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AMSS Applications

Season 2004\05

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Introduction................................................................................................4
0.1 Objective.................................................................................................................5
0.2 Concepts..................................................................................................................5
0.2.1 CNS-ATM........................................................................................................6
0.2.2 RNAV...............................................................................................................7
0.2.3 Free Flight.........................................................................................................9
0.2.4 Gate to Gate......................................................................................................9
1 GNSS.......................................................................................................10
1.1 Global position constellation................................................................................14
1.1.1 Global Position System (GPS).......................................................................14
1.1.2 GLONASS.....................................................................................................17
1.1.3 Galileo............................................................................................................18
1.2 SBAS......................................................................................................................21
1.2.1 WAAS............................................................................................................22
1.2.2 EGNOS...........................................................................................................23
1.2.3 MTSAS...........................................................................................................25
1.3 GBAS.....................................................................................................................26
1.3.1 DGPS..............................................................................................................26
1.3.1.1 LAAS.......................................................................................................28
1.3.2 RTK................................................................................................................28
1.3.3 GRAS..............................................................................................................29
1.3.4 VDL................................................................................................................29
1.3.4.1 VDL Mode 1............................................................................................30
1.3.4.2 VDL Mode -2..........................................................................................30
1.3.4.3 VDL Mode 3............................................................................................30
1.3.4.4 VDL Mode 4............................................................................................31
1.4 ABAS ....................................................................................................................31
1.4.1 RAIM .............................................................................................................32
1.4.1.1 RAIM (FD) .............................................................................................32
1.4.1.2 RAIM (FDE) ...........................................................................................33
1.4.2 AAIM .............................................................................................................33
2 Communication Systems........................................................................34
2.1 INMARSAT............................................................................................................34
2.2 INTELSAT y EUTELSAT......................................................................................37
2.3 IRIDIUM...............................................................................................................39
3 New technologies and developing projects...........................................41
3.1 VSAT......................................................................................................................41
3.2 SDLS......................................................................................................................44
3.3 MASSAO y Aerofleet projects...............................................................................45
3.4 OPTIMAL project.................................................................................................48
4 Conclussions............................................................................................50
4.1 Role in CNS/ATM..................................................................................................50
4.2 Gate to gate?.........................................................................................................53
4.3 New system beyond 2020......................................................................................56
4.4 Comparison with the current ATM system............................................................59
5 Acronyms................................................................................................61
6 Bibliography...........................................................................................63
6.1 webpages...............................................................................................................63
6.2 documents (all of them are in internet).................................................................65

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7 Appendix.................................................................................................67
7.1 Techniques of modulation.....................................................................................67
7.2 Standards and recommended practices in annexes 1,6 and 11 ...........................67
7.3 Data link services defined by ICAO......................................................................71

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Introduction

All forms of aviation need reliable communications, navigation and surveillance


systems to enable them to operate safely and efficiently. The primary means of
communications for civil aviation is VHF Radio Telephony (RT) and has been so for
over 50 years. During that time the basic features have changed little except for the
channel spacing which has gradually been reduced to provide more channels within the
available spectrum. The latest reduction to 8.33kHz is probably the last reduction that
can be made.

In parallel with the introduction of 8.33kHz channels, the increased use of VHF
data links (e.g. Modes 2 and 4) operating in the same band could eventually decrease
the amount of voice traffic but only to be replaced with data traffic. In the transition
period it is likely that additional channels will be needed to support legacy installations
until all aircraft have the appropriate avionics, further increasing the pressure on the
VHF band.

Despite the increased number of channels available in the VHF AM(R)S band
with 8.33kHz and the increased use of data communications, the growth in traffic is
forecast to outstrip the available VHF spectrum by 2015. Therefore new
communications systems with scalable growth capabilities (e.g. CDMA type systems)
are being considered. Amongst the candidate technologies are satellite systems.

Satellite communications could play an important role in Europe and other parts of
the world to provide communications in areas where it is difficult for terrestrial based
systems to offer a service. Additionally satellite systems could provide an alternative
communications medium to augment terrestrial systems or to act as a back-up system.

Satellite technology is already being used in support of ATS provision. One


example of this is the use of satellite communications to support operational ATS in the
Norwegian sector of the North Sea. In this area there are many helicopter flights at low
level, many of which are beyond coverage of radar or VHF radio communications.
Helicopter flights in these areas are required to fit ADS-C equipment and their position
is monitored by ATC. This system (known as Modified ADS or MADS) uses the
INMARSAT Aero-L system compatible with the ICAO AMSS SARPS to enable the
transfer of positional information from the helicopters to the ATC centres. The FANS

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1/A system also uses satellite communications to support ATS primarily in remote and
oceanic parts of the world.

0.1 Objective

This project presents the role of the satellite systems in the current and future time
in the Air Traffic Management (ATM). It describes different parts of the Aeronautical
Mobile Satellite System (AMSS) and others satellite systems which could be part in the
new ATM concept , as well as some developing technology based on such technology.

This document is focused on to give a general idea about the possibilities of the
future applications of the AMSS and its importance in the aerospace infrastructure,
therefore each element is not deeply described, only to explain his performance and way
of working, in addition to its evolution.

The first part consists of an explanation about some concepts about ATM as free
flight or gate to gate, which are the goals of the air traffic development, in order to solve
the problems in the current airspace exploitation.

The second one (chapters 2, 3 and 4) describes the GNSS concept and all its
elements, other satellite systems and some developing technology based in such
systems.

The fifth chapter sumarizes the current composition and probable evolution of
each scope of CNS with the technology and technics previously mentioned, besides the
possibility to develop and implement "gate to gate", "RNAV" and "free flight" concepts.

Last chapter is the conclussion of the project with a speculation about ATM
beyond 2020 year and a comparison with the current system.

0.2 Concepts

These concepts are part of the navigation strategy for the following years. Their
intention is not to define the necessary technology for the air traffic but to fix the goals
to be reached in the followings years which allowed to change the present use of the
airspace, improving its capacity and safety, and solving the problems that the current
infrastructure has.

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0.2.1 CNS-ATM

CNS/ATM (Communications, Navigation, Surveillance / Air Traffic


Management) describes the technical concepts as well as the implementation of the
infrastructure necessary for the provision of air navigation services. This also covers
future concepts such as digital Data Links for transmission of operational data, the
Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) concept and satellite-based navigation, the
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).

ATM is the aggregation of airborne functions and ground-based functions required


to ensure the safe and efficient movement of aircraft during all phases of operation.
ATM also is used to describe airspace and air traffic management activities that are
carried out jointly by aeronautical authorities concerned with the planning and
organization for the effective use of airspace and its movements within their regions of
responsibility. The ATM operational concept must have a visionary scope and be
referred to the concept of endurance of flight, shared separation assurance and
situational awareness in the cockpits. The general objective of the ATM is to allow
aircraft operators to comply with the estimated times of departure and arrival and to
follow preferred flight profiles with a minimum of limitations and without jeopardizing
agreed level of safety.

The communication element of CNS/ATM systems provides for the exchange of


aeronautical data and messages between aeronautical users and/or automated systems.
Communication systems are also used in support of specific navigation and surveillance
functions.

The navigation element of CNS/ATM systems is meant to provide accurate,


reliable and seamless position determination capability, worldwide, through the
introduction of satellite-based aeronautical navigation or global navigation satellite
system (GNSS). Nowadays based on ground systems provide this service, as DME,
VOR or NDB.

The surveillance element of CNS/ATM provide the required level of safety, keep
the distance between aircrafts and other objects (other airplanes, ground vehicles,
mountains....) for avoiding accidents. Surveillance systems presently in use can be
divided into two main types: dependent surveillance and independent surveillance. In
dependent surveillance systems, aircraft position is determined on board and then

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transmitted to Air Traffic Control (ATC). The current voice position reporting is a
dependent surveillance systems in which the position of the aircraft is determined from
on-board navigation equipment and then conveyed by the pilot to ATC by
radiotelephony. Independent surveillance is a system which measures aircraft position
from the ground. Current surveillance is either based on voice position reporting or
based on radar (primary surveillance radar (PSR) or secondary surveillance radar
(SSR)) which measures range and azimuth of aircraft from the ground station.

0.2.2 RNAV

Random Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation which permits aircraft


operations on any desired flight path within the coverage of station referenced
navigation aids or within the limits of the capability of self-contained aids, or a
combination of these. Airborne RNAV equipment automatically determines aircraft
position by processing data from one or more sensors and guides the aircraft in
accordance with appropriate routing instructions.

Additional navigation parameters such as distance and bearing to a preselected


waypoint can also be computed from the aircraft position and the location of the
waypoint, dependent upon the capability of the RNAV equipment. Position can be
displayed to the pilot in various ways, most practically in terms of the aircraft position
relative to the precomputed desired track. Most RNAV equipment can employ any
lateral displacement of the aircraft from the desired track to generate track guidance
signals to the auto-pilot. With other less sophisticated RNAV equipments manual
corrective action is taken by the pilot.

The benefits offered for this concept are:

• improved management in the flow of traffic by repositioning of


intersections;

• more efficient use of available airspace, by means of a more


flexible ATS route structure and the application of the Flexible Use of
Airspace (FUA) Concept, permitting more direct routes (dual or parallel)
to accommodate a greater flow of en-route traffic;bypass routes for

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aircraft overflying high-density terminal areas; and alternative or
contingency routes on either a planned or an ad hoc basis;

• reduction in flight distances resulting in fuel savings;

• reduction in the number of ground navigation facilities.

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) is a statement of the navigation


performance accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace. The different
characteristic of each kind of RNAV are shown in the following table:

Required Accuracy
RNP Type Description
(95% Containment)
Planned for CAT III Precision Approach and Landing including
0.003/z ± 0.003 NM [± z ft] touchdown, landing roll and take-off roll requirements. (ILS,
MLS and GBAS)

Proposed for CAT II Precision Approach to 100 ft DH (ILS,


0.01/15 ± 0.01 NM [± 15 ft]
MLS and GBAS)

Proposed for CAT I Precision Approach to 200 ft DH (ILS,


0.02/40 ± 0.02 NM [± 40 ft]
MLS, GBAS and SBAS)

0.03/50 ± 0.03 NM [± 50 ft] Proposed for RNAV/VNAV Approaches using SBAS.

Proposed for RNAV/VNAV Approaches using Barometric


0.3/125 ± 0.3 NM [± 125 ft]
inputs or SBAS.

Supports Initial/Intermediate Approach, 2D RNAV Approach,


0.3 ± 0.3 NM
and Departure. Expected to be the most common application.

Supports Initial/Intermediate Approach and Departure. Only


expected to be used where RNP 0.3 cannot be achieved (poor
0.5 ± 0.5 NM
navaid infrastructure) and RNP 1 is unacceptable (obstacle rich
environment)

Supports Arrival, Initial/Intermediate Approach and Departure;


1 ± 1.0 NM also envisaged as supporting the most efficient ATS route
operations. Equates to P-RNAV.

Supports ATS routes and airspace based upon limited


distances between navaids. Normally associated with
4 ± 4.0 NM
continental airspace but may be used as part of some terminal
procedures.

An interim type implemented in ECAC airspace to permit the


5 ± 5.0 NM continued operation of existing navigation equipment. Equates
to B-RNAV.

Supports reduced lateral and longitudinal separation minima


10 ± 10 NM and enhanced operational efficiency in oceanic and remote
areas where the availability of navigation aids is limited.

Supports limited optimised routing in areas with a reduced level


12.6 ± 12.6 NM
of navigation facilities

The minimum capability considered acceptable to support ATS


20 ± 20.0 NM
route operations.

Accuracy is not the only paremeter which describe each kind of RNP, the rest of
them are shown below in the capter concerning GNSS.

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0.2.3 Free Flight
The Radio Technical Committee for Aeronautics (RTCA) defines "Free Flight" as: "a
safe and efficient flight operating capability under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in which
operators have the freedom to select this path and speed in real time. Air traffic restrictions are
only imposed to ensure separation, to preclude exceeding airport capacity, to prevent an
authorized flight through special use airspace, and to ensure safety at flight. Restrictions are
limited in extent and duration to correct the identifies problem." In the same report RTCA states
that "Free Flight is necessary to reduce the insufficient capacity, limited access and excessive
restrictions that have resulted in escalated operation costs, increased delay and decreased
efficiency for all users" .

0.2.4 Gate to Gate


Gate to gate is a new way to manage a flight, it consists in the total control of all
parameters which involve an aircraft during the route, since it starts the engines till their
stopping. In this way it is possible to choose the more reliable configuration to obtain
the lowest fuel consumption, the shortest path, the highest level of safety and
sumarizing the best advantage of the available resources.
The implementation of all aforementioned concepts is the solution adopted by
ICAO (Internation civil Aviation Organization) to solve the current and foreseen
problems of the present air traffic system, and they are the goals to reach for the
developing techonology.

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1 GNSS

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the name given by ICAO to
include all elements of satellite navigation and its augmentations, both present and
future. The creation of that concept is due to the necessity of change the current system
of navigation.

The rate of growth per year of the air traffic in Europe is almost a 5%, and the
present distribution of air space has a limit capacity which is supossed to be exceeded
over the year 2010. The aircrafts fly following paths predetermined by some based on
ground aids, as DME,NDB or VOR, so they cannot choose the shortest way to fly from
one place to another having to adapte the routes to the existing aids; therefore there are a
kind of "highways" which concentrate all the traffic movements, it means the air space
is being bad exploiting,and it supposes big costs of money for the air companies.

Besides this, in some areas like oceanic or remote ones, it is impossible to stablish
a net with ground based systems and the safety distance has to be strongly increased.
Such reasons made ICAO to consider the possibility to create a global navigation
system based on satellite, taking advantage of the existing systems, GPS, GLONASS
and INMARSAT.

The study about the implementation and feasibility of such type of navigation
system began at the beginning of the 90´s. Nowadays, the purpose is to develope the
necessary technology to allow GNSS cover all CNS tasks, not only to provide
navigation service but surveillance and comunication also; and perhaps, beyond the
2020 year, to be the sole system for the air navigation, although this question is
debatable.

The disadvantages presented by this system are:


• The vulnerability of the satellite signals to get interferences.
• The accuracy of the position determination is variable in time and
space setting statistical limits on its performance.
• the institutional issue of GNSS signals being controlled by only a few
nations and there is no performance guarantee provided by the
current constellation operators.
In the other hand it has the following advantages over conventional ground aids:

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• GNSS receivers work globally, they are not restricted by the range of
a ground transmitter.
• Satellite navigation is more accurate in most respects compared to
other methods.
• GNSS receivers offer flexibility, they do not restrict the user to a
fixed route structure.
• GPS receivers are low cost and readily available; a global mass
market of applications has driven down their price.
• Satellite navigation is less expensive for aviation to use. The U.S.
and R.F. taxpayers carry the current costs through their respective
defence budgets, whereas conventional air navigation systems
recover their costs from the aviation community. Galileo’s cost will
be, at most, only partially carried by aviation.
• GNSS is the only technology offering the capability to support gate-
to-gate navigation. Currently several different navigation aids must
be carried, one or more for each phase of flight and region.
To summarize; GNSS plays an important role in the development of the new
ATM, making feasible the implementation of such concepts as free flight, free route,
4DRNav and even "gate to gate". However it couldn´t achieve the features required of
continuity, availability, integrity and accuracy for all the phases of flight using only the
satellites constellation aforementioned, therefore it is necessary to improve with other
technology. Required performances are shown in the following graphic:

To reach this features GNSS covers a wide variety of systems: GPS, GLONASS,
SBAS (EGNOS, WAAS, MSAS), GBAS (LAAS), RAIM, ABAS and in future

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GALILEO, GPS III, GLONASS-K. Its final composition will depend on the
requirements for air navigation. It is assumed that ICAO will continue to write
amendments to standardize GNSS up to the point where it could be adopted as a sole-
service. Next table shows the differents future components of GNSS and the time of
their implementation.

Today’s GNSS components are:

• GPS,

• GLONASS;partially operational, with doubts on its availability in the


future)

• ABAS; Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) algorithms,


Inertial Navigation Service (INS) hybridisation with GPS.

These system reach the lowest features allowed by ICAO for aircraft navigation. It
is inadequate for supporting precision approach.

The implementation of GNSS has been divided in parts, nowadays the 2 first parts
are defined and known as GNSS-1 and GNSS-2; the configuration of the third part is
still under discussion.

GNSS-1 is mainly formed by the two constellations currently working, GPS and
GLONASS and by the SBAS systems, as is shown in the graphic below .

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Using SBAS the features of the navigation signal is enhanced and an integrity
signal is added. This allows to use that system for almost all phases of flight, however it
is still necessary to set local systems for approaching phases of flight.

The expected performance for the GNSS-1 in Europe is shown in the following table:

The second generation, GNSS-2, enhance all the previous features incorporating
the european global navigation system, GALILEO, and the next generation of GPS. It
will offer a service for almost all the phases of flight without any kind of augmentation,
except in precission approachings where ground augmentations are necessary to reach
the standards of ICAO.

In the following graphic are shown the difference between each navigation system
perfomance and when both are used at the same time.

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1.1 Global position constellation

1.1.1 Global Position System (GPS)


Satellite-based radio navigation system, initially developed in the early 1960s and
operated by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) since then. However, subsequent to
a 1966 Presidential Decision Directive which was later passed into law, the "ownership"
from DOD was transferred to an Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB), co-chaired
by senior officials of the Departments of Transportation and Defense to provide
management oversight and to assure that GPS meets both civil and military user
requirements.

The space segment is composed of 24 satellites (this constellation is called


NAVSTAR) with a useful life of approximately 7.5 years, arranged in 6 orbits of four
satellites each at an altitude of 20,200Km, such orbits are nearly circular and equally
spaced about the equator at a 60-degree separation with an inclination of 55 degrees
relative to the equator. users with a clear view of the sky have a minimum of four
satellites in view.

At the heart of the Ground Control Network is the Master Control Station (MCS)
located at the Schriever (formerly named Falcon) Air Force Base near Colorado

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Springs, Colorado . The MCS operates the system and provides command and control
functions for the satellite constellation.

The satellites in orbit are continuously tracked from six USAF monitor stations
spread around the globe in longitude: Ascension Island , Diego Garcia, Kwajalein ,
Hawaii , Cape Canaveral and Colorado Springs . The monitor stations form the data
collection component of the control network. A monitor station continuously makes
pseudorange measurements to each satellite in view. There are two cesium clocks
referenced to GPS system time in each monitor station. Pseudorange measurements
made to each satellite in view by the monitor station receiver are used to update the
master control station’s precise estimate of each satellite’s position in orbit.

GPS provides two levels of service; a Standard Positioning Service (SPS) for
general civil use; and a Precise Positioning Service (PPS) primarily intended for use by
the Department of Defense and U.S. allies.

There are no restrictions on SPS usage and is available to users worldwide. But
these signals are affected to deteriorate his accuracy, it is called Selected Availability
(SA). UTC (USNO) time dissemination accuracy is within 340 nanoseconds (95%)
referenced to the time kept at the U.S. Naval Observatory. It means that the precision
without the SA effects would be large better, in the order of 30 meters. PPS provides
UTC (USNO) time transfer accuracy within 200 nanoseconds (95%) referenced to the
time kept at the U.S. Naval Observatory.

The accuracies of all differents kinds of service are shown in the following table:

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ACCURACY (95%) SPS(SA) SPS PPS

Horizontal (m) 100 25 22

Vertical (m) 156 43 27.7

At this time GPS doesn´t offer a signal of integrity and is the main reason why is
not used for air navigation.

U. S. Government is preparing the next generation of GPS (GPS III) broadcasting


a new frequency and developing a modern satellite. The activities to enhance the GPS
performance are:

• New civil frequencies at L2 (1227.6 MHz) and at L5 (1176.45 MHz),


as well as retention of the long-standing civil signal at L1 (1575.42
MHz). It allows to civil users to correct ionospheric deviation.

• New signal structures for both civil and military users. The new
civil signals at L5 are projected to support a code rate
10 times that of the C/A-code. This will improve code
measurement accuracy, reduce code noise, reduce
cross-correlation concerns, and provide improved
multipath mitigation.

• Removal of Selective Availability, This, with the additional civil


frequencies (for ionospheric correction), will improve civil GPS
performance by a factor of about ten (compared to that with SA).

• Reduction in Systematic Error Sources includes not only SA removal


and ionospheric error correction, but substantial improvements in
GPS receivers, in the control segment redundancy (with the added
NIMA monitor stations), and improved statistical estimation
techniques providing substantially better capabilities for minimizing
spacecraft position prediction (ephemeris) errors.

• Increased Signal Availability and Power from GPS Spacecraft


which have greater reliability and lifetimes.

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1.1.2 GLONASS
The Russian Federation has implemented the GLONASS, its concept quite similar
to the GPS with different signal processing techniques. It provides for space signals to
be sent to properly equipped users for precision determination of position, speed and
time.

Fully deployed GLONASS Constellation is composed of 24 satellites, with an


operational life of 3 years (5 years improved version GLONASS-M), in three orbital
planes whose acsending nodes ares 120 degrees apart. 8 satellites are equally spaced in
each plane with argument of latitude displacement of 45 degrees. Besides the planes
themselves have 15 degrees argument of latitude displacement. The each GLONASS
satellite operates in circular 19100 km orbits at an inclination angle of 64.8 degrees and
each satellite completes an orbit in approximately 11 hours 15 minutes. The spacing of
satellites in orbits is arranged so that a minimum of 5 satellites are in view to users
world-wide, with adequate geometry

The GLONASS system has two types of navigation signal: standard precision
navigation signal (SP) and high precision navigation signal (HP). SP positioning and
timing services are available to all GLONASS civil users on a continuous, worldwide
basis and provide the capability to obtain horizontal positioning accuracy within 57-70
meters (99.7% probability), vertical positioning accuracy within 70 meters (99.7%
probability), velocity vector components measuring accuracy within 15 cm/s (99.7%
probability) and timing accuracy within 1 mks (99.7% probability).

The GLONASS Constellation is operated by Ground-based Control Complex


(GCS). It consists the System Control Center (Krasnoznamensk, Moscow region) and a
several Command Tracking Stations (CTS) are placed over a wide area of Russia. The
CTSs track the GLONASS satellites in view and accumulate ranging data and telemetry
from the satellites signals. The information from CTSs is processed at the SCC to
determine satellite clock and orbit states and to update the navigation message of each
satellite. This updated information is transmitted to the satellites via the CTSs, which
also used for transmitting of control information. The CTSs ranging data is periodically
calibrated using a laser ranging devices at the Quantum Optical Tracking Stations which
are within GCS. Each GLONASS satellite specially carries laser reflectors for this
purpose. The synchronization of all the processes in the GLONASS system is very
important for its proper operability. There is the Central Synchronizer within GCS to

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meet this requirement. The Central Synchronizer is high-precise hydrogen atomic clock
which forms the GLONASS system time scale. The onboard time scales ( on a basis of
satellite cesium atomic clocks) of all the GLONASS satellites are synchronized with the
State Etalon UTC(CIS) in Mendeleevo, Moscow region, through the GLONASS
System Time scale.

1.1.3 Galileo
In 1998 , ESA and the European Union jointly decided to study the feasibility of a
truly inependent European GNSS. Named Galileo, the programme was first approved in
1999. Besides being independent, Galileo is planned to offer greater accuracy, integrity,
availability and continuity of services compared with present systems. In spite of the
dual-use nature of any GNSS system, Galileo is intended to be for civilian application
only. It is labelled as a “civil programme under civil control”.

The fully deployed Galileo system consists of 30 satellites (27 operational + 3


active spares), positioned in three circular Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) planes in 23616
km altitude above the Earth, and at an inclination of the orbital planes of 56 degrees
with reference to the equatorial plane. With a satellite orbit time of 14 hours, the
configuration of the constellation will guarantee at least six in-sight satellites at any
given time for any location. Once this is achieved, the Galileo navigation signals will
provide a good coverage even at latitudes up to 75 degrees north, which corresponds to
the North Cape, and beyond. The large number of satellites together with the
optimisation of the constellation, and the availability of the three active spare satellites,
will ensure that the loss of one satellite has no discernible effect on the user. This
system will be perfectly compatible with the existing global position system nowadays,
so together will be able to improve the accuracy such system.

The Galileo spacecraft will have an expected lifespan of 10 years. Each one will
be replaced on a regular basis to account for eventual malfunctioning, residual life, and
accommodation of future payload technology.

The position accuracy depends on the accuracy of the time measurement. Only
atomic clocks provide the required accuracy, of the order of nanoseconds (10–9 s), and

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the necessary stability, of the order of 10 nanoseconds per day for Rubidium Atomic
frequency standard and 1 nanosecond per day for hydrogen-maser atomic clocks. Such

clocks are a major technology element aboard the Galileo satellites and contribute to the
definition of international time standards. The time measurement is improved by
including the signal from a fourth satellite, so special care is being taken in selecting

the numbers of satellites and their orbits.

It will be set a ground net to assist all the time the satellite constellation. It will be
managed by two Control Centres placed in Europe, supported by twenty Galileo sensor
stations (GSS). All data exchanges between the Control Centres will be done through
specific up-link stations. A total of 15 uplink stations will be installed around the world
to facilitate this type of data transfer. As the principal component of the ground
segment, the Control Centres will be in charge of the management of the satellites, the
integrity of the signals (very important charateristic for the implementation in air
navigation), and the synchronisation of the atomic clocks onboard the satellites.

A key asset of GALILEO will be its above-mentioned ability to offer the integrity
required for the provision of service guarantees and for the support of safety-of-life
applications. It is planned to provide integrity by broadcasting integrity alerts to the
users. These alerts will indicate when the GALILEO signals are outside specification.
The user receiver can then reject signals from satellites to which an alert refers or, using
the outputs of the receiver signal processing in conjunction with other receiver
techniques, such as RAIM (Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring), reduce the
influence that these signals have on the final computed position.Three differents types
of service will be offered. In the following table it is showed the features of each one of
them and their different kynds of transport application.

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This infraestructure has been designed to obtain a high level of features so can be
used even for approaching of CAT-1 without any kind of GBAS (Ground Augmentation
System). Galileo will offer differents sort of services with the characteristics showed
below, in the following table:

The “Safety of life” requirement, applicable with good visibility of the sky as seen
by ships at sea or aircraft in flight, is aimed primarily at safety-of-life applications.4
metres is the vertical accuracy requirement for civil aviation CAT-I precision approach
and landing.

A wide range of data message rates, from 250 bit/s to 1500 bit/s, is being
considered.Low data rates cause minimum disturbance to the navigation signal. High

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data rates maximise the potential for adding ancillary messages and this feature is
fundamental for the implementation of GALILEO in the area of the air navigation. For
which a wide range of applications can be imagined, as shown the next table:

1.2 SBAS

Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBAS) are networks of ground relay


stations and geostatic satellites designed to receive satellite navigation signals and
transmit corrected time and distance measurements that greatly improve accuracy.
Observation and relay stations have been set at known positions all over the world,
while their geostatic satellites continuously maintain a fixed position above the Earth.
Using these known values for distance, SBAS corrects satellite navigation signals for
atmospheric delays, incorrect satellite positioning and poor geometry, sometimes caused
by inline or close alignment of satellites, increasing accuracy in specific regions. SBAS
is vital to providing the reliability and precision required by aviation. Using the same
signal frequencies as satellite navigation, SBAS-enabled receivers are inter-compatible.
Three augmentation systems are currently in varying stages of operation and
development covering North America, Europe and Asia. These systems are called
WAAS, EGNOS and MSAS and are managed by the government of U.S.A., European
Union and Japan. More recently the goverments of Canada, Republic of China and India
have announced the creation of their own sbas systems; CWAS, SNAS and GAGAN
respectively. In the following picture is showed the areas under their range.

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1.2.1 WAAS
Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) consists of approximately 25 ground
reference stations positioned across the United States that monitor GPS satellite data.
Two master stations, located on either coast, collect data from the reference stations and
create a GPS correction message. This correction accounts for GPS satellite orbit and
clock drift plus signal delays caused by the atmosphere and ionosphere. The corrected
differential message is then broadcast through one of two geostationary satellites, or
satellites with a fixed position over the equator. The information is compatible with the
basic GPS signal structure, which means any WAAS-enabled GPS receiver can read the
signal.

Specified performance for WAAS

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1.2.2 EGNOS
The European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS) is a joint
project of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Commission (EC) and
Eurocontrol, the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation; such
association is called European Tripartite Group (ETG). Consisting of three
geostationary satellites and a network of ground stations, EGNOS will achieve its aim
by transmitting a signal containing information on the reliability and accuracy of the
positioning signals sent out by the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Global
Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS); and later, when it became operative,
the GALILEO system also.

The EGNOS signal will be broadcast by two Inmarsat-3 satellites, one over the
eastern part of the Atlantic, the other over the Indian Ocean, and the ESA Artemis
satellite which is in Geostationary Earth orbit above Africa. Unlike the GPS and
GLONASS satellites, these three will not have signal generators on board. A
transponder will transmit signals up-linked to the satellites from the ground, where all
the signal processing will take place. The sophisticated ground segment will consist of
about 30 ranging and integrity monitoring stations (RIMS), four master control centres
and six up-link stations.

The RIMS measure the positions of each EGNOS satellite and compare accurate
measurements of the positions of each GPS and GLONASS satellite with measurements
obtained from the satellites’ signals. The RIMS then send this data to the master control
centres, via a purpose built communications network.

The master control centres determine the accuracy of GPS and GLONASS signals
received at each station and determine position inaccuracies due to disturbances in the
ionosphere. All the deviation data is then incorporated into a signal and sent via the
secure communications link to the up-link stations, which are widely spread across
Europe. The up-link stations send the signal to the three EGNOS satellites, which then
transmit it for reception by GPS and GLONASS users with an EGNOS receiver.

23
Considerable redundancy is built into EGNOS so that the service can be
guaranteed at practically all times. At any one time, only one master control centre will
be “the master”, with another on stand-by to take over instantaneously should the first
one fail. There is redundancy in the up-link stations, too. Only three are needed to
operate EGNOS, one for each satellite. The other three are in reserve in case of failure.

The Galileo test version bed-1 has already been completed and the feature for
horizontal accuracy is shown below. In the following graphic is apreciated the role that
egnoss will play in the GNSS-1 as well as GNSS-2.

The specified performance for EGNOSS is shown in the following table

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1.2.3 MTSAS
MTSAT Satellite-based Augmentation System (MTSAS) is the SBAS developed
by the Civil Aviation Bureau, Japan (JCAB). It consists of a geostationary satellite and
two centres of control.

The geo-satellite is called Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) and has


two missions, i.e. meteorological mission and aeronautical mission. The aeronautical
mission of MTSAT will contribute to each element of the ICAO CNS/ATM systems,
i.e. communication, navigation and surveillance.. Currently there are two satellites in
service ,MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2R, the first was launched in 2003 and the second in
2004.

The MTSAT system will provide direct controller-pilot communication in voice


(SAT-Voice) and data (controller-pilot datalink communication: CPDLC), GPS
augmentation information, and automatic dependant surveillance (ADS) capabilities.
The MTSAT system will not only be capable of handling oceanic ATS communications
within the Japanese FIRs, but will also be offered to the civil aviation community in the
Asia/Pacific Region as an aviation infrastructure, which could facilitate the
implementation of the ICAO CNS/ATM systems.

In order to provide service continuously, even in natural disasters, two aeronautical


satellite centers have been implemented at two different locations in Japan, i.e. Kobe
(approximately 500 km west of Tokyo) and Hitachi-ota (approximately 100 km
northeast of Tokyo).

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1.3 GBAS

Groun-based Augmentation Systems are used to enhance the continuity,


availability, integrity and precision of GNSS signals within a reduced geographic area.
It consists of a ground monitoring station whose locations known with precision. This
station evaluates the information received from GNSS satellites, detects clock and other
errors and sends a correction signal to airborne receivers through a VHF data links.
There are two kinds, DGPS y RTK which are described below.

1.3.1 DGPS
A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is a system designed to improve
the accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) by measuring infinitesimal
changes in variables to provide satellite positioning corrections.

Two or more receivers observe the same set of satellites, taking similar
measurements that produce similar errors when positioned closely together. A reference
receiver, placed at a known location, calculates its theoretical position and compares it
to the measurements provided by the navigation satellite signals. The difference
between the two values reveals the measurement error. The reference receiver then
transmits a corrected signal to any number of receivers at unknown positions within the
area covered by the DGPS. Accuracy of global satellite positioning is thereby increased
from 15 meters to within a few meters. This technique compensates for errors in the
satellite navigation system itself but may not always correct errors caused by the local
environment when satellite navigation signals are reflected off of tall buildings or
nearby mountains, creating multi-path signals. The accuracy of DGPS decreases with
asynchronous measurement caused by spatial and temporal error decorrelation when the
system receivers are set at greater distances apart.

26
More sophisticated DGPS techniques can increase positioning accuracy to within
a few millimeters. Raw measurements recorded by the reference receiver and one or
more roving receivers can be processed using specially designed software that
calculates the errors. The corrections may then be transmitted in real time or after the
fact (post-processing). By applying the corrections and recalculating the position,
accuracy from within several meters to within a few millimeters is achieved, depending
on the specific methodology used and the quality of the real-time.

Satellite navigation receivers calculate position by measuring pseudo distances


from the positioning satellites. These measurements are taken in several different ways.
The most common method, used by all receivers, is to calculate the difference between
the time a signal is transmitted from a satellite and the time it is recorded by the
receiver, using the code embedded in the satellite's signal. This measurement is called
code phase, and produces non-ambiguous meter-level results.

There are three types of DGPS using code phase measurement methods. DGPS
and LADGPS (Local Area DGPS) typically cover an area up to several tens of
kilometers. The coverage area is greatly increased up to several thousand kilometers by
a more sophisticated method known as WADGPS (Wide Area DGPS). WADGPS
classifies errors into position-dependent and position-independent components creating
a secondary set of measurements that are transmitted to the rover receivers. The rover
receivers are then able to reconstruct the pseudo range correction most applicable to
their actual position and compute an accurate differential position.

A second method serves to compliment code phase measurement by measuring


the carrier phase of the satellite carrier wave. This method provides millimeter-level
resolution with measurements that are ambiguous to about 19 centimeters.

DGPS using the carrier phase achieves maximum accuracy only when
measurement ambiguities are resolved in some way. The static method of ambiguity
resolution is related to stationary receivers, with rover receiver point occupation from
30 minutes to several hours or even several days. The rapid static method reduces
occupation periods to several minutes, while the kinematic method allows rover
receivers to move without constraint.

The principle of DGPS is separated into the following classifications:

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Measurement Real-time or Post- System Type Accuracy Coverage Area
Type processing

Code phase Post-processing Post-processed DGPS, post-processed from < 1 m to From several x 10 km to
LADGPS or post-processed WADGPS ~10 m several x 1000 km

Code phase Real time DGPS, LADGPS or WADGPS from < 1 m to From several x 10 km to
~10 m several x 1000 km

Carrier phase Post-processing Kinematic, rapid static or static from < 1 cm to From several km to several x
several cm 1000 km

Carrier phase Real time Real-time kinematic from < 1 cm to From several km to several x
several cm 10 km

1.3.1.1 LAAS

The Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) is an augmentation to GPS that


focuses its service on the airport area (approximately a 20-30 mile radius).It is a DGPS
with aeronautical purposes.

It broadcasts its correction message via a very high frequency (VHF) radio data
link from a ground-based transmitter. LAAS will yield the extremely high accuracy,
availability, and integrity necessary for Category I, II, and III precision approaches, and
will provide the ability for more flexible, curved approach paths. LAAS demonstrated
accuracy is less than 1 meter in both the horizontal and vertical axis.

1.3.2 RTK
Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is a process where GPS signal corrections are
transmitted in real time from a reference receiver at a known location to one or more
remote rover receivers. The use of an RTK capable GPS system can compensate for
atmospheric delay, orbital errors and other variables in GPS geometry, increasing
positioning accuracy up to within a centimeter. Used by engineers, topographers,
surveyors and other professionals, RTK is a technique employed in applications where

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precision is paramount. RTK is used, not only as a precision positioning instrument, but
also as a core for navigation systems or automatic machine guidance, in applications
such as civil engineering and dredging. It provides advantages over other traditional
positioning and tracking methods, increasing productivity and accuracy.

Using the code phase of GPS signals, as well as the carrier phase, which delivers
the most accurate GPS information, RTK provides differential corrections to produce
the most precise GPS positioning.

The RTK process begins with a preliminary ambiguity resolution. This is a crucial
aspect of any kinematic system, particularly in real-time where the velocity of a rover
receiver should not degrade either the achievable performance or the system's overall
reliability.

This tecnich is widely used by surveyors although the usefulness for aeronautical
tasks has to be studied

1.3.3 GRAS
The Ground-based Regional Augmentation System is a blending of SBAS and
GBAS concepts to enhance GNSS performance. This concept is SBAS-like in using a
distributed network of reference stations for monitoring GPS (or other constellations),
and a central processing facility for computing integrity and differential correction
information. Instead of transmitting this information to users via dedicated
geostationary satellites, GRAS delivers SBAS message data to a network of terrestrial
stations for a local check and reformatting. Each site broadcasts a GBAS-like, VHF data
signal which can be received by the aircraft to obtain augmentation data for both en
route as well as terminal area approach and departure operations.

1.3.4 VDL
In future, voice communication will be used for critical messages, such as
vectoring to avoid traffic and landing clearance at airports with heavy traffic. It will
serve as back up for data link. VHF analogue radios available today are not compatible
with upcoming new technology. The VHF Data Link (VDL) operation requires a VHF
digital radio (VDR). VDL is essential for ATN implementation and consequently, for
greater use of ATS data links. The availability of airborne equipment manufactured in
series, including digital radios, will make it possible to equip a larger number of aircraft.

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The VDL formats specify a protocol for delivering data packets between airborne
equipment and ground systems similar to that used in the aircraft communication
addressing and reporting system (ACARS). The difference is that the VDL provides a
capacity 10 times greater than the equivalent of 25 KHz VHF channel.
Particularly all the GBAS need a reliable way of communication to transmit from
the ground staion to the airbornes, VDL looks the best solution but has to be improved
to reach the ICAO coummunication standards. Nowadays the VDL mode 2 is in use and
the mode 4 in developing phase, it is expected to be implemented after the 2010 year.
The VDL mode 3 will not be in service and his study has been left.

1.3.4.1 VDL Mode 1


The use of VHF analogue radios for data exchange was started by air lines in the
late 70s. Current air borne radios have been used to transmit data between operators and
their aircrafts by means of special ground-based stations and interconnection networks.
The so-called ACARS system has been developed and has grown considerably, with
limited use for ATC communication. This mode has been especially designed to use
ACARS modulation equipment and radio. ACARS and VDL mode-1 is a low speed bit
oriented data transfer system. It uses carrier sense multiple access (CSMA)
methodology. The new development has overtaken VDL mode-1 and is no longer in
use.

1.3.4.2 VDL Mode -2


It is improved version of the VDL- Mode 1 and also uses same technology, but is
not capable of handling voice communication. Average data transmission is 31.5 kbps.
It employs a globally dedicated common signaling channel of 136.975 MHz. Limited
commercial service are available at this time, as aircraft operators and service providers
are able to introduce new equipment

1.3.4.3 VDL Mode 3


It is an integrated digital data and communication system that makes it possible to
use four radio channels on a carrier (with a 25 KHz spacing). It uses a data link
technology called TDMA. The data capability provides a mobile sub network i.e.
compliant to aeronautic traffic network (ATN). It is presently is not available for
operational use.

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1.3.4.4 VDL Mode 4

It also has navigation and surveillance capabilities and uses a data link technology
called self-organizing time division multiple access (STDMA). In this mode station,
stations transmit their geographical position together with data message in time slots
that are dynamically modified at frequent intervals.
Before starting a transmission using the STDMA technique, the aircraft keeps listening
watch on the frequency to be used and establish a track and a table of time slots of all
other aircrafts. An algorithm in the aircraft transceiver selects a free slot or takes the slot
of the most distant aircraft. This modulation system allows distant stations to transmit in
the same slot with a minimum of interference. STDMA does not have voice
communication capability. In this mode aircraft is not involved in any manual frequency
tuning for any station change. Even so, reception of the geographic position of other
aircraft gives a surveillance capability, which is candidate technology for ADS-B
operations.

1.4 ABAS

Aircraft-based augmentation is achieved by features of the onboard equipment


designed to overcome performance limitations of the GNSS constellations. ABAS
equipment to date has been designed to resolve integrity deficiencies, although future
systems may address other aspects. The two systems currently in use are Receiver
Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) and the Aircraft Autonomous Integrity
Monitor (AAIM).

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1.4.1 RAIM
RAIM provides integrity by detecting the failure of a GNSS satellite. It is a
software function incorporated into GPS receivers designed to meet TSO-C129, C145,
C146 or later versions of these standards. GPS systems with RAIM normally provide
three modes of operation:
1 • Navigation solution with RAIM;
2 • 2D or 3D navigation solution without RAIM; and
3 • Dead Reckoning (DR), or loss of navigation solution.
RAIM may be either Fault Detection (FD) or Fault Detection & Exclusion (FDE),
although the majority of existing receiver designs do not include FDE.

1.4.1.1 RAIM (FD)

FD compares position and time information derived from combinations of four


satellites in a set of at least five satellites. In this way, a faulty satellite can be detected
and the pilot provided with a warning that the system should no longer be used for
navigation. RAIM messages vary between receivers, but there are generally two types.
One type indicates that there are not sufficient satellites available to provide RAIM
integrity monitoring and another type indicates that the RAIM integrity monitor has
detected a potential error that exceeds the limit for the current phase of flight (en-route,
terminal or approach). Without RAIM capability, the pilot has no assurance of the
accuracy of the GNSS-derived position.

A RAIM hole occurs for the period of time that there are insufficient GNSS
satellites in view to provide an integrity check at a given location. In some parts of
Australia, particularly southern Australia, there are fewer than five GPS satellites in
view for short periods. With only four satellites in view, RAIM may be achieved with
barometric altitude aiding to provide the fifth data input. RAIM holes are predictable

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and GPS NOTAMS (for FD functions with barometric aiding) are issued for flight
planning purposes by Airservices Australia.

1.4.1.2 RAIM (FDE)

FDE needs six inputs and, like FD, may use barometric aiding as a data source.
With six or more visible satellites FDE will not only detect a faulty satellite but also
remove it from the navigational solution and continue to provide FDE or FD with the
remaining satellites. FDE is required for oceanic approvals using GPS equipment and
mandated in the TSO-C145 and C146 standards.

1.4.2 AAIM
The AAIM uses the redundancy of position estimates from multiple sensors,
including GNSS, to provide integrity performance that is at least equivalent to RAIM.
The multi-sensor airborne augmentation systems may be certified in accordance with
TSO-C115 as amended. A common example of AAIM uses inertial navigation solutions
as an integrity check of the GPS solution when RAIM is unavailable but GPS
positioning information continues to be valid.

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2 Communication Systems

2.1 INMARSAT

INMARSAT (International Maritime Satellite Organization) is an international


organization established in 1979 and operates as a cooperative society. At the beginning
it was settled to improve sea communications in order to increase the safety. Nowadays,
in addition to offer services of phone network and data transmission to ships and sea-
platforms, it also provides them to the aeronautical comunity and mobile phone
network. In its origins, 26 countries founded the organization but now it is formed by 79
members, from which U.S.A is the owner of the biggest part (23%), and United
Kingdom and Norway have 11% and 10.5% each one.

Currently are working two generations of satellites (I-2, I-3), and one more (I-4)
will be launched this year (2005). Each new generation improves the features of the
Inmarsat system to obtain a better broadband and increase the different types of
services.

Inmarsat's primary satellite constellation consists of four Inmarsat I-3 satellites in


geostationary orbit. These are currently backed up by a fifth spacecraft that can be
brought in to provide additional capacity. Between them, the main "global" beams of
the satellites provide overlapping coverage of the whole surface of the Earth apart from
the poles. A geostationary satellite follows a circular orbit in the plane of the Equator at
a height of 35,600km, so that it appears to hover over a chosen point on the Earth's
surface. These satellites are supported by four previous-generation Inmarsat-2s, also in
geostationary orbit. Each satellite covers one third of the surface of the world
proximately, but thay are situated over one strategic region forming 4 regions as the
following graphic shows:

34
The satellites are controlled from the Satellite Control Centre (SCC) at Inmarsat
HQ in London. The control teams there are responsible for keeping the satellites in
position above the Equator, and for ensuring that the onboard systems are fully
functional at all times.

Data on the status of the nine Inmarsat satellites is supplied to the SCC by four
tracking, telemetry and control (TT&C) stations located at Fucino, Italy; Beijing in
China; Lake Cowichan, western Canada; and Pennant Point, eastern Canada. There is
also a back-up station at Eik in Norway.

The job of the satellites will be to support the new Broadband Global Area
Network (BGAN), currently scheduled to enter service in 2005 to deliver Internet and
intranet content and solutions, video-on-demand, videoconferencing, fax, e-mail, phone
and LAN access at speeds up to 432kbit/s almost anywhere in the world.

INMARSAT offers differents kind of services for different purposes. The


aeronautical ones are:

• Swift64; based on Inmarsat's Global Area Network (GAN) technology, Swift64


offers Mobile ISDN and IP-based Mobile Packet Data Service (MPDS)
connectivity at a basic rate of 64kbit/s to support high-quality voice, fax and
data communications. Techniques such as channel bonding and data acceleration
can boost the effective data rate to beyond 0.5Mbit/sec.

• Aero H; the original Inmarsat voice and data service, it supports multichannel
voice, fax, data communications at up to 9.6kbit/s, it complys with the ICAO
requirementes about safety and air traffic control.Aero H+ is an evolution of

35
Aero H. When an Aero H+ equipped aircraft is operating within a high-power
spotbeam from an Inmarsat I-3 satellite it can receive Aero H levels of service at
lower cost. Outside the spotbeams the terminal works with the global beam as if
it were a standard Aero H system.

• Aero I; exploiting the spotbeam power of the Inmarsat I-3 satellites. Aero I
brings multi-channel voice, fax and data at up to 4.8kbit/s through smaller,
cheaper terminals.

• Aero L; low-speed (600 bit/s) real-time data, mainly for airline ATC,
operational and administrative communications. It complys with the
requirements of ICAO about safety and air traffic control, as well as aero-H.

• mini-M; aero Single-channel voice, fax and 2.4kbit/s data for small corporate
aircraft and general aviation.

• Aero C ; it allows non-safety-related text or data messages to be sent and


received by general-aviation and military aircraft operating almost anywhere in
the world. Aero C operates on a store-and-forward basis - messages are
transmitted packet-by-packet, reassembled and delivered in non-real-time. This
is the aeronautical version of the other of the services offered by INMARSAT.

Therefore the contribution to the development of the strategy CNS/ATM due to


INMARSAT is summarized in three points:

Controller-pilot datalink ;Starting with the Pacific and the North Atlantic, ATC
providers have introduced two Inmarsat-supported techniques - automatic dependent
surveillance (ADS) and controller-pilot datalink communications (CPDLC) - that are
beginning to deliver significant improvements, with further benefits in prospect.

Satellite navigation; The accuracy, availability and integrity of the data supplied
to receivers aboard aircraft by GPS and Glonass are augmented by signals broadcast by
the Inmarsat I-3 satellites, and Galileo is expected to benefit in the same way.

Voice via Inmarsat;The flight-deck voice capability offered by Inmarsat is used


regularly for non-routine communications with the ground, allowing the crew to speak
directly to flight dispatch, maintenance and other airline departments. But it also has a
number of features allowing it to be used dependably for communications in an onboard
emergency. There is at least one significant uncertainty about the future shape of the

36
global air traffic system. While ICAO has mandated the development and
implementation of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN) to support the
efficient, standardized flow of data within the system, the interim use of FANS 1/A
avionics and the established Acars datalink format for ADS and CPDLC is increasingly
common among international airlines. The Inmarsat Aero system can accommodate
both data formats.

2.2 INTELSAT y EUTELSAT

They are two example of private companies in the sector of communications,


although don´t offer specific services to aircraft communications, they could play an
important role in ATM, but is necessary to plan this possibility with an economical
point of view and to certify the services they provide.

EUTELSAT has been active fromn 1977 years in commercial satellites


communications and owns one of the youngest fleets in the world. Their orbital
positions are from 15 degrees West to 70.5 degrees East providing coverage in this way
to the 90% of worldwide population across Europe, Asia and America. Satellite control
and operations of the company’s fully-owned satellites is managed through its teleport
in Rambouillet (France) which is also fully equipped to service postlaunch satellite
manoeuvres.

His fleet is composed of 23 satellites which serve landbased, maritime and in-
flight communications requirements. They are used for video broadcasting to cable and
satellite homes, satellite newsgathering and programme exchanges. Their orbital
position are shown in the picture below.

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Founded in 1964, INTELSAT was the first organization to provide global satellite
coverage and connectivity. Today INTELSAT owns and operates a global
communication satellite system providing capacity for voice, video, corporate/private
networks and Internet in more than 200 countries and territories, that means 99% of the
woldwide population, with a fleet of 27 satellites. Their position are shown in the
following graphic.

All transmissions via Eutelsat satellites are subject to certain standards and
parameters in order to guarantee high quality reception and the safety of the overall
system, for that reason either system precise of big ground net spread around the world
to monitore and transmit information to the satellites.

These systems are widely used by different kind of companies, not only for
communication ones as television channels, newspapers or mobile phone operators.
They offer the possibility to set a network for a company with almost wolrdwide
goverage, reliability (availability of 99.995% in INTELSAT transponders) and not a
huge cost, allowing a fast exchaging of data and information.

Data transmission in one-way or two-way, fax, telephony, internet connection are


the typical services offered, but nowadays the VSAT technology is taking more
importance as well as all kind of communications available for ship fleets, even they
broadcast the GPS signal in some areas. It doesn´t exist applications for aircraft
currently, but the use for air transport is evident and the possibility to allowe passengers
different services as internet connection, fax,... could be possible. Although to play a

38
role in the future CNS/ATM concept is necessary to define the standars which these
systems have to reach and dicuss the exact task which they would do.

2.3 IRIDIUM

The Iridium system is being funded by Iridium Inc., a diverse international


consortium of telecommunications and industrial companies. Motorola is the prime
contractor to Iridium Inc. for the procurement of the Iridium system. , it began service
to the U.S. Government in December, 2000. On March 28, 2001, commercial satellite
communications services were launched to heavy industry and other government
customers. The marketing strategy will be to focus on industrial clients whose
operations require reliable communications to and from remote areas of the globe where
terrestrial systems are not available. The Iridium system has the unique ability to reach
all of the world's remote areas, including the airspace, the oceans and the many under-
developed parts of the globe that currently have no communications systems.
Specifically, the company will pursue industrial segments including aviation, maritime,
oil & gas, mining, heavy construction, forestry, emergency services, and the leisure
market.

The Iridium constellation consists of 66 satellites in near-polar circular orbits


inclined at 86.4° at an altitude of 780 km. The satellites are distributed into six planes
separated by 31.6° around the equator with eleven satellites per plane. There is also one
spare satellite in each plane. With a satellite lifetime of from 5 to 8 years, it is expected
that the replenishment rate will be about a dozen satellites per year after the second year
of operation. The altitude was specified to be within the range 370 km (200 nmi) and
1100 km (600 nmi). The engineers wanted a minimum altitude of 370 km so that the
satellite would be above the residual atmosphere, which would have diminished lifetime
without extensive stationkeeping, and a maximum altitude of 1100 km so that the
satellite would be below the Van Allen radiation environment, which would require
shielding.

Each satellite covers a circular area roughly the size of the United States with a
diameter of about 4400 km, having an elevation angle of 8.2° at the perimeter and
subtending an angle of 39.8° with respect to the center of the earth. The coverage area is
divided into 48 cells. The satellite has three main beam phased array antennas, each of
which serves 16 cells.

39
The period of revolution is approximately 100 minutes, so that a given satellite is
in view about 9 minutes. The user is illuminated by a single cell for about one minute.
Complex protocols are required to provide continuity of communication seamlessly as
handover is passed from cell to cell and from satellite to satellite. The communications
link requires 3.5 million lines of software, while an additional 14 million lines of code
are required for navigation and switching. As satellites converge near the poles,
redundant beams are shut off. There are approximately 2150 active beams over the
globe. The configuration of the IRIDIUM is shown in the following picture.

IRIDIUM can provide 4800-bps data rate for voice communications and support
80 simultaneous users per cell and 172,000 simultaneous users system wide. The end-
to-end delay is able to meet the standard minimum of 400 ms.

In his developing phase, Iridium was intended to provide both safety (ATS &
AOC) and non-safety (AAC & APC) services across all authorized frequencies.
Nowadays it only offers non-safety communications service,ground to air, air to ground
and aie to air; besides other services as fax, voice, data transmissiom or internet
connection. It was supposed to be the main tool for the aeronautical communications
but it didn´t reach the expected features, currently it is the base to develop the "aero
fleet" project (based on MASSAO project) by ESA, a system to allow an operating
personal centre tracking, monitoring and communicating with an aircraft in all weather
conditions and in large distance from the centre via satellite.

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3 New technologies and developing projects

3.1 VSAT

The VSAT market has been going since the early 1980s and the launch of the first
one-way VSAT system by Equatorial of California. Towards 1985 the first interactive
star systems began to be seen and it wasn't until 1989 that the first mesh telephony
products were really sold.

VSAT is the acronym of Very Small Aperture Terminal, an earthbound station


used in satellite communications of data, voice and video signals, excluding broadcast
television. A VSAT allowed one-way or interactive communications.

The data transmission rate on the return link, in the direction from the VSAT to
the hub, is typically from a few 100 bit/s to 512 kbit/s. The number of VSAT sites
sharing a return link and the number of return links is adjustable to match actual traffic
patterns without unacceptable congestion. Where higher return link bit rates are
required up to say 2 Mbit/s a continuous return link carrier is used (SCPC) Single
channel per carrier.

In the outlink direction from the hub to the VSATs continuous carriers are used,
typically more than 256k bit/s and up to 60 Mbit/s. For strongly asymmetrical services,
such as Internet or Intranet broadband applications extra outlink capacity up 60 Mbit/s
is easily added. Each VSAT is restricted to extract from the data stream only those
packets of data intended for it's ports. One outlink may be shared by 5 to 32000 VSAT
sites, according to the traffic load.

There are many further possibilities. Point to point VSAT networks (2 terminals
only) are possible with 2 Mbit/s each way, carrying a mixture of data and voice traffic

Generally, these systems operate in the Ku-band (10/14 GHz) and C-band (6/4 GHz)
frequencies. As a rule of thumb C-band (which suffers less from rain attenuation, but
requires larger antennas) is used in Asia, Africa and Latin America whilst Ku-band
(which can use smaller antennas, but suffers from rain fade in a monsoon-like
downpour) is used in Europe and North America. Typically, interactive Ku-band
antenna sizes range from 75 centimetres to 1.8 metres and C-band from 1.8 metres to
2.4 metres. One way systems can use antennas as small as 45 centimetres.

41
One-way or broadcast systems rely on a transmitting station which transmits one
or more carriers to the satellite which re-broadcasts the signal over its coverage area. All
receive-only VSATs under the satellite footprint can then receive the signal or the
user/operator is able to define groups of VSATs from one to all on the network.

Interactive VSAT systems come in two main network topologies - star and mesh.
The former tends to be based either on a shared access scheme (TDM/TDMA), which is
designed to support transactional processing applications, or on a dedicated link (the
satellite equivalent to a leased line). The latter usually uses links which are set-up and
torn-down on request to establish a direct link between two sites on a demand assigned
basis. Either technics of communication are described below:

• Time Division Multiplexing, a satellite channel divided into time slots for
transmission from a central hub to a group of VSAT sites. Individual time
slots can be addressed specifically to one or more VSATs. Usually used as
the access protocol for the outbound channel (hub to VSAT) of a VSAT
system.

• Time Division Multiple Access, a contentious access satellite channel


which is divided into time slots for sharing between VSATs at different
sites usually for connection to a hub. Usually used as the access protocol
for the inbound channel (VSAT to hub) of a VSAT system.

This is how a star data, TDM/TDMA VSAT network works using a hub station.
All the channels are shared and the remote terminals are online, offering fast response
times. Consequently, TDM/TDMA systems are comparable with terrestrial X.25 or
frame relay connections.

42
However, mesh networks which use capacity on a demand assigned multiple
access (DAMA) basis take a different approach. The master control station merely acts
as a controller and facilitator rather than a hub through which traffic passes as in a star
network. However, these connections take a little time to set-up and thus, mesh/DAMA
systems are often equated to a terrestrial dial-up connection.

There are also mesh systems which use a TDMA access scheme where all of the
terminals in a network receive and transmit to the same channel, selecting different time
slots because each terminal is aware of what the others have reserved. In the past this
type of system has been costly and therefore, reserved for large scale trunking
applications, but, more recently, costs have come down considerably and now they can
be cost competitive with SCPC/DAMA systems for thin route applications as well.

Point-to-point SCPC (single channel per carrier) links are the satellite equivalent
of a terrestrial leased line connection. They are usually set-up on a permanent, 24 hour
basis and are thus more costly in satellite capacity and less efficient if not used all the
time. However, they do support high bandwidths (typically from 9.6 kbps to 2 Mbps)
and can easily be used to carry data, voice and even video traffic.

43
All other systems are usually a variation on one of the themes described above,
either in a star, mesh or hybrid (star and mesh) configuration. Most of the TDM/TDMA
manufacturers also offer a mesh product which can be deployed in a hybrid-ised
configuration, sharing common components such as antennas and RF units, at a remote
site.

3.2 SDLS

The Satellite Data Link System (SDLS), is a satellite-based radio communication


system, which under feasibility studies operating since 1994.Supported by ESA
Telecom, a consortium of European companies led by Alcatel of France are embarking
on a satellite project worth 4.5 million Euro that will help ease congestion of the VHF
spectrum to meet the ever increasing communication requirements resulting from the air
traffic growth, which are predicted to saturate current systems around 2010 to 2015.

SDLS will take over for ground-based VHF systems to provide digital data
transmissions between aircraft and ground facilities, including control towers and airline
operations control centers. It aims to provide:

• Aircraft positioning data that complements that from traditional


infrastructures (radar, etc.), to be used by air traffic control.

• Technical data to increase aircraft operating efficiency.

It could also be integrated in the Galileo satnav system to supply navigation and
communications services to civil aviation authorities

The SDLS Concept can take advantage of both the existing AMSS deployed
ground infrastructure using large Ground Earths Stations (GES) and small VSAT-based
Ground Earth Stations, which can be deployed more easily and cheaply. The key
technical characteristics of the SDLS concept are:

• Use of Geostationary Satellite transparent transponders, with mobile


access in AMS(R)S band (aeronautical sub-band),

• CDMA access technique,

• Decentralised access capability,

• Incremental deployment.

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SDLS is designed to demonstrate technical performances to a standard necessary
to meet communication requirements of future ATM systems and, more specifically,
Air Traffic Services (ATS) applications, as currently specified by the International Civil
Aviation Organisation (ICAO).

Nowadays the system is still in its developing phase with two prototypes located
in Toulouse and Rome, thay are called SDSL Demonstrators and are composed by two
Aeronautical Earth Station (AES - low cost approach) and two Ground Earth Stations
(GES). The SDLS Demonstrator proves that the performances achievable using a
satellite media are compatible with the requirements of the aeronautical community for
ATM missions. Performance has been evaluated at the application service level. Initial
evaluation has shown that SDLS can meet many of the communication requirements of
emerging ATS data applications being defined by Eurocontrol.

Due to the succes of the experiments the system development road map aims at an
operational introduction date of around 2010 and the results of this work are now being
used to help define the next generation satellite system.

3.3 MASSAO y Aerofleet projects

Management and Supervision System for Special Aircraft Operations (MASSAO)


is a project developed by ESA in collaboration with Euro Telematik AG and it is related
to operation management of special aircraft fleets, all-weather operation of aircraft, and
tracking of air vehicles independent from ATC radar coverage. This system allow an
operating centre personnel to track, monitor, and communicate with aircraft within their
full operating range, even in large distances from the centre, via satellite
communication.

The AeroFleet system is a solution,based on MASSAO concept, for operators of


small and medium size aircraft and helicopter fleets providing digital air-ground

45
communication for efficient fleet management. The system is capable to provide local
and global communications, digital 2-way ground-air messaging, position reporting and
navigation, airborne mission management, uplink of weather information.

The system consists of the following components:

• Cockpit display CDTI-2000. This display is the user terminal of the air
fleet management system to the air crew and will allow the review and
the creation of messages over the satellite communication link. It is
further capable of presenting data sent from ground to the crew in
graphical way (e.g. weather information, mission dependent area of
operation). This display will interface with the airborne part of the
Satcom equipment to provide further communication functions without
flight crew involvement. The CDTI-2000 is certified to be used in
aircraft.

• Iridium satellite transceiver. A certified transceiver will provide a global,


constant, and reliable link between the aircraft or the helicopter and the
dispatch center of the operator on the ground.

• Dispatch station software. This software allows the dispatch personnel


on the ground to communicate with the flight crews and to visualize
information sent from the aircraft (e.g. position reports, status messages,
etc).

The system works in the following way; the CDTI-2000 unit serves as the core
unit and the crew interface to the on-board system. It exchanges information with the
satellite communication transceiver via a serial interface. After the transmission from
the transceiver to the satellite communication service providers ground segment the
message is forwarded by e-mail to the AeroFleet Server. The ground station AeroFleet
retrieves the e-mail and decodes the message.

A number of dispatcher work stations (Clients) can be connected to this server in


the operators centre. Staff can monitor and manage aircraft operations.

Messages from the ground system to the CDTI-2000 are handled in a similar way.
In this case messages can be send from the server to the on-board transceiver by means
of a dedicated e-mail address. The data is then transmitted further to the CDTI-2000.

46
This system provides a low cost to manage small fleet with a small infrastructure.
It shall be the solution fo small companies to achieve good low cost operations.
Flexibility, big coverage, low cost, compatibility with VHF communications are the
strong points making it useful for many aplications (medical asistance, rescue, fire
extinctions,...). It gives a cue of the development of the future ATM concept, with an
important role for the satellites, wide coverage, low cost and easy implementation.

47
Multi Function Display CDTI-2000

3.4 OPTIMAL project

Optimised Procedures and Techniques for the Improvement of Approach and Landing
(OPTIMAL) is large scale European project involving 24 partners and which is aiming to
define and validate innovative procedures for approach and landing phases of both aircraft
and rotorcraft in a pre-operational airport environment. It started early 2004 and will last
for about 4 years. The objective is to increase airport capacity while minimising noise
nuisance and improving operational safety. Those achievements will be enabled by today
available precision approach landing aids (ILS, MLS), as well as new satellite-based
guidance systems ( SBAS, GBAS), etc, more accurate navigation means (RNP 0.1),
enhanced airborne systems, such as autonomous FLS, for Non-Precision Approaches and
enhanced ground systems to support Air Traffic Control. The target time frame for the
operational implementation of the OPTIMAL proposed operational concept is 2010 and
beyond.

The objectives of the OPTIMAL project are:

• To define new/enhanced operational procedures for approach and landing, for


aeroplanes and rotorcrafts also, in order to increase capacity, efficiency and
safety, and decrease noise exposure, using advanced navigation functions and
enhanced ATM.

• To assess in full scale / real life the near-term approach & landing procedures
and the associated airborne and ground functions.

48
• To study and experiment more longer term (beyond 2015) functions (airborne
and on ground).

Expected Benefits:

• To close the gap between capacity in low visibility conditions and good
visibility conditions.

• To increase the arrival rate at major airports significantly above the level
achieved by current best practices.

• To better accommodate commuter and general aviation aircraft.

• To allow aircraft / rotorcraft simultaneous IFR operation, in order to generate


additional capacity.

• To reduce the environmental impact by avoiding urban areas and by


optimising the noise & gas emission during landing phases (i.e. continuous
descent profiles).

• To accelerate the introduction of Approach Procedures with Vertical Guidance


(APV).

• To take full advantage of the RNP-RNAV capabilities that are now available.

• To increase Safety using vertical guidance.

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4 Conclussions

4.1 Role in CNS/ATM

"For all phases of flight, to enable the safe, economic, expeditious and orderly flow of
traffic through the provision of ATM services which are adaptable and scaleable to the
requirements of all users and areas of European airspace. The services shall meet demand
in a cost-effective way, be globally inter-operable, operate to uniform principles, be
environmentally sustainable and satisfy national security requirements."(ATM strategy for
the years 2000+ vol.1 , Eurocontrol, ed. 2003).

The necessity of a change in the current ATM system is evident but also in the goals
that are set. The new worlwide situation, the privatization of the aerospacial industry, the
recent terrorist attacks and the continous globalization make the international community
change the point of view to plan the new ATM structure, some concepts has to be under
consideration besides the capacity, safety and accuracy.

To enhance the security to confront intentional attacks, to develop new technologies


with an affordable rate of cost-effectiveness, to provide a global seamless coverage, the
interoperability between the differents systems and a strong cooperation with the military
system; all of them are the foundations for the future Air Traffic Management.

The satellite techonologies and systems will play and important role in the next years
because combine all the features required for the ATM strategy. Some of them, as GNSS
phase 1, are in an advanced state of development and its implementation is nowadays
almost completed. Other ones are still in developing phase but to reach all the goals more
systems have to be created.

The ARTES programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) describes all the
projects achieved by this organization and it is a good indicator about technological
evolution in the following years.

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All the aforementioned systems complywith the purposes in each element of ATM,
communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS). These goals are described in the
following graphic.

Communication; the main system to provide this service is the constellation of


INMARSAT which was created with such purpose. Other private companies as INTELSAT
or EUTELSAT could be a good option for exchanging information but they don´t comply
with the ICAO requirements for aeronautical communications; however, the combination
with IRIDIUM could provide a good back-up system for communications with a wide
coverage. In anyway, with such systems, the passengers will obtain access to fax, telephony
and internet services during the flight although, by the moment, they cannot be used for
safety communications.
In the other hand the GNSS infrastructure has the capability to be used for
communications giving, enhacing the coverage.

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For these reasons it is foreseen that satellite system will replace the HF
communications in ocean regions soon, but VHF Data Link systems will be a necessary
complement for such scope. The mode 2 is in use currently and the mode 4 looks to be the
next generation with the capability of hold voice communications.
Satellite Data Link System (SDLS) is an ambicious project managed by ESA which
will share tasks with VDL, discharging the saturated VHF band.
The aero fleet project is a good example of a satellite solution for private companies
although it has not any usefulness for safety purposes.

Navigation; GNSS will provide a seamless worldwide coverage with enough


precission to en-route phases of flight, nevertheless for high density areas and approaching
phases it is completely necessary augmentations or ground systems. The second phase with
only the two constellations (GPS, GALILEO) and SBAS reach the required performance
till CAT I, this is far away from a global coverage but the combination with other kind of
augmentations (RAIM, AAIM, LAAS) or ground systems (MLS, ILS, VOR-DME).
INMARSAT and the VDL technology support also the navigation system being a part
of SBAS and GBAS respectively.
Private companies of communications might send also the GPS signal in order to
enhance it, although they don´t comply with ICAO standards.

Surveillance;Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR), Monopulse Secondary Surveillance


Radar (MSSR) and Mode S are the systems in use currently but they cannot be consistent
with the gate-to-gate concept because in remote areas the service is not provide. The
solution aims to be the Automatic Dependent Surveillance, Contract (ADS-C) or Broadcast
(ADS-B).
The general application of ADS will require that all aircraft in a region of airspace be
equipped with satellite navigation and some form of data link. Thus GNSS, communication
satellites and VDL techniques (in special mode 4) are critical for the development of such
technology.

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Below is shown a table with a foreseen about the evolution the technology for the
different elements of the ATM in every kind of airspace, nowadays an din the year 2015.

Airspace Function Current system Future System


OMEGA/LORAN-C NDB
RNAV/RNPGNSSBarometric
VOR/DME Barometric
altimetryGNSS altitudeINS/IRS
altimetry INS/IRS
Oceanic Navigation
VHF voice/ data AMSS data/voice
continental En- VHF voice
HF voice ; North and South poles
route airspace Communications VF voice
only
with high / low-
density traffic Surveillance Primary radar/SSRVoice
ADS
position
reportsOMEGA/LORAN-
RNAV/RNPG NSS
CNDB
Barometric altimetry GNSS
VOR/DME
altitude
Navigation Barometric altimetry
Continental INS/IRS
INS/IRS
airspace with
Communications
high-density VHF voice/data AMSS data/voice
VHFvoice
traffic SSR Mode S data link
Surveillance
Primary radar
SSR[Mode A/C orMode S]
SSR Mode A/C
ADS
RNAV/RNP
GNSS
MLS
NDB VOR/DME ILS
NDB
Navigation Barometric altimetry INS/IRS
VOR/DME
Terminal areas Barometric altimetry
Communications VHF VOICE
with high-density INS/IRS
VHF voice/data
Surveillance Primary radar
SSR Mode S data link
SSR Mode a/c
AMSS data /voice

SSR [Mode A/C or Mode S] ADS

4.2 Gate to gate?

"The ‘gate-to-gate’ scope is considered to start at the moment the user first interacts
with ATM and ends with the switch-off of the engines, including also the processes of
charging users for ATM services. The scope does not encompass ATM processes
only."(ATM strategy for the years 2000+, Eurocontrol, ed. 2003)

53
This short definition given by the EUROCONTROL ´s document doesn´t clarify the
real scope of the concept.

Gate to gate is one fo the main goals for the future ATM. The-state-of-art and his
evolution aim to such concept, developing the technology which will make it possible.

The implementation is predicted to be between the years 2015 and 2020 and the
question whether finally it will be made or not will try to be answered in this chapter.

The neccessity of a change in the air traffic system is evident and anowadays big
efforts are made by the international community to fin out a solution. Nowadays a lot of
resources are invested in that concept in particular and in the improvement of ATM
services in general.

Three points should be discussed to assess the feasibility of Gate to gate concept and
they are:

• Technology; a seamless system of navigation, a reliable way of


communication for data and voice, a surveillance system with a high
level of safety for all phases of flight, a software which supports pilots
and airtraffic controllers tasks, are some examples of the neccessities
which have to be solved by the new technology.

• Definition; it means to coordinate all technology and human resources to


define clearly the gate to gate concept; how it exacly will work, what
need each user of the ATM, which will be the new tasks for the crew and
the air traffic controllers.

• Implementation; to apply the concept and make it works, it is the last


step but the most difficult of them because has to consider the pecualirity
of every place and adapt to the situation.

The satellite systems described all project long can support the neccessities of the gate
to gate concept. GNSS will provide an almost seamless navigation system till CAT-1 in all
phases of flight, but with the use of the augmentation systems based on ground and on

54
airborne could replace the ILS and MLS. However the installation of Surface Movement
Guidance and Control System are needed to a complete gate to gate (GtG) service.
Coummunications, data link or voice, are other fundamental part which can be provided by
satellite systems, INMARSAT mainly with IRIDIUM, GNSS and VDL technics as well
they play and important role in ADS.

A reliable network of information has to be achieved for a correct management the


flights. In that scope, VSAT technology, even provided by private companies, could be the
solution in such areas with a low ground telecommunication infrastructure.

The current state of the art and programmes like ARTES which describes the
technology in researching an developing in the next years, aims to the technology for GtG
operations will be ready in 2015.

Nowadays some scenaries have been prepared to test the feasibility of the
appliccation of that concept. An instance about the different parts of a flight under GtG and
all elements involved are showed in the following table.

a X means it takes part directly and a ? just supports in that phase.

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In summarize, two are the points to improve, a reliable flight management system which
could solve make changes in time and an efficient route planning therefore the application
of free flight concept is also neccessary. The technology to support such concepts already
exists but his implementation presents the biggest problem due to the big differences
between the countries. However its applicatio in the european space shouldn´t present a
unaffordable problem because his proximity in technology, legislation and cooperation.

4.3 New system beyond 2020

From 2020 on a totally new system of ATM will be working, the management of the
if the disponible airspace will be more efficient, safety and with more capacity without
forget the rate cost-effectiveness which is indispensable for the correct implementation and
acceptance in the private sector. However new problems will appear, some of them due to
the new requirement in air traffic market and others because the inherent errors of the new
systems and its prediction suppose a big problem.

In the future, the demand for air traffic services will not only increase but also will
likely shift from scheduled operations towards more unscheduled operations for air taxi,
charter, fractional ownership, and on-demand small low-cost aircraft. As the metropolitan

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areas continue to grow, the satellite airports around major hubs will provide a wide range of
flight options for people to fly between their homes and places of business or pleasure.
Furthermore the satellite systems are liable to suffer attacks to their signals because
they are weak and there is not redundant system. In addition the primary radar surveillance
(PSR) cannot disapeared totally because is the only one pasive surveillance system and in
high latitudes not all the satellites can provide service. For those reasons the feasibility of
GNSS and other satellite systems is debatable.

The navigation will be widely covered by GNSS. This is a cheap system with a
seamless coverage and with the correct augmentations can reach the navigation
performances defined by ICAO. It looks to be the perfect solution for a free flight system.
However, how was aforementioned, the weakness of their signal and his lack of redundance
make difficult his implementation as sole system.
In oceanic areas aims to be the real sole system because the impossibility to place
other systems but in continetal areas, specially in high density ones, other chances are
possible.
DME-VOR and DME-DME can also provide a free flight service, although the
navigation features of the first one are very poor the DME-DME system provides a good
performance and aims to be the redundant system for GNSS. And may be ILS, or with a
higher possibility MLS, the redundant system for approaching operations. The rest of
ground systems, for instance NDB, LORAN and might be VOR, will be dismantled
between the years 2015 and 2020, as in the ICAO previsions is said.

The saturation of the VHF band and the searching of a global system will make
satellite systems play an important role in communications, data link or voice. Although the
advantages of VHF over satellites communication and its importance for GBAS will avoid
the implementation as the sole system, VDL mode 4 will be essential in this part of the
ATM element.
Private companies will be able to offer services to passengers or even aeronautical
services to aircompanies. Nowadays communications are fundamental in bussiness this
tendency is increasing, services during flight as internet access or data and voice

57
transmission will open a new market for communications. In addition the neccesity of a
reliable global net of information for a 4D gate to gate system and the possibility for other
systems as IRIDIUM, EUTELSAT or INTELSAT to make navigation functions will
promote the participation of the private sector in ATM functions, specially in
coummnication ones.

To provide surveillance ADS will be the main system. It will be neccesary a new
distribution of tasks between pilot and air traffic controller bur this technic will enhance the
safety and reduce the horizontal and vertical separation between aircrafts. Besides VDl and
data link satellite will start to play a role in this element of the ATM. However PSR will be
always neccesary and radar mode S will complement ADS in high density areas.

Concepts as free flight and gate to gate will be fully implemented so a reliable
management of flight will be feasible. Using the new system of navigation and surveillance
each company will be able to choose the best path according to the performances of their
aircraft. The new system of communication will allow the creation of a net so instant
changes in flight plans and a gate to gate management will be possible.

AMSS will play an important role in the future ATM concept. These systems present
a lot of advantages over the current ones and in the following years it is predicted the
incorporation of private companies in the mobile subnetwork. Possible applications are
presented below:
• Services to passengers as internet access, fax and telephony. Due to the
importance of communication in current bussiness and the high
improvement of such sector, it is foreseen a great quality of that kind of
services with a low cost for users.
• Broadcast of weather and other traffic information. Not only
INMARSAT and GNSS can provide this service. IRIDIUM constellation
with a global coverage and other private companies will be able to offer
this service with guarantee and assure a best reliability of information.

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• To enhance the navigation performance delivering the GPS or
GALILEO signal in order to increase the coverage, accuracy and
integrity.
• Using the VSAT technology ans satellites from private companies, for
instance IRIDIUM, INTELSAT or EUTELSAT, create a net for data
link between all the air traffic control stations, air companies and
aircrafts to allow a gate to gate management in real time and even to
participate in surveillance tasks.

4.4 Comparison with the current ATM system

The changes in the following years will transform completely the current system of
air traffic management. The neccesity of a change because the big increase of the worlwide
air traffic and the limitations of the present exploitation of the airspace have forced to the
international community to make a revolution in order to enhance the capacity of the ATM
system.
The system of navigation aims to be seamless and with global coverage supporting by
the GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO constellations. Such systems with the adecuated
augmentations can provide the required service in every phase of flight and implementing
the free flight concept. Nowadays the system is not very flexible and the safety separation
between aircrafts big. The routes are planned following point to point paths, normally
indicated by VOR\DME system. There are big areas where is not possiblle to set any kind
of conventional air navigation aid. In instrumental approaching ILS is the most extended, it
presents some limitations which will be solved by satellite systems. ILS only allowed the
approaching following one path, it means big problems of noise contamination and the
impossibility of choose the best route depending on the charateristics of each flight.
Communications are stablished through VHF and HF band. Nowadays the VHF band
is almost saturated and only allowed communication in line of sight. HF offers voice
communications with a very low quality but a big coverage and are only used in oceanic
and high latitudes areas. VDL mode 2 is the solution in short range for the present problems

59
but it is not enough. The incorporation satellite systems in combination with VDL mode 4
will offer a global coverage even in polar circles and oceanic areas with a high reliability.
PSR, SSR and more recently Radar mode S are the only systems in use. As in the
aforementioned system its coverage is limited to continental areas and the charge of work
to air traffic controller is reaching its limit. The solution is given by the ADS system based
on a continuous communication between ATC to aircraft, aircraft to ATC and aircraft to
aircraft. They deliver all the information about each airplane to create in every cockpit and
ATC a represention of the surrounding air traffic. However that is an active technic and the
presence of PSR and at least Radar mode S will be always neccesary.
The conclussion is that the satellite system are the solution to solve the lacks of the
present system but it cannot be the sole system as it was predicted because the neccesity of
a redundant system, therefore at least DME, MLS and PSR will coexist with satellite
systems.
However the implementation of gate to gate,rnav, 4D free flight it is unthinkable
without these systems due to their worlwide coverage, high performance and as a very
important reason nowadays their rate cost-effectiveness.
In addition the private companies will be able to offer aeronautical services.

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5 Acronyms

AAC Airline Administrative Communication


ABAS Aircraft-based Augmentation System
AES Aeronautical Earth Station
AAIM Aircraft Autonomous Integrity Monitor
ACARS Aircraft Communications, Adressing and Reporting System
ADS Automatica Dependant Surveillance
ADS-B Automatica Data Surveillance- Broadcast
ADS-C Automatica Data Surveillance-Contract
AES Aeronautical Earth Station
AMSS Aeronautical Mobile satellite System
ATC Air Traffic Controller
ATM Air Traffic Management
ATN Air Telecommunications Network
ATS Air Traffic Service
B-RNAV Basic- Random Navigation
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDTI Cockpit Display of Traffic Information
CNS Communication, Navigation and Surveillance
CPDLC Controller-Pilot Datalink Communication
CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access
CTS Command Tracking System
DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access
DGPS Differential Global Position System
DME Distance Measurment Equipment
DOD Departament of Defense
ECAC European Civil Aviation Conference
EGNOS European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System
ETG European Tripartite Group
EUROCONTROL European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
FANS Future Air Navigation System
FUA Flexible Use of Airspace
GBAS Ground-based Augmentation System
GCS Ground-based Control Complex
GEO Geostationary Orbit
GES Ground Earth Station
GLONASS Global Orbiting Navigation Systems
GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System
GPS Global Position System
GRAS Ground-based Regional Augmentation System
GSS Galileo Sensor Stations
GtG Gate to Gate
HP high precission
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation
IFR Instrument Flight Rules
ILS Instrument Landing System

61
JCAB Japan Civil Aviation Bureau
LAAS Local Area Augmentation System
LADGPS Local Area DGPS
LEO Low Earth Orbit
MASSAO Management and Supervision System for Special Aircraft Operations
MCS Master Control Station
MEO Medium Earth Orbit
MLS Microwave Landing System
MTSAS MTSAT Satellite-based Augmentation System
MTSAT Multi-functional Transport Satellite
NDB Non-Directional Beacon
NM Nautic Miles
NOTAM Notice to Air Men
Optimised Procedures and Techniques for the Improvement of Approach and
OPTIMAL Landing
PPS Precise Positioning Service
P-RNAV Precission Random Navigation
PSR Primary Surveillance Radar
RAIM Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring
RAIM-DR RAIM-Dead Reckoning
RAIM-FD RAIM-Fault Detection
RAIM-FDE RAIM-Fault Detection & Exclusion
RIMS Runway Incursion Monitoring System
RNAV Random navigation
RNP Required Navigation Performance
RTCA Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
RTK Real-Time Kinematic
SA selective availability
SBAS Satellite based Augmentation System
SCC system control center
SCPC Single Channel Per Carrier
SDLS Satellite Data Link System
SP standard precission
SPS Standard Positioning Service
SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar
STDMA Self-organizing Time Division Multiple Access
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA Time Division Multiplexing Access
UTC Coordinated Universal Time
VDL VHF Data Link
VDR VHF Digital Radio
VHF Very High Frequency
VOR VHF Omni Range
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
WAAS Wide Area Augmentation System
WADGPS Wide Area DGPS

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6 Bibliography

6.1 webpages

• http://www.iss-eu.org
• http://europa.eu.int
• http://esamultimedia.esa.int
• http://www.gisdevelopment.net
• http://gps.faa.gov
• http://www.redsword.com
• http://www.glonass-center.ru
• http://www.upv.es
• http://inmarsat.com
• http://www.intelsat.com
• http://www.eutelsat.com
• http://www.thales-navigation.com
• http://esamultimedia.esa.int
• http://www.esa.int
• http://www.oosa.unvienna.org
• http://www.icao.int
• http://www.mlit.go.jp
• http://www.aticourses.com
• http://telecom.esa.int
• http://www.webopedia.com
• http://www.comsys.co.uk
• http://www.satsig.net
• http://www.alcaltel.com
• http://telecom.esa.int
• http://www.eurotelematik.de

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• http://www.optimal.isdefe.es
• http://www.ato.gov.ph

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6.2 documents (all of them are in internet)

"Telemedicine via Satellite Services"


Ms. Eli Larsen, EL, National Centre of Telemedisine
Ms. Tove Soerensen, TS, National Centre of Telemedisine
Mr. Erik Otto Evenstad, EOE, Telenor Research and
Developement (ESA report)

"An overview of the IRIDIUM low earth orbit (LOW) satellyte system"
Carl E. Fossa, Richard A. Raines, Gregg H. Gunsch, Michael A. Temple
2950 P St, Bldg. 640 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7765
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology

"ISA project (Ipv6 - Satellite - Atm for ATN) satellite prspectives for CNS/ATM"
L. Crouzard,G. Gawinowski,C. Musson

"OPTIMAL State-of-the-art Deliverable D1.1"


OPTIMAL Project Co-ordinator Daniel FERRO
Airbus

"C-ATM High-Level Operational Concept Deployable From 2012 Version 1.31"

Michel Stirnemann, Volker Rothmann, Robert Graham, Ray Dowdall, Ros Eveleigh,

"Guidelines for Navigation using GNSS"


civil aviation safety authority australia

"The modernization of GPS: Plans, New Capabilities and the Future Relantionship to
Galileo"
Keith D. McDonald; Navtech Consulting, Alexandria, VA USA

"GNSS sole service feasibility study"


France Développement Conseil (Vincennes, France)

"Integrated Free Flight and 4-D Gate-to-gate Air Traffic Management, Possibilities,
Promises and Problems"
F.J. Abbink
National Aerospace Laborator y NLR

"Nominal scenario NO 1 (GATE-TO-GATE) – 2011"


OCD/OATA ConOps Development

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"Air Traffic Management strategy beyon the years 2000+ vol 1 y 2"
ed 2003 eurocontrol

"The galileo satellite system and its security implications"


Gutsav lindström, Giovanni Gasparini

"GALILEO : Satellite System Design And Technology Developments"


J. Benedicto, S.E.Dinwiddy, G. Gatti, R. Lucas, M. Lugert
European Space Agency

"Communication Navigation Surveillance / Air Traffic Management (Cns / Atm)


Beyond 2012"
Arjun Singh
Airport Authority of India

"European aeronautics: a vision for 2020"


Pedro Argüelles, Manfred Bischoff, Philippe Busquin, B.A.C. Droste, Sir Richard Evans,
Walter Kröll, Jean-Luc Lagardère, Alberto Lina, John Lumsden, Denis Ranque, Søren
Rasmussen, Paul Reutlinger, Sir Ralph Robins, Helena Terho, Arne Wittlöv

"Overview of Civil Aviation Satellite Communications & Spectrum Requirement


Refinement"
Phil Platt - QinetiQ, Philippe Renaud, Geoff Bailey
EATMP

"Performance, Capacity and Limitations of AMSS Communications"


Claudio Ripamonti, Vijay K. Konangi, Robert J. Kerczewski

"Joint boardon communication satellite programmes ARTES-1 workplan for 2005"


European Space Agency (ESA)

"The nees for a new ATM operational concept a strategic necessity?"


Steve Zerkowitz, Assistant Director Operations and Infrastructure - Europe, IATA

"Link 200+, controller- pilot data link communications ready for 2007 and beyond"
Alex Wandels, LINK 2000+ Programme Manager

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7 Appendix

7.1 Techniques of modulation

⇒ Asynchronous Time Division Multiple Access (A T D M A)


Asynchronous TDMA (cf. TDMA).

⇒ Code Division Multiple Access (C D M A)


CDMA uses "pseudo-random code sequences"; they are used by both the mobile station and
the base station to distinguish between conversations. CDMA uses these code sequences as
a means of distinguishing between individual conversations. All users in the CDMA system
use the same carrier frequency and may transmit simultaneously. CDMA is a driving
technology behind the rapidly advancing personal communications industry. Because of its
greater bandwidth, efficiency, and multiple access capabilities, CDMA is becoming a leading
technology for relieving the spectrum congestion caused by the explosion in popularity of
cellular mobile phones, fixed wireless telephones, and wireless data terminals. Since
becoming an officially recognized digital cellular protocol, CDMA is being rapidly
implemented in the wireless communications networks of many large communications
corporations.

⇒ Frequency Division Multiple Access (F D M A)


FDMA divides radio channels into a range of radio frequencies and is used in the traditional
analog cellular system. With FDMA, only one subscriber is assigned to a channel at a time.
It is the oldest and still one of the most common method for channel allocation. In this
scheme, the available satellite channel bandwidth is broken into frequency bands for different
earth stations. This means that guard bands are needed to provide separation between the
bands. Also the earth stations must be carefully power controlled to prevent the microwave
power spilling into the bands for the other channels.

⇒ Time Division Multiplexing (T D M)


Technique in which information from multiple channels can be allocated bandwidth on a
transmission system based on time.

⇒ Time Division Multiple Access (T D M A)


A shared channel access mechanism based on time division multiplexing. TDMA divides
conventional radio channels into time slots to obtain higher capacity Global System for GSM
(Mobile Communications). No other conversations can access an occupied TDMA channel
until the channel is vacated.

7.2 Standards and recommended practices in annexes 1,6 and 11

This presentation will introduce the language proficiency requirements that


are contained in Annexes 1, 6 and 11 and in the PANS-ATM. However and

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because most of the new Standards are contained in Annex 1, the majority of the
presentation will be devoted to Annex 1.
Annex 1 – Basic principles
The language proficiency Standards contained in Annex 1 are fairly comprehensive
and, different Standards and Recommended Practices apply in different ways to each
specific licences. However, all of them are based on the same following basic principles:
1 1. They are limited to radiotelephony communication: The scope
of the new Standards are limited to radio communication and they do not
address issues related to language used in the cockpit or communication on
the ground between flight crew and ground personnel.
2 2. They cover all languages used in radio communication: The
Standards cover all languages used in radio communication and not only
English. The reason is that any person should be reasonably fluent in a
language if she/he chooses or is required to use that language for radio
communication. Nevertheless, it remains a fact that most of the
implementation challenges are related to English proficiency as (1) English
is the only language available on a worldwide basis and (2) when another
language is used, it is generally done between persons who are at the expert
level.
3 3. The “speak and understand” Standard: Because the Standard is
limited to radiotelephony communications, it only involves oral
communication and can be described as a “speak and understand” Standard.
It does not include reading and writing abilities. This has some important
consequence when it comes to testing because most of the commercially
available tests focus on reading and writing abilities and they are not
appropriate in this context. This is a point that will be covered in some detail
during the Symposium.
4 4. Assessment using a rating scale (Level 4): A significant aspect of
the Standards is that the proficiency level is defined in a precise and
scientific way by a rating scale and holistic descriptors.
5 5. Progressive implementation: The Air Navigation Commission
and the ICAO Council recognized that the implementation of the new
language proficiency Standards and in particular the rating scale would be
challenging. It therefore agreed on a progressive implementation of the
language Standards as it is outlined in the chart. Generally speaking, the
basic “speak and understand” Standard became applicable on 5 march 2004
and the rating scale will have to be used to assess the “speak and
understand” Standard as of 5 March 2008. There are some small variations
depending on the licence, which are addressed in this presentation.

Annex 1 – Details of the Standard


The licences contained in Annex 1 can be divided in three different groups as far as
language proficiency Standards are concerned. The first groups is made of the three levels
of aeroplane and helicopter licences (PPL, CPL and ATPL) and the Air Traffic Controller
and Aeronautical Station Operators licences which have to meet the following Standards:
1 1. They shall demonstrate the ability to speak and understand the
language used for radiotelephony communications (Standard 1.2.9.1); and

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2 2. After 5 March 2008, the ability to speak and understand the
language used for radiotelephony communications shall be demonstrated to
Level 4 of the ICAO rating scale (Standard 1.2.9.4 and Appendix). In
addition, recurrent testing will be required for those below Level 6.

The second group covers Flight Engineer, Free Balloon and Glider pilots licences. For
this second group, the new requirement is a Recommendation to the effect that the licence
holder should be able to speak and understand the language used for radio communication.
The third group is made of the Flight Navigator licence. The case of the Flight
Navigator is specific and taking into account that some of the navigators are tasked with the
handling of radio communication. As a result, the ICAO Council decided that the basic
“speak and understand” Standard would apply to flight navigators when they are required
to use radio telephone on board. However, the rating scale will not apply to them in 2008.
Annex 1 – Implementation
Application of Language Proficiency Standards to existing licence holders
1 1. All Air Traffic Controllers and Aeronautical Station Operators, i.e.
existing and new licence holders have to meet the “speak and understand”
Standard.
2 2. All holders of an aeroplane and helicopter pilot licence issued after
5 March 2004 have to meet the “speak and understand” Standards.
3 3. Holders of an aeroplane and helicopter pilot licence issued before
5 March 2004 do not have to meet the “speak and understand” Standard
until 5 March 2008. Therefore, on this date, they will have not only to meet
the Standard but they will have to be assessed in accordance with the rating
scale. I would like to stress out that even though compliance with the
Standards is not required until 2008 for that group of pilots, one shall not
forget the safety reasons for which they were developed and I would
encourage States and individuals to consider earlier compliance. I would add
that for pilots who are working in public transportation there is another
Standard that is applicable and that requires the operator to ensure that the
flight crew speak and understand the language used for radio
communication.

Application to domestic flight


The language proficiency Standards are ICAO Standards and as such they only apply
to pilots who are engaged in international flights and ATCO/ASO providing services to
international flights. Hence, States are encouraged by ICAO to use the ICAO Standards for
domestic operations.

In which language(s) a pilot or a controller must be tested


1 • For pilots, English is sufficient but if he/she wants to use other
language during international flights, he/she will also have to be tested in
that language.

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2 • For Air Traffic Controllers and Aeronautical Station Operators, they
will have to demonstrate proficiency for each of the language(s) offered in
the airspace in which they are providing services.

Consequences of non-compliance with the language proficiency Standards


1 • For pilots: Article 33 of the Chicago Convention makes the
international recognition of a flight crew licence conditional to full
compliance with all relevant ICAO Standards including language
proficiency. As a result, a pilot that does not meet the language requirements
will only be able to fly internationally with the authorization of each of the
States whose airspace is used. States would certainly be reluctant to give
such an authorization and for practical purposes pilots will have to meet the
language requirements to fly internationally. That does not necessarily mean
that flight crew have to meet the language proficiency in English to fly
internationally. For instance, you can fly in most of South and Central
America speaking only Spanish but in such a case, you have to demonstrate
language proficiency in Spanish. Therefore, English proficiency remains a
requirement for most of the international flights, as it is the only language
available on a worldwide basis for the provision of air traffic services.
2 • For Air Traffic Controllers and Aeronautical Station Operators: If
an Air Traffic Controller or Aeronautical Station Operator providing service
to international flights do not meet the language proficiency Standard, the
State will have to notify a difference. Any person or operator flying into that
State’s airspace will have to assess the situation and decide whether they
want to continue that operation in view of the safety and resulting liability
aspects.

Language proficiency provisions contained in the other Annexes


Annex 6 requires operators to ensure that flight crew speak and understand the
language used for radiotelephony communications.
Annex 11 requires air traffic service providers to ensure that air Traffic Controllers
speak and understand the language used for radiotelephony communications. Annex 11 also
contains a Standard dealing with the language to be used in communication between air
traffic control units. That language shall be English except when another language is
mutually agreed.
Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM):
The provisions contained in PANS are complementary to the Standards and Recommended
Practices contained in the Annexes. The requirements state that ATS and other ground
personnel will be expected to use plain language to the level specified in the ICAO
language proficiency requirements contained in Annex 1. This applies in particular to the
personnel providing information services in uncontrolled airspace and at uncontrolled
aerodromes.

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7.3 Data link services defined by ICAO

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