind velocities produce a
tally relevant trace elements in soils is of
mild thermal stratification. The water and
utmost importance to understand their bio-
45

geochemical behavior, including prediction interatomic distances to 0.03 Å, and nature


of their mobility and fate in the environ- and number of neighbors in first few atomic
ment. In the case of arsenic, extensive shells surrounding the element of interest.
evidence exists on the commanding role of The data obtained through simultaneous
iron oxides in the regulation of arsenic mo- processing of adequate arsenic standards
bility in aqueous environments, such as provided structural information on the corre-
soils, through mechanisms that range from lation and involvement of other metal
adsorption to precipitation. Recently, the cations such as Fe, Pb, and Zn, in the immo-
involvement of other trace metals in co- bilization processes of arsenic in soils. The
precipitation processes of arsenic is under latter include formation of adsorbed species
investigation. and surface precipitates on mineral oxides
surfaces.
Mining and mineral processing activities
alter the natural stability of arsenic mainly
via oxidation, rendering wastes containing 51. Effect of Irrigation with Wastewater
arsenic species that are more mobile than on Arsenic Concentration in Soils and
the originally reduced counterparts. Never- Selected Crops of Irrigation District 03,
theless, we have found a greatly reduced Hidalgo State, Mexico
mobility of oxidized arsenic in soils con-
taminated by these kinds of wastes com- C. A Lucho-Constantino1,2, L.M. Del Razo3, R.I.
pared to that in the original wastes, in three Beltrán-Hernández,4, I.Sastre-Conde5, M. Ce-
different areas of México, regardless of brián3, F. Prieto-García4, H.M. Poggi-Varaldo1
1
their specific origin: Real de Ángeles, CINVESTAV del IPN, Dept. Biotechnology and
Zacatecas, contaminated by mine tailings Bioengineering, Environmental Biotechnology
from mining of Pb, Ag y Zn ores; San Luis R&D Group, P.O.Box 14-740, México D.F.,
Potosí, capital of the state with the same 07000, México; hectorpoggi2001@yahoo.com
2
name, near Cu, As and Pb refinement UTTT, Tepeji del Río, Hgo. México
3
CINVESTAV del IPN, Section of Toxicology,
plants; and Monterrey, Nuevo León, sur-
México D.F., México
rounding a Pb smelting plant where cal- 4
UAEH, Chemistry Research Centre, Pachuca,
cium arsenate wastes were generated. Hgo, México
5
The present work reports the kind of infor- Conselleria d’Agricultura i Pesca, Government
mation provided, and procedures followed of Islas Baleares, Palma de Mallorca, Islas
Baleares, Spain
to determine the molecular-scale speciation
of arsenic in heterogeneous soil samples,
The accumulation and distribution of arse-
by using micro-X-ray techniques from syn-
nic, boron, selected heavy metals and several
chrotron sources, including µ-XRF (X-ray
major elements in 31 agricultural soils of the
fluorescence), µ-XRD (X-ray diffraction),
District 03 (DR03) in the State of Hidalgo,
and µ-XAS (X-ray absorption spectros-
Mexico, irrigated with raw wastewater for 0
copy). Suitable soil samples with high total
to 90 years, was evaluated. Also, four con-
arsenic contents, but low aqueous arsenic
trol soils (rainfed) were analyzed. Samples
levels were processed at the Advanced
of topsoils (0-30 cm depth) were extracted
Light Source of the Lawrence Berkeley
using a modified Tessier method. As a com-
National Laboratory, in California, USA.
plementary study, arsenic and heavy metal
Synchrotron facilities provide extremely
concentrations were determined in selected
bright X-rays obtained from circular mo-
crops harvested in soils of DR03.
tions of electrons accelerated to near speeds
of light. These X-rays allow structural de- Total concentrations of the species tested fell
terminations of trace element local envi- in the following ranges: 10- 9009 mg K kg-1,
ronments to very accurate levels, including 144 – 1002 mg Na kg-1; 9.3 – 123.8 mg B
46

kg-1, 0.06 – 5.6 mg Cd kg-1, 7.63 – 256.6 tify the implementation and enforcement of
mg Cr kg-1, 4.0 – 660 mg Pb kg-1. The con- crop restriction regulations in some soils.
centrations of As were below the detection
level of the method (0.03 mg kg-1) in all
soils, whereas soils S3 (Ixmiquilpan1), S4 52. Identification of arsenic tolerant
(Ixmiquilpan2), S11 (Rosario) and S18 plants in the mining district of Villa de la
(San Juan Tepa) showed Hg contents above Paz, S.L.P.
the detection level of the method, with val- B.P. Machado-Estrada1, J. Calderón-Hernández2,
ues 0.77, 0.03, 5.59, and 3.15 mg kg-1. The L. Carrizalez-Yañez2, J.A.Reyes Agüero3, R.
concentrations of total Cd, and Cr were Briones-Gallardo1
generally below the maximum permissible 1
Facultad de Ingeniería, Instituto de Metalurgia,
levels set by the regulations of the Euro- U.A.S.L.P., San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., México;
pean Union. By contrast, cadmium and lead briones@uaslp.mx
2
in several soils were in the middle to the Laboratorio de toxicología ambiental, Facultad
high side of European Union maximum de Medicina, U.A.S.L.P., San Luis Potosí.
ranges. Moreover, contents of Pb in the México
3
Instituto de Investigaciones de Zonas Desérticas,
most mobile fractions (soluble and ex-
U.A.S.L.P, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P., México
changeable) were significant in a range
between 3 to 28%. This distribution trans- The identification of native plants that are
lates into concentrations of soluble plus both tolerant to arsenic and phytocumulator
exchangeable lead around 2 mg Pb kg-1 or of arsenic is of main importance in remedia-
higher in several soils, significantly supe- tion and restoration of soils impacted by
rior to the Swiss tolerance limit of 1.0 mg mining activity. This work shows the results
Pb kg-1 for mobile fractions of lead in soils. obtained after the analysis of nine physiog-
Contents of arsenic in alfalfa (Medicago nomical predominant plants in the mining
sativo) ranged between 0.003 to 0.09 mg district of Villa de la Paz-San Luis Potosí,
kg-1, depending on the soil and the part of Mexico. All plants were identified taxo-
the plant (i.e., stem, leaves) whereas As nomically Five sampling areas were defined
concentrations in nopal (Opuntia robusta) by isoconcentration maps of arsenic (Razo,
were up to 0.54 mg kg-1 for irrigated soils. 2004). Total arsenic concentrations in the
By contrast, As content in nopal grown in sampling areas are in the range of 10 µg.g-1S
control soils (rainfed) was in the range to 10224 µg.g-1S. Total arsenic concentration
between detection level to 0.003 mg kg-1. measurements in dry biomass (DB) were the
Yet, lead concentration in alfalfa and nopal result of the sum of independent arsenic
reached values as high as 30 - 46 mg kg-1, concentration analysis in different sections
whereas the corresponding levels in nopal of the plant (root, stem and leaves). Total
harvested in control soils was 0.04 mg kg-1. digestion of plants was performed using both
It seems that long term irrigation with the hotplate method and total soil digestion
wastewater of agricultural soils in Irrigation by the microwaveoven method.
District 03 of Mexico does not pose an Arsenic was determined using a flow injec-
immediate risk from the standpoint of arse- tion analysis system (FIAS) coupled to an
nic accumulation in soils and crops, al- atomic absorption spectroscopy system
though lead contents in several soils, alfalfa (AAS). Sampling areas with a concentration
and nopal seem to be of concern. Further of up to 10224 µg.g-1S of arsenic, showed
monitoring and research are required to that accumulated concentration in Solidago
have a more complete assessment, although scabrida biomass (330 µg.g-1DB) was 3.5
it seems that lead accumulation would jus- times higher than accumulation in Viguiera
47

dentata (95 µg.g-1DB) and Brickellia ve- cently underground sources of water have been
ronicifolia (90 µg.g-1DB) and 4.7 times located with approximate arsenic contents of
higher than in Flaveria appositifolia (70 µg 120 µg L-1, which is approximately a magni-
g-1DB). Also, it was observed that the accu- tude order higher than the maximum value
mulation of arsenic in root on Solidago admissible for drinking water (<10 µg L-1).
scabrida was of 89%; Viguiera dentata
Exist important methods for removal As
accumulated 82% of As in leaves; Brickelia
from drinking water, but one of the more
veronicifolia accumulated 56% and 36% of
promising methods of total As removal from
As in leaves and root, respectively; while
drinking water is the electrocoagulation (EC)
Flaveria appositifolia accumulated 49% and
method due to several advantages that pre-
48% of As in leaves and root, respectively.
sents respect with other conventional meth-
For Brickellia veroncifolia a linear relation-
ods as for example, it does not requires addi-
ship was observed between the arsenic
tion of chemical reagents and produces very
concentrations in biomass and the total
small amount of sludge. In natural ground-
arsenic concentration in soil.
water, inorganic soluble As is normally pre-
The results suggest that the mechanisms of sent in oxidation states 5+ (As(V)) and 3+
arsenic accumulation in all plants analyzed (As(III)) (2). As(V) species (H2AsO4- and
are different. These differences can be at- HAsO42-) are the most easily removed by
tributed to several factors: physicochemical any method because of their ionic nature.
processes or biological mobilization at the The opposite case found for As(III) species
rhizosphere of the plant; possible symbiotic (predominantly H3AsO3) which are difficult
associations; exposure to the biological to remove. However, generally is assumed
surface; and local physical processes (e.g., that small amounts of As(III) are present
atmospheric mineral dispersion). This work along with As(V) in groundwater
shows the importance of defining the arse-
This study compares the total arsenic re-
nic distribution in different sections of the
plant as a selection criterion for the poten- moval from contaminated (120 µg As L-1)
tial use of such plant for remediation treat- groundwater degree by EC using five differ-
ment. ent currents densities. The experiments were
carried out using iron electrodes in gal-
vanostatic conditions for 1 hour and five
53. Effect of current density in the arse- current densities, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6 and 12 mA
nic removal by electrocoagulation from cm-2 at constant temperature (30°C). The
groundwater results have shown that As content was re-
moved reaching values lower than 10 µg L-1
A. Maldonado Reyes1, C. Montero at the end of the EC process when the cur-
Ocampo1
rent was greater than 4.5 mA cm-2, that can
1
CINVESTAV. U. Saltillo, P.O. Box 663, be explain as follow: when the current in-
Saltillo Coah, México 25000; creases, the amount of iron dissolved also
araceli.maldonado@cinvestav.edu.mx increases and therefore the insoluble iron
species which form complexes with the ars-
Elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) are enates present in the underground water are
found in groundwater in many regions of the also increased. This evidence that the ratio
world due the anthropogenic activities and Fe/As is very important in the As removal by
natural process. Arsenic drinking water con- this EC process, its means that when the iron
tamination occurs is a world wide concern dissolves anodically increase, the As total
because millions of people may be affected in removal by this EC process is also increased.
several. In the central part of northern of
México this problem is severe because re-
48

54. Long-term environmental impact of face sources explained the partially high As-
As-dispersion in Minas Gerais, Brazil load particularly in children of the area (up
Jörg Matschullat1, Eleonora M. Deschamps2,
to 60 µg As L-1 urine). This load was suc-
Thomas Gabrio3, Nilton de Oliveira4, Kirstin cessfully lowered over the past few years,
Raßbach1, Marcelo José de Oliveira Vilhena5, although the exposure of some families
Ursula Weidner3 could not be improved. The complex evalua-
1 tion of all environmental compartments and
Interdisciplinary Environmental Research
Center, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Brenn-
their interactions allows for a thorough un-
hausgasse 14, D-09599 Freiberg, Germany; derstanding of the dominating processes and
joerg.matschullat@ioez.tu-freiberg.de As-pathways. Thus, a detailed risk assess-
2
Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente ment is possible and, following the results,
(FEAM), Avenida Prudente de Morais 1671, additional action to improve the situation is
CEP 30380-000 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, being suggested.
Brazil
3
Landesgesundheitsamt Baden-Württemberg,
Department of Toxicology, Widerholdstr. 15, 55. High level of arsenic in children’s hair
D-70174 Stuttgart, Germany from communities exposed to well water
4
Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED), Instituto contaminated with arsenic despite its lim-
Octávio Magalhaes, Rua Conde Pereira
Carneiro 80, CEP 30510-010 Belo Horizonte,
ited use as drinking water
Minas Gerais, Brazil Rebeca Monroy-Torresa, Alejandro E. Macíasa,
5
Companhia de Saneamento de Minas Gerais Juan Carlos Gallaga–Solorzanob, Enrique Javier
(COPASA), Br 356, km 4, Trevo de Nova Santiago-García, Isabel Hernández-Ramosa
Lima, Bairrio Belvedere, CEP 31950-640 Belo a
Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil University of Guanajuato School of Medicine at
León, Mexico
b
State Public Health Laboratory, Guanajuato,
To answer the question whether up to 250 Mexico
years of continual gold mining, and related
activities in parts of the Iron Quadrangle, Objective: To know the level of arsenic
Brazil, have lead to arsenic-pollution prob- absorption in children chronically exposed to
lems, a comprehensive research project was contaminated well water.
launched in1998. Within this project, air,
soils, surface and groundwater, suspended Design: Cross sectional study to compare
particulates and fresh, unconsolidated sedi- arsenic level in hair of children exposed and
ments were sampled and investigated to- unexposed to contaminated well water.
gether with home-grown vegetables, human Subjects/setting: We recruited school chil-
urine and hair, and private water supplies. dren with at least two years of residency in
All sampling, sample processing and ana- four rural communities in Guanajuato,
lytical work has been done until today by México on 2004; two villages had arsenic
the same people with the same methods contaminated well water.
applying strict quality control measures.
Main outcome measure: Arsenic in hair
Elevated to very high soil As-concen- measured by hydride generation atomic ab-
trations (50–1000 mg As kg-1) in living sorption spectrophotometry.
quarters, and extremely high (percentage
range) As-values on derelict industrial sites, Statistical analyses performed: Chi square,
including old tailings surfaces characterize Fisher’s exact test, t test or Wilcoxon, used
the areas. Soil dust, As-enriched vegeta- as appropriate.
bles, and partly As-contaminated water Results: Overall, 110 children 10 years old
from private wells and unauthorized sur- on average (range 7-14) were included; half
49

were males. Neither age, sex, nutritional Este acuífero está constituido por una ho-
status nor total water consumption were mogénea y potente secuencia de areniscas
different between exposed and unexposed silíceas (cuarzoarenitas), localmente pueden
groups. Among 55 exposed children, mean observarse en contadas ocasiones alguna
arsenic level on hair was 1.3 mg kg-1 (range intercalación de lutitas rojas, muy compactas
<0.006 - 5.9); 49 had abnormal levels y de escasa potencia. Los componentes prin-
(>0.05 mg/kg) and only six had undetect- cipales son granos de cuarzo monocristalino,
able values. All unexposed children had aunque también se observan otros cuarzos
undetectable arsenic levels on hair. Cate- policristalinos y algunas láminas de mica.
gorical analysis showed a statistical rela- También se ha reconocido la presencia de
tionship between the high level of arsenic feldespato potásico, moscovita, turmalina,
in water and hair (p< 0.0001). However, circón y óxidos de hierro. La matriz es
compared to unexposed children, exposed clorítica y procede de la alteración de micas,
kids drank with less frequency well water sobre todo biotita, proceso en el que se libera
at school (3.6% vs. 58.2%, p < 0.0001) or hierro ferroso que es posteriormente oxidado
at home (7.3% vs. 38.1%, p < 0.0001). y fijado como cemento o matriz, y es el que
de el color rojizo característicos de estas
Conclusion: The use of contaminated well
rocas.
water to cook or for agricultural purposes
may play an important role in chronic La permeabilidad del acuífero es debida a la
population exposition to arsenic. fisuración, la cual presenta diversos grados
de intensidad y penetración que ha dado
Application: Analyses of local practices
lugar a que no toda esta formación conforme
that enhance the exposure might help un-
un acuífero y que exista una alta comparti-
derstand and limit the problem.
mentación. En cuanto a la hidroquímica, se
trata de aguas bicarbonatadas cálcico-
56. Presencia de arsénico en areniscas: magnésicas.
Caso de estudio en un acuífero del Últimamente, y debido a los cambios en la
Mediterráneo Español normativa sobre calidad del agua de con-
I. Morell1, M.V. Esteller2, E. Giménez3 sumo humano que ha fijado un limite de 10
1
µg L-1 para el As, se ha prestado especial
Departamento de Ciencias Experimentales - atención a la presencia de este elemento en
Universitat Jaume I de Castellón, España;
las aguas, habiéndose detectado concentra-
morell@exp.uji.es
2
CIRA - Universidad Autónoma del Estado de
ciones de hasta 14 µg L-1. Por otro lado, altas
México, México; esteller@uaemex.mx concentraciones Fe (830 µg L-1) y Mn (25 µg
3
Universidad Católica de Ávila, España; L-1) también han sido detectadas en algunos
elena.gimenez@ucavila.es pozos aunque en otros pozos con As, la con-
centración de estos elementos es minima.
El acuífero de areniscas del Buntsandstein Otro dato a tener encuenta es que la concen-
(Triásico) es una fuente de abastecimiento tración de As ha aumentado con el tiempo,
de agua potable para varias poblaciones de pasando de concentraciones inferiores a 2 µg
la costa del Mediterráneo, en concreto de L-1 hasta de más de 10 µg L-1, en unos 3
las provincias de Castellón y Valencia. La años.
explotación de este acuífero se inicio de- Para establecer cual es el origen de este
bido a los problemas de calidad (presencia arsénico se está planteando dos hipótesis: la
de nitratos y salinización) que presentan los oxidación de pirita (cuya presencia ha sido
acuíferos costeros detríticos. detectada) por la entrada de oxigeno atmos-
férico originada por el descenso de los nive-
50

les piezométricos de la zona (la oxidación tent 1080 mg L-1), but in more saline waters
del sulfuro podría liberar el As contenido sulphate and chloride contents are high. So-
en él) y/o la desorción de As que esté fijado dium mainly results from the dissolution of
en los óxidos de Fe. sodium plagioclase and is concentrated by
evaporation. Bicarbonate concentrations are
high, the same as the pH values that vary
57. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic in from 7.2 to 8.6. High nitrate contents are
groundwaters from Burruyacú basin, restricted to shallow groundwaters (maxi-
Tucumán province, Argentina mum 64.8 mg L-1) and lower values, in deep
H. B. Nicolli1,2, A. Tineo1, C. M. Falcón, J. W. aquifers. The highest contents result from
García1, M. H. Merino1, M. C. Etchichury1, M S agricultural pollution.
Alonso and O. R. Tofalo Trace-element contents in groundwaters
1
Instituto de Geoquı´mica, Av. Mitre 3100, from Burruyacú basin exhibit a high vari-
1663 San Miguel, Provincia de Buenos Aires, ability with an observed range of 15.8-1610
2
Argentina µg L-1 in shallow groundwaters. Fluorine
Consejo Nacional de Investigationes variation range is also high (149-8740 µg L-1).
Cientı´fı´cas y Te´cnicas (CONICET), Buenos Arsenic correlates positively with several
Aires, Argentina
other trace elements that also reach a high
hbnicolli@fullzero.com.ar
concentration: vanadium contents reach up
The Burrucayú basin (2700 km2 area) in the to 1090 µg L-1; uranium, up to 155 µg L-1;
Eastern Plain, Tucumán Province, Argen- boron, up to 6740 µg L-1; molybdenum, up to
tina, has been filled by loess deposits from 90.1 µg L-1 and antimony, up to 0.46 µg L-1
Tertiary and Quaternary ages and substan- in shallow groundwaters.
tially reworked by fluvial and aeolian proc- There is no regional trend in the distribution
esses. Three well-differentiated hydrologi- of trace elements, and local phenomena play
cal environments have been defined: 1) a a fundamental role: geomorphological fac-
lower hydraulic system (below a 200 m tors (small slope variations) influence the
depth) in Tertiary quartzose sands with flow velocity of the waters as well as the
thermal anomalies (up to 40ºC); 2) a middle variations in the composition of the host
hydraulic system in Quaternary reservoirs sediments. The trace elements are strongly
in alluvial fans with confined levels; and 3) concentrated in materials of volcanic origin,
an upper hydraulic system (between 10 and the Quaternary loess being their source. The
40 m depth) corresponds to a low perme- main components are feldspars, quartz and
ability unconfined aquifer made up of silty- volcanic glass shards, with minor amounts of
clayey sediments. This groundwater is used muscovite, calcite and lithic fragments, with
by the local rural population. opal and chalcedony. Heavy minerals (<5%)
Groundwaters have a highly variable are pyroxene and amphibole, with minor
chemical composition. Their salinity pre- amounts of epidote and biotite, and scarce
sents a wide range of variation (TDS from zircon. The clay minerals have a low degree
451 to 4830 mg L-1). Major ion composi- of crystallinity and illite prevails over smec-
tion is controlled by the reaction of the tites and interstratified illite-montmoril-
silicate minerals and by the carbonate equi- lonite.
librium. Most groundwaters are hard or Sorption processes of arsenic and other trace
very hard (hardness ranges up to 1130 mg elements onto Al and Fe oxide and oxi-
L-1 CaCO3). Sodium is the dominant cation hydroxide surfaces tend to restrict the mobil-
(maximum content 1040 mg L-1) and bicar- ity of those trace elements and consequently
bonate the dominant anion (maximum con- control their distribution in groundwaters.
51

However, sorption processes are limited in tion of health, which were later used to study
waters with high pH values and high bicar- the results. Approximately 700 samples were
bonate contents. Under such conditions, collected and were analyzed through atomic
desorption processes may occur, increasing absorption spectrometry with hydrite genera-
their mobility and trace-element contents in tion. The results were corrected by the
shallow groundwaters. creatinine, correlated with the answers of the
questionnaires, and it was evident that the
arsenic content of the urine samples in-
58. Evaluation of the human contamina- creased with the arsenic enrichment in the
tion by arsenic in the municipal district different environmental compartments.
of Santa Bárbara, MG, Brazil
Nilton de Oliveira Couto e Silva1, Clélia
Aparecida Rocha1, Tatiana Vieira Alves1, 59. Factores de transferencia (FT) suelo-
Eleonora Deschamps2, Sandra Maria Oberdá2 hojas de As en Prunus persica L. modifi-
1 caciones por la aplicación de sulfato de
Laboratório de Contaminantes Metálicos,
hierro monohidratado (SFM)
Divisão de Vigilância Sanitária, Instituto
b
Octávio Magalhães, Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Orihuela, DL. aHernández, J.C.; bPérez-
Rua Conde Pereira Carneiro, 80, CEP: 30510- Mohedano, S. bMarijuan, L.
010, Gameleira, Belo Horizonte,MG, Brazil; a
Escuela Politécnica Superior La Rábida. Univer-
niltoncs@funed.mg.gov.br
2 sidad de Huelva. Huelva. España; bHUNTS-
Fundação Estadual do Meio Ambiente-FEAM,
MAN-Tioxide. Madrid. España; orihuela@uhu.es
Av. Prudente de Morais,1671,
CEP: 30380-000, Santa Lucia, Belo Horizonte,
MG, Brazil; eleonorad@feam.br La cantidad de un elemento que la planta es
capaz de absorber de un suelo ha sido objeto
Santa Bárbara, located in the Iron Quad- de numerosos estudios científicos. El Factor
rangle, is rich in iron ore and hydrothermal de Transferencia (FT) se define, conceptual-
gold deposits, which contains several sul- mente, en la literatura científica, como la
fides as principal accompanying minerals, relación entre la concentración en la planta,
among them the arsenopyrite (FeAsS), o en un órgano de ella, de un elemento de-
principal mineral arsenic bearer. With the terminado y la concentración de ese ele-
intense activity of gold mining in the area, mento en el suelo. Esta definición desde una
the arsenic minerals are liberated to the óptica matemática sería un modelo lineal
external compartments, contaminating the muy simplista. Los modelos matemáticos
waters, soils and sediments. The objective que expresan los datos experimentales del
of this research was the evaluation of the Factor Transferencia (FT) serán, por lo
contamination of the local population by general, más complicados, pero siempre
the arsenic and the identification of the tienen la notable ventaja de ayudar a
main sources of contamination. Five places entender parte del proceso de traslocación de
of the area were studied between 2002 to los elementos nutritivos desde los suelos a
2005: Barra Feliz, Brumal, Sumidouro, las plantas cuantitativa y temporalmente.
Santana do Morro and "Rua do Carrapato", El objeto de este trabajo es estudiar en un
occasion when 6 campaigns were carried cultivo de melocotones, Prunus persica L.
out by collecting samples of the residents’ los FT del As cuando la solubilidad del suelo
urine, mainly the children, who were the se altera por un proceso de corrección de pH.
most affected. During the collecting time Concluimos que los modelos de transfe-
the participants were invited to answer an rencia de As expresados por el valor de FT
epidemic questionnaire containing informa- desde suelos calizos hacia las hojas en cul-
tion about the lifestyle, feeding and situa- tivos de melocotón (Prunus persica L.) son
52

2
por lo general modelos lineales y casi hori- Department of Biophysics, Instituto de Fisi-
zontales expresando el hecho de que las ología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma
concentraciones de este elemento en hojas de México, México
3
son independientes de las concentraciones Section of Environmental Toxicology, CIN-
VESTAV, IPN, Mexico City, México
en el suelo, y que las alteraciones del pH
modifica escasamente los valores de FT.
Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease with
genetic and environmental risk factors.
60. Desarrollo de un sistema de Chronic arsenic exposure by drinking water
información geográfica para el has been epidemiologically associated with
municipio de Zimapán Hidalgo, México with type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs) in calpain-10 gene
E. Ortiz1, I. Reséndiz1, E. Ramírez1, M.A. Ar- have been associated with type 2 diabetes in
mienta2, V. Mugica1 some populations. Calpain-10 is member of
1
Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana- the family of calcium-dependent nonlyso-
Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col Rey- somal cystein protease and plays an impor-
2
noza, México D.F. 02200 tant role in insulin secretion by pancreatic β
Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM, México 04510 D.F. cells. The capacity of arsenic to alter calcium
currents and intracellular concentrations has
En este trabajo se desarrolla la metodología been shown. This modification of calcium by
para el diseño de un sistema de información arsenic could lead to alterations in calpains
geográfica que permita la identificación de activity inducing a diabetogenic effect. In the
sitios y fuentes potenciales de contami- present study we analyzed the interaction
nación de agua y aire en el municipio de between calpains and sodium arsenite. Non
Zimapán Hidalgo. En el sistema se incluye cytotoxic sodium arsenite dosis in a sub-
a nivel AGEB: Ubicación geográfica de la cronic exposure model were used to evaluate
zona de estudio, uso del suelo, meteo- calpain-10 expression and functionality in
rología disponible, fuentes de abaste- RINm5F rat insulinoma cell line. Sodium
cimiento hidrológico, y desarrollo pobla- arsenite (1 µM) increases calpains activity
cional, localización de la industria, servi- by 60.3% and there was a 2.79 ± 1.02 fold-
cios urbanos y transporte. Con el fin de induction in the expression of one isoforma
diagnosticar la exposición al arsénico en
of calpain-10. Major dosis (5 µM) affected
pobladores del municipio de Zimapán, aso-
cell viability and cause morphological cell
ciándolo a las enfermedades como hi-
changes. More experiments are going to be
pocromia, hipercromia, hiperqueratosis y
realized to evaluate specific calpain-10 func-
zonas verrugosas, se incorpora información
tionality, alterations in calcium concentration
publicada en estudios previos.
and to discard the involvement of another
member of the calpain family. The modifica-
tions of calpain-10 by arsenic could contrib-
61. Sodium arsenite increases calpains ac-
tivity and induces expression of calpain-10 ute to the dysfunction of β-cells present in
type 2 diabetes.
Patricia Ostrosky-Wegman1, Andrea Díaz-
Villaseñor1, Laura Cruz3, Marcia Hiriart2 and
Mariano E. Cebrián3
1
Department of Genomic Medicine and
Environmental Toxicology, Instituto de
Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad
Nacional Autónoma de México, México;
ostrosky@servidor.unam.mx
53

62. Arsenic mobilization in aquatic sedi- Porewater and overlying water concentra-
ments of an impacted mining area, north tions of As and other chemical were ob-
central Mexico tained using dialysis samplers (peepers)
N.A. Pelallo-Martínez1, R.H. Lara-Castro2,
placed in sediments of three contaminated
M.C. Alfaro-De la Torre1, J.Castro-Larragoitia3 sites. Sediment cores were also taken at
1
those sites. Data showed that total As con-
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas; UASLP, San centrations in porewater are different from
Luis Potosí, México;
site to site ranging from 26 to 123 000 µg L-
na_pelallom@yahoo.com.mx; 1
alfaroca@uaslp.mx
. However, concentration profiles suggest
2
Instituto de Metalurgia UASLP, San Luis Po- As mobilization from sediments to the water
tosí, México column associated with the sulfides dissolu-
3
Facultad de Ingeniería/Instituto de Geología; tion or the sulfate/sulfide redox process. The
UASLP, San Luis Potosí, México; concentrations of total dissolved As change
gcastro@uaslp.mx among the sites probably related to the pol-
lution source or sources but this relationship
The presence of arsenic in groundwater has with the source has not been demonstrated.
been a main environmental research topic in
Mexico for over two decades. There are well High Arsenic(III) concentrations were de-
studied sites as the Lagunera Region near the termined in two sediment and water sam-
city of Torreon on the north central zone and pling sites. Sediment and porewater concen-
Zimapan in the central State of Hidalgo. In tration profiles of As suggest mobilization
those places, concentrations from 8 to 1112 from the solid phase followed by diffusion
µg L-1 As have been reported, with As(V) as from the sediment to the water column in
the predominant species. Health risk and one site. Our results suggest this mechanism
some effects in humans have been also stud- because the maximum concentration of As
ied. occurs near to the maximum of sulfides
[ΣH2S] in pore water. Decreasing concentra-
Previous studies on the mining district of tions of total As in the more recent sedi-
Villa de la Paz-Matehuala located in the ments occurs near the maximum of dissolved
semiarid Altiplano of Central Mexico re- As in porewater suggesting not only that As
ported polluted soils, and aquatic systems is lost to the water column but also that the
and associated them to the dispersion of emission of this chemical has probably de-
historical and active tailings impound- creased in the last years.
ments, waste rock dumps and historical
refining activities. Arsenic was identified as
the most important pollutant at this site and 63. High arsenic in drinking water of
reported concentrations in groundwater dairy cattles in Cordoba, Argentina and
exceed more than 100 times the Mexican its transfer to milk
Drinking Water Standard.
Alejo Pérez-Carrera, Carlos Moscuzza and Alicia
Our work focuses in elucidating the mecha- Fernández-Cirelli
nism of arsenic mobilization between sedi- Centro de Estudios Transdisciplinarios del Agua.
ments and groundwater in sites (dug wells, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad
springs and channels) where residues of de Buenos Aires. Av Chorroarín 280 (C1427
mining and smelting activities may have CWO). Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires,
polluted the groundwater. The results may Argentina; ceta@fvet.uba.ar
conduct to information about the source or
sources of pollution. The Chaco Pampean Plain of central Argen-
tina constitutes one of the largest regions of
high arsenic groundwaters known, covering
54

around 1x106 km2. The high-As groundwa- where medium size (100-120 dairy cows)
ters derive from Quaternary loess deposits and two were small (10-20 dairy cows). One
(mainly silt) with intermixed rhyolitic or medium size stablishment with As water
dacitic volcanic ash. One of the most af- concentration of 0.04 mg L-1 was also se-
fected region is the province of Cordoba, lected for comparison. If As water content is
where As concentrations that exceed the considered as the only exposure dosis of As
maximum level of 50 µg L-1 for drinking to milk, assuming steady state conditions, a
water have been reported. The southeast of biotransfer factor (BTF) may be calculated
Cordoba is an important milk production as: concentration of As in milk (mg L-1) /
zone in Argentina, where dairy products daily animal intake of As (mg day-1). The
consumption is up to 192 equivalent milk values obtained ranged from 5.2 x 10-5 to 1.8
L/inhabitant/ year. As an excretion of the x 10-4. No significant differences were found
mammary gland, milk can carry numerous between the five farms analyzed, where food
xenobiotic substances, which constitute a is the same in all cases and one of them has
technological risk factor for dairy products very low As water content.
and above all for the health of the con-
Although As transfer to milk is a complex
sumer. Nevertheless no studies on the inci-
process, the fact that a BTF may be esti-
dence of high-As livestock drinking water
mated through As water contribution rein-
in livestock health and its transfer to milk
force the importance of dairy cattle drinking
have been performed in Argentina.
water quality not only from a productive
The aim of the present study was the de- point of view but also because of its inci-
termination of arsenic content in livestock dence in the agricultural food chain.
drinking water and milk from dairy farms
located in an area of high arsenic ground-
waters, to analyse the relation between As 64. Arsenic in Argentina groundwater:
uptake through water and its transfer to need to develop methodologies to define
milk. Groundwater is the main source of problems and arrive to actual solutions
livestock drinking water. In 54% of the J. Pflüger1, S.S. Farías2, J. Bundschuh4, M. E.
analysed wells, the phreatic water was Garcia3
found between 3 and 8 m, with extreme 1
Ente Nacional de Obras Hídricas de
depths of 2 and 15 m, while the remaining
Saneamiento. Av. L. N. Alem 628 pisos
wells range in depth from around 80 to 150 10/11/12/13. Capital Federal. Buenos Aires.
m (deep wells). Arsenic concentration in all Argentina; pfluger@enohsa.gov.ar
phreatic water samples was over the sug- 2
Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Centro
gested level for occurrence of chronic in- Atómico Constituyentes. Av. Gral. Paz. 1499
toxication in cattle (0.15 mg L-1) and 53% of (1650). San Martín. Provincia de Buenos Aires.
them showed higher values than those rec- Argentina; farias@cnea.gov.ar
ommended for livestock drinking water 3
International Technical Cooperation Program,
(0.5 µg L-1). Arsenic concentration in deep CIM (GTZ/BA), Frankfurt, Germany - Instituto
wells was under 0.15 mg L-1. As milk con- Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), UEN, PySA,
tent ranged from 2.8 to 10.5 ng g-1 for dairy Apartado Postal 10032, 1000.San José, Costa
farms using phreatic groundwater, while a Rica; jochenbundschuh@yahoo.com
4
mean value of 0.5 ng g-1 was obtained for Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas, Universi-
farms using deep wells. dad Mayor de San Andrés. P. Box 10201, La Paz,
Bolivia; maugegarcia@hotmail.com
In order to analyse the relation between As
uptake through water and its transfer to In Argentina, water quality is affected in
milk, four farms (Holstein dairy cows) more than a half of its provinces by the pres-
were selected. Two of these stablishments ence of anomalous, high contents of arsenic
55

and other toxic trace elements. This fact pensive but may be trivial compared with
was well known since the beginnings of potential health- care costs. This work also
1900, and studies developed during last mention that social concience about health
century identified that the source was in risks and consequences of environmental
most of the cases due to the natural pres- circumstances have to be developed and the
ence of these contaminants in soils and actual situation must be taken into account
their migration to aquifers through time. by authorities to achieve a final and definite
These aquifers have supplied groundwaters solution for this old problem.
to first inmigrants and nowadays provide
cities, towns and disperse rural populations
with this valuable resource all around 65. A review of suitable technologies for
Chaco-Pampean Plain and also in some treatment of waters contaminated with
Argentinian Western and North-Western arsenic in Mexico
areas. Héctor M. Poggi-Varaldo1; Carlos Lucho-
Although the situation has been thoroughly Constantino1,2; Luz María Del Razo3; Abigail
described and divulged, it has not been Pimentel1; Noemí Rinderknecht-Seijas4
1
treated in a systematic manner in the whole Cinvestav-IPN, Dept. Biotechnology and Bioen-
country. In this way, there are some coun- gineering, Environmental Biotechnology R&D
ties that develop and perform their own Group, México D.F. México
2
mitigation programs and there are some UTTT, Dept. Environmental Technology, Te-
other that disregard this situation with the peji, Hgo., Mexico
3
Cinvestav-IPN, Toxicology, México D.F.,
subsequent damage of affected population
México.4 ESIQIE-IPN, Division Basic Sciences,
health. México D.F., México
A number of Argentinian government or-
ganisations are devoted to arsenic and other In México, several regions have been identi-
toxic trace elements studies about occur- fied whose communities rely on fossil
rence and remediation; Water Resourses groundwater contaminated with inorganic
Office, Health and Environment Depart- Arsenic (iAs) for drinking water supply.
ment and Federal Planning Department can There is a pressing need for supplying
be mentioned; even though their works are treated, low iAs drinking water to hundreds
sometimes overlapped. of thousand people in our country. Then, the
objective of this review is to critically evalu-
The present work appoints to the organiza- ate the most feasible modern technologies of
tion of resources to carry out a detailed water treatment that could comply with the
analysis of the situation, through to knowl- WHO limit for As (< 10 µg L-1) and to iden-
edge of contamination levels, their geo- tify a few niches of further research and
graphic limits and localization, the state- development adapted to the needs of Mex-
ment of remediation tecnologies adequate ico.
to each particular case, fitting the budget
and cost-benefit equations. The chemical speciation of iAs is crucial for
the treatment of polluted waters. The iAs can
This survey also mention the programs that exist as tri- and pentavalent species. The
are being performed, the fulfilled invest- speciation and predominance of the species
ments and those that are going to be real- mainly depend on the pH. Arsenic removal
ized by the organisms mentioned above, in is favoured when the chemical species has
order to supply well-being to inhabitants negative charges, thus, some type of pre-
and, the need to develop innovative pro- oxidation of iAs(III) to iAs(V) is generally
jects involving new treatment strategies and required for all the available technologies.
remediation technologies that can be ex-
56

So, the fist step of treatment generally is chem hazardous sludges is cumbersome and
the preoxidation. Chlorine, hypochlorites, expensive.
ozone, permanganate, and a few patented
As a common denominator, all the currently
chemicals are recognized to be effective
available technologies are expensive for
oxidants for iAs. On the other hand, chlo-
underdeveloped countries. Moreover, very
rine dioxide, chloramines, UV light alone
often the treatment selection depends on the
are not as effective. The combined photo-
water characteristics other than that the mere
chemical oxidation consisting of UV light
iAs concentration. Our future work seems to
with sulfite seems to be a promising alter-
revolve around two axes (i) adapting the
native.
existing technologies for making them more
Traditionally, the iAs removal technologies simple and cost-effective; or (ii) to find and
can be grouped in three categories: adsorp- develop a technological breakthrough. It is
tion, membrane, and precipitation / coagu- foreseen that the most feasible niches for
lation-flocculation treatments. Several elec- short-term R&D regarding iAs removal from
tro-technologies under development seem drinking water in Mexico are: (i) develop-
to fall in the third category. The adsorption ment of patent-free, hybrid or new adsorp-
of iAs by using ionic exchange resins and tive media; (ii) optimization studies on de-
zeolites is well established. Yet, it does not sign and operation of RO for minimizing the
remove iAs(III) at the working pH; high energy and maintenance requirements; (iii)
iAs concentration can suddenly appear in development of patent-free RO membranes
the effluent; the presence of sulfate and that can work at lower pressures and are
other anions in the water can deteriorate the more resistant to fouling; (iv) coupling solar
process performance; liquid wastes are energy to RO for minimizing costs associ-
produced by regeneration of the resin; and ated to the energy of pumping; (v) last, but
poisoning and fouling of the resin lead to foremost, any strategy of supplying drinking
costly resin replacement. The adsorption water with low concentration of iAs should
using activated alumina does not remove be implemented together with effective and
arsenite; it usually requires pH pre- strong programs of water conservation and
adjustment; an aggressive liquid waste is reuse. This is the only feasible approach to a
generated in each regeneration cycle; the cost-effective, low-iAs drinking water sup-
medium has to be replaced in the mid-term ply.
due to solubilization of the alumina in the
regeneration cycles. The adsorption can be
also carried out using iron oxide media. 66. Irrigation strategy in the context of
arsenic threat in Nepal
Regarding the removal of iAs by membrane
processes, the reverse osmosis (RO) is the Bandana Pradhan
standard treatment. It can remove high Department of Community Medicine and Family
amounts of iAs(V) and considerable Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan Univer-
amounts of iAs(III) as well. However, the sity, Kathmandu Nepal;
fouling of the membranes may lead to shut- bandana@healthnet.org.np
downs and generation of liquid wastes; it is
energy-intensive because of the high pres- Arsenic contamination in groundwater and
sure pumps. the threat it poses to human health is rela-
tively new for Nepal. Groundwater is the
The processes based on precipitation and main source of drinking and irrigation water
coagulation-flocculation are increasingly for the people living in the country’s south-
becoming less favoured, since the condi- ern part called Tarai region, a contiguous
tioning-handling-and-disposal of the phys- part of the Indian Gangetic plain, where the
57

number of Arsenic risk population has in- This study intends to relate water availability
creased during the last few years. Arsenic in the Narayani irrigation command area and
studies carried out in 29,953 tube wells in the arsenic contamination in groundwater in
the Tarai region have shown that 32 percent four districts of the central Tarai region,
tube wells have Arsenic level above the based on the thorough review of the existing
WHO Guidelines (10 µg L-1) and 7 percent studies on arsenic contamination and identi-
above the Nepal interim standard (50 µg L- fies areas for better management for surface
1
). Further, about 500,000 people living in water resources through modern irrigation
the Tarai are estimated at risk of Arsenic system. The findings of the study have re-
problem. vealed that the Arsenic level is high in areas
where there is low availability of surface
The Tarai is the principal region for
irrigation water and vice versa. Though the
potential agricultural development of
analysis needs to be further verified through
Nepal, where groundwater is the most
more investigations, it is assumed that the
potential source for irrigation development.
Arsenic level can be reduced by improving
His Majesty’s Government of Nepal has
the performance of surface irrigation deliv-
recently taken significant initiatives for the
ery or less dependency on groundwater or
exploitation of groundwater in order to
adopting arsenic removal strategy.
increase the production of agricultural
crops. If irrigation is relied completely on
the groundwater, there is high chance that 67. Arsenico: Evaluación, contaminacion,
arsenic may turn out to be disastrous in the especiacion; Su incidencia ambiental en la
future. This situation needs to be taken very cuenca del Altiplano Boliviano y la ciudad
seriously and ways and means need to be de Oruro
devised to deal with the Arsenic threat in
implementing the government irrigation Jorge Quintanilla1, Ramos Oswaldo1,
strategy for agriculture intensification Medina Hugo2
through year round irrigation. 1
Instituto de Investigaciones Químicas,
From the irrigation perspective, there is no Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz,
study conducted in Nepal to explore uptake Bolivia
2
of Arsenic by different crops from irriga- Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional
tion water. Nevertheless, studies conducted (INSO-SNS), La Paz, Bolivia
elsewhere in the world demonstrate that
uptake of Arsenic by a variety of vegeta- Varios trabajos se realizaron en el Altiplano
bles and cereals that can get into the food boliviano basados principalmente en la de-
chain and ultimately affect the human terminación de los parámetros fisicoquí-
health. Scientists have argued that the micos de aguas superficiales (estado y cali-
groundwater abstraction from Arsenic-rich dad) fuentes de contaminación natural y
aquifers generates water fluctuation and antrópica. Fundamentalmente en este trabajo
also accelerates weathering process of Ar- trata del arsénico contaminante natural,
senic-rich rocks and therefore creates con- evaluación de su distribución, modelación
ducive environment for Arsenic to be re- geoquímica para determinar su naturaleza
leased and dissolved in water. If this hy- primaria y su especiación teórica.
pothesis is true, mining of groundwater in Estudios en aguas superficiales determinaron
the Tarai region of Nepal will increase the las fuentes naturales y antropogénicas como
Arsenic content and thus will worsen the medios para el aporte significativo de
existing situation. arsénico. Los estudios del Plan Piloto Oruro
(PPO, 1997) en la cuenca de los lagos
58

Poopó, han permitido establecer el origen derivadas del arsénico, que muestra pre-
de la contaminación natural de los metales dominancia en cinco especies secundarias
pesados, concluyendo que el 85% del arsé- “mayoritarias” en condiciones reales de pH,
nico transportado por el agua superficial al presión atmosférica y temperatura, cuya
lago Poopó tiene origen natural, en el in- distribución es AsO3-4 (32%), H2AsO-4
temperismo de vulcanitas del Mioceno en (22%), HAsO-4 (16.5%), As2O5 (17%),
la cuenca colectora del río Mauri y de las H3AsO-4 (6%) y otros (6.5%).
vulcanitas del Mioceno tardío/Plioceno en
Además, se cuantifico su incidencia, riesgo
la meseta de Los Frailes, en las cuencas
ambiental y humano a través del control
colectoras de los ríos Sevaruyo y Marquez.
toxicológico en la ciudad de Oruro (fundi-
La contribución de arsénico debida a las
ciones de Vinto y Peró), en el año 1993, de
minas y al procesamiento de minerales, es
201 trabajadores sometidos al control toxi-
poco significativa.
cológico de arsénico en orina, el 32% pre-
Otros estudios en la cuenca de los lagos sentaron niveles anormales de arsénico; en
Poopó y Uru Uru realizados por la Univer- 1994, 120 trabajadores fueron sometidos a
sidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA-IIQ, control médico y se detectó que el 28,5%
2004), indican que las aguas superficiales presentaban niveles anormales de arsénico y
con y sin actividad minera, en su mayoría a fines del mismo año y como seguimiento
se encuentran por encima de los límites preventivo, fueron sometidos al control 199
permisibles para cualquier consumo (50 trabajadores, habiéndose establecido que el
µg/L) y puede utilizarse para riego con 63,3% presentaban índices por encima los
restricciones, según la Ley de Medio Am- máximos permisibles para indicadores
biente de Bolivia Nº 1333, salvo alguna biológicos.
excepción como el río Huaya Pajchi (ver- A objeto de compatibilizar los valores de
tiente Huari) muestra valores que están por arsénico en orina, con muestras de arsénico
debajo de los limites permisibles para en aire, en diferentes puestos de trabajo se
cualquier uso. Los puntos ubicados en el determinó, que el 50% de las evaluaciones
lago Poopó (sur, centro y norte) y Uru Uru en higiene industrial, en las áreas de hornos
presentan valores que elevadas concentra- los índices detectados se encontraban por
ciones de arsénico que las hacen no aptas encima los máximos permisibles estable-
para ningún uso. cidos por la Conferencia de Higienistas
En general en el altiplano boliviano, las Americanos.
aguas subterráneas de las cuencas del lago
Poopó y Uru-Uru (PPO, 1997) y del salar
de Uyuni presentan poca evidencia de
cualquier contaminación relacionada con la
actividad minera. Sin embargo, en la escala
local, las concentraciones de antimonio,
arsénico y cadmio son mucho más elevadas
en los sitios impactados que en los sitios de
referencia.
Para ésta evaluación se utilizaron datos de
trabajos anteriores (Quintanilla, 1992) que
permitió realizar la modelización, usando el
modelo geoquímico CHIMERE, lo cual
permitió determinar las especies secunda-
rias y sus concentraciones al equilibrio,
59

68. Arsenic assimilation into edible intake of arsenic from the plants in the study
plants grown in homestead garden soil area was estimated to be 14.69 µg day-1.
irrigated with arsenic laden groundwater Correlation with the groundwater arsenic
I.M.M. Rahman*a, M. Nazim Uddina, M.T. status and statistical significance of varia-
Hasana, M. Helal Uddina, M.M. Hossainb and tions has also been determined.
M.A.U. Mridhac
a
Applied Research Laboratory, Department of 69. Arsenic in surface and ground waters
Chemistry, University of Chittagong, Chit-
of the Ghazipur and Ballia in the Central
tagong-4331, Bangladesh;
I.M.M.Rahman@gmail.com Gangetic Plain of Uttar Pradesh, India
b
Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sci- AL. Ramanathan1*, Prosun Bhattacharya2 ,P,
ences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong- Tripathi1 and Manish Kumar1
4331, Bangladesh. 1
c
Department of Botany, University of Chit- School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal
tagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh. Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India;
alr0400@mail.jnu.ac.in
2
KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Re-
One of the most important global environ-
search Group, Department of Land and Water
mental toxicants is arsenic whose high con- Resources Engineering, Royal Institute of Tech-
centrations in groundwater have been re- nology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
ported from many countries. The arsenic
calamity of Bangladesh is the largest In the Holocene aquifers of the Indo-Gan-
known mass poisoning in the history, with getic plains of the states of Uttar Pradesh,
approximately 35–77 million people being Bihar and Jharkhand elevated concentrations
exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking of arsenic (As) have been reported in
water. Edible vegetables, medicinal and groundwaters. The present paper reports
aromatic plants grown in arsenic contami- about the As and related contamination in
nated soil may uptake and accumulate sig- groundwater and surface water in two dis-
nificant amount of arsenic in their tissue. trict of Gangetic plain in northern India.
The plants studied during the present in- Groundwater samples and surface water
vestigation were Lablab niger (Bean), Ly- samples were collected from a 2 km stretch
copersicon esculentum (Tomato), Solanum in the flood plain of the two rivers Ganga
melongena (Brinjal), Cucurbita maxima and Ghagra river over a three year period in
(Sweet gourd), Amaranthus gangeticus Ballia and for one year in Ghazipur. The
(Red amaranth), Carica papaya (Green water samples were collected from surface,
papaya), Capsicum sp. (Chilli), Lagenaria shallow and deep aquifers and analyzed for
siceraria (Bottle gourd), Momordica cha- other hydrogeochemical parameters includ-
rantia (Bitter gourd), Mentha viridis (Mint), ing major anions and cations, and dissolved
Vigna sesquipedalis (String bean), Abel- trace elements.
moschus esculentus (Okra), Trichosanthes
dioica (Palwal), Basella alba (Indian spin- Arsenic concentration in Ballia varies from
ach). Mean arsenic concentration in the below detection limit up to as high as 80 µg
selected plants in the area studied was L-1. The concentration of As was very high
0.113 µg g-1. The minimum was found in T. in the location close to the river basin. The
dioica (0.026 µg g-1) and the maximum in concentration of As near an inland lake was
also very high. Concentration of As were
M. viridis (0.566 µg g-1) followed by V.
found to be moderate to low in the interior
sesquipedalis, Capsicum sp. (0.400, 0.200
flood plains between these two basins. The
µg g-1, respectively) while arsenic content
surface water showed high concentration
in A. esculentus, B. alba and C. papaya was
near the confluence of the two rivers. The
below detectable limit. The average dietary
60

Ghagra seems to contributing more As. The Among different types of adsorbents being
groundwater in the intermediate and deeper used for As remediation, zero-valent iron
aquifers has more As compared to As in nano particle (INP) is one of the most com-
Shallow aquifers. In the Ghazipur the it is mon because its capacity to remove both
observed that As concentration in ground As(III) and As(V) simultaneously. Providen-
water is very low in most places expect few tially, recent study shows that INP has
locations where it exceed 30 µg L-1, where shown great promise for environmental ap-
as the surface water As concentrations is plication. Due to the extremely small particle
very low. The correlation between Fe and size, large surface area, and high in-situ re-
As was low. The sulphate concentration in activity, these materials have great potential
groundwater was low as compared to sur- in a wide array of environmental applica-
face waters. These aquifers seem to be par- tions such as soil, sediment and groundwater
ticularly in risk, due to the prevailing geo- remediation. In addition, due to small size
chemical conditions in which oxidized and and capacity to remain in suspension, INP
reduced waters mix, and where the amount can be transported effectively by groundwa-
of sulphate available for microbial reduc- ter and can be injected as sub colloidal metal
tion seem to be limited. The study needs particles into contaminated soils, sediments,
further refinement and the detailed work is and aquifers.
under progress to understand the processes
In this perspective we have utilized for the
controlling the As concentration in surface
first time Environmental Iron Nano Particle
and ground waters.
(E-INP) for the remediation of As. For
which we synthesized in laboratory E-INP
70. Arsenic remediation from groundwa- and tested for the removal of As(III). We
ter by environmentally reactive iron used SEM-EDX, AFM, and XRD to charac-
nano particles terize particle size, surface morphology, and
corrosion layers formed on pristine E-INP
Sushil Raj Kanel* and Heechul Choi and As(III)-treated E-INP. AFM results
Environmental Nano Particle Laboratory, De- showed that particle size ranged from 1 to
partment of Environmental Science and Engi- 120 nm. XRD and SEM results revealed that
neering, Gwangju Institute of Science and E-INP gradually converted to magnetite /
Technology (GIST), Oryong-dong Bukgu, 500- maghemite corrosion products mixed with
712 Gwangju, The Republic of Korea; * lepidocrocite over 60 d. Arsenic(III) adsorp-
skanel@gist.ac.kr tion kinetics were rapid and occurred on a
scale of minutes following a pseudo-first-
It is well established that removal of Arse- order rate expression with observed reaction
nic (As) is the major environmental con- rate constants (kobs) of 0.07-1.3 min-1 (at
cern due to its existence in groundwater varied E-INP concentration). These values
and acute toxicity. Many different methods are about 1000?higher than kobs literature
including precipitation-coagulation, co-pre- values for As(III) adsorption on micron size
cipitation, ion exchange, electro-coagu- ZVI. Batch experiments were performed to
lation, oxidation and adsorption are being determine the feasibility of E-INP as an ad-
used for its remediation. Among them, the sorbent for As(III) treatment in groundwater
adsorption method has received more atten- as affected by initial As(III) concentration
tion due to its high efficiency and cost- and pH (pH 3-12). The maximum As(III)
effectiveness, and considered as the most adsorption capacity in batch experiments
suitable technology in the developing coun- calculated by Freundlich adsorption isotherm
tries. was 3.5 mg of As(III)/g of E-INP. Laser
light scattering (electrophoretic mobility
61

measurement) confirmed E-INP-As(III) for its harmful acute and chronic effects.
inner-sphere surface complexation. The Due to long exposer about ten to twenty
effects of competing anions showed HCO3-, years, it ultimately leads to cancer. Arsenic
H4SiO40, and H2PO42- are potential interfer- in drinking water has been detected in many
ences in the As(III) adsorption reaction. countries at concentrations greater than the
Our results suggest that E-INP is a suitable WHO guideline value of 10 µg L-1 or the
candidate for both in-situ and ex-situ prevailing national standards. These include
groundwater treatment due to its high reac- Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Chile,
tivity. China, Hungary, Mexico, Peru, the United
States of America, Thailand, Myanmar and
Nepal. Among them, the arsenic crisis in
71. Arsenic crisis in Nepal: Key issues Bangladesh has been described as one of the
and remediation worst cases of mass poisoning in the world
Prakash Raj Kannel1, Sushil Raj Kanel2, Sabina history. Arsenic occurrence in groundwater
Kanel3 in Gangetic plains of Bengal Delta Plains of
1 Bangladesh, West Bengal of India is the
Water and Remediation Research Center, Ko-
largest environmental health disaster areas of
rea Institute of Science and Technology, PO
Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650, South
the present century, where at least 50 million
Korea; prakash.kannel@gmail.com people is at risk of cancer and other arsenic
2
Department of Environmental Science and related diseases due to the consumption of
Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science high arsenic contaminated groundwater. The
and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, levels of arsenic in the groundwater on these
Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712, South Korea; areas are greater than the WHO guideline
sushi.kanel@gmail.com and have been shown to cause adverse
3
Social Welfare Council Nepal, GPO Box chronic health effects.
10907, Kathmandu, Nepal;
sanamkane1968l@hotmail.com Recently arsenic contamination of the
groundwater has been detected in Nepal
Groundwater is a significant source of above 50 µg L-1 when arsenic testing was
drinking water in many parts of the world undertaken realizing that it shares some geo-
as well-protected groundwater is safer in logical features with the Gangetic plains of
terms of microbiological quality than water India and Bangladesh. It is suspected that the
from open dug wells and ponds. Unfortu- groundwater should have been contaminated
nately, water is a universal solvent and by natural arsenic source as the districts of
hence groundwater is notoriously prone to the Terai region is the area forming the
chemical and other types of contaminations northern extension of the Indo-Gangetic
from natural sources and anthropogenic Plain and is composed of alluvial soil. In
activities. The presence of unwanted con- such context millions of Nepalese are at risk
taminants in water makes it unacceptable to from diseases caused by drinking water con-
drink for humans from both an aesthetic taminated with the poison arsenic. The prob-
and a health aspect, and can have severe lem is affecting the Terai lowlands, home to
implications for all life forms. One of the 47 percent of Nepal's 26 million people.
substances that water can dissolve is People are suffering from skin and other
chemical combination of the element “ar- serious diseases due to drinking underground
senic”. water laced with arsenic. It is estimated from
the studies that about 3.19 million people
The arsenic contamination is becoming
may have been affected by arsenic contami-
worldwide concern due to its high toxicity
nation in Nepal.
and carcinogenic effect. Arsenic has long
been known as a poison and is best known
62

To tackle arsenic problem, several mile- inorganic arsenic by the oral route have
stones have been achieved in the three noted signs or symptoms of liver injury.
years period in at the national level. One of Also, lipid vacuolation and fibrosis have
the significant achievement on this issue is been reported in rats exposed to arsenic in
the formation of National Arsenic Steering drinking water. Increased synthesis and dis-
Committee (NASC)) for better co- ruption of CK 18 cellular organization, have
ordination among the concerned agencies been induced in WRL-68 human fetal he-
which has formulated a national and a patic cell line by sodium arsenite. In this
working guideline for all interested con- work, male BALB/c mice were given orally
cerned agencies. Presently, different op- 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg-1 per day of sodium
tions are tried for arsenic removal process arsenite. CK expression was monitored in
to the affected households and communities liver after 2 and 9 days. Significant induction
of Nepal. Low cost, effective and socially of CK18 mRNA and protein synthesis were
acceptable systems are still to be investi- observed in those animals exposed to the
gated. In addition, sufficient public aware- lower doses when liver samples were exam-
ness is still to be raised about the arsenic ined by RT-PCR and Western blotting re-
hazards in Nepal. spectively. We did not observe significant
induction at the highest dose employed, sug-
gesting that arsenite is inhibiting the synthe-
72. Arsenite induces cytokeratin expres- sis of this important protein to hepatocyte
sion in mouse liver architecture. The induction of CK 18 could
P. Ramirez1, Oscar Zuñiga1, Mirna Hernández1 be considered as an early indicator of liver
Valeria Berdón3, M. Cerbon2 and M. E. Gonse- damage by arsenic. This work was partially
batt3 supported by PAPIIT IX201004 and
1 CONACYT I38967-N.
Laboratorio de Toxicología Celular, FES
Cuautitlán
2
Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Facultad
de Química, UNAM, México, DF. 73. Effects of arsenic and fluoride on the
3
Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxi- central nervous system
cología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Rocha-Amador D. O.1, Carrizales Yañez L.1,
Biomédicas, UNAM, México, DF. Morales V. R.2, Navarro C. M.E.2, Calderón H. J.1
1
Cytokeratins (CK) constitute a family of Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad
cytoskeletal intermediate filament (IF) pro- Autónoma de San Luis Potosí
2
Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad
teins that are typically expressed in epithe- Autónoma de San Luis Potosí
lial cells. In simple type epithelia such as
liver, exocrine pancreas and intestine the Million of people around the world are ex-
two major IF proteins are CK polypeptides posed to arsenic (As) and/or fluoride (F)
8 and 18. Increased levels of CK18 are through drinking water (DW). In Mexico,
observed in human liver disease such as approximately 6 million of people are ex-
primary billiary cirrhosis and in alcoholic posed to both pollutants; from these 35% are
liver disease, related to Mallory body for- children. Experimental and epidemiological
mation as a consequence of CK accumula- studies, supports the evidence that both pol-
tion. Modified synthesis and abnormal or- lutants are neurotoxic. They have the ability
ganization of these intermediate filaments to cross the blood brain barrier and to accu-
are considered indicators of liver damage. mulate in the brain. Nevertheless, one of the
The liver is also the main organ where worrisome effects is the reduction of the
many carcinogens such as arsenic are me- intelligence quotient (IQ). In the center-north
tabolized. Studies in humans exposed to
63

of Mexico the As and F levels in DW are 74. As behavior in an urban aquifer:


superior to the established values in the Chemical, geological and hydrogeological
Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM SSA1- characterization
027). We designed a cross-sectional study R. Rodriguez, E. Mata and J.A. Mejia
in children, to evaluate the effect of the
exposure to As and the F on the IQ and the Geophysics Institute, UNAM, Mexico
neurological functions in children. One- COTAS, Irapuato valle de Santiago, Mexico
hundred thirty two children from 6 to 10
years were included in the study from four Salamanca is an industrial city where a Pet-
communities with different As and F con- rochemical Plant and chemical industries are
centrations in DW: 1) Soledad de Graciano established. The urban area is crossed by the
Sánchez, San Luis Potosí, (SLP) (As 6.7 ± Lerma River. In most of 80% of the urban
1.2 µg L-1; F 0.7 ± 0.3 mg L-1); 2) Mocte- wells As was detected. The As concentra-
zuma, SLP (As 4.5 ± 1.5 µg L-1; F 1.1 ± tions are 0.01 to 0.07 mg L-1. Population is
0.01 mg L-1); 3) Salitral de Carrera, Villa been exposed to low, but constant, As con-
de Ramos, SLP (As 169.5 ± 16 µg L-1; F centrations. There are not evidences of
5.3 ± 0.18 mg L-1 and 4) 5 de Febrero, Du- health affectations.
rango (Dgo) (As 200 ± 84 µg L-1; F 9.4 ± Some urban wells are located inside the ur-
1.1 mg L-1). Two neuropsychological tests ban area, around the industrial zone. The
were applied; 1) The Weschler Intelligence high As concentrations allow the closure of
Scale revised version for Mexican children 3 wells. In 2 of them, was detected also hy-
(WISC-RM) to evaluate, the IQ (verbal, drocarbons. There is not a clear correlation
performance and full), as well as cognitive between free phase and As content in
functions (like attention, memory, visu- groundwater.
ospatial organization and language), and 2)
The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test A hydrochemical, geological and hydro-
(ROCF), to evaluate visuospatial organiza- geological characterization is been realized
tion and short term memory. As exposure in order to clarify the origin and factors that
biomarkers As and F in urine were ana- control the As mobility.
lyzed by atomic absorption spectropho- The aquifer system is composed by sedimen-
tometry. As confounding factors lead in tary and volcanic rocks, in both environ-
blood (PbS), socioeconomic status (SES) ments As was detected. The main recharge
and nutritional evaluation (anthropometric mechanism is associated to rainfall infiltra-
measurements and iron deficiency) were tions in the Guanajuato range. A regional
evaluated. After adjusting by confounding flow component was inferred to the north
factors, inverse associations between As were the As concentrations are very low.
and the F in urine and the scores of Full IQ,
The preliminary results show that fault, frac-
verbal IQ, performance IQ and the ROCF
tures and paleochannels are controlling the
were obtained. These results suggest that
As distribution in a shallow aquifer unit. The
the chronic exposure to both pollutants
origin is mainly natural but there are evi-
affects the higher brain functions in these
dences that there are also anthropogenic
children.
sources.
64

75. Arsenic in drinking water in Cór- Cordoba Province. The As-contaminated


doba Province, Argentina waters in this region are in contact with
G. Román-Ross1, G. Sacchi2, L. Charlet3, M.
loess, a thick sequence (generally around
Avena4, and C. Pauli2 200-300 m) of Tertiary and Quaternary
1
sediments. Borehole depth is highly variable
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, depending on the regional topography. In the
University of Girona, Campus de Montilivi, E-
western area, where loess deposits are ex-
17071 Girona, Spain; groman@obs.ujf-
grenoble.fr
tremely thick and groundwaters rather deep,
2
Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad it may be as deep as 140 m below ground
Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, level. In the eastern area wells are shallow,
5000 Córdoba, Argentina as groundwater level is closer to the surface,
3
LGIT-OSUG, Université Joseph Fourier, BP and wells depth is typically 10 m or less. In
53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France the major towns, groundwater is treated by
4
Departamento de Química, Universidad Na- reverse osmosis to remove dissolved salts
cional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía and As before to be delivered as drinking
Blanca, Argentina water. In the rural areas, this is not possible
and water is typically used without pre-
Arsenic in drinking water can impact hu- treatment, and is thus often arsenic-
man health and is considered one of the contaminated. We have collected and ana-
prominent environmental causes of cancer lyzed arsenic as well as V, F, U, Se, in drink-
mortality in the world. Latin America is ing water from 200 cities and villages across
among the most affected areas worldwide. Cordoba Province, during 2004. The number
As opposed to the now well studied Bang- of samples, broad geographic coverage, and
ladesh case, arsenic contaminated waters in consistency of methods produce the most
Argentina are well oxygenated waters. Ar- accurate and detailed picture of arsenic con-
senic affects mainly rural population, which centrations in drinking water for the region.
is exposed to arsenic levels of around 5.3 Maps of the contamination have been pro-
mg L-1 in the most contaminated areas. At duced to show the hotspots and the factors
present, epidemiological studies are scarce affecting the presence of arsenic (borehole
due to the lack of Cancer Registries and to depth, water treatments, etc). Most rivers and
exposure heterogeneity. In Argentina, na- streams in Córdoba province contain arsenic
tional and local governments do not have concentrations ≤1 µg L-1. Therefore, towns
the responsibility for providing safe drink- and cities that use this water as source are
ing water. Each small local water company free of As contamination. In contrast, waters
is responsible for the quality of the supplied from heavily impacted areas in the E and S
water. In addition, only few local laborato- exceed the As limit (50 µg L-1). This data
ries are able to provide quality control ar- contribute to the understanding of the status
senic analyses. The current Argentinean As and trends of arsenic concentrations in drink-
guideline has been set up equal to 50 µg L-1. ing water in Córdoba Province, and can: (1)
However, this guideline can be considered assist water managers and users in overcom-
as a temporary measure due to the increas- ing adverse health effects through avoidance
ing international efforts to lower this limit or treatment; (2) provide a basis for evaluat-
down to 10 µg L-1. The estimated costs of ing the costs of adopting a particular value
compliance with more stringent standards for a drinking-water standard; and (3) assist
are high. In this context, it is worthwhile to epidemiologists interested in evaluating the
examine the arsenic contamination on the intake of arsenic from drinking water.
basis of these different possible guidelines.
In the present study we analysed drinking
water supplied by local companies in the
65

76. Arsenic in loess and volcanic ashes of corresponding fraction represents 18% of
Cordoba Province, Argentina total arsenic in loess samples and 22% in
G. Roman-Ross1, Laurent Charlet2 and Diego
volcanic ashes. A special attention was given
Gaiero3 to Fe oxides since these minerals have been
1
cited in the literature as being the main
Dept. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Uni- source of As in Pampean aquifers. Selective
versity of Girona, Campus de Montilivi,
extractions performed on volcanic ashes and
17071 Girona, Spain; groman@obs.ujf-
grenoble.fr
loess samples show that As is mainly associ-
2
LGIT-OSUG, Université Joseph Fourier, BP ated to Fe oxides (around 60% of extracted
53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France As).
3
CIGeS- FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de These studies were complemented by incu-
Córdoba, Pabellón Geología, Avda. Velez Sars-
bation experiments to investigate As desorp-
field 1611. X5016GCA Córdoba, Argentina
tion under conditions prevailing during
The main objective of this study was to flooding periods, i.e. desorption induced
explore whether iron oxides or volcanic either by excess of bicarbonate ions or by
ashes are the main arsenic storage material reducing conditions. The quantity of As re-
in the sedimentary aquifers of the Cordoba lease in oxic waters is equal to 100 µg L-1
Province, Argentina. and increase linearly up to 300 µg L-1 in
presence of increasing bicarbonate ion con-
Loess samples were collected from two 14 centrations. Therefore, bicarbonate leaching
and 7 m thick natural outcrops. One profile is presumed to be one important mechanism
is located in the western region, and the to mobilize arsenic in bicarbonate dominated
second one in the eastern part of Cordoba oxidizing aquifer of the region.
province where groundwaters have the high-
est As concentrations. Identification and In Córdoba Province, recent variations in the
separation of volcanic ashes from loess out- hydrological budget have lead dry and wet
crops is difficult to perform and little intervals that resulted in distinctive fluctua-
amount can be obtained from loess samples tions of lake levels, river discharges and
to perform laboratory studies. Therefore, we recurrent floods of very productive soils in
sampled volcanic ashes from a sedimentary the low plain. This shift in aeration status of
lacustrine core which has yielded a continu- the soils lead to the reduction of As(V) re-
ous record of particles deposited over the duction to As(III), a more mobile and toxic
last 15.0 kyr BP. species. Leacheable As(III) concentrations in
anoxic conditions may increase up to 400 µg
Total concentration of As in volcanic ashes L-1.
samples varies from 5 to 20 mg kg-1. Al-
though volcanic ashes represent only a tiny
fraction of loess material, the same concen- 77. Sources and transport of arsenic con-
tration range has been measured in loess taminating shallow groundwater in the
materials. Furthermore, the percentage of historical industrial zone of Monterrey
As linked to the different phases as deter- City, Nuevo León, México
mined by selective extractions is nearly Francisco Martín Romero, Margarita Gutiérrez
constant both in loess and volcanic ashes Ruiz and Mario Villalobos
sampled in the lake core. Ionically bounded
As is very rare (2% of total As). In Argen- Instituto de Geografía, UNAM-México, Mexico;
fmrch@igiris.igeograf.unam.mx
tinian loess, secondary carbonates are
abundant as nodules, layers or cements and
Arsenic contamination has been detected in a
secondary Mn oxide is also present as nod-
shallow aquifer of the geographical center of
ules in some horizons. Arsenic found in the
66

Monterrey City, in the Northeast of Mex- and 0.9 mg L-1. Therefore, the authors rec-
ico, and where the historical industrial zone ommend a suitable and immediate closure of
of the city is located, reaching concentra- these boreholes.
tions of up to 3.1 mg L-1. A metallurgical
plant that operated more than 100 years and
closed down in 1999 is identified as a pos- 78. Geogenic arsenic enrichment in histosols
sible pollution source because it deposited Thomas R. Rüde1 and Henrietta Königskötter2
arsenic-rich wastes in the fields adjoining 1
it, showing total arsenic contents that reach RWTH Aachen University, Institute of Hydro-
geology, Aachen, Germany;
up to 1-2% As in weight. We deem arsenic
ruede@hydro.rwth-aachen.de
transport through the soil profile as highly 2
Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, De-
unlikely based on the following experimen- partment of Earth and Environmental Sciences,
tal and field evidence: water-soluble arse- Munich, Germany; paprikaland@web.de
nic contents in 1:20 soil:water extracts of
both surface and subsurface samples is very There is an increasing awareness of natural
low, showing values in a majority of sam- arsenic enrichments in aquifers and overly-
ples below 1 mg As L-1; the unsatured zone ing soils worldwide. In contrast to anthropo-
under the inactive plant is characterized by genic contaminated sites, these geogenic
the presence of two impermeable clay lay- enrichments occupy large areas and cause an
ers (hydraulic conductivities of 2.1 x 10-8 often unforeseen threat to humans. There are
cms-1 to 8.4 x 10-8 cms-1), the first one oc- now several reports in Germany of soils,
curring at 0.6 to 1 m below the surface, and often histosols, which have very high arsenic
the second one at approximately 17 m be- concentrations. The example discussed here
low the surface; arsenic analyses of several is an area in southeastern Germany with up
core samples from boreholes 40 m deep to 4000 mg kg-1 As.
show that As released at the soil surface is
completely retained in the upper clay layer. There, soils are cultivated since approx. one
hundred years and it is discussed that arsenic
Nevertheless, the highest dissolved arsenic was enriched in the organic matter due to
concentrations (1.1 to 3.1 mg L-1) were cultivation. The process in mind is a dewa-
found in wells from shallow groundwater tering of the organic rich horizons accompa-
from active industries located to the north nied by shrinking and decomposition of
of the inactive plant. The groundwater flux these horizons and enrichment of arsenic on
in the area goes in a direction west to east, residual matter. Alternatively, arsenic can be
therefore, the source of these arsenic levels enriched on pedogenic iron and/or manga-
cannot come from the inactive plant prem- nese oxides.
ises and indicates the occurrence of addi-
tional sources of arsenic groundwater con- We tested both hypotheses on three profiles
tamination. which were studied in detail. The profiles
show organic rich layers on top with total
The evidence points to the fact that the thicknesses of 0.25 to 0.55 m. The humic
most likely cause of shallow groundwater horizons contain 15 to 35% of organic car-
contamination inside the inactive plant is bon. The lower parts of the profiles consist
via surface runoff of deposited wastes dur- of carbonaceous gravels with up to 70% of
ing the rainy season, into drilled boreholes calcite and only around 1% of organic car-
in the area. This is supported by a 10-year bon. These lower horizons show redoximor-
semester analysis database, which shows a phic features and the lowermost horizon is
constant seasonal variation in dissolved saturated by capillary fringe and groundwa-
arsenic concentrations measured at the ter. All profiles show concentrations of iron
drilled boreholes, fluctuating between 0.1 of 5 to 8% in the humic layers which de-
67

crease sharply in the redoximorphic lower 79. Arsenic determination in soils from a
layers to values of 1 – 2%. The second mining zone in the eastern Pyrenees,
uppermost horizon of one profile is a ferric Spain
one with up to 30% of iron. Manganese is M.J. Ruiz-Chancho, J.F. López-Sánchez, R.
only a minor constituent with concentra- Rubio
tions around 1300 mg kg-1 in the humic and 1
approx. 150 mg kg-1 in the calcareous re- Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat
de Barcelona. Martí i Franqués 1, 3ª planta,
doximorphic horizons. Sequential extrac-
08028 Barcelona; roser.rubio@ub.edu
tions demonstrate that pedogenic iron ox-
ides are the dominant iron minerals espe-
The Vall de Ribes is situated in the Eastern
cially in the humic horizons which make up
Pyrenees and at the beginning of this cen-
80% of iron as a maximum.
tury; the now abandoned mining district
Arsenic concentrations in the profiles fol- produced small amounts of several metals
low sharply the distribution of iron oxides like As, Sb, Au. Nowadays soils with high
with a fraction of explained variance r2 = contents of As can be found in this zone,
0.914. Using total iron concentrations the usually associated with the presence of ar-
correlation is much weaker with r2 = 0.661. senopyrite.
There is now distinct relation of arsenic to
Seven soil samples were collected in three
the organic carbon. We conclude from our
differentiated sites of this mining zone, the
observations that arsenic is enriched on iron
first sample point belongs to an old Sb mine,
oxides in the soils and that the organic car-
the second one to an As and Sb mine and the
bon is only of minor importance.
third one belongs to an old As mine. Soil
The original source of the arsenic is proba- samples were air dried and sieved to 2 mm
bly a deeper aquifer with well known geo- and 90 µm. For these soil samples the min-
genic enrichment of arsenic. That aquifer eralogical composition, pH, organic matter
and the one covered by the soils are region- estimation and major components were de-
ally connected by hydraulic windows termined.
which allow for the transport of arsenic into
Total arsenic content was carried out in aqua
the upper one and enrichment of arsenic
regia extracts by ICP-AES and HG-AFS. For
during pedogenesis.
the species extraction a mixture of phospho-
Actually, the mobile fraction of arsenic is ric and ascorbic acid was used and the de-
very small (less than 1% of the total con- termination of arsenic species was per-
centration) which is proved by small water formed by using the coupled technique
soluble concentrations, low concentrations HPLC-HG-AFS.
in the groundwaters of the area and only a
High levels of arsenic were found in some
few spots of increased arsenic concentra-
samples ranging from 51 to 38000 mg kg-1
tions in grass and crops. The risk is that the
and with the only presence of inorganic ar-
pedogenic sink of arsenic will become dis-
senic (As(III) and As(V)) were detected
solved during changes of land use espe-
when the speciation analysis was performed.
cially renaturalization of bogs and wet-
lands.
68

80. Arsenic content in plant samples Centro de Estudios del Agua, Instituto
from a mining contaminated area Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de
Monterrey; Av. Eugenio Garza Sada No. 2501
M.J. Ruiz-Chancho, J.F. López-Sánchez, R. C.P. 64849, Monterrey, N.L., Mexico;
Rubio jurgen@itesm.mx
1
Departament de Química Analítica, Universi-
tat de Barcelona. Martí i Franqués 1, 3ª planta, It is known that the groundwater of semiarid
08028 Barcelona; roser.rubio@ub.edu Meoquí-Delicias area in Chihuahua, North-
ern Mexico, consisting of several munici-
The Vall de Ribes, situated in the Eastern palities (Saucillo, Rosales, Meoquí, Delicias
Pyrenees in Spain, was one of the main and Julimes), is affected by arsenic contami-
producers of iron at the end of the last cen- nation. The present study deals about pres-
tury. It is also known the presence of As, ence, distribution and plausible origin of
Sb, Cu. High levels of As were found in arsenic in the Meoquí-Delicias aquifer.
soils of this zone in a range from 51 to
Of a total of 47 water samples from deep
38000 mg kg-1. For this reason it was ex-
tubewells of the Meoquí-Delicias aquifer,
pected that plants growing on the contami-
68% demonstrate not to comply with the
nated zone could contain relatively high
maximum admissible value of the Mexican
concentrations of As. Arsenic present in Standard for drinking water (NORMA OFI-
these plant samples in determined condi- CIAL MEXICANA NOM-127-SSA1-1994;
tions could be bioavailable.
0.025 mg L-1). A maximum value of 0.45 mg
Several plant samples were collected in L-1 has been observed in the area of Delicias
seven contaminated sites. About 40 plant City, which is 17 times the maximum admis-
samples of 20 different species were col- sible value. This concentration represents a
lected, cleaned with deionized water, dried major social risk for the inhabitants of this
at 40ºC and finally crushed. Total content city.
of As was carried out by acid digestion in a
The tubewells with a major arsenic concen-
microwave oven and quantification was
tration generally lie very near of or in urban-
performed by ICP-MS. Arsenic concentra-
ized areas of the region: in the north of the
tion in plant samples ranged from 0.1 to Meoquí city, in Delicias city, and south to
5400 mg kg-1 depending on the sample
the Saucillo town; those municipalities rep-
specie as well as the arsenic soil concentra-
resent the major population of the study area.
tion. Uncontaminated terrestrial plants usu-
It is assumed that the origin of arsenic is
ally contain about 0.2 to 0.4 mg kg-1.
geologic, induced by heavy pumping of
The arsenic species content was determined groundwater resources.
in several samples by using coupled tech-
niques as HPLC-(UV)-HG-AFS and
HPLC-ICP-MS. Several extraction media 82. Estimate of the current exposure to
were tested in order to obtain the best ex- total arsenic in Chile
traction efficiency and to preserve the Ana María Sancha
original species of the sample.
Department of Civil Engineering. Universidad de
Chile. P.O. Box 228/3; Santiago, Chile;
amsancha@ing.uchile.cl
81. Identification of areas with major
arsenic concentration in the Meoquí-
Exposure to arsenic in Chile results from
Delicias aquifer, Chihuahua
natural hydrogeochemical conditions and
Yadira Ruiz-Gonzalez, Jürgen Mahlknecht* from antropic sources derived from the min-
ing activities carried out in some areas of the
69

country, mainly in the north and central The coagulation process has been used in
zone.The arsenic levels found in different Chile since the 70’s to remove arsenic from
environments and the results of epidemiol- surface waters with high arsenic content.
ogical studies indicate that this element Through previous studies, we know that in
constitutes an important health risk factor, the case of water with low arsenic content and
principally for the inhabitants of the north low turbidity, this process could be replaced
of Chile. by a simplified treatment consisting of a di-
rect coagulation-filtration process. This re-
Current total arsenic “external” exposure
sults in a significant cost reduction in invest-
was assessed by combining data on the
ment, operation and maintenance costs.
levels of arsenic in water, food and air, with
information about food consumption, rates Arsenic is removed through chemical sorp-
of water ingestion and air inhalation. The tion and particulate removal processes with a
results showed that the population’s mean previous oxidation and pH conditioning. The
level of exposure to total arsenic fluctuates addition of metallic coagulants facilitates the
between 173.85 and 80.99 µg As day-1. conversion of inorganic arsenic species into
Ingestion of water was found to be the most insoluble reaction products which are sepa-
important exposure pathway for population rated later on by means of filtration. Key
of northern and central Chile and for the factors in arsenic removal by this simple and
southern Chile the largest contribution cor- low cost technology are: pH, oxidant and
responds to food. Air is not a significative coagulant dosage mixture speed, retention
exposure pathway times and filter washing frequency. During
the experimentation period the arsenic con-
A historical estimation of the total exposure
centration in raw water ranged from 0.05 to
of the northern Chile indicates that in the
0.07 mg L-1 and the pH ranged from 7.0 to 9.0.
decade of the 70’s the arsenic exposure via
water became, in some cities as Antofaga- Good correlations exist between particulate
sta and Calama, ten times as high as it is removal and arsenic removal. Treated water
now. Exposure via air must have been with residual As <0.010 mg L-1 is obtained
somewhat lower due to less intensive min- during long operation periods.
ing activity at that time. Exposure via food
may be considered similar or slightly
higher than the current one. 84. Dietary arsenic and selenium intake
by school children in arsenic-endemic
areas of Argentina, Ecuador and Mexico
83. Arsenic removal from water with low Luz C. Sanchez-Peña1, Silvia S. Farias2, Graciela
initial turbidity: Chilean experience Bovi-Mitre3, Edda Villaamil4, Leticia Garcia-
Ana María Sancha Rico5, Jenny Ruales6, Dinoraz Velez7, Rosa
Montoro7 and Luz M. Del Razo1
Department of Civil Engineering. Universidad 1
de Chile. P.O. Box 228/3; Santiago, Chile; Toxicology-Cinvestav-IPN; Mexico City, Mexico
2
amsancha@ing.uchile.cl CNEA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
3
Ingenieria-UNJu, Jujuy, Argentina,
4
This study presents Chilean experience in FFyB-UBA, Argentina,
5
arsenic removal from groundwater. Neither CIAD, Sonora, Mexico,
6
IIT-EPN, Quito, Ecuado,
the origin of arsenic in groundwater nor the 7
IATA, Valencia, España
processes responsible for its mobility are
known with certainty, but it is suspected Arsenic (As) occurrence in the aquifers of
that it is a naturally occurring contaminant. several geographic regions such as Argen-
tina, Ecuador and Mexico have been identi-
70

fied. Selenium (Se) is an essential micronu- drinking water supply (> WHO limit of 10
trient with a recommended dietary allow- µg L-1) were selected. The source of As con-
ance for humans of 50 to 200 µg per day. It tamination of the groundwater is the subsur-
functions as an essential constituent of se- face soil chemical composition and charac-
lenoproteins. In the Andean regions of Ec- teristics and not the anthropogenic activities.
uador, Se deficiency has been reported in School are sited in Santiago del Estero,
children. People in many other areas of the Argentina; Quito, Ecuador; Hermosillo and
world are selenium deficient, with the con- Zimapan, Mexico.
sequence that they are unable to express
Total As, iAs and total Se levels were meas-
their selenoproteins fully. As and Se are
ured by AAS. The dietary intakes of these
metalloids with similar chemical properties
elements were determined by a total diet
and metabolic fates.
study. Calculations were carried out on the
The interactions between As y Se are com- basis of recent data on the consumption of
plex. The toxic effects of inorganic Se can the selected food items.
be ameliorated by exposure to As. In con-
Information about Se intake in arsenic-
trast, inorganic As (iAs) potentiates the
endemic areas will be useful information for
toxicity of methylated Se compounds. The
identification of factors that affect the toxic
metabolism, retention and toxicity of As
effects of As exposure.
can be modified by exposure to Se. Be-
cause chronic exposure to As has been
associated with increased incidences of a 85. Exposure to arsenic: Modification of
variety of cancers and increased risk of cell proliferation and differentiation mark-
morbidity or mortality due to peripheral ers in primary human keratinocytes
vascular, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular
disease, to hypertension or to diabetes mel- M. Sandoval1, M. Corona1, Moisés A. Ortega, M.
litus, there is considerable interest in identi- Sordo2, P. Ostrosky2, E. Lopez-Bayghen1
fying factors that modify the susceptibility 1
Departamento de Genética y Biología
of individuals to the toxic and carcinogenic Molecular, CINVESTAV-IPN, 2Departamento de
effects of As. For example, it has been sug- Genética y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de
gested that differences among human popu- Investigaciones Biomédicas, UNAM, Mexico
lations chronically exposed to As in the D.F., Mexico
manifestations of the adverse effects of this
metalloid might be related to variation in Human exposure to arsenic is associated
Se intake. Thus, it can be postulated that with an increased incidence of skin patholo-
individuals with a high intake of Se may be gies as hyperkeratosis and cancer. Different
less likely to suffer from a given toxic ef- mechanisms have been explored including
fect of chronic exposure to iAs than are genotoxicity, cell proliferation changes, al-
individuals with a lower intake of Se. Con- tered DNA repair or modifications in methy-
versely, a lower intake of Se may exacer- lation patterns. The proliferation and differ-
bate the toxic effects of As, increasing the entiation of skin stratified epithelial cells
risk associated with chronic exposure to requires the coordinated expression of struc-
this metalloid. tural and regulatory proteins. All modifica-
tions in expression patterns of these proteins
In order to estimate the intakes of total result of special interest in arsenic-
arsenic, iAs and total Se concentrations, associated-skin pathologies. Here, we test if
food consumed by school children attend- during arsenic exposure, some changes in the
ing elementary school were evaluated. Four proliferation and differentiation process in
schools whose communities rely on fossil human keratinocytes can be mediated by
groundwater contaminated with As for modifications in the expression levels of p53
71

and human involucrin (Hi). The tumour gel shift assays were performed using a p53-
suppressor p53 is a potent mediator of cel- consensus DNA-binding sequence. A dose-
lular responses against genotoxic damage, dependent response in DNA binding can be
controling normal cell proliferation and noticed under arsenic exposure. Using a
may be a modifier of the differentiation reporter system, in which, transcriptional
process in keratinocytes. The human in- activity is mediated by a p53-driven-SV40
volucrin (Hi) is an important differentiation promoter, the augmentation in arsenic con-
marker and estructural protein in cornified centrations correlates with a higher tran-
envelope of terminally differentiated scriptional activity. Additional data support
keratinocytes. Based on this premise, we the idea that signalling events as Protein
treated human keratinocyte cultures (HKC) Kinase B activation may be important in p53
with increasing concentrations of sodium activation. Current work in evaluating so-
arsenite for up to 24 h. We evaluated the dium arsenite effect on p53-regulated genes
effects of arsenic on cell proliferation, may result in important data to understand
genotoxic damage, and changes in Hi and modifications in the differentiation process,
p53 protein levels. Likewise, we examine via p53, which may be an important altered
the effect of arsenite on cyclin D1 protein pathway during skin carcinogenesis.
levels, as an indicator of regulation of cell
proliferation.
86. Remediation of arsenic contaminated
The arsenite effect on HKC was an increase waters by ferric iron and ferric com-
in proliferation, in cells under treatment pounds – a review
with a relatively low concentration
(0.1µM). This effect was companied by an Tony Sarvinder Singh* and K. K Pant
increase in cyclin D1 protein levels, when Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian
cells are exposure at concentrations of ar- Institute of Technology,
senite less than 0.5 µM. Significantly, using Hauz Khas, Delhi 110016 INDIA; *:
concentrations higher than 0.5µM, we no- tony_iitd@yahoo.com
ticed a decrease in proliferation and in-
creased levels of Hi protein, supporting the Arsenic, a commonly occurring toxic metal
idea that arsenic may act as a differentia- in natural ecosystem, is associated with ei-
tion inducer in our system. Exposure of ther natural conditions or the industrial prac-
HKC to different concentrations of sodium tices of mankind. Arsenic does not often
arsenite resulted in increased levels of p53 form in its elemental state and is far more
and Hi (in a dose-response manner). These common in sulfides and sulfo salts such as
data indicate that sodium arsenite induces arsenopyrite, orpiment, realgar, lollingite and
an increase in p53 protein levels, probably tennantite whereas it readily substitutes for
in response to DNA damage. Increment of silicon, ferric, iron and aluminium in crystal
micronuclei counts in cells exposed to 1µM lattices of silicate minerals. One of the two
of sodium arsenite for 24 hr, indicated a distinct mechanisms that lead to the release
significant cell damage associated with of arsenic on a large scale, is the develop-
exposure to arsenic. ment of high pH (>8.5) conditions in semi-
arid or arid environments usually as a result
In order to understand the molecular of the combined effects of mineral weather-
mechanisms underlying p53 role as modu- ing and high evaporation rates. This pH
lator of gene expression controlling cell change leads either to desorption of adsorbed
proliferation, and even in the control of arsenic and a range of other anion-forming
keratinocyte differentiation, we tested if elements from mineral oxides, especially
arsenic may modulate the ability of p53 to iron oxides. The second is the development
act as a transcription factor. Electrophoretic
72

of strongly reducing conditions at near- drite), goethite, pyrite, hematite and green
neutral pH values, leading to the desorption rust (an intermediate product of iron oxida-
of As from mineral oxides and to the reduc- tion that eventually transform to ferric oxy-
tive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxides, also hydroxide) have shown promising results for
leading to arsenic release. The process is both As(V) and As(III) removal from aque-
generally aided by the high water table and ous solution.
fine-grained surface layers which impede
Most of the Fe oxide shows strong sorption
the penetration of air to the aquifer. Ele-
affinity toward both As(V) and As(III)
vated concentrations of arsenic (> 1 mg L-1)
through ligand exchange in the co ordination
in groundwater of geochemical origins
sphere of structural Fe atom. Various inves-
have been found in many countries such as
tigation into the mechanism of arsenic re-
Taiwan, India (West Bengal), Bangladesh,
moval revealed that As(III) and As(V) are
Chile, North Mexico, Argentina, USA and
selectively bound to the oxide surfaces
Nepal. Due to its various carcinogenic and
through formation of inner sphere complex.
mutagenic effects on human and animals,
Electrostatic interaction and specific adsorp-
various regulatory agencies have prescribed
tion are also important mechanisms for arse-
different permissible limits for arsenic such
nic removal by the iron oxides, which form a
as 0.01 mg L-1 (WHO).
passivation layer on Feo iron oxides includ-
Various technologies reported in the litera- ing poorly crystalline oxide. As(III) is more
ture for the treatment of arsenic are conven- toxic and difficult to remove from aqueous
tional co-precipitation, lime softening, fil- solution, Attempts have also been made to
tration, ion exchange, reverse osmosis and impregnate this Fe metal/ion on basic mate-
membrane filtration but due to the exces- rial such as sand, clays to increase its sorp-
sive use of chemicals, bulky sludge, high tion capacity. This paper discusses the ad-
cost, these techniques are not cost effective sorbent preparation techniques and the com-
at small scale or household level. A thor- parisons of Iron and Iron based adsorbents
ough literature review revealed that adsorp- with other sorbents have also been pre-
tion has been extensively used for arsenic sented.
removal. Some of the most common ad-
sorbents tried for the removal of arsenic are
activated carbon, iron oxide, manganese 87. Effect of chloride, sulphate, phosphate
oxides, different polymeric materials and and fluoride ions and regeneration studies
alumina. In recent years, elemental and on the sorption of arsenic by activated
zero valent iron has received considerable alumina and Iron oxide impregnated acti-
attention as a media for treatment of wide vated alumina
variety of contaminants in water such as Tony Sarvinder Singh* and K. K Pant
chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, ni-
trates and radionucides. One of the chief Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian
Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas New Delhi
advantages of using this media for treat-
110016, India; *: tony_iitd@yahoo.com
ment is its adaptability to passive flow
through application, which can be signifi- Numerous studies regarding the sorption of
cantly less expansive to operate. This paper arsenic have been reported in the literature
is an effort to review the different kinds of where different kinds of adsorbents such as
Iron and Iron based adsorbents used for Activated Carbon, Iron and Manganese
arsenic removal. based adsorbents, Lanthanum based adsorb-
Several iron (II) oxides such as amorphous ents have been used. In most of these stud-
hydrous ferric oxide (FeOOH), Hydrous ies, synthetic solutions (arsenic solution
ferric oxide (poorly crystalline ferrihy- prepared in distilled water) have been used
73

whereas in real ground or surface water, loss studies. A known amount of regenerated
presence of other ions such as Chloride, sorbent from each batch was taken and the
Sulphate, Phosphate and Fluoride was also remaining sorbent was again subjected to
observed. As few studies are available in second regeneration cycle. The same proce-
literature on the effect of competing ions dure was repeated for second and subsequent
moreover the concentrations of competing regeneration cycles. Regeneration studies
ions taken in their studies were very less as were carried out up to five regeneration cy-
compared to natural systems. cles. Regeneration efficiency was tested for
repeated regeneration cycles. Exhausted
To simulate the conditions prevailing in
activated alumina can be effectively regen-
natural ecosystems/ environment, the pre-
erated with 4% NaOH followed by reactiva-
sent study was undertaken to assess the
tion with 0.5 M HCl. However, higher loss
impact of these competing ions on the re-
of activated alumina was observed at higher
moval As(III) and As(V) by Activated
NaOH concentration due to dissolution of
Alumina (AA) and Iron Oxide Impregnated
activated alumina. Therefore 2% NaOH with
Activated Alumina` (IOIAA). were con-
reactivation by 0.1 M HCl may be desirable.
ducted. The concentrations of Chloride (0-
600 mg L-1), Sulphate (0-600 mg L-1),
Phosphate (0-600 mg L-1) and Fluoride (0- 88. El arsénico en las aguas subterráneas
15 mg L-1) ions were studied in the range en La Pampa Central, Argentina.
found in ground water. Effect of these ions Hallazgos y consecuencias
on the % As(III) and As(V) removal was
investigated. The binding affinity of vari- Carlos J. Schulz1,2,3 y Eduardo Mariño2
ous competing ions such as Phosphate, 1
Facultad de Ciencias Humanas (UNLPam).
Fluoride, Chloride and Sulphate was de- 2
Facultad de C. Exactas y Naturales (UNLPam)
3
termined using adsorption kinetics experi- Secretaría de Recursos Hídricos de la Pampa (L.P)
ments. Uruguay 153, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa. Ar-
gentina. Tel +54-2954-425166;
Investigations on the effect of competing cjschulz@cpenet.com
ions revealed that adsorption of arsenic
strongly depends on the presence of phos- La presencia de Arsénico en las aguas sub-
phate, sulfate and fluoride ions whereas terráneas en la región de La Pampa central
presence of chloride ion had negligible de la República Argentina plantea una serie
effect on uptake of arsenic in the range de interrogantes que nos lleva a establecer
studied. The effect of competing ions on nuevas líneas de razonamiento que tiendan a
arsenic removal followed the sequence as constituir otras metodologías de reflexión
PO4> F- > SO4-- > Cl-. hidrogeológica para la zona.
To evaluate the performance of regenerated Es importante destacar que la clásica visión
sorbent for arsenic removal, equilibrium hidrogeoquímica en la caracterización de las
studies were carried out with the samples aguas subterráneas en lo que respecta a la
after each regeneration cycle. Exhausted presencia del Arsénico, como de otros oli-
AA was desorbed with different concentra- goelementos, constituye en la mayoría de los
tion of NaOH (1%, 2% and 4% by weight) casos un enfoque parcial o a veces equivo-
for 24 h followed by washing with water cado de la realidad. Esta situación induce
and activation with different HCl concen- muchas veces a toma de decisiones total-
tration (0.1 M- 0.5M). The treatment was mente equivocada por los gestores del agua
carried out for 12 hours. Each batch was o muchas veces por otras disciplinas que
dried in the oven at 378 K for 24 hours and tienen que ver con la saluda de las personas
the final weight was measured for weight (médicos, odontólogos, etc.).
74

A partir de estos conceptos y, de manera morfología, la compleja génesis y presencia


preliminar, podemos decir que la presencia del Arsénico en dichas aguas, constituye una
del arsénico en las aguas subterráneas en la incógnita desde el punto de vista hidrogeo-
región de La Pampa central de la República químico y puede deberse, según a algunos
Argentina constituye una incógnita desde el estudios realizados, a tres factores preponde-
punto de vista hidrogeoquímico ya que, de rantes como lo son: los litológicos, hidráulicos
acuerdo a las distintas regiones se comporta y químicos.
de manera diferente, y su variación en pro-
Lamentablemente, existe un profundo desco-
fundidad es errática.
nocimiento de esta problemática por parte de
Como puede observarse entonces, no resulta la población en general, incluyendo a los orga-
para nada sencillo establecer los mecanismos nismos vinculados a la salud que no registran
que gobiernan el aporte de sales por parte de estadísticas de patologías vinculadas al tema
los sedimentos que conforman la zona no ni han encarado esta cuestión en el sentido de
saturada (ZNS) y zona saturada (ZS) al agua fomentar y desarrollar investigaciones científi-
subterránea en el tiempo de contacto entre cas que tiendan a morigerar y determinar feha-
ésta y el material que la contiene. Lo que es cientemente el origen y comportamiento de
indudable es que en este fenómeno deben este elemento en las aguas subterráneas.
contemplarse una serie de factores y
parámetros tales como la alterabilidad de los
materiales ante el disolvente universal, las 89. Adsorption-desorption kinetics of
condiciones climáticas, la geoquímica de las As(V) in soils: Multireaction modeling
aguas de recarga, los tiempos de contacto, la H. M. Selim and Hua Zhang
sinuosidad del camino recorrido, los
procesos biológicos que se han llevado a Department of Agronomy & Environmental
Management, Louisiana State University, Ba-
cabo en su transcurso, los parámetros
ton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA;
hidrogeológicos tales como la mselim@agctr.lsu.edu
Transmisividad, Permeabilidad, Coeficiente
de Almacenamiento, etc. Knowledge of adsorption and desorption of
Ejemplos de la anarquía de patrones arsenic (As) on soil mineral surfaces is a pre-
hidrogeológicos e hidroquímicos que pre- requisite for predicting its fate in the soil en-
senta el Arsénico en nuestro medio, tanto en vironment. Kinetic data have the advantage of
lo que respecta a su distribución areal como taking into account possible time-dependent
vertical, se verifican en casos en que en un reactions for adsorption, release, or desorp-
mismo sector se pueden localizar valores de tion. Nonequilibrium conditions may be due
0,05 mg L-1 en la parte superior del acuífero y to heterogeneity of sorption sites and slow
0,30 mg L-1 en profundidad o exactamente el diffusion to sites within the soil matrix, i.e.
fenómeno a la inversa. Asimismo, también es slowly accessible sites with variable degrees
importante determinar en que estado de of affinities to heavy metals. The focus of this
valencia se encuentra, si como arsénico investigation was (i) to quantify the kinetics
tetravalente o pentavalente, ya que de ello of adsorption and desorption of As in two
depende en gran parte su nocividad o different soils: Sharkey clay and Olivier silt
toxicidad que afecta a la salud humana. loam; and (ii) to present multi-reaction kinetic
type models of the nonlinear type and assess
Si bien, la presencia del agua subterránea y their capability of describing the sorption as
las posibilidades de su aprovechamiento se well as release or desorption behavior of As
encuentran condicionadas principalmente in soils.
por tres factores naturales: a) Clima, b)
Geología (litología y tectónica) y c) Geo-
75

Recent approaches based on soil evidence that a significant amount of As(V)


heterogeneity and kinetics of adsorption- was irreversibly adsorbed on all soils. More-
desorption have been proposed for the over, the multi-reaction model with equilib-
purpose of describing the time-dependent rium and kinetic sorption successfully de-
sorption of heavy metals in the soil scribed the adsorption kinetics of As(V) to
environment. The multireaction (MRM) Olivier loam and Windsor sand. This model
kinetic approach presented here considers with optimized parameters was found to be
several interactions of heavy metals with capable of predicting the desorption of
soil matrix surfaces. Specifically, the model As(V) from these two soils. However, for
assumes that a fraction of the total sorption Sharkey clay, with high adsorption affinity,
sites is kinetic whereas the remaining an additional irreversible reaction phase was
fractions interact rapidly with solute in the required to predict the desorption processes.
soil solution. The model accounts for
reversible as well as irreversible sorption of
the concurrent and consecutive type. 90. Community arsenic removal system
using ADI media G2
Batch kinetic experiments were carried to
determine adsorption and desorption iso- Kiron Senapati
therms for As (V) by our three surface soils ANANT Technologies Inc., Tampa, Florida,
having different properties; Sharkey clay USA; KSenapati@att.net
and Olivier silt loam, and Windsor sand.
The technique used here is kinetic batch Several treatment technologies to remove
type. Six initial As(V) concentrations (5, arsenic are available for use, of which “Ad-
10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 mg L-1) of sorption” has been found to be the most cost
KH2AsO4 prepared in 0.01M KNO3 back- effective and easy to implement. ADI Inter-
ground solution were used. The reaction national, Inc., of Canada www.adi.ca / Wa-
times of adsorption ranged from 2 to 504 h. ter/water.html has developed an arsenic re-
Desorption commenced immediately after moval media called “MEDIA G2” that per-
the last adsorption time step (504 h) using forms with significant advantages over other
successive dilutions for 12 days. The adsorbent media, and has been determined to
amount of As(V) retained by the soil fol- be one of the most cost effective technolo-
lowing the last desorption step was deter- gies from field studies. MEDIA G2 is a
mined using sequential extraction methods. highly porous media with an extremely large
Our Results indicated that adsorption of surface area to volume ratio. The technology
As(V) were highly nonlinear with a proposed allows for the concurrent treatment
Freundlich reaction order N much less than of multiple contaminants, rendering it more
1 for all soils. Adsorption of arsenate was efficient and cost-effective compared to con-
strongly kinetic, where the rate of As(V) ventional treatment methods.
retention was rapid initially and was fol- The combined benefits of these attributes
lowed by gradual or somewhat slow reten- will be reflected in lower life-cycle treatment
tion behaviour with increasing reaction costs combined with removal of other ele-
time. Freundlich distribution coefficients ments of concern that are not targeted for
and Langmuir adsorption maxima exhibited treatment. As such, this technology presents
continued increase with reaction time for a tremendous opportunity to apply proven
all soils. Desorption of As(V) from all soils technology in Latin America. The objective
were hysteretic in nature which are indica- is to offer affordable arsenic water treatment
tions of lack of equilibrium retention and/or systems to provide arsenic safe drinking
irreversible or slowly reversible processes. water in remote areas. The need is especially
A sequential extraction procedure provided urgent for rural communities, which consti-
76

tute 97% of the people affected by arsenic boreholes and wells in the region have an
contamination. observed range of <4–5300 µg L–1. The dis-
solved As correlates positively with several
For a technology to be effective in arsenic
other trace elements which also reach unusu-
removal, it must be simple, economical,
ally high concentrations: V concentrations
easy to apply, requiring minimal operation
reach up to 5.4 mg L–1, F up to 29 mg L–1, B
and maintenance. The MEDIA G2 selec-
up to 14 mg L–1, Mo up to 990 µg L–1 and U
tively removes arsenic and is unaffected by
up to 250 µg L–1. The groundwater is univer-
common interfering such as fluorides, chlo-
sally oxic with a neutral to alkaline pH (7.0–
rides, sulfates, and iron which are usually
8.7) and the dissolved As is present pre-
found in drinking water. Arsenic removal
dominantly as As(V). Some of the highest
by adsorption is a simple process, which
As and associated trace-element concentra-
usually does not require addition of any
tions are found in topographic depressions
chemicals during the treatment. Arsenic is
which are likely to be zones of groundwater
removed from water via a combination of
discharge and increased residence time.
adsorption, occlusion (adhesion) or
solid-solution formation by reaction with Extracted porewater from a cored borehole
ferric oxide ions. The MEDIA G2 technol- in one investigated topographic depression
ogy is a novel iron oxide-based media with (Tamagnoni borehole) had concentrations of
high surface area and enhanced selectivity As up to 7500 µg L–1. The mineral sources
for arsenic compared to conventional ad- of the As in the groundwater are difficult to
sorbents. It is ideal for groundwater treat- identify unequivocally. The aquifer sedi-
ment given its physical and chemical prop- ments have unexceptional concentrations of
erties such as stability, porosity, and high As (3–18 mg kg–1), although porewater As
surface area. concentrations correlate broadly with host
sediment As concentrations. Data for selec-
The paper proposes to present the results of
tive sediment extracts suggest that secondary
the study undertaken in India and Bangla-
iron and manganese oxides are likely to be
desh and describe the ADI Media G2 arse-
among the most significant minerals in-
nic removal technology and process as
volved in the cycling of As.
applied to small community treatment sys-
tems. The paper will also provide capital As the groundwater is oxic, As release from
and operating costs for implementing such the metal oxides is concluded to be through
treatment systems. desorption rather than dissolution reactions.
Oxalate-extract data have been used to esti-
mate the amount of labile As in the sedi-
91. Arsenic in groundwater and sedi- ments. From an observed linear correlation
ments from La Pampa, Argentina between oxalate-extractable As and dis-
P L Smedley, H B Nicolli and D G Kinniburgh solved As in the cored Tamagnoni borehole,
1
a partition coefficient, Kd, was estimated as
British Geological Survey, Wallingford, Ox- 0.94 L kg–1. This unusually low value dem-
fordshire, OX10 8BB, United Kingdom;
onstrates the low affinity of the Pampean
p.smedley@bgs.ac.uk
2
Instituto de Geoquı´mica, Av. Mitre 3100,
sediments for As sorption. Modelling of As
1663 San Miguel, Provincia de Buenos Aires, sorption to hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) sug-
Argentina gests that competition from other anions can
have a significant effect on the amounts of
Groundwater from the Quaternary loess sorbed As, with the biggest effect being from
aquifer of northern La Pampa has spatially vanadate at the concentrations of solutes
variable but often high concentrations of observed. Although HFO is probably not the
As. Pumped groundwater samples from dominant Fe(III) oxide present in the Pam-
77

pean aquifer, it serves as a useful indicator for each basin were weighted by classes of
of the likely reactions involved in As re- sinuosity and reclassified, resulting in a modi-
lease to groundwater in the region. fied As anomaly map. The basins were auto-
matically extracted from a Digital Elevation
Model (DEM). Some basins otherwise not
92. Using GIS to define As-anomalous considered first priority were thus empha-
catchment basins considering drainage sized, while others which were originally
sinuosity considered anomalous were de-emphasized.
Ardemirio Silva Thus, the resulting As anomalous map re-
State University Of Feira De Santana, Salvador, flects more accurately the factors afecting the
Bahia, 41940-250, Brazil; dispersion of As and filter out the cofounding
barros@ige.unicamp.br, abarros@uefs.br effects of physical dispersion and accumula-
tion of As in stream sediments sampled as
Arsenic values in stream sediments of part of a exploration program. Basins selected
anomalous catchment basins are a function using sinuosity-weighted As anomalies corre-
of several geological factors, including late well with those selected by pathfinder
average composition of underlying rocks, associations, and the two approaches are con-
geochemical controls, such as dispersion sidered complementary.
processes and scavenging of metal ions by
oxides. The influence of all these factors, in
turn, is a reflection of sorting of minerals in 93. Determination of arsenic in river
drainages during sediments accumulation. sediments from geographical basins in the
Drainages with lower gradients and more state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using GF-
sinuous paths, are more likely to yield atomic absorption spectrometry
higher As levels, as these factors restrict Julio C. J. Silva (PQ), Sandro H. D. Freitas (IC),
dispersion. In the study area, 121 As bear- Olivia V. M. S. Vasconcelos1 (PQ), Virginia S.
ing basins (above the detection limit of 4 T. Ciminelli1 (PQ)
ppb in the <177 µm sieve fraction), out of
Institutos do Milênio: Água-uma visão mineral,
385 sampled basins situated entirely in a CNPq, CAPES; Department of Metallurgical
Archaean volcanic-sedimentary sequences, Engineering and Materials, UFMG, Brazil;
the Itapicuru Greenstone belt (Bahia State, silvajcj@yahoo.com.br
northeastern Brazil), were modelled in a
Geographic Information System (GIS) with Environmental pollution is a problem of
respect to total lenghts of drainage and fundamental importance in relation to
distances from uppermost to lowermost aquatic life and its quality. This problem is
points. Firstly, it was calculated the pres- especially critical in the Ferrous Quadrilat-
ence or absence of ouliers, secondly, it was eral in the state of Minas Gerais, one of the
calculated statistical parameters such as, most important mining areas in Brazil, which
mean, standard deviation, median and has suffered the effects of predatory mining
mode. To define the behaviour of the data a activities since the XVII century. Among the
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was carried out. many chemical pollutants, arsenic is consid-
The sinuosity indexes were calculated by ered to be one of the most concerning, its
dividing total stream lenght by the distance high toxicity places at risk both the environ-
between uppermost and lowermost points. ment and human health. Work has then been
The results were reclassified into three carried out to develop a method for the de-
ranges for sinuosity (low, medium and termination of arsenic in samples of river
high). To each of those range empirical val- sediments by means of graphite furnace
ues of 1, 1.5 and 2 were assigned. As values atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).
The samples of interest were collected from
78

five geographical basins in the State of ibilidad de Agua y las Causas Sociales emer-
Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples (ap- gentes del Medio Ambiente donde habitan los
proximately 100 mg) were digested in a pobladores de Urutaú y Benado Solo, sigue
microwave oven with cavity and closed siendo una de las grandes preocupaciones de
vessels using an acid mixture (HNO3 + HF los pobladores del Departamento Copo en la
+ H3BO3). In the experiments graphite py- Provincia de Santiago del Estero – Argentina
rolytically covered tubes were used, and – desconociendo los mismos la importancia
integration of signals and chemical modifi- de la calidad para sus vidas.
ers (0.015 mg Pd + 0.01 mg Mg(NO3)2).
De acuerdo a las visitas realizadas en la zona
The total volume (sample + diluent + modi-
se ha podido comprobar la falta del elemento
fier) delivery in the graphite tube was 50
vital para consumo humano, ganado y cul-
µL, the pyrolysis temperatures and atomi- tivos condicionando los medios de sustento
zation was 1400 and 2500°C, respectively. para esta población rural, poniendo énfasis en
The accuracy of the procedure was evalu- contaminación arsenical.
ated with certified reference material (NIST
2780 - Hard Rock Mines Waste and NIST En estas zonas el hombre normalmente con-
2780 - Inorganics in Marine Sediment) and sumió el agua de represas, pozos perforados
recovery and addition tests. The quantifica- extraídos con baldes, molinos de viento, y
tion was conducted using the analyte addi- bombas cuando cuenta con los elementos
tion method. Preliminary results for arsenic necesarios o bien ha construido aljibes, cali-
(λ = 196 nm) showed recoveries around cantos de diversos tamaños donde almacena
100% for the certified samples. To compare agua de lluvias para consumo.
the obtained values and the certified values En estas diferentes formas de almacena-
two statistical tests were used, the F test miento muchas veces no cuentan las condi-
and T test matched, and the values obtained ciones sanitarias mínimas necesarias para ser
were not significantly different within the usadas en el consumo humano, pero a pesar
evaluated interval (P = 0.05). The arsenic de esto u ante la necesidad los pobladores
concentration obtained in one of the sedi- continúan consumiendo este tipo de agua,
ment samples (SF 017) was 11.4 mg L-1. preparando sus alimentos y también usán-
Additional studies are being conducted and dola en la higiene personal.
will be extended to the samples of interest.
Esta agua así obtenida satisface sus necesi-
dades, una de las fuentes más utilizadas en la
94. Causas sociales de la patalogía del actualidad es el agua subterránea o sea de la
hidroarsenicismo en las localidades de napa freática con alta concertación de arsé-
Urutau y Benado Solo departamento nico. Ante esta realidad surgió un
Copo – Provincia de Santiago del Estero, interrogante ¿desde que época los
Argentina pobladores de la zona ponen en riesgo su
vida al consumir agua contaminada?.
Gladys N. Soria de Paredes
Indagadas estas instancias, las respuestas
Programa de Prevención y Control de
Hidroarsenicismo (H.A.C.R.E.) – Ministerio de obtenidas son paralizantes a tal punto que
Salud y Desarrollo Social de la Provincia paso a ser un problema social, político y
Santiago del Estero, Argentina, 4200 Santiago sanitario en la provincia.
del Estero, Argentina;
En la actualidad se han detectado casos en la
gladysparedes@infovia.com.ar
población con afecciones contraídas en el
medio ambiente donde habitan, enfermedad
El presente trabajo de Investigación apunta a
crónica y agudas, de fácil diagnostico, ob-
poner de manifiesto que la escasa dispon-
servables ha simple vista se pueden observar
79

las manifestaciones dermatológicas propio lations, their mitogenic proliferative re-


de la ingesta de agua arsenicales. sponse, and activation capacity were evalu-
ated and related with the arsenic levels found
Este trabajo de investigación pretende entre
in urine. In this study we included children
sus objetivos ser un aporte desde la Investi-
with no clinical history of cancer develop-
gación Social en la relación hombre-medio
ment or immune related diseases, children
y de que manera influye en estas pobla-
participating in this study were not taken any
ciones rurales el marco histórico,
drugs for at least three weeks before sam-
geográfico y cultural, como así también el
pling and a questionnaire including exposure
nivel socio económico y de que manera son
history, exposure to heavy metals and pesti-
validas las alternativas de solución para
cides, socioeconomic status and clinical
logra erradicar definitivamente este flagelo
history was answered by their legal guardi-
que viene condicionando sus vidas desde
ans.
muchas décadas.
Urine samples were collected and kept fro-
zen until arsenic concentration was evalu-
95. Lymphocyte subpopulations and ated by hydride generation atomic absorp-
cytokine secretion in an infant popula- tion spectrophotometry (iAs, MMA and
tion exposed to arsenic DMA). Heparinized blood samples were
Soto-Peña GA, Luna AL, Acosta-Saavedra L, collected and mononuclear cells subpopula-
Conde P, López-Carrillo L2, Cebrián ME, tions were evaluated in whole blood sam-
Bastida M3, Calderón-Aranda ES, Vega L*. ples, mitogenic response and cytokine secre-
tion were evaluated on isolated cultured cells
*Sección Externa de Toxicología, Centro de
Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN.
after 24 or 48 h of culture. Also hemoglobin
Av. IPN 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico D. and lead levels were evaluated.
F. 07360, Mexico; lvega@cinvestav.mx In this infant population we observed a reduc-
2
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuer- tion in the proportion of helper T cells (CD4)
navaca, Morelos, Mexico.
3
Jurisdicción Sanitaria 5, Secretaría de Salubri-
subpopulation (β = -0.0039, p = 0.097), and
dad y Asistencia, Zimapán, Hidalgo, Mexico in the CD4/CD8 ratio (β = -0.0032, p =
0.090) that was related with arsenic levels in
In animal models and human cells in vitro, urine. The proportion of cytotoxic T cells
arsenic has shown to modulate some tran- (CD8), B cells and Natural killer cells was not
scription factors, cytokine secretion, cell modified by arsenic exposure. In isolated
proliferation, and hypersensitivity response, lymphocytes we observed a reduction in the
among other cellular and systemic activities proliferative response to PHA-stimulation (β
that confers arsenic it’s immunotoxic ability. = -0.0016, p = 0.010), and in the IL-2 secre-
To date, no studies have been conducted tion (β = -0.018, p = 0.001) related with an
with the aim of immunotoxic effects on increased in urine arsenic levels. Meanwhile
human, neither on infant populations (that IL-4, IL-10, or IFN-γ secretion was not modi-
could be more susceptible to arsenic effects). fied by arsenic exposure. Additionally, we
We evaluated some parameters within the observed an increment in GM-CSF secretion
immunological status in an infant population on LPS/IFN-γ activated mononucleated cells
in Mexico exposed to arsenic via drinking associated with increasing arsenic levels in
water. urine (β = -0.0099, p = 0.000). Gender, age,
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells socioeconomic status, or other co-variables
(PBMC) of 66 infants (6 to 10 years old) evaluated in this study did not modified the
from an arsenic exposed area were col- relationship of the immune response parame-
lected. Proportion of lymphocyte subpopu-
80

ters evaluated with the arsenic levels found structure. The grains show significant
in urine of exposed individuals. weathering (voids, dissolution pits etc.).
Biotite grains present in sediments are also
These data indicate that arsenic exposure
weathered. Iron oxyhydroxides occur in
could alter the activation processes of T
isolated spots on the surface of silicate min-
cells and macrophages, representing an
erals, but not as continuous coatings. Heavy
immunodeppressed status that could favor
minerals were represented by altered ilmen-
opportunistic infections and cancer devel-
ite, monazite, zircon, and garnet with pre-
opment in human populations exposed to
dominant almandine component.
arsenic. In addition, several reports of in
vivo genotoxic effects of arsenic exposure The primary source of arsenic could not be
in Mexican human populations had indi- determined unequivocally, but volcanic glass,
cated a gender differential effect of arsenic and biotite are potential candidates. Ferric
exposure. Some in vitro studies of arsenic oxyhydroxides, which are important adsorb-
effects on immune response parameters had ents of arsenic, seem to have formed by pre-
also indicated that this susceptibility is cipitation of iron released from titano-
related with helper T cells in adult women. magnetite, ilmenite, and biotite. However, the
amount of precipitated ferric oxides and hy-
droxides is limited and, furthermore, their
96. Mineralogical study of arsenic- arsenic adsorption capacity depends on fac-
enriched aquifer sediments at Santiago tors like pH and ionic strength of ground wa-
del Estero, northwest Argentina ter and on concentrations of species compet-
O. Sracek1*, M. Novák1, P. Sulovský1, R. Mar- ing for adsorption sites.
tin2, J. Bundschuh2, P. Bhattacharya3
1
Institute of Geological Sciences, Faculty of 97. Sorption and desorption behavior of
Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611
arsenic in a soil
37 Brno, Czech Republic; srondra@yahoo.com
2
Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Tecnologias, S. Tokunaga* and M.G. M. Alam
Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science
(UNSE), Av. Belgrano 1912, 4200 Santiago del
& Technology; Central 5, Higashi, Tsukuba,
Estero, Argentina
3 Ibaraki 305-8565 Japan; s.tokunaga@aist.go.jp
KTH-International Groundwater Arsenic Re-
search Group, Department of Land and Water
Resources Engineering, Kungliga Tekniska Arsenic carries a +III or +V valence in soil
Högskolan, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden environments. Difference in the behavior of
As(III) and As(V) in soils has not been well
Shallow aquifer located in an alluvial fan at known. The authors studied sorption and
Santiago del Estero, northwest Argentina, desorption behavior of As(III) and As(V) in
is enriched in arsenic. Sediments from sites Kuroboku soil, one of the typical soils in
with high As concentration were collected Japan. Comparison was made between the
by hand auger and studied by X-ray diffrac- behavior of As(III) and As(V).
tion and by electron microprobe. X-ray A 0.25 g of soil was contacted with 25 mL
diffraction confirmed the presence of of 1.60 mg L-1 As(III) or 14.9 mg L-1 As(V)
quartz and albite. Concentrations of total solution for 16 h under N2 atmosphere. The
organic carbon (TOC) in soil are low, but As(III) sorption was less pH-dependent, only
concentration of total inorganic carbon 75% of As(III) ion being removed in the pH
(TIC) may be significant. range 8 to 10. On the other hand, the As(V)
The electron microprobe investigation sorption was highly pH-dependent, almost
found abundant glass particles with fluidal 100% of As(V) ion being removed in the pH
81

range 2 to 5 in spite of much higher initial precipitación de As (III) y As (V) con


As concentration. Little As(V) was sorbed APDC, que posteriormente se determinaron
in the pH range > 11. The sorption rates of por un método absoluto de capa fina de
As(III) and As(V) ion were measured at pH FRXDE. Se aplicaron además procesos de
8 and 4, respectively, under N2 atmosphere. oxidación reducción para la determinación
The kinetic data were analyzed using zero- del contenido total del elemento.
order, first-order, second-order, third-order,
Paralelamente se implementó un método
parabolic diffusion, two-constants rate,
polarográfico alternativo de análisis de las
Elovich-type, and differential rate models.
especies de arsénico, utilizando la variante
The soil was artificially contaminated with de VRC. El As (III) se reduce a As (0) y se
As(III) or As(V) ion. The contents of deposita en la gota de Hg en forma de un
As(III) and As(V) were 1,622 and 3,190 compuesto intermetálico de As-Cu-Hg. La
mg kg-1, respectively. The desorption rates señal medida corresponde a la reducción de
of As(III) and As(V) ion were measured by As (0) a As (-3). La determinación del con-
controlling pH at 4, 7, and 9 under N2 at- tenido total de arsénico inorgánico requirió
mosphere. The desorption of As(III) de un paso previo de reducción de As (V) a
reached equilibrium within 3 h. The de- As (III).
sorption rate of As(III) increased in the
En el trabajo se reflejan los parámetros
order at pH 9 < pH 7 < pH 4. A significant
metrológicos de los métodos tales como
amount of As(V) ion was detected in the
Precisión, Límites de Detección e Incer-
leachate at pH 9, indicating oxidation of
tidumbre. La exactitud se evalúa por com-
As(III) ion. Only several µg/L of As(V)
paración de los resultados obtenidos por
desorbed from As(V)-contaminated soil at
ambos procedimientos.
pH 4. The desorption rate of As(V) in-
creased in the order at pH 4 < pH 7 < pH 9. Estos métodos fueron aplicados en el análisis
The desorption of As(V) was still much de las especies inorgánicas de este elemento
less than that of As(III) at pH 7. At pH 9, en aguas naturales.
the desorption of As(V) continuously in-
creased even after 10 h.
99. Transforming growth factor alpha
concentration in exfoliated bladder
98. Estudios de especiacion de arsenico epithelial cells from Mexican population
en agua por fluorescencia de rayos X y environmentally exposed to inorganic
voltametría de redisolución catódica arsenic
L. Valcárcel, J. Estévez, A. Montero, I. Pupo Olga L. Valenzuela1, Gonzalo Garcia-Vargas2, Araceli
Hernandez-Zavala1, Eliud A. García Montalvo1, Dori
CEADEN: Centro de Aplicaciones R. Germolec3 and Luz M. Del Razo1
Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear Calle 30 No
1
502, Playa, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba; Toxicology, Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico City
2
lino@ceaden.edu.cu Medicin, UJED, GP, Durango, México
3
Environmental Immunology Laboratory,
Se implementaron dos métodos para la NIEHS, NIH, RTP, NC, USA
determinación de las especies inorgánicas
de arsénico en agua por Fluorescencia de Arsenic is a well established human carcino-
Rayos X (FRXDE) y Voltametría de Re- gen and is associated with a variety of can-
disolución Catódica (VRC). cers including those of skin, liver, kidney,
lung and bladder. The activation of the pro-
Durante el desarrollo del primer procedi- liferation cellular-induced growth factor has
miento se estudiaron los rendimientos de la been linked to the biological effects of arse-
82

nic. Recently has been demonstrating that centration in urine (R = 0.44, P < 0.001).
overexpression of growth factors, such as However, this association is higher between
transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α), TGFα levels and DMA in urine (R = 0.47, P
promote the formation of skin tumors. < 0.001). Besides, people exposed to high
TGF-α is secreted by epithelial cells in a concentration of arsenic (mean 114 µgAs/g
variety of normal tissues (including skin, creatinine) was significantly (P < 0.05)
pituitary and brain) and function as a greater in TGF α levels than individuals with
paracrine mediator of epithelial cell prolif- lower arsenic exposure (mean 26.6 µg As g-1
eration. The urinary concentration of TGF- creatinine). People from areas with high
α has often been used as a marker of vari- arsenic concentration had a significantly
ous malignancies (e.g., liver, lung, bladder, higher TGF α concentrations in urothelial
and skin cancer) or as an indicator of an cells than people of areas with low arsenic
elevated risk of cancer in humans. In addi- exposure (P<0.05). In addition, the average
tion, increased TGF-α production has pre- TGF-α concentration was significantly
viously been reported in normal human higher in exposed individuals as compared to
keratinocytes treated with arsenite and in unexposed controls: 67.5 vs. 34.6 pg mg-1
the skin of mice exposed to arsenite in protein (p = 0.020). Notably, exfoliated cells
drinking water. isolated from exposed individuals with skin
This study examines the relationship be- lesions contained significantly greater
tween urinary profiles of arsenic and TGF- amount of TGF-α than cells from exposed
individuals without skin lesions: 84.5 vs.
α concentrations in exfoliated bladder
39.1 pg mg-1 protein (p = 0.017). These re-
epithelial cells among 90 residents (18-51-
sults indicate that in arsenic-endemic areas,
year-old) in both high and low inorganic
the concentration of TGF-α in exfoliated
arsenic-exposed subjects of an endemic
bladder epithelial cells may serve as a
region of central Mexico.
marker of the exposure to inorganic arsenic
Previous studies carried out in the local in drinking water and as an indicator of ad-
populations have found an increased inci- verse epidermal health effects associated
dence of pathologies, primarily skin lesions with this exposure.
that are characteristic of arseniasis. Addi-
tionally in this study, we compared the
pattern of urinary methylated metabolites 100. Arsenic mobility in the rhizosphere
between persons with and without skin of the tolerant plant Viguiera dentata
lesions associated to arseniasis in an en- G. Vázquez-Rodríguez, M.G. Monroy-
demic Mexican area. Fernández, R. Briones-Gallardo*
Urinary arsenic species and total arsenic Facultad de Ingeniería-Instituto de Metalurgia,
(TAs) were measured by hydride genera- Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí. Av.
tion atomic absorption spectrometry Sierra Leona 550, Col. Lomas 2ª. Sección. San
method. The concentration of TGF-α in Luis Potosí, S. L. P. México; *briones@uaslp.mx
urothelial cells was measured by using an
enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The arsenic (As) mobility or retention in
The participants on this study are from soils as a result of mining activity is directly
areas exposed to different concentrations of related to the chemical equilibria between
arsenic in drinking water (6 – 378 µg L-1). the existing phases (soluble, mineral or bio-
Preliminar results in 75 individuals show a logical). In polluted sites, the exposure of
statistically significant positive correlation plants to arsenic is determined by these equi-
between the log-normalized TGF-α concen- libria at the rhizosphere. In this work, arsenic
tration in exfoliated cells and the TAs con- mobilization in the rhizospheric soil (RS) of
83

a tolerant plant taxonomically identified, as 101. Determinación del contenido de


Viguiera dentate was studied. The plant arsénico en productos marinos entregados
was collected in the mining district of Villa por el Programa de Alimentación Escolar
de la Paz Matehuala- SLP, Mexico. In this (PAE), de la Junta Nacional Escolar y
site, a total arsenic concentration in Becas (JUNAEB), Vii región, Chile
rhizospheric soils 3867 µg g-1RS was found. S. Vilches1, G. Andrade1, O. Muñoz2, J.M. Bastías1
The analysis of the total arsenic concentra- 1
tion on dry total biomass (DB) of this plant Departamento de Ingeniería en Alimentos,
was 94.8 µg As g-1DB, distributed as 82%, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Casilla 447, Chillán,
Chile; jobastias@ubiobio.cl
12% and 6% in leaves, stem and root, re- 2
Centro de Estudios en Ciencia y Tecnología de
spectively. This distribution was further Alimentos, Universidad de Santiago de Chile,
studied as available and bioavailable arse- Casilla 33074, Correo 33 Santiago, Chile;
nic fractions for physicochemical and bio- omunoz@lauca.usach.cl
logical mobilization, respectively.
The physicochemical mobilization in the El objetivo del presente estudio fue determi-
rhizospheric soil was analyzed by two dif- nar el contenido de arsénico total e inor-
ferent tests of successive sequential extrac- gánico en productos marinos entregados por
tion (ESS). The results have shown that the el Programa de Alimentación Escolar (PAE),
available fraction by ionic exchange was 40 de la Junta Nacional de Auxilio Escolar y
µg As g-1SR while 72 µg As g-1SR were asso- Becas (JUNAEB), VII región, Chile. La
ciated to carbonates phases. These last sus- determinación de arsénico total e inorgánico
ceptible of being mobilized by acidification se realizo sobre 35 muestras (24 filetes de
of soil at a pH value of 5. Also, 687 µg As merluza, 5 pulpas de salmón, 5 Jurel en con-
g-1SR were adsorbed on iron and manganese serva y 1 surtido de marisco deshidratado),
oxides. A modified ESS protocol was used obtenidas de las empresas concesionarias
in order to favor chemical availability of que atienden el PAE de la VII región. La
arsenic for anionic exchange with a soluble determinación de Arsénico total se realizó
phosphate salt. It was observed that the por digestión por vía seca. En el caso del
available arsenic concentration, under such arsénico inorgánico, se utilizó un procedi-
conditions, corresponds to 83.4% of the miento de extracción por solventes, obteni-
arsenic associated to iron and manganese endo en todos los casos resultados repro-
oxides which might suggests that arsenic is ducibles y representativos.Para la determi-
in the form of arsenates. Finally, arsenic nación analítica se utilizó un Espectro-
bioavailability in the rhizosphere was de- fotómetro de Absorción Atómica (AAS)
termined using a synthetic solution that Varian A 55 acoplado a generación de
resembled the organic acid solution found hidruros.
in plants at a pH value of 4.7. The available La concentración mínima Arsénico total
arsenic concentration at the interface of the encontrados en los productos marinos fue de
biological surface exposed in the 0.379 µg g-1 base húmeda (bh) y la máxima
rhizosphere of Viguiera dentata is 147 µg de 1.404 µg g-1 (b.h.), sobrepasando seis
As g-1SR. muestras el límite establecido por el Regla-
The results of this work show that not all mento Sanitario de los Alimentos de Chile
arsenic in soils is available, nevertheless it (RSA), para pescados (1 µg g-1). La concen-
was found that the arsenic accumulation tración mínima de Arsénico inorgánico ob-
observed in the plants studied, could be the tenido fue de 0.012 µg g-1 (bh) y la máxima
result of a progressive exposure of low de 1.130 µg g-1 (bh), no sobrepasando nin-
arsenic concentration of the plant that ex- guna muestra el límite establecido por el
plains its tolerance. RSA, ya que sólo establece arsénico inor-
84

gánico para mariscos y crustáceos (2 µg g- were carried out by auto-titration system


1)
, siendo la muestra con mayor concen- under inert environmental condition for three
tración la de surtido de mariscos de- different ionic strengths. The retention of As
shidratados. species, both As3+ and As5+ ([As3+] = [As5+]
= 0.385 µmol/L =50 µg L-1 of As3+) were
El Análisis de ANOVA por especie, pro-
examined as a function of pH and ionic
ducto y proceso de los contenidos de Arsé-
strength in single- (As3+ or As5+ only) and
nico total e inorgánico en las muestras
dual-sorbate (As+3 and As+5) systems using
analizadas, arrojan que la especie influye
AAS. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR)
en forma significativa en las concentra-
studies were performed to study the mecha-
ciones obtenidas y en menor grado el tipo
nisms of surface complex formation. Ex-
de producto, pero los procesos en sí no
perimental results were modeled using dif-
afectan de manera significativa tales con-
fuse layer model.
centraciones.
NRE is found to be dominated with SiO2
(54.15%), Al2O3 (20.73%), Fe2O3 (12.39%)
102. Natural red earth – an effective sor- and TiO2 (5.54%). No peaks were obtained
bent for arsenic removal for Al and Fe or other constituents from
Meththika Vithanage1, Rohana Chandrajith2, XRD indicating that Al and Fe are in the
Athula Bandara3 and Rohan Weerasooriya1 surface coating, not in the crystal structure.
1 Proton titration data of red earth showed that
Chemical Modeling Laboratory, Institute of
pHzpc = 8.8, which was fitted well with the
Fundamental Studies, Kandy, Sri Lanka;
meththikav@yahoo.com
modeling, denoting the red earth surface is
2
Department of Geology, University of dominantly positive when pH < pHzpc. Both
Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka As3+ and As5+ were adsorbed over 95% on to
3
Department of Chemistry, University of red earth when initial [As3+] = [As5+] = 0.385
Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka µmol/L in single sorbate systems. In the dual
sorbate system, when both As3+ and As5+ are
Arsenic is present mainly in water as a present; the retention of As3+ decreases by
natural contaminant mainly in the form of about 80% above pH > 7, however pH < 7
arsenate and arsenite. The natural release of adsorption of both species were shown
arsenic species into groundwater results in strong. Modeling results showed a competi-
detrimental health effects. Arsenic toxicity tion between arsenic species to the solid
leads to a host of problems including skin binding sites. However both experimental
cancers, Bladder and lung cancers, tumors, and modeled data showed that there is no
keratosis and hyperpigmentation. Therefore dependency of arsenic species on pH or
attention is focused to determine dominant ionic strength in both single and dual sorbate
adsorptive minerals to characterize them systems, which indicates that the affinity of
systematically for better prediction of arse- arsenic species on to NRE is strong forming
nic removal from natural systems. This inner sphere complexes with the NRE sur-
study was focused on modeling the adsorp- face. From the FTIR studies it was suggested
tion of arsenite and arsenate on to natural that arsenite form monodentate complexes
red earth (here after NRE) found in Sri while arsenate form bidentate complexes
Lanka. with NRE surface. As determined by the
simple diffuse layer model the binding con-
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluores-
stants were very well fitted with experimen-
cence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Micro-
tal data, proving that red earth can be effec-
scopic (SEM) analysis were performed to
tively used to remove arsenic from aqueous
determine the characteristics of red earth.
Potentiometric surface titrations of NRE,
85

systems by modifying the available filter- nisms of their natural removal from solution,
ing systems. giving at the same time new insights on the
quality of groundwater of the study area.

103. Natural arsenic in groundwater: a The integration of a quantitative study (dis-


case study from central Italy charge measurements along the main
streams, piezometric levels in the wells,
R. Vivona1, E. Preziosi1, G. Giuliano1, B. Madé2 elaboration of the water table map) with a
1
Water Research Institute, IRSA-CNR, 1, Via qualitative analysis (characterization of the
Reno – 00198, Rome, Italy hydrofacies and study of the spatial distribu-
2
Ecole des Mines de Paris, CIG, 35, rue St tion of elements concentration) was a helpful
Honoré – 77305, Fontainebleau, France tool to point out the differences in the water-
rock interaction along groundwater flow and
The widespread presence of high concen- to understand the concentration variations
trations of natural micro-pollutants is well (in particular of As, F and Ca) observed
known in the volcanic aquifers of central from the highest sector of the region down-
Italy where groundwater are largely ex- stream along the main flow direction. Two
ploited for agricultural and drinking pur- hypothesis were made about the possible
poses. Their presence is related to the alka- geochemical processes responsible of the
line-potassic volcanism which developed hydrochemistry observed in the sampled
along the Tyrrhenian margin of the Italian waters: the good correlation between As an
peninsula in the Quaternary age. F and their decrease with Ca augmentation
The aim of this research was to characterize downstream was related in the first hypothe-
the groundwater system and the geochemi- sis to the precipitation of As-F-bearing min-
cal processes by means of an integrated erals (fluorapatite); in the second hypothesis
methodology including field activity (col- a dilution due to mixing processes between
lection of groundwater samples from wells, waters of different origin and different com-
springs and rivers), chemical analysis in position (volcanic aquifer + sedimentary
laboratory, geochemical modelling to study aquifer) was considered.
the thermodynamic state of the waters,
minor elements origin and their enrichment
104. Infield detection of arsenic using a
in the solution in a pilot area about 100 km2
portable digital voltameter
north of Rome.
Magdalena Wajrak
The interest was pointed out on F and As,
the latter being a cancerogenic element School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan Uni-
which is often above the threshold value for versity Joondalup Campus, JOONDALUP, WA,
drinking waters (10 µg L-1 fixed by the 6027; m.wajrak@ecu.edu.au
European Council Directive 98/83/EC) in
several Italian aquifers. The study of minor There are a growing number of countries in
elements allowed us to better understand the world where arsenic in groundwater has
the hydrogeological setting of the area and been detected at concentrations greater than
to define a local hydrogeological scheme; the WHO Guideline Value of 10 µg L-1. These
moreover the analysis of the hydrofacies include; Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile,
and the elements contents was useful to China, Hungary, India, Mexico, Peru, Thai-
shed light on the origin and the processes land, and the USA. More recently this issue
leading to high concentrations of minor has also become a concern in Western Aus-
elements, their evolution along the tralia. A decline in the watertable due to a
groundwater pathway and possible mecha- low period of rainfall and the disturbance of
sulfidic peat soils by dewatering and exca-
86

vation in some of Perth’s suburbs has re- ear and speciation between the two stable
sulted in widespread acidification of forms of arsenic, As 3+ and As 5+ is possible.
groundwater and has caused the water to be The method is now being validated using
contaminated by arsenic and other metals. ‘real’ ground water samples from Perth sub-
Groundwater forms 70% of Perth’s water urbs by comparing the ASV results to ICP-
usage and people use the groundwater to MS. Initial results are promising, the volt-
water their vegetable gardens and thus ex- ammeter values are within +/- 3 µg L-1of the
pose themselves to high levels (up to 800 ICP-MS method. The next step in this pro-
µg L-1) of arsenic. ject is to implement and validate this method
for groundwater samples from Bangladesh
Of particular concern is the situation in
(currently awaiting the arrival of those sam-
Bangladesh where it is estimated that there
ples).
are more than 1 million people drinking
arsenic-rich water (>50 µg L-1). The con-
sequences of arsenic poisoning have al- 105. Occurrence of hexafluoroarsenate in
ready affected many thousands; skin dis- fluoride-rich waters – blessing or curse?
coloration, ulcers and cancer of the skin,
lungs and intestines. It is imperative that Dirk Wallschläger
people stop drinking from wells where Environmental & Resource Sciences Program,
arsenic levels are high. However, as yet, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Dr, Peterbor-
there is no reliable, simple, inexpensive ough, ON K9J 7B8, Canada;
and field-based method for arsenic detec- DWallsch@TrentU.ca
tion.
The hexafluoroarsenate anion [AsF6]- is an
The current methods of arsenic detection extremely stable compound well known in
use sophisticated and expensive laboratory inorganic chemistry, but to date, it has re-
based instruments, such as Atomic Absorp- ceived little to no attention in environmental
tion Spectroscopy - hydride generation As speciation studies, despite the fact that it
(AAS-HG) and Inductively Coupled is used as a pesticide and in certain types of
Plasma – Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)4. batteries. Synthetic literature also suggests
With over 6 million wells spread across that [AsF6]- may be formed from arsenate
Bangladesh, using such methods is not only and dissolved fluoride or fluoride minerals.
highly expensive, but also time-consuming.
What is needed is a method which can be The lack of studies on the occurrence of
used in-field, is relatively easy to imple- [AsF6]- in natural waters is mostly due to the
ment, accurate and has a detection limit of lack of analytical methods for its determina-
10 µg L-1. tion. In this paper, I present a method for the
selective and sensitive determination of
This research involves the development of [AsF6]- in waters by anion-exchange chro-
an infield method for arsenic detection in matography coupled to inductively-coupled
ground-water using anodic stripping volt- plasma mass spectrometry (AEC-ICP-MS),
ammetry (ASV). The instrument used is a and demonstrate that this compound occurs
Portable Digital Voltammeter, PDV6000, in certain types of waters.
designed by Monitoring Technologies In-
ternational (MTI) company in Perth, WA. Separation of [AsF6]- from all other known
Using solid gold working electrode the inorganic As species and methyl-As pesti-
instrument can detect down to 5 µg L- cides was accomplished by AEC using per-
1
using arsenic standard solution in ethanoic chlorate as the eluant under alkaline condi-
acid electrolyte with a 5 minute deposition tions. Detection limits around 5 ng L-1 As
time. The results are reproducible and lin- were achieved. The species mass balance (=
87

sum of all detected species vs. the inde- Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) minerals have been recog-
pendently determined total As concentra- nized to play important parts in the overall
tion) in real world samples was excellent fate of As in the reducing aquifers. Under-
(95-110%). I will discuss why other com- standing the interaction of As with Fe-S
mon As speciation methods are unsuitable minerals is more important when deeper
for waters where [AsF6]- occurs, which may wells are sought as an alternative to the ex-
explain why it hasn’t been detected in the isiting shallow contaminated wells.
environment before.
In this study, we have investigated As
Hexafluoroarsenate was detected in process exchange at the interface between water and
waters from an industrial fluorination proc- Fe-S minerals under controlled laboratory
ess, where it constituted the vast majority conditions. From our experiments, we expect
(78-100%) of the total As concentration. It to outline the geochemical reactions
was not at all removed by iron hydroxide affecting the mobilty of the As in these
co-precipitation. environments.
I will present further experiments on the Batch experiments equilibrating synthetic
formation and fate of [AsF6]-, and illustrate Fe-S minerals (FeS2 and FeS) with As (ar-
under what circumstances this species senite or arsenate) were performed in oxic,
might be encountered in natural waters, anoxic and sulfidic environment. In the first
with particular reference to ground waters set of experiments, As oxyanions were
that contain both elevated As and fluoride equilibrated with Fe-S minerals, while with
concentrations. I will also attempt to dis- the second set, As was spiked to the dissolv-
cuss if the occurrence of [AsF6]- is positive ing Fe-S minerals solution after they had
or negative with respect to As toxicity and partially dissolved for 1, 3 and 5 days. Sam-
environmental cycling and fate, and what ples were collected daily for 5 days after
implications this may have for potential spiking. Experimental environments were
treatment strategies. controlled by standard methods. Total As, Fe
and S in the collected samples were analyzed
by ICP-MS.
106. Interaction between arsenic
oxyanions and iron-sulfide minerals As reported previously, pronounced
differences between the solubilities of
Prabhas Kr. Yadav, Dirk Wallschläger different Fe-S minerals were observed. As
1
Environmental & Resource Studies Program, for the corresponding Fe-O minerals,
Trent University, 1600 West Bank Dr, Peter- arsenate generally showed a higher affinity
borough, ON K9J 7B8, Canada;
for the studied Fe-S mineral surfaces than
prabhasyadav@trentu.ca
arsenite, which often remained in solution to
Arsenic (As) contaminations of groundwa- a significant extent. Also, FeS adsorbed both
ter used for drinking water production is As species stronger than FeS2. The kinetics
among the most severe environmental of these reactions will be described, and
problems encountered in several parts of apparent equilibrium distribution coeffi-
world. Studies have shown that As usually cients are determined.
originates from geogenic sources, and is Our results suggest that removal of As from
mobilized through geochemical changes the solution is severely by the constituents of
caused directly or indirectly by human ac- the dissolving minerals (see figure below),
tivities. However, factors of As release and likely due to the modification of the surface
mobilization in the groundwater are still during the partial dissolution process and/or
under investigation. reactions between the released Fe and S
species with the added As species. We also
88

observed reddish-brown Fe-O precipitate y 87% respectivamente. Estos resultados


on the Fe-S mineral surface after 2 days indican que existe una alta capacidad de
under oxic and anoxic conditions. We metilación de arsénico de los individuos de
believe this new precipitate to be some Fe- Illapata, en comparación con la población
O minerals. control y con datos de la literatura. El As(V)
ingerido también fue transformado y
Finally, we will combine the results
depositado en cabello principalmente a la
obtained from batch experiment withs flow
forma de As(III), que fue la especie más
through experiments and derive result as a
abundante encontrada, 57 y 85% en indivi-
simple model which describes the changes
duos de la población control y expuesta
in As speciation and mobility as it crosses
(Esquiña e Illapata respectivamente). Se
from one set of geochemical conditions into
relacionó la concentración de arsénico total
another in order to simulate the effects of
en cabello y uñas con la edad de los
geochemical transition zones.
individuos expuestos crónicamente, encon-
trándose una mejor correlación con cabello
107. Arsenic exposure in rural (0.64) en comparación con las uñas (0.44).
population from Atacama Desert, Chile:
Characterization of arsenic species in
water, urine, hair and nails
J. Yáñez, H. Mansilla & V. Fierro1, L. Cornejo
& L. Figueroa2, and R.M. Barnes3
1
Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of
Concepción, Concepción, Chile;
jyanez@udec.cl
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences,
University of Tarapacá, Arica, Chile
2
Centro de Investigaciones del Hombre en el
Desierto (CIHDE)
3
University Research Institute for Analytical
Chemistry, URIAC, Amherst, MA, USA
Por primera vez se presenta a la comunidad
científica un estudio integral de caracteri-
zación de arsénico en aguas de consumo
humano, su transformación en otras
especies químicas y su eliminación en
orina, cabello y uñas en una población
altamente expuesta del norte de Chile
(Illapata). Se determinó que el As(V) fue la
especie más abundante en las aguas del río
Camarones y vertientes asociadas, constitu-
yendo la principal especie ingerida por la
población. El río Camarones presentó
concentraciones de hasta 1252 µg L-1 de
arsénico total, siendo casi exclusivamente
As(V). En la orina de la población
expuesta, la distribución de las especies
As(III), As(V), MMA y DMA fue de 5, 1, 6
89

Topic areas with abstract number

Remediation material and technology:


1 – 4 – 5 – 11 – 14 – 17 – 18 – 20 – 23 – 26
– 27 – 31 – 39 – 40 – 44 – 45 – 53 – 65 –
70 – 71 – 83 – 86 – 87 – 90 – 102

Arsenic (biogeo)chemistry and analysis:


10 – 16 – 22 – 24 – 32 – 39 – 45 – 50 – 87
– 89 – 93 – 97 – 98 – 100 – 104 – 105 –
106

Environmental management:
2 – 12 – 19 – 21 – 37 – 51 – 52 – 54 – 60 –
64 – 66 – 67 – 71 – 81 – 92 – 94 – 101 –
107

Geoenvironmental situation and processes:


3 – 7 – 8 – 9 – 21 – 24 – 30 – 33 – 37 – 38
– 42 – 43 – 47 – 48 – 49 – 52 – 54 – 56 –
57 – 59 – 62 – 63 – 64 – 67 – 68 – 69 – 71
– 74 –75 – 76 – 77 – 78 – 79 – 80 – 81 – 82
– 88 – 91 – 93 – 96 – 103 – 107

Public health issues and physiology:


13 – 15 – 25 – 28 – 29 – 34 – 35 – 36 – 41
– 46 – 47 – 54 – 55 – 58 – 61 – 63 – 72 –
73 – 82 – 84 – 85 – 94 – 95 – 99 – 101

International Society of
Groundwater for Sustainable Development
Resúmenes Cortos

Congreso

México, 20 al 24 de Junio de 2006


Editores

Jochen Bundschuh María Aurora Armienta


(Germany/Argentina/Costa Rica) (Mexico)

Prosun Bhattacharya Jörg Matschullat


(Sweden) (Germany)

Peter Birkle Ramiro Rodríguez


(Mexico) (Mexico)

International Society of
Groundwater for Sustainable Development