Elementary Functions
Properties of Functions
A function / is defrned as a set of all ordered pairs (x, y), zuch tha for each elementx, there
corresponds exactly one elementy.
The domain of / is the set x.
The range of / is the sety.
Combinations of Functions
If/(r) :
3x f 1 andg(x) = f, ' I
a) the sum/(x) +g(x): (3x* I)+(*  l): x2+3x
b) the difference f(x) g(x) : (3x + 1)  (P  7) =  +3x +2
c) the product f(x)S@): (3x * l)(xz  1) = 3r: + P  3x  7
d) the quotient f(x)lsQi = (3r * t)l(*  1)
e) the composite (/ " gXr) :
fG@D : 3(f  i) + 1 : 3f ' 2
Inverse X'unctions
Fnnctions f xtd S are inverses of each other if
f @(x)): x for each r in the domain of g
gU@)): x for each x in the domain of /
The inverse of the fwrction / is denoted /t.
To find ,f1, switch x andy in the origrnal equation and solve the equation fory in terms of x.
t."
Properties of Graphs
You should review the following topics:
a) Intercepts
b) Symmetry
c) Asymptotes
d) Relationships between the graph of
v: l@) and y: kf (x)
y: f(lac)
yk:f(xh)
v: l/(r)i
y: f (xl)
Limits
Properties of Limits
Ifb anrdcarerealnumbers,n isapositiveinteger,andthefunctions f arirdghavelimits as xrc'
then the following properties are true.
OneSided Limits
r aPProaches c from the right
,g/(x)
r QProaches c from dre left
,l*!.f(x)
Limits at Infinity
lnn
:i+6
f(x):L or lim /(x) =I
Tlre value of /(xi approaches L u x increases/decreases without bound
I
y = is the horizontal asyrnotote of the gr4h of J.
s*
Exercise:
Whatis li
t*t ?
. r+0 X
(A) I
(B) 0
(c) *
(D) f
(E) The limit does not erdst.
Continuity
Definition
A fi:nction / is continuous at c if
l. f(") is defined
2. exists
\y:f@
3. lim/(x) = f(c)
Graphically, the function is continuous at c if a pencil can be moved aiong the graph of (x)
f
through (c, f (c)) wifrour lifting it off&e grryh.
Exercise: ^2 +x
f f(x\5x
l 2x
If {
I
rorx+o
Lf
(0) = t'
'
and if / is continuous atx: 0, then /r:
(A) 3/2
(B) 1
(c) 0
(D) I
@) st2
3
Differential Calculus
Definifion
f,(x):mrc#9
and if this limit exists
f'(c):\yry
If / is differentiablg *x: c, then /:1999!84!9!E$.{.= c'
'
Differentiation Rules
Implicit Differentiation
Implicit differentiaion is useful in cases in $ihich you cannot easity solve fory as a fi.rrction of .r.
Exercise: Findg forf +ry2yrt:Z
*lf+xyzyl;l=*lzj
3fff+@*+ilz*2x:o
#Pt+x2)=2x!
gt 2xy
Ei;**z

!': 5f
Yt':ZoF
y,r,_ 6012
2 (r' r\t't
v': (x? +1)(x2 

t) (x'? + 1/
^
v': (x2 +1)at3(r' l)''t
l
L'Hdpital's RuIe
Ifltm'f(x)/S(r)isarindeterminateoftheform0/0oro/o,ardiflim f'(xlg'(x)exists,dlen
*,f(x):u* /'!t)
s(r)
g'(x)
The indeterminate form 0. oo can be reduced to 0/0 or m /o so that L'H6pital's Rule can be
applied.
Note: LTl6pital's Rule can be applied to the four different indeterminate forms of o /o :
(c) 0
(D) *
@) The limit dos not elrist
Exercise: The slope of the normal line to the cuwey = ?t2 + 1 at (1, 3) is
(A) urz
@;v+
,\.(c)
1/12
ttx
p) Lt4
(E) 4
L
The answer is B. l':4x
I = 4(I): 4
slope of notmal ll4
Curve Sketching
Situation Indicates fC")
/(") >o / increasing at c
f'(c)<o / decreasing at c
f '(c): o horizontal tangent at c
f '(c): o, f '(c') < o, /(c+) >o reluive minimum at c
f '(c): a, f '(c) > o, /(c+) <o relative marimum at c
I'@):0, /'(c) > o relative minimum at c
f '(c): o, f "(c) < o relative marimum at c
f '(c): o, f 't(c): g further investigation re quire d
f"(c) > o concave upward
!"(c) < o
f"(c)=o 
f "(c):0, f "(c) <0, f "(c+)> o
f"(c): a, f"(c)> o, f"(c+) <o
conca\le downward
fu rthe r inv e s ti gati o n re quire d
point of inflection
point of inflecfion
+t b r <
/(c) exists, /(c) does not exist possibly avertical tange$q Fo6siUly an absolute max or min.
Optimization Problems
Calculus can be used to solve practical problems requiring marcimum or minimum values.
Exercise: A recangular box with a square base and no top has a voltrme of 500 cubic
inches. Find the dirnensions for the bx *ra require the least arnornrt of
materiai.
V=*h = 500
S: +
x2 4xh = f
+ axeAAE) = * + (Z000lx)
S' = ?x  QAjAE): g
?f :2000
10
(/ '',' ),,
'i,,
x: I0, h: 5
Dimensions: l0 x 10 x 5 inches
RatesofChange Problems
Distance. Velocitv. and Acceleration
l, : r(r) position of a particle along a line at time /
: r'tA instantaneous velocity (rate of change) at time I
"a  v1i): s'(l) instantaneous acceleration at time I
tlxerclse: A boy 5 feet tall walks at a rate of 3 feet/sec toward a srreetlamp that is
12 feet above dre ground
a) What is the rate of change of the tip of his shadow?
Ui Wtrat is the rate of change of the length of his shadow?
,,l\I=\
r+r, _ .11
r5
X
lz v '' _\
:
& rz /a\
" d = T\Al
'lr.
ac r: /ts\
d s\7J
b): f ff/sec a): f ftlsec
Note: the answers are independent of the distance from the light.
Exercise: A conicai tank 20 feet in diameter and 30 feet tall (with vertex down)
leaks water at arateof 5 cUbic feet per hour. At what rate is the water IO
level droppine \ /hen the water is 15 feet deep?
y= !nf,h *=tEh2*
r _ 10
h30
5: ! nhzff
,=*h dh 45 \ll/
dt nhx
=
V= $nh3 dh I ^ .l v
dt 5n
ftlrr )
rlt, I
r
/' t0
x
(7
L s0 ir/ v=:ri V?h
\/\
/ 3
Ll^ &

i1
f=
Integral Calculus
Indefinite Integrals
Definition: A fimction F(x) is the antiderivative of a firnction /(x) if for all r in the domain of /,
F(x) = /(x)
Integration by Substitution
J /k(r)g(') dx: F(g(x)) + c
If u : g(x), fiten du : g'(x) & nd I f@\ du = F(u) + C
\\/ ,'
\/\
Ylt A,;y'n, [rW
Distance, Velocity, and Acceleration (on Eanh)
a(t) = s'(r) = 32 ftlsec2
v(r) = s(r) = J s'(/) dt = I 42 dt : 32t * Cr
at t:0, v6 : v(0) : (32X0) + C1 : C1
s(r)= J vQ)dt= I (gZt+vo)dt: l6Ptvst* C.)
I2
{ Separable Differcutial Equadons
Itis sometimes possible to se,parde variables and rairitE a differential equaion in the form
f(y)dy +g(x) dx=O by integrating:
I f$dy+is(Jr) dx=C
Exercise: Solvefor!=*
?*dx+ydy=0
*+{=g
Applications to Growth and Decay
Often, the rate of change or avriabley is proportional to dre vaiable itself.
ri* ifta)ar
**Or'i = tf@) a'
1
:18+1818(2 6 + 2/3)
= 64i3
u"f@)
at
T4
Volumes of Solidswith lftlown Cross Sections
to the xoris:
1. For cross sections of areal(r), taken perpendicular
v: [b,A1x) dx
: 4' mrd y = x2
Find the volume of the region bormded by the ;'axi !
s'
Exercise:
if it is rotated about the lineY: 6'
Rotated
15
i
\ \
sin2x=2sinxcosJ
cos 2x = cos2r  sin2x
,* .\. "\
G'yu
, \ zer.r \
T.^r d
16
\