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Topics to Study

Elementary Functions
Properties of Functions
A function / is defrned as a set of all ordered pairs (x, y), zuch tha for each elementx, there
corresponds exactly one elementy.
The domain of / is the set x.
The range of / is the sety.

Combinations of Functions
If/(r) :
3x f 1 andg(x) = f, ' I
a) the sum/(x) +g(x): (3x* I)+(* - l): x2+3x
b) the difference f(x) -g(x) : (3x + 1) - (P - 7) = - +3x +2
c) the product f(x)S@): (3x * l)(xz - 1) = 3r: + P - 3x - 7
d) the quotient f(x)lsQi = (3-r * t)l(* - 1)
e) the composite (/ " gXr) :
fG@D : 3(f - i) + 1 : 3f ' 2
Inverse X'unctions
Fnnctions f xtd S are inverses of each other if
f @(x)): x for each -r in the domain of g
gU@)): x for each x in the domain of /
The inverse of the fwrction / is denoted /-t.
To find ,f-1, switch x andy in the origrnal equation and solve the equation fory in terms of x.

Exercise: If /(x) = 3x * 2, then /-1(r) :


(A)#
(B)r_2 t_ lx_ 2
(C)3x-2
(D)*r+3 '/: )'t -
(E)+ ,*1 ':
The answer is E. *2
x :31t
,,
3y:x-2 \/ ./-
y= + ...,

Even and Odd Functions


The function y : f(x) is even if /(-x) : f (x).
Even fi.nctions are symmetric about they-axis (e.g. y = P)
The function y : f(x) is odd if f(-x): -f (x).
Odd functions are qymmetric about the origin (".g. .y = t3)
Exercise: Ifthe graph ofy:3' + I is reflected about they-aris,
fhen an equation of the reflection isy:
(A)3'-1
(B) Iog: (x - t)
(C) log3 (x + 1)
(D) 3-n + I
(E)t-l'
The answer is D. The reflection ofy : f (xlin the y-axis is y : f(-x)
Periodic Functions
You should be familiar with dre definitions and graphs of these trigonometic
fimctions:
sine, cosine, tangen! cotangent, secant, and cosecant

Exercise: If /(r) = sin(tan-l r), what is the range of /?


(,\) (-n /2,n 12)
(B) [-n /2,tr /2]
(c) (0, 1l
(D) Ct, 1)
(E) [-1, r]

TheanswerisD. Therangeof srnxis@),butthepointsatu*richsinx= xt (tr/2+kn),


tan-l x is undefined. Therefore, the endpoints are not included.

Note: The range is e:pressed using interval notation:


(a,b)ea<x<b
[a,b]ea<x<b
Z,eros of a Function
These occur where the fr:naion /(r) crosses &e x-axis. These points are also called the
roots of a firnction.

Exercise: The zeros of /(.r) :x3 - 2f + x is


(A) 0, -1
(B) 0, I
(c) -1
(D) 1
(E) -1, I

The answer is B. f(x):4"2 - 2r + I) = x(x -I)z

t."
Properties of Graphs
You should review the following topics:
a) Intercepts
b) Symmetry
c) Asymptotes
d) Relationships between the graph of
v: l@) and y: kf (x)
y: f(lac)
y-k:f(x-h)
v: l/(r)i
y: f (xl)
Limits
Properties of Limits
Ifb anrdcarerealnumbers,n isapositiveinteger,andthefunctions f arirdghavelimits as x-rc'
then the following properties are true.

t. Scalar multiple: hnlb(J@Dl : tilT]/(t)l


) Sum or difference: limt/(x)ts(r)l = tim/(x)tlims:(r)
3. hoduct: hm [/(x)g(x)]
: [im/(x)]tlims(x)l
x-+c t--+c I-+C

4. Quotient: lim t/(.r)/s(r)l


' ' - = [ lim /(x)]/[ lim g(x)], if lim g(r) * 0
x+c- x-+6 x'+c x-+c

One-Sided Limits
r aPProaches c from the right
,g/(x)
r QProaches c from dre left
,l*!.f(x)
Limits at Infinity
lnn
:--i+6
f(x):L or lim /(x) =I
Tlre value of /(xi approaches L u x increases/decreases without bound-
I
y = is the horizontal asyrnotote of the gr4h of J.

Some Nonexistent Limits


..
lrfl-
1 , lxi Irm sn-
1

r+0 a' r+0 I r-)0 X

Some Infmite Limits


-. I
lffi---:-
lim Inx
r-+Or
=4
=co
r+0 I

s*---
Exercise:
Whatis li-
t*t ?
. r-+0 X
(A) I
(B) 0
(c) *
(D) f
(E) The limit does not erdst.

The answer is A. You should memorize this limit.

Continuity
Definition
A fi:nction / is continuous at c if
l. f(") is defined
2. exists
\y:f@
3. lim/(x) = f(c)

Graphically, the function is continuous at c if a pencil can be moved aiong the graph of (x)
f
through (c, f (c)) wifrour lifting it off&e grryh.

Exercise: ^2 +x
f f(x\-5x-
l- 2x
If {
I
rorx+o
L-f
(0) = t'
'
and if / is continuous atx: 0, then /r:
(A) -3/2
(B) -1
(c) 0
(D) I
@) st2

The answer is E. lyro f @)


= ltZ

Intermediate Value Theorem


If/ is continuous on [4, D] and & is any number between f(a) nd/(b), then there is at least one
number c between a and6 such ttat 11c1= 1t.

3-
Differential Calculus
Definifion
f,(x):mrc#9
and if this limit exists

f'(c):\yry
If / is differentiablg *x: c, then /:19-99!84!9!E-$.{.= c'
-'--
Differentiation Rules

General ard Logarithmic Dfferentiation Ruies


sum rulc
r. Llcal: cu' ,. ftWt v] = tt'Lv'
dx"
product rule vlt'-w'
d -u - ------;- quotient rulo
z. !-rufl-vv'*vu' 4. --t-.t =
dx' dxv v-
power rule
s. !p1: u, ntr-tu'
dx
o
ftfm-
t. 4vr: t t. 4n"
(4,
uf='
dx u
chain rule
e. !.-p"1: euu' rc.*u@@))i= f '(g(')) g'(')
dx

Derivatives of the Trieonometric Funstions


t. fttta uf = (as u)u' z. L*t"""zl : -(csc u cotu)u'

s. ftWtal: -(sin z)u' +. = (sec u tarru)u'


ftftnnl
s. (sec2 u)u' a. : -(csc2 ulu'
ftft*u'J: ftrcotuf

Derivatives of the Inverse Trieonometric Fulctions


d_ : _---_
-7r'
r.
dx" 4tarcsin 4=!,ll - u', 2.
-lslgsgg
dx
r/1
lullu'-I
z. 4lu"*s/l=
dx +
"'Jl- u"
+. 44"recu!:
dx' ' -+
lul.luz -l

s. !q*"t^u\= u' o. Ll*"*tul:4


"r \+
'\
dx'*---'-' ,*l =
fuLw---' u2

Implicit Differentiation
Implicit differentiaion is useful in cases in $ihich you cannot easity solve fory as a fi.rrction of .r.
Exercise: Findg forf +ry-2y-rt:-Z

*lf+xy-zy-l;l=*l-zj
3fff+@*+il-z*-2x:o
#Pt+x-2)=2x-!
gt 2x-y
E-i;**-z
-

I{igher Order Derivatives


These are successive derivatives of/(r). Using prime notatiorg the second derivative of f(x),
f "(x), is the derivative of /(t). The numericalnotation for higher order derivatives is ,eir.sentea
by:
f(n)(x): y(n)
The second derivative is also indicated AV
*dx-
Exercise: Find the ftird derivative ofy = y5,

!': 5f
Yt':ZoF
y,r,_ 6012

Derivatives of Inverse Functions


rf y = /(r) and x= f-\(y) are differentiable inverse furctiong
then their derivatives are reciprocals:
dxI
_=_
dv dv
E
Lo garithmic Differentiation
Jt
iyftel advantageors to use logaridrms to differentide cerrain
functions.
1. Take ln ofboft sides
2. Dfferentiate
3. Solve for y'
4. Substitute fory
5. Simplifr

Exercise: (-2 , r\ r/3


Find g y:
for
tfj
h.l: +tln(* + I) - ln(.r2 - I)J
y'=lf t _ I I
y 3lx2 +t x2 -tl
ts

-2 (r' -r\t't
v': (x? +1)(x2 -
|

t) (x'? + 1/
^
v': (x2 +1)at3(r' -l)''t
-l

Mean Value Theorem


If/ is continuous on [a, fl and differemtiableon (a, ]l ttrenth-ere exiss anumberc in (a, D) such
that
f\c)=t12_!i:l:)

L'Hdpital's RuIe
Ifltm'f(x)/S(r)isarindeterminateoftheform0/0oro/o,ardiflim f'(xlg'(x)exists,dlen
*,f(x):u* /'!t)
s(r)
g'(x)

The indeterminate form 0. oo can be reduced to 0/0 or m /o so that L'H6pital's Rule can be
applied.

Note: LTl6pital's Rule can be applied to the four different indeterminate forms of o /o :

a/a, (-o)/o, o/(-m), and (-co)/(*)


Exercise:
whatisu*sinr+1,
r+0 X
()2
(B) 1

(c) 0
(D) *
@) The limit dos not elrist

The answen is B. ,. cosx


- t:t
Tangent and Normal Lines
The derivative of a fimction at a point is the slope of the tatgemt line- The normal line is the line
that is perpendictrlar to the tarigent line d the point of tangency.

Exercise: The slope of the normal line to the cuwey = ?t2 + 1 at (1, 3) is
(A) -urz
@;-v+
,\.(c)
1/12
ttx
p) Lt4
(E) 4

L
The answer is B. l':4x
I = 4(I): 4
slope of notmal-- -ll4

Extreme Value Theorem


If a function /(x) is continuous on a closed interval, then ,f(4 has bodr a ma:<imun and rninimum
value in flre interval.

Curve Sketching
Situation Indicates fC")
/(") >o / increasing at c
f'(c)<o / decreasing at c
f '(c): o horizontal tangent at c
f '(c): o, f '(c') < o, /(c+) >o reluive minimum at c
f '(c): a, f '(c-) > o, /(c+) <o relative marimum at c
I'@):0, /'(c) > o relative minimum at c
f '(c): o, f "(c) < o relative marimum at c
f '(c): o, f 't(c): g further investigation re quire d
f"(c) > o concave upward
!"(c) < o
f"(c)=o -
f "(c):0, f "(c) <0, f "(c+)> o
f"(c): a, f"(c)> o, f"(c+) <o
conca\le downward
fu rthe r inv e s ti gati o n re quire d
point of inflection
point of inflecfion
+-t b r <
/(c) exists, /(c) does not exist possibly avertical tange$q Fo6siUly an absolute max or min.

[ewton's Method for Approximating Trros of a F'unction


J Q")
xn q 1: xn-
f \_")
To use Newton's Method" let 11 be a guess for one of the roots. Reiterate the fu'rction with the
result until the required arr;wasy is obtained

Optimization Problems
Calculus can be used to solve practical problems requiring marcimum or minimum values.

Exercise: A recangular box with a square base and no top has a voltrme of 500 cubic
inches. Find the dirnensions for the bx *ra require the least arnornrt of
materiai.

Let V : volume, J = surface arc4 x: length of base, and h : height of box

V=*h = 500
S: +
x2 4xh = f
+ axeAAE) = * + (Z000lx)
S' = ?-x - QAjAE): g
?-f :2000

10
(/ '',' ),,
-'i,,

x: I0, h: 5
Dimensions: l0 x 10 x 5 inches

Rates-of-Change Problems
Distance. Velocitv. and Acceleration
l, : r(r) position of a particle along a line at time /
: r'tA instantaneous velocity (rate of change) at time I
"a -- v1i): s'(l) instantaneous acceleration at time I

Related Rates of Change


are functions of time r
Calculus can be usedTfir,d the rate of change of trvo or more variable that
by differentiating with respect to I'

tlxerclse: A boy 5 feet tall walks at a rate of 3 feet/sec toward a srreetlamp that is
12 feet above dre ground
a) What is the rate of change of the tip of his shadow?
Ui Wtrat is the rate of change of the length of his shadow?

,,l\I=\
r+r, _ .11
r5

X
l-z v ''- _---\
-:

& rz /a\
" d = T\A-l
'--lr.-
ac r: /ts\
d-- s\7J
b): f ff/sec a): f ftlsec

Note: the answers are independent of the distance from the light.

Exercise: A conicai tank 20 feet in diameter and 30 feet tall (with vertex down)
leaks water at arateof 5 cUbic feet per hour. At what rate is the water IO
level droppine \ /hen the water is 15 feet deep?

y= !nf,h *=tEh2*
r _ 10
h30
5: ! nhzff
,=*h dh 45 \ll/
dt nhx
-=-
V= $nh3 dh I ^- .l v
dt 5n
---ftlrr )
rlt, I
r
/-' t0
x
(--7
L s0 ir/ v=:-ri V?h
\/\
/ 3
Ll^ &
-
i1
f=
Integral Calculus
Indefinite Integrals
Definition: A fimction F(x) is the antiderivative of a firnction /(x) if for all r in the domain of /,
F(x) = /(x)

I f$) d* = F(x) + C, where C is a con$ant.

Basic Integration Formulas


General and Logarithmic Integrals
1. kf(x)dx=k f(x)d* z. J y1x; t glx;l & : f (x) dxx g(x) dx
3. Ifa*:ls+C 4.
- -'*l
J**:htc,n+-T
5. I exdx:ex*C
6. J*ar:!+c,a>o,a*I
lna
7. !&:hlxl+C
x

Tri gonometric Integrals


1. Jsinx&:-cos x+C 2. Jcost dx=sinx+C
3. Jsec? x &:tanx + C 4. ! cscz x dx: -cotx + C
5. Jtor tanxdx:secxfC 6. Jctct e;atxdx=-csc x*C
7. Itanx &= -ln icos xl + C 8. J cot r dx:ht lsin xl + C
9. J secx dx :lnlsecr + tar- x1 + C 10. J csc x dx: Jn lcsc x * cot xl + C
n. I L= arcsin !+c t2. I a-+x-
,& ,=farctanl+c
Ja'-xz a a a
13. t
-3-=l*.."rl*c
xJx'-a' a a

Integration by Substitution
J /k(r)g(') dx: F(g(x)) + c
If u : g(x), fiten du : g'(x) & nd I f@\ du = F(u) + C
\\/ ,'
\/\
Ylt A,;y'n,- [rW---
Distance, Velocity, and Acceleration (on Eanh)
a(t) = s'(r) = -32 ftlsec2
v(r) = s(r) = J s'(/) dt = I 42 dt : -32t * Cr
at t:0, v6 : v(0) : (-32X0) + C1 : C1
s(r)= J vQ)dt= I (gZt+vo)dt: -l6Ptvst* C.)

I2
{ Separable Differcutial Equadons
Itis sometimes possible to se,parde variables and rairitE a differential equaion in the form
f(y)dy +g(x) dx=O by integrating:
I f$dy+is(Jr) dx=C

Exercise: Solvefor!=*
?*dx+ydy=0
*+{=g
Applications to Growth and Decay
Often, the rate of change or avriabley is proportional to dre vaiable itself.

L =nu separate the variables


dt
L:kdt integrate both sides
v
lo M: Id+ Cr
l: Ceh Lavr of E:monential Growth md Decalr
Exponential growth wtren k> 0
Exponential decay when & < 0

Definition of thc Definite Integral


The definite integral is the limit of fteRiemann srnn of / on tre ntewalla, b1

ri* ifta)ar
**Or'i = t|f@) a'

Propertis of Definite Integrats


t. ['"Il(4+g(x)J ax= Ib.71x1dx+ [b"g(x)dx
z. l'"t f(t) dx + k[b"f@) dr
3. l1t@)dx:o
4. [o"f(*) ax: -!; y61ax
s. l;t@)dx+ I;f@)ax: I;f@)ax
6. If /(x) <s(x) onfa,bl, then litt l dx s lb"g(x) dx
Approximations to the Definite Integral
Riemann Sums
n

12XOar:s, = E"f e,)M


Trapezoidal Rule

f, l@)d"= ti/('o) + /(xr) + f(xz)+ ... + /(x,-r) + t f$)1 4


n

Tbe Fundamental Theorem of Calculus ( r r c r)


If / is continuous on [a, b] and if F :.f, then
lu.f(r) dx: F(b) - F(a)

The Second X'undamental Theorem of Calculus (p r<- C)


If / is continuous on an op€,!r interval -I containing a, then for every x in the interval,
*l:t<tldt: f(x\

Area Under a Curve


If /(r)>0 onla,bl A: t'"f(x) dx
If f (x)<0 onfa, bf : -tb"71x1 dx
'4
If /(r)>0 on [a, c] and ,q: I'"1@) e - 12f@] *
/(x)<0 onfc, bf
The area enclosed by the graphs ofy: ?# andy = 4x = 6 is:
(A)76/3
@)32t3
(c) 8o/3
p) 64R
(E) 68/3

The anrswer is D. Intersection of graphs: 2ap' = apv * 6


z*-qx*6=o
x: -1,3
1: J3_r4x+6-2P
o-3
:(N + A* -'f) J

-1
:18+18-18-(2 6 + 2/3)
= 64i3

u"f@)
at

T4
Volumes of Solidswith lftlown Cross Sections
to the x-oris:
1. For cross sections of areal(r), taken perpendicular
v: [b,A1x) dx

cross sections of area'4(y), taken


perpendicular to the y-o<is:
2. For
y= Ib"A(y) dy

Volumes of Solids of Revolution: DiskMefhod '


Ir: IuoxF &
Rotated about the r-a:ris: V= loorlJ@)12 dx
Rotated about the Y-alris: V= Iu"nl|0\2 dy

Volumes of Solids of Revolution: Washer Me&od


v= Io,n(r* e - rl\ dx
Rotated about the r-a;ris: r= I'"xl(f {xW -(lz$\Ae
v= Ioo n l(J {9)2 - $ zA)21 &
Rotated about the Y-axis:

: 4' mrd y = x2
Find the volume of the region bormded by the ;'-axi !
s'
Exercise:
if it is rotated about the lineY: 6'

n I"t(* - 6)2 - (4 - q21ax

-L92n c'bic rnie


5

Volumes Shetl Medrod


V= [uoT*rh dr
Rotated about the 72r Ib"xf (x) dx

Rotated

15
i-
\ \

Some Useful F ormulas


-IOg_ X : loer
--L-
4
IOg4
SA Fo / r 1u\a
-*.-*r##
sin2x + cos2x: 1
1 + tan2x: sec2x
I + cot2x: csc2x

sin2x=2sinxcosJ
cos 2x = cos2r - sin2x

sin2x = %(1- cos20)


cos2t = Yz(I+ cos 20)

Volume of a right circular cylinder : n Fh


Volume of a cone = ln&h
Volume of a sphere : tnF

,* .-\. "-\

G'-yu
,- \ zer.r \
T.^r d

C^\.*\-1 9t<_f r w-*\,r,€


C,_l c- I <-!<-
"t*4, n, k-,.,+-.-:-_" I

16

\-