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II INTERNATIONAL

SYMPOSIUM ON THE
SYRPHIDAE
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

16-19th June, 2003

Universidad de Alicante

Alicante, Spain

SECRETARÍA
DE ESTADO
POLÍTICA CIENTÍFICA
Y TECNOLOGÍA
MINISTERIO
DE CIENCIA DIRECCIÓN
Y TECNOLOGÍA GENERAL
DE INVESTIGACIÓN

Vicerrectorado de Extensión Universitaria


Facultad de Ciencias

Excmo. Ayuntamiento de Pinoso


PROGRAMME AND ABSTRACTS

II INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
ON THE SYRPHIDAE

BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION

Alicante, Spain
16-19th June, 2003
ORGANIZED BY:
• CIBIO. Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad.
Universidad de Alicante.

FINANCIAL SUPPORT:
• Fundación Biodiversidad.
• Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología. Secretaría de
Estado, Política Científica y Tecnología.

EDITED BY:
• CIBIO. Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad.
Universidad de Alicante. ISBN: 84-933249-0-6
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Dr. Mª Ángeles Marcos-García, CIBIO


Dr. Santos Rojo, CIBIO
Dr. Celeste Pérez-Bañón, CIBIO

ORGANISING COMMITTEE

Chairman
Mª Ángeles Marcos-García

Secretaries
Santos Rojo
Celeste Pérez-Bañón

Members of the Committee


Santiago Bordera
Luis Cadahia
Mª Carmen Cartagena
Ana Juan Gallardo
Estefanía Hernández-Rodríguez
Anabel Martínez-Sánchez
Ximo Mengual
Estefanía Micó
Salima Pérez-Moreno
Santiago Peñarrubia
Vicente Urios
José Ramón Verdú
Jorge Zamora
CONTENTS

Preface ................................................................................................................7
Programme .......................................................................................................11

Session I: Biodiversity/Conservation
a MARTIN C.D. SPEIGHT - Identification of priorities in conservation of
European saproxylic syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) - Plenary session.....19
a Oral contributions....................................................................................21
a Posters......................................................................................................33

Session II: Ecology/Biology


a GRAHAM E. ROTHERAY - Explaining syrphid diversification: the role of
shifts in breeding site (Diptera: Syrphidae) - Plenary session..................53
a Oral contributions....................................................................................55
a Posters......................................................................................................67

Session III: Integrated Pest Management


a FRANCIS GILBERT - Specialisation in syrphid predators (Diptera:
Syrphidae) - Plenary session ....................................................................77
a Oral contributions....................................................................................79
a Posters......................................................................................................91

Session IV: Systematics/Phylogeny/Evolution


a GUNILLA STÅHLS - Generating DNA sequence characters for syrphid
phylogenetics: possibilities and future directions (Diptera: Syrphidae) -
Plenary session ......................................................................................105
a Oral contributions..................................................................................107
a Posters....................................................................................................121

List of Participants ........................................................................................131


Index of Authors .............................................................................................137
Preface

This volume contains the abstracts of oral contributions, plenary sessions and posters
submitted to the II International Symposium on Syrphidae – Biodiversity and
Conservation, held at Alicante, Spain, in June 2003.
The Organising Committee would like to thank all pre-registered participants
for their suggestions. The syrphidologist team from the Centro Iberoamericano de la
Biodiversidad (CIBIO) of the Alicante University (Spain) are pleased to be
Coordinators of the Second International Symposium on Syrphidae. We would like
this meeting to be an established feature of the scientific calendar, covering as many
items relating to Syrphidae as possible. We should also like to take this opportunity to
express our great appreciation to the Organising Committee of the First International
Workshop on Syrphidae held in July at Stuttgart (Ulrich Schmid, Francis Gilbert,
Graham Rotheray & Gunilla Ståhls).
The interest in the Symposium was far greater than attendance. The lack of
money for travel was evident from many letters received from interested colleagues
around the world looking for travel funds. We have made every effort to assist as
many people as possible and it therefore gives us great pleasure to note that some of
these difficulties have been solved.
Sessions will take place in the Campus of the University of Alicante, where an
assembly room for workshops, a hall for posters, a classroom with optical material,
restaurants, banks and other services, provide desirable conditions and a pleasant
setting. We are greatly indebted to the financial support we received from the
Government of Spain (Dirección General de Investigación, Ministerio de Educación y
Ciencia) and the Fundación Biodiversidad; and the support from the University of
Alicante.
Abstracts are arranged in four different sessions: Biodiversity/Conservation,
Biology/Ecology, Systematic/Phylogeny/Evolution and Integrated Pest Management.
The names of all authors appear in the Author Index. We have also added a list with
the complete addresses of the participants. We have tried to check the style of the
abstracts, including species names and due to this, any errors or omissions are our
responsibility.
Alicante 6th June, 2003
SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMME
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 11
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

MONDAY, 16TH JUNE

9:30-11:30 Registration

11:30-12:00 Opening and welcoming

12:00-13:00 Opening conference: Flower fly taxonomy: Where are we and how
much more is there to be done?
F. CHRISTIAN THOMPSON (Systematic Entomology Lab., ARS-USDA,
Washington, USA)

13:00-14:30 Lunch

SESSION I: BIODIVERSITY/CONSERVATION

14:30-15:30 Plenary session: Identification of priorities in conservation of


European saproxylic syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae).
MARTIN C.D. SPEIGHT (Research Branch, National Parks & Wildlife
Service, Ireland)

15:30-16:30 Oral contributions: Biodiversity/Conservation (I)


Chair: Martin C.D. Speight

a FRANK D ZIOCK. Species traits, functional groups and environmental


constraints a case study on the hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the
river Elbe floodplain.
a G IOVANNI B URGIO & DANIELE S O M M A G G I O . Syrphidae as
bioindicators in Italy : data available and new perspectives.
a T OM GITTINGS, PAUL S. GILLER & JOHN O'H ALLORAN . Factors
affecting hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) biodiversity in Irish plantation
forests.
12 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

16:30-17:00 Break

17:00-18:00 Oral contributions: Biodiversity/Conservation (II)


a LUCIANE MARINONI & F. CHRISTIAN THOMPSON. An overview of the
flower-flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Southeastern Brazil - Project of
Survey of Syrphidae Fauna in Paraná.
a SULEYMAN S ARIBIYIK . The evaluation of the works on Syrphidae
(Diptera) Fauna in the Western Blacksea Region.
a ROGER K.A. MORRIS & STUART BALL. Recent changes in the range of
Volucella zonaria and V. inanis in England (Diptera: Syrphidae).

18:00-19:00 Posters

TWESDAY, 17TH JUNE

SESSION II: ECOLOGY/BIOLOGY

9:30-10:30 Plenary session: Explaining syrphid (Diptera: Syrphidae)


diversification: the role of shifts in breeding site.
G RAHAM E. R OTHERAY (Department of Natural History, National
Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, U.K.)

10:30-11:30 Oral contributions: Ecology/Biology (I)


Chair: Graham E. Rotheray
a P AVEL L ÁSKA & V ÍTEZSLAV B ICÍK . Influence of temperature on
mimicry in Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae).
a G.F. MIRANDA & LUCIANE MARINONI. Survey of Syrphidae (Diptera)
in two areas: edge and interior of a forest in Vila Velha State Park,
Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil.
a Y VONNE G OLDING & MALCOLM E DMUNDS . A novel method to
investigate the pollen diets of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae).
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16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

11:30-12:00 Break

12:00-13:00 Oral contributions: Ecology/Biology (II)


a BRIGITTE H OWARTH , M ALCOLM E DMUNDS & FRANCIS G ILBERT .
Does the abundance of hoverfly mimics (Diptera: Syrphidae) depend
on the numbers of their hymenopteran models?
a A XEL S SYMANK . Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in
vegetation complexes of river valleys.
a STUART BALL & ROGER K.A. MORRIS. Climate change and its effect
on the phenology of some British hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

13:00-14:30 Lunch

SESSION III: INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

14:30-15:30 Plenary session: Specialisation in syrphid predators (Diptera:


Syrphidae).
F RANCIS G ILBERT (School of Life & Environmental Sciences,
Nottingham University, U.K.)

15:30-16:30 Oral contributions: Integrated Pest Management (I)


Chair: Francis Gilbert
a N ICOLAS V ANHAELEN , ERIC H AUBRUGE , CHARLES G ASPAR &
FRÉDÉRIC F R A N C I S . Influence of aphid host plant chemistry on
behaviour and performances of Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera:
Syrphidae).
a P ETER H ONDELMANN & HA N S - M ICHAEL P O E H L I N G . Genetic
structure in Episyrphus balteatus populations (Diptera: Syrphidae).
a M IGUEL L OUIS-MALDONADO & OSCAR A LOMAR . Attractiveness of
flowering plants to aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae):
suitability as insectary plants to enhance biological control.
14 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

16:30-17:00 Break
17:00-18:00 Oral contributions: Integrated Pest Management (II)
a FRÉDÉRIC FRANCIS, N ICOLAS V ANHAELEN , PIERRE C OLIGNON &
E RIC HAUBRUGE. Study of the genetic variation of aphidophagous
syrphid populations (Diptera: Syrphidae).
a PAVEL L ÁSKA. Syrphinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae on cabbage in
Central Europe and their effectiveness as natural enemies.
a S ANTOS ROJO, F RANCIS G ILBERT, Mª ANGELES M ARCOS-GARCÍA,
JUAN M. NIETO & M. PILAR MIER. Presentation of the book “A world
review of predatory hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and
their prey”

18:00-19:00 Posters

WEDNESDAY, 18TH OF JUNE

SESSION IV: SYSTEMATICS/PHYLOGENY/EVOLUTION

9:30-10:30 Plenary session: Generating DNA sequence characters for syrphid


phylogenetics: possibilities and future directions (Diptera: Syrphidae).
G UNILLA S TÅHLS (Entomology Department, Finnish Museum of
Natural History, University of Helsinki, Finland)

10:30-11:30 Oral contributions: Systematics/Phylogeny/Evolution (I)


Chair: Gunilla Ståhls
a D ANIELE S OMMAGGIO , ANTONIO M ASETTI , ANDREA L UCHETTI,
G IOVANNI B URGIO & B ARBARA M A N T O V A N I . The genus
Chrysotoxum: problems and advance in its taxonomy (Diptera:
Syrphidae).
a A NATOLII BARKALOV. When and where Cheilosia (Diptera:
Syrphidae) appeared?
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 15
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

a LIBOR MAZÁNEK, PAVEL LÁSKA & VÍTEZSLAV BICÍK. Present status


of the World revision of the genus Eupeodes (Diptera: Syrphidae).

11:30-12:00 Break

12:00-13:00 Oral contributions: Systematics/Phylogeny/Evolution (II)


a L UCIANE M ARINONI. On the Phylogeny of Syrphini (Diptera:
Syrphinae, Syrphidae) using adult morphological data.
a ANTE VUJIC. Concept of the species of the genus Pipiza Fallen, 1810
(Diptera: Syrphidae) on the Balkan Peninsula.
a M ARINA K RIVOSHEINA . Larval morphology of some xylobiont
Syrphidae: adaptation or evolution?
a C ELESTE P ÉREZ-BAÑÓN , SANTOS ROJO, G UNILLA S TÅHLS , & Mª
ANGELES MARCOS-GARCÍA. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Palaearctic
Eristalinus (Diptera: Syrphidae).

13:00-14:30 Lunch

14:30 Final remarks


F. Christian Thompson
Closing of “II International Symposium on the Syrphidae-
Biodiversity and Conservation”

20.00 Closing dinner

THURSDAY, 19TH OF JUNE

9:00 Field trip to Natural Park of Albufera de Valencia


20:00 Return to Alicante
16 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6
SESSION I
BIODIVERSITY / CONSERVATION
Oral Contributions
Posters
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 19
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Plenary session

Identification of priorities in conservation of European saproxylic


syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae)
Martin C.D. Speight
Research Branch, National Parks & Wildlife Service, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
e-mail: speightm@indigo.ie

During the last 20 years European Syrphidae have become more accessible, due to
considerable improvement in identification literature, a significant increase in data on
the larvae and, more recently, the establishment of a database enabling analysis and
interpretation of species lists. But, although use of syrphids in environmental
interpretation is now occurring in various parts of Europe, most work continues to
focus upon species of supposed economic interest in pest control. In particular, little
has yet been done to consider the European syrphid fauna holistically.
Invertebrates associated with "old-growth-forests" are a recognised cause for
concern in Europe, saproxylic Coleoptera, especially, now being the subject of serious
investigative studies, mostly related to improvement in "biodiversity maintenance" in
commercially-managed forests. To-date, Diptera have been almost entirely neglected
in such studies.
In this presentation, an attempt is made to consider Europe's saproxylic
syrphids, to see if they can help to identify conservation priorities in forest
biodiversity management. Information about the species coded into the StN database
is used to examine the representation of 92 European syrphid species with saproxylic
larvae among various groupings of forest habitats and microhabitats. It is
demonstrated that species associated with micro-habitats occurring almost exclusively
on damaged or senescent, but still-living trees predominate among European
saproxylic syrphids, especially in deciduous forests, and that these species show a
narrower ecological amplitude than those associated with dead wood. It is further
demonstrated that this subgroup of European saproxylic syrphids is, in general, more
threatened than the species that can live in dead wood microhabitats, highlighting the
need to develop methods for their protection.
20 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

It is concluded that efforts to maintain or increase quantities of dead wood


("coarse woody debris" or CWD) in European forests are largely irrelevant to
conservation of most European syrphids with saproxylic larvae, but that priorities vary
according to location. In parts of Europe where deciduous forest is largely absent or its
associated saproxylics already mostly extinct, protection of CWD-associated species
may be more important.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Species traits, functional groups and environmental constraints a case


study on the hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the river Elbe floodplain
Frank Dziock
UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Conservation Biology,
04318 Leipzig (Germany). e-mail: Dziock@pro.ufz.de

25 years ago, Grime (1977) and Southwood (1977) published the first habitat templets
to describe relationships between environmental parameters and life history strategies.
This has subsequently lead to a changing worldview of ecology in forcing ecologists
to study the organism-in-its-environment and not as a closed system (Korfiatis &
Stamou 1999, Statzner et al. 2001). I am interested in exploring relationships between
biological traits of hoverflies and the environmental constraints that have lead to their
evolution and test the application of this knowledge for environmental assessment.
This study aims to:
1. explore the relationship between life history traits and environmental
variables in hoverflies.
2. group species of hoverflies to functional groups with similar life history
traits. The aim in forming functional groups is to represent the ecological
structure of a fauna, and perhaps to use that structure to make predictions at
a level that is more practicable and more general than the level of individual
species, but that enables better prediction than the level of all the species.
3. make suggestions for the use of hoverfly functional groups for
environmental assessment Investigations are carried out at a study site in
the floodplain of the river Elbe in central Germany.
Using Malaise traps, 35 sites were surveyed in 1998, 1999, 2002 and 2003. The
environmental parameters recorded on the same sites were: height above sealevel (as
an approximation of inundation frequency), macrohabitats, microhabitats (e.g.
structures like dead wood or ant nests), distance from the course of the Elbe and
relevant habitats and soil parameters. Life history trait information is taken from the
“Syrph the Net-Database of European Syrphidae” (Speight et al. 2001).
22 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Data analysis uses explorative multivariate statistics (CA, PCA, Co-inertia) and
Monte-Carlo-Procedures. First results are presented and these are discussed using the
concepts of functional groups and habitat templet theory.

Keywords: Bioindication, environmental assessment, functional groups, multivariate statistics,


Syrphidae, habitat templet.

References
G RIME, J.P. (1977): Evidence for the Existence of Three Primary Strategies in Plants
and its Relevance to Ecological and Evolutionary Theory. - American Naturalist 111, 1169-
1194. KORFIATIS , K.J. & ST A M O U , G.P. (1999): Habitat Templets and the Changing
Worldview of Ecology. - Biology and Philosophy 14, 375-393. SOUTHWOOD, T.R.E. (1977):
Habitat, the Templet for Ecological Strategies. - Journal of Animal Ecology 46, 337-365.
SPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E., OBRDLIK, P. & BA L L, S. (eds., 2001): Syrph the Net: the
database of European Syrphidae. Vols. 27 to 32. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin. ISSN
1393-4546. S TATZNER , B., HILDREW, A.G. & RE S H , V.H. (2001): Species Traits and
Environmental Constraints: Entomological Research and the History of Ecological Theory. -
Annual Review of Entomology 46, 291-316.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Syrphidae as bioindicators in Italy: data available and new perspectives


*Giovanni Burgio & **Daniele Sommaggio
*DiSTA, Alma Mater Università di Bologna, 40127 Bologna (Italy).
e-mail: gburgio@entom.agrsci.unibo.it
**Biostudio, Via Riello, 4. 36010 Velo d'Astico (VI) (Italy) e-mail: dsommaggio@tiscalinet.it

Despite other European countries, Italian Syrphidae received small attention during
the second half of 1900. The authors will discuss the recent researches developed to
increase the knowledge of Syrphidae Italian fauna and to use hoverflies as
bioindicators in rural landscape in Northern Italy. In particular a field experiment is
presented, with the aim to compare Malaise trap and hand net in collecting hoverflies.
These methods appear selective and complementary, and the use of both in
environmental analysis is suggested. In addition seventeen sites, including forests and
farms, are compared according Syrphidae fauna; cluster analysis shows that landscape
management strongly effects hoverfly community. Syrphidae communities can be
effective as landscape indicators in rural landscape; the necessity to sample a species
spectrum including all larval trophic categories is underlined, with particular attention
to rare species, belonging to saproxylic habitus. Authors underline the need to increase
the data available about the distribution of Italian species and their biology. Several
sites, both in rural and in natural habitats, will be studied since 2003, both in North
and south Italy. The main goal of these studies is to increase the data available about
Italian Syrphidae in order to apply also in Italy the use of Syrphidae as bioindicators.

Keywords: Bioindicators Northern Italy Catching methods.

References
BIRTELE, D., SOMMAGGIO, D., SPEIGHT, M.C.D. & TISATO M. (2002): Syrphidae. In F.
Mason, P. Cerretti, A. Tagliapietra, M.C.D. Speight, A. Zapparoli (eds.). Invertebrati di una
foresta della Pianura Padana Bosco della Fontana, 115-118. BURGIO, G. & SOMMAGGIO, D.
(2002): Diptera Syrphidae caught by Malaise trap in Bologna province and new record of
Neoascia interrupta in Italy. Bul. of Insectology 55, 43-47. SOMMAGGIO, D. & BURGIO, G. (in
press): Role of Diptera Syrphidae as landscape indicators: analysis of some case studies in
North Italy. IOBC Bull. SPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E., OBRDLIK, P. & BALL, S. (eds, 2000):
Syrph the Net: the database of European Syrphidae. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin.
24 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Factors affecting hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) biodiversity in


Irish plantation forests
Tom Gittings, Paul S. Giller & John O’Halloran
Department of Zoology and Animal Ecology, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect
Row, Cork (Ireland) e-mail: t.gittings@ucc.ie

Objectives: We investigated hoverfly biodiversity as part of a large-scale project with


the objective of developing appropriate indicators (structural, compositional,
functional) of Irish plantation forest biodiversity. Methods: We used malaise traps to
sample hoverflies in 38 sites representing four age-classes of three forest types: Sitka
(Picea sitchensis), ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Sitka-ash mixes. We recorded habitat
details using the “Syrph The Net” habitat classification (Speight et al., 2001). We used
the predicted habitat associations in Speight et al. (2001) to exclude species from
subsequent analyses that obviously did not breed within the forest habitat at each site.
Our co-workers carried out concurrent surveys of plant, spider and bird biodiversity in
the same sites and collected GIS data for a 5 km. radius around each site.
Results: In older forests (tree height greater than 10 m), the total number of
hoverfly species was negatively correlated with tree height and positively correlated
with clearing area. This relationship also applied to the number of species in most
functional groups, except dead wood/saproxylic species. The biodiversity of dead
wood/saproxylic species in the Sitka forests was positively related to the occurrence of
standing and fallen timber. In the younger forests, hoverfly assemblages reflected the
pre-planting habitat type.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Indicators, Plantation forests, Picea sitchensis, Fraxinus excelsior.

References
S PEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E., OBRDLIK, P. & BALL, S. (2001): Macrohabitat
preferences of European Syrphidae (Diptera), 2001. In M.C.D., Speight, E. Castella, P. Obrdlik
& S. Ball (eds..) Syrph the Net, the database of European Syrphidae. Vol. 28. - Syrph the Net
Publications, Dublin
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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

An overview of the flower-flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of Southeastern


Brazil - Project of Survey of Syrphidae Fauna in Paraná.
*Luciane Marinoni & **F. Christian Thompson
*Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil). e-mail: lmarinon@bio.ufpr.br
** Systematic Entomology Lab., ARS, USDA.Washington, D.C. (USA).
e-mail: cthompson@sel.barc.usda.gov

Brazil has an extremely rich and diverse entomofauna. This fauna is poorly known and
very little has been done to assess its biodiversity especially concerning flower-flies.
To fill this void, entomofaunal surveys have been carried out in Paraná, Brazil. From
1986 to 1988, the project “Survey of the Entomological Fauna in Paraná”
(PROFAUPAR) was carried out in eight localities of the state with different floristic
and geomorphological conditions. Malaise trapping collected 1,617 specimens of
Syrphidae in the first year and 1,642 specimens in the second. In the first year, 111
species were sorted out. Names were found for 85 including 8 new species, but 26
others could not be matched with named concepts and are of poorly known groups
where new species descriptions would only add to existing confusion (Marinoni &
Thompson, in press). In the second year 96 morphospecies were preliminary
identified. Toxomerus was the most abundant genus in both years, with 393 and 789
specimens collected respectively. The species Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann, 1830),
Microdon mitis Curran, 1940 and Leucopodella gracilis (Williston, 1891) were the
most abundant in the first year (Marinoni & Bonatto, 2002) and in the second
Toxomerus procrastinatus Metz, 2001, T. tibicen, Paramicrodon flukei (Curran,
1936), and Microdon mitis. The genera Ocyptamus, Copestylum and Microdon were
the most diverse genera. In the first year, five known species were for the first time
registered for Brazil and 43 species for Paraná. With these partial results the need of
more studies on the Syrphidae taxonomy, especially in Neotropical areas, become
evident. From this material, collected during two years, much more information can be
obtained including seasonality analysis of the most abundant species.

Keywords: Syrphidae, Neotropical, Survey, Malaise.


28 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
MARINONI, L. & THOMPSON , F.C. (In press.): Flower Flies of Southeastern Brazil
(Diptera: Syrphidae). Part I. Introduction and New species. Studia Dipterologica. MARINONI,
R.C. & DUTRA, R.R.C. (1993): Levantamento da fauna entomológica no Estado do Paraná. I.
Introdução. Situações climática e florística de oito pontos de coleta. Dados faunísticos de
agosto de 1986 a julho de 1987. Rev. bras. Zool. 8(1/2/3/4): 31-73.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 29
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

The evaluation of the works on Syrphidae (Diptera) Fauna in the


Western Blacksea Region
Suleyman Saribiyik
G.U. Kastamonu Egitim Fakultesi, Gazi University, Kastamonu (Turkey)
e-mail: sbiyik@gazi.edu.tr

In this study, the works on Syrphidae family in Western Blacksea region between
1996-2001 have been investigated. Until now 104 species of the Syrphidae family
(Syrphinae and Milesiinae) have been recorded in this region. Also a general review
on Turkish Syrphids has been made.

Keywords: Diptera, Syrphidae, Fauna, Western Blacksea Region, Turkey.

References
A KTAS , M. & SARIBIYIK, S. (1996): Contribution to the Syrphidae fauna of Turkey
(Diptera: Syrphidae) (II), Milesiinae. Journal of the Institue of Science and Technology of Gazi
University 9(1), 15-27 [in Turkish]. AKTAS , M. & S ARIBIYIK, S. (2001): New Records of
Syrphinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) from Turkey. J. Ent. Res. Soc. 3(1-2), 41-46. B ISCHOF, J.
(1902): Ergebnisse einer naturwissenschaftlichen Reise zum Erdschias Dagh (Kleinasien).
Annales des k. naturhistorischen Hofmuseums 20, 1-9. SARIBIYIK, S. & HASBENLI, A. (1997):
New Records for fauna of Turkish Syrphidae, (Diptera). Turkish journal of entomology 21(3),
225-232 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK , S. & ÖZGÜR , A.F. (2000): New Records of Milesiinae
(Diptera: Syrphidae) from Turkey. J. Ent. Res. Soc. 2(3), 5-13. SARIBIYIK , S. (1999a):
Syrphinae Fauna of the West Blacksea Region, (Diptera: Syrphidae). Gazi University,
Kastamonu Education Journal 7(1), 185-194 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK, S. (1999b): Milesiinae
Fauna of the West Blacksea Region, (Diptera, Syrphidae). Gazi University, Kastamonu
Education Journal 7(1), 195-204 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK, S. (2000a): Fauna of Syrphidae in
Ilgaz and Isik Mountains and their vicinity (Diptera-Syrphinae). Journal of the Institute of
Science and Technology of Gazi University 13(1), 55-70 [in Turkish]. SARIBIYIK, S. (2000b):
Two new records for the Turkish Milesiinae Fauna (Diptera: Syrphidae). Bitki Koruma Bülteni
40(3-4), 179-181. SARIBIYIK, S. (2001): New Records of the Subfamily Milesiinae (Diptera:
Syrphidae) from Turkey. J. Ent. Res. Soc. 3(3), 43-51.
30 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 31
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Oral contribution

Recent changes in the range of Volucella zonaria and V. inanis in England


(Diptera, Syrphidae)
Roger K.A. Morris & Stuart Ball
British Hoverfly Recording Scheme (United Kingdom). e-mail: stuart.ball@jncc.gov.uk

Volucella zonaria is the largest British hoverfly. It is a recent arrival, that became
established in the 1940's and has since spread across southern and eastern England. It's
rapid expansion in range in the late 1990's prompted detailed examination of the
historic records, revealing clear associations between its distribution and climate. It is
an exemplar of a species associated with urban heat island effects. This study
prompted further examination of the expansion in the range of its near-relative V.
inanis, which has revealed remarkable contractions in its western range and
expansions to the north. This latter species’ range change raises questions about the
possible impact of shifts in the Atlantic Conveyor that heralded a period of
exceptionally cool conditions in the 1960’s. These studies combine to illustrate the
importance of detailed data collection that can be used in studies long after the data
were first collected.

Keywords: Volucella zonaria, V. inanis, climate change, range change, urban heat island.
32 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 33
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

The Syrphidae (Diptera) of contrasting grassland farms in Ireland.


1,2,*
Helen Sheridan, 1N. Culleton & 2G. O’Donovan
1
Teagasc, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford. (Ireland)
2
Department of Environmental Resource Management, Faculty of Agriculture,
University College Dublin. (Ireland)
*e-mail: hsheridan@johnstown.teagasc.ie

The Rural Environmental Protection Scheme (the REPS) was initiated in Ireland in
1994 as the Irish governments response to the EU Agri-environmental Regulation
2078/92. However, despite the time span involved, a paucity of base line data
regarding levels of biological diversity and potential biological indicators continues to
exist. In view of their many desirable attributes as biological indicators, the Syrphidae
were chosen for this study. Study sites included two contrasting grassland farms. The
first, a drystock farm in Co. Longford, has been a participant of the REPS for five
years. Mature internal and external hedgerows, bog, setaside, conifer stands, grazed
and silage grounds were among the many habitats found to be present. The second site
was a dairy farm in Co. Wexford where internal hedgerows had been removed and
swards comprised principally of Lolium perenne. Collecting of Syrphids species was
initiated in May 2002 using malaise traps. These were installed at a level of one per
habitat type, facing in a south-easterly direction or along insect flight lines, where
possible. Thirteen traps were installed on site one and a further six on site two. Trap
heads containing 70% ethanol were changed every three weeks, until October 2002.
All samples were sorted and syrphids identified to species level. Preliminary results
yielded a total presence of 64 species on site one and 34 on site two. These results
combined with abundance, floral presence and meteorological data collected over the
sampling period, are presented here.
34 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 35
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

Biodiversity monitoring of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae)


in protected areas.
1
Smiljka Simic, 2Ante Vujic & 3Snezana Radenkovic
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
1 2 3
e-mail: simic@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: kalorin@im.ns.ac.yu

Several invertebrate - based systems of bioevaluation have been developed (Castella et


al., 1994). Some of well-investigated groups of insects, such as hoverflies (besides the
carabid beetles), have been used as a very important bioindicator for environmental
assessment during past decade. The Balkan Peninsula, with numerous glacial refuges,
is the area rich in species and endemes of many groups of organisms. National Parks
and Wilderness Areas, as protected areas and highly preserved parts of nature, present
the centers of biodiversity. Therefore, one of the widely accepted strategies of
conservation biology is the preservation of biodiversity by exploring and active
protection of certain areas, centers of endemism, rich in species. Two National Parks
and one Strict Nature Reserve (protected by Ramsar Convention) from Serbia have
been chosen for biodiversity monitoring during three years long project (2002-2004),
because of high anthropogenic pressure and degradational changes in ecosystems.
Inventorying the biodiversity is based on studying the endangered, endemic, rare,
relict and internationally significant species. Measures and activities in biodiversity
protection on species and ecosystems levels have been established, as a condition for
efficient national and global biodiversity protection. This paper points to the
monitoring of rare, endangered species and their habitats, that need special attention in
protection and application of additional conservation measures.

Keywords: Biodiversity, monitoring, hoverflies, protected areas, Balkan Peninsula.


36 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
CASTELLA, E., SPEIGHT, M.C.D., OBRDLIK, P., SCHNEIDER, E. & LAVERY, T. (1994): A
methodological approach to the use of terrestrial invertebrates for the assessment of alluvial
wetlands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 3(1), 17-36. RADENKOVIC, S., VUJIC, A., SIMIC,
S. & RADISIC, P. (2002): Hoverflies (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae) as bioindicator for the
environmental assessment (Voivodina, Serbia). 6th International Symposium Interdisciplinary
Regional Research Hungary Romania-Yugoslavia, Novi Sad. Proceedings, 0135. V UJIC, A.,
SIMIC, S., RADENKOVIC, S., KOSIC, J. & STEFANOVIC, A. (2002): Monitoring biodiverziteta
osolikih muva (Diptera: Syrphidae) u Nacionalnom parku " Fruska gora". Ekoloska istina, X
naucno-strucni skup o prirodnim vrednostima i zastiti prirodne sredine. Donji Milanovac.
Zbornik radova, 29-32. VUJIC , A., SIMIC , S., RADENKOVIC, S. (in press): New data about
hoverflies diversity (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae) on the mountain Fruska gora (Serbia).
Zbornik Matice srpske za prirodne nauke. VUJIC, A., SIMIC, S., RADENKOVIC, S. (in press):
Endangered species of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) on the Balkan Peninsula. Acta
entomologica serbica.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 37
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

Genus Chrysotoxum Meigen, 1803 (Diptera: Syrphidae)


on the Balkan Peninsula
1
Ante Vujic, 2Snezana Radenkovic & 3Smiljka Simic
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
1 2 3
e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: kalorin@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: simics@im.ns.ac.yu

Genus Chrysotoxum belongs to the subfamily Syrphinae, with carnivorous larvae


found in ant nests and feeding on aphids. Peck (1988) listed 23 supposedly distinct
European species. Until now, 11 species have been registered in Serbia and
Montenegro, 14 in Bulgaria and 12 in Romania (Vujic and Simic, 1994). The
identification of many species is difficult because of very similar male terminalia and
great intraspecific variation. The species concepts operating at present are reflected by
unpublished work of Claus Claussen (pers. comm.). Here are presented the taxa with
unsolved taxonomic status: species related to Chrysotoxum intermedium Meigen,
1822, a new undescribed species related to C. arcuatum L. and C. vernale Loew, 1841
and group of species related to C. elegans Loew, 1941 and C. octomacularum Curtis,
1837 based on the material from the Balkan Peninsula. The paper also presents the
distinguishing key for the Balkan Chrysotoxum species.

Keywords: Chrysotoxum, Balkan Peninsula.

References
P ECK , L.V. (1988): Syrphidae. In: A. Soos, L. Papp, Eds., Catalogue of Palaearctic
Diptera 8: Syrphidae - Conopidae, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, pp 11-238. VUJIC , A. &
SIMIC, S. (1994): Syrphidae (Insecta: Diptera) Vrsackih planina. - Monographs of Vrsac hills,
Matica srpska, 163pp. Novi Sad.
38 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 39
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

Genus Platycheirus Le Peletier et Serville, 1828 (Diptera: Syrphidae) on


the Balkan Peninsula
1
Snezana Radenkovic, 2Ante Vujic & 3Smiljka Simic
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
1 2 3
e-mail: kalorin@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: simics@im.ns.ac.yu

The genus Platycheirus Le Peletier et Serville, 1828 is predominantly holarctic and


markedly boreal. In the Palaearctic Region there are 55 known species of which about
30 occur in the boreal zone (Vockeroth, 1990). The number of species known from
central Europe is 35, until now (Doczkal et al., 2002). The genus Platycheirus is
referred to the tribe Melanostomatini of the subfamily Syrphinae. The Platycheirus
species are with completely black head and scutellum, characterised by distinctive
hairs or bristles on male legs (especially front ones) and often have modified front
tarsus and femur. Described larvae have been reported to be aphid predators and few
ones to feed at least partly on decaying plant material as well (Vockeroth, 1990).
Vockeroth (1990) divided genus in five groups of species and eight sub-groups,
mainly based on characteristics of the male legs. Female identification for many
species is still uncertain. Many authors use this division on species groups and two
sub-genera Pachysphyria Enderlein, 1938 and Platycheirus. This paper presents
summarised available data on Platycheirus species from the Balkan Peninsula, with
the distribution records. Until now, there are published data of 11 species registered in
Serbia and Montenegro, 17 in Romania and 7 in Bulgaria (Vujic & Simic, 1994). Re-
determination and determination of the material from the Balkan Peninsula confirm
the existing of previously registered species and enlarged the fauna list.

Keywords: Platycheirus, Balkan Peninsula.

References
V OCKEROTH , J.R. (1990): Revision of the Nearctic species of Platycheirus (Diptera,
Syrphidae). Can. Ent. 122, 659-766. DOCZKAL, D., STUKE, J.-H., GOELDLIN DE TIEFENAU, P.
(2002): The species of Platycheirus scutatus (Meigen) complex in central europe, with
40 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

description of Platycheirus speighti spec. nov. from the Alps (Diptera, Syrphidae). Volucella 6,
23-40. V U J I C , A., SI M I C , S. (1994): Syrphidae (Insecta: Diptera) Vrsackih planina.
Monographs of Vrsac hills, Matica srpska, 163 pp. Novi Sad.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 41
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

A check list of Iranian Hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Hussein Sadeghi
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad,
Mashhad (Iran). e-mail: husseinsadeghi@yahoo.co.uk

While in many parts of the world, people talk about endangered syrphid species, in
Iran many parts of the country nearly unworked in terms of syrphid fauna. Only in
recent years a few studies very superficially have explored some parts of Iran.
However, the following list is the results of two years investigation of author and other
Iranian colleagues on syrphid fauna of Iran.
So far, the reported species are as follow: 1-Allograpta sp., 2-Chrysogaster sp.,
3-Chrysotoxum bacterianum, 4-Ch. p a r m e n s e R., 5-Ch. intermedium M., 6-
Dasysyrphus albostriatus F., 7-Episyrphus balteatus, 8-E. auricollis M., 9-Eristalis
tenax, 10-Eristalis arbustorum L., 11-Eristalinus aeneus S., 12-E. megacephalus R.,
13-E. quinquelineatus F., 14-E. sepulchralis L., 15-E. taeniops W., 16-Eumerus
sogdianus S., 17-E. strigatus F., 18- Eupeodes nuba W., 19-E. corollae P., 20-
Helophilus parallelus H., 21-H. pendulus L., 22- Ischiodon aegyptius W., 23-I .
scutellaris F., 24-Mesembrius peregrinus, 25-Metasyrphus latifasciatus M., 26-M.
luniger, 27-Melanostoma mellinum L., 28-Merodon pruni R., 29-Myathropa florea L.,
30-Neoascia podagrica R., 31-Paragus bicolor, 32-P. haemorrhous F., 33-P. tibialis
F., 34-P. quadrifasciatus, 35-P. compeditus W., 36- P. antoinettae, 37- P. azureus
H.,38-P. aegyptius, 39-Platycheirus fulviventris M., 40-Scaeva pyrastri L., 41-S.
albomaculata, 42-S. rossica, 43-S. dignota A., 44-S. selenitica, 45-Sphaerophoria
bengalensis M., 46-S .scripta, 47-S. scutellari, 48-S. taeniopa, 49- S. rueppelli W., 50-
S. turkemenica B., 51-Syrphus ribesii L., 52-S. torvus, 53-S. vitripennis, 54-Syritta
pipiens L., 55-S. flaviventris M., 56-S. vittata, 57-Vollucella zonaria P., 58-
Xanthogramma sp., 59-X. pediseqquum H., 60- X. maculipennis, 61-Xylota segnis.

Keywords: Fauna, Hoverflies, Iran.


42 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
D OUSTI , A., HOJAT, S.H. SOLEYMAN N EJADIAN , E. (2000): A faunistic survey of
Syrphidae (Diptera) in Ahvaz Region. The Proc. of 14th Iranian Plant Protection Congress,
Isfahan University of Technology 5-8 Sept. 2000. SADEGHI ,H., KAYVANFAR , N. &
M OJTEHEDZADEH K. (2002): Hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) fauna of Mashhad. The
Proceding of 15th Iranian Plant Protection Con. 7-11 Sept. 2002. Kermanshah Iran.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 43
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

A new edition of “British Hoverflies” (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Alan E. Stubbs
Peterborough, PE1 4DS, (United Kingdom)

Stubbs & Falk, 1983, has been the mainstay of hoverfly identification in the UK
for nearly 20 years. Since it was first published an additional 20 species have been
added to the British list and knowledge of the distribution and biology has advanced
considerably. The book has not stood still and two supplements and an update have
been produced. In 2001 it was clear that yet another update was required. It was
decided to undertake a full revision, incorporating revised keys, updated text, a much
expanded bibliography and additional plates of male genitalia of Cheilosia and
Sphaerophoria.

References
S TUBBS , A.E. & FALK , S.J. (2002): British Hoverflies (2nd ed. updated and revised).
British Entomological and Natural History Society, Reading.
44 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 45
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Poster

A new European species of genus Eristalis Latreille, 1804


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
1
*Ante Vujic, 2*Snezana Radenkovic, 3**Tore R. Nielsen & 4*Smiljka Simic
*Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
** Sandvedhagen 8, NO-4318 Sandnes, Norway
1 2 3
e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: kalorin@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: trnielsen@c2i.net
4
email: simics@im.ns.ac.yu

Eristalis Latreille, 1804 is moderately large genus, widely distributed over the
Palaearctic, but also occurs in the Nearctic region. The adults closely resemble to bees
and bumble bees by their colour patterns. The larvae are aquatic saprofagous with
characteristic long breathing tube (“rat-tailed maggots”). Peck (1988) listed 46 species
from the Palaearctic, and Telford (1970) 25 for the Nearctic region. The recent
comprehensive study of West Palaearctic species (Hippa et al., 2001) has resolved
many nomenclatural and taxonomic problems. It contains discussion on the identity of
20 West Palaearctic species, their diagnostic characters and key, establishment of new
synonyms and designation of lectotypes and neotypes. Until now, 11 Eristalis species
were recorded from the Balkan Peninsula (Simic & Vujic, 1990). Review of the
hoverflies collection from the Macedonian Museum of Natural History (Skopje,
Former Republic of Yugoslavia Macedonia) and comparison with published data on
the hoverflies in Macedonia (Glumac, 1968) has discovered one very distinct,
undescribed species, closely related to E. interrupta (Poda, 1761). The morphological
characteristics of this species with figures of male genitalia and diagnostic characters,
are given. The check list of Eristalis species from the Balkan Peninsula is presented
also.

Keywords: Eristalis, new species, FRY Macedonia.


46 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
G L U M A C , S. (1968): Sirfide (Syrphoidea, Diptera) u Makedoniji.- Godisnjak
Filozofskog fakulteta u Novom Sadu 11(2), 845-880. HIPPA, H., NIELSEN, T.R. & STEENIS, J.V.
(2001): The West Palaearctic species of the genus Eristalis Latreille (Diptera, Syrphidae). -
Norw. J. Entomol. 48, 289-327. SIMIC, S. & VUJIC, A. (1990): Vrste roda Eristalis Latreille,
1804 (Diptera: Syrphidae) iz zbirke Instituta za Biologiju u Novom Sadu. - Glasnik
Prirodnjackog muzeja u Beogradu B 45, 115-126. TELFORD, H.S. (1970): Eristalis (Diptera:
Syrphidae) from America North of Mexico. - Ann. Ent. Soc. America 63(5), 1201-1210.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 47
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Silent Abstract

Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the!Ramsar locality NNR Paríske


moiare [Paris wetlands] (Southern Slovakia)
Adrianna Králiková
Department of environmentalism and zoology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources,
Slovak Agricultural University, 949 76 Nitra, (Slovak Republic)
e-mail: Adrianna.Kralikova@uniag.sk

The reservation Paríske moiare (Paris wetlands), located at the territory of Southern
Slovakia, is the important biocentre within the network of wetlands of Slovakia. In
1990 this reservation was included into the list of the wetlands according to the
conditions of the Ramsar convention.
We have used a Malaise trap to study changes in a!population density of
hoverflies. The trap was being exposed during the season of the year 2001. There were
found 35 species. The females of the genus Sphaerophoria were not determined. We
chose eudominant species: Platycheirus fulviventris, Anasimyia lineata, Lejops vittata,
Syrphus vitripennis, to evaluate their flight activity.
48 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 49
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

BIODIVERSITY–CONSERVATION // Silent Abstract

Eumerini (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the Crimean Peninsula


Grigory Popov
Donetsk Botanical Gardens Nat. Ukr. Acad. Sci, 83059 Donetsk, (Ukraine)
e-mail: mbu@yandex.ru

The Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine) is situated not so far from geographical line
distinguishing Europe and Asia under the subboreal climatic conditions, although the
Crimean Mountains are of the cause of existence the submediterranean vegetation as
well as the steppes and the nemoral forests. All of these are of great importance for
relatively diverse Eumerini fauna existence in the Peninsula (30 species, 15,8% out of
190 total fauna species).
There are: Eumerus amoenus Loew, 1848, E. argyropus Loew, 1848, E. basalis
Loew, 1848, E. clavatus Becker, 1921, E. funeralis Meigen, 1822, E. ornatus Meigen,
1822, E. pauper Becker, 1921, E. pulchellus Loew, 1848, E. sabulonum (Fallén,
1817), E. sogdianus Stackelberg, 1952, E. strigatus (Fallén, 1817), E. sulcitibius
Rondani, 1868, E. tauricus Stackelberg, 1952, E. tricolor (Fabricius, 1798), Merodon
albifrons Meigen, 1822, M. armipes Rondani, 1843 (?), M. avidus (Rossi, 1790), M.
constans (Rossi, 1794), M. crassifemoris Paramonov, 1925, M. crymensis Paramonov,
1925, Merodon equestris (Fabricius, 1794), M. femoratoides Paramonov, 1925, M.
loewi van der Goot, 1964, M. longicornis Sack, 1913, M. nanus (Sack, 1931), M.
nigritarsis Rondani, 1845, M. pruni (Rossi, 1790), M. rufus Meigen, 1838, M. tener
Sack, 1913, M. tricinctus Sack, 1913. The most of them are marginal for their areas.

Keywords: fauna, Eumerini, Eumerus, Merodon, Crimean Peninsula.


50 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


SESSION II
ECOLOGY / BIOLOGY
Oral Contributions
Posters
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 53
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Plenary session

Explaining syrphid diversification: the role of shifts in breeding site


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
Graham E. Rotheray
Department of Natural History, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh, EH1 1JF (U.K.)
e-mail: g.rotheray@nms.ac.uk

About 180 genera are currently employed in syrphid taxonomy. The extent to which
these genera are valid and comparable in phylogenetic rank i.e. that they represent
single, monophyletic chains of species within which no further monophyletic groups
are recoverable is examined.
Many syrphid genera considered valid by this criterion are underpinned by an
impressive range of data involving adult and early stage morphology and biological
features. In addition, genera are usually associated with a particular breeding site such
that all constituent species breed in the same type of substrate. Few exceptions have
been found to this evident pattern. However, caution is required because such a
finding is sensitive to assessments of how genera and breeding sites are defined and
characterised. Despite this, a repeated congruence of breeding sites with generic limits
is nonetheless apparent and not without significance. It suggests that a predominant
mode of diversification in syrphids involves bursts of speciation following shifts in
breeding sites.
Bursts of speciation usually occur along the axis of unexploited units of a
breeding site or a breeding site is partitioned. In either case, there is relatively little
associated innovation. In constrast, shifts in breeding site nearly always involve high
levels of morphological and biological innovation. Phylogenetic analysis of predatory
syrphines and saprophagous volucellines reveals one further associated feature.
Derived genera within these lineages contain species that have not only shifted to
novel breeding sites but have also invaded breeding sites occupied by more
plesiomorphic genera. They are conspicuous exceptions to the above noted pattern of
all species in a genus breeding in the same substrate. Furthermore, such species are
characterised by greater levels of innovation in larvae than adults. Although, at some
54 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

point, flexible behaviour must be present in ovipositing females for such a pattern to
exist. The more derived a genus is within these lineages the more its constituent
species are large, morphologically complex and probably more adaptable and
competitively superior. In occupying diverse breeding sites, these species may
represent incipient genera at an early stage of diversification. Species with flexible
oviposition behaviour and innovative, competitively superior larvae may characterise
shifts in breeding sites across the entire length of these lineages. Species with such
characteristics may lie at the origin of many valid syrphid genera.

Keywords: Adult, derived, genus, larva, morphology, partitioning.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 55
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Influence of temperature on mimicry in Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae)


1
Pavel Láska & 2Vítezslav Bicík
Dept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,
771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic).
1 2
e-mail: Mazanek@prfnw.upol.cz e-mail: flagell@prfnw.upol.cz

We found several times in Syrphini that the ratio of black and yellow is dependent on
temperature during the development of puparia. Specimens of the genera Eupeodes,
Episyrphus, Sphaerophoria and some other syrphids had darker abdomen in lower
temperature and lighter under warmer conditions. In extreme cold conditions the
abdomen can be fully black and in extreme warm conditions fully yellow.
A physiological process is taking place irrespectively of the resulted mimicry.
Some Syrphini can live for many generations with black or yellow abdomens. The
selective pressure in vespiforme mimics is probably weak and evolution of distinct
black-and-yellow colouration can be very slow. Nevertheless more adapted species or
genera to determinate climatic conditions have developed distinct combination of
black and yellow colouration. Eupeodes curtus is adapted to cold conditions in arctic
area and the combination of black and yellow colouration is secured. Similarly some
groups originating from a warm climate have developed in higher temperature both
yellow and black colour, e.g. Ischiodon, Simosyrphus, Dideopsis. It means that they
evolved much longer than e.g. Eupeodes corollae in South Africa, where it is lighter
and was described as another species, E. cognatus. Some central European
Sphaerophoria from Greenland are mainly black, but they are yellow in subtropic
areas. It means that a very long evolution in the same conditions has influenced the
ratio between yellow and black to be approximately 1:1 (yellow bands or spots cover
approximately 50% of the surface of the tergites). So the black-and-yellow colouration
may indicate the length of evolution in warm climate. Explanation and confirmation of
this theory will be possible after collecting a larger amount of material from various
climatic zones where both the elevation above sea level and temperature before
collecting will be known.
56 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Keywords: colour variability, evolution, vespiforme mimicry, Syrphinae, Eupeodes,


Sphaerophoria.

References
DUSEK, J. & LÁSKA, P. (1974): Influence of temperature during pupal development on
the colour of adult syrphids (Syrphidae, Diptera). Folia Fac. Sci .Univ. Purk. Brun. 15, Biol.
43(1), 77-81. MAZÁNEK, L., LÁSKA, P., BICÍK, V. & NIELSEN, T.R. (1999): Key to males of
Norwegian species of Eupeodes (Diptera, Syrphidae). Dipterologica bohemoslovaca 9, 143-
152. KOMÁREK , S. (2000): Mimicry, aposematism and related phenomenon. Mimetism in
nature and evolution of knowledge about it. Praha, Vesmír, 186 pp. [in Czech].

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 57
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Survey of Syrphidae (Diptera) in two Areas: edge and interior of a forest


in Vila Velha State Park, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil
G.F. Miranda & Luciane Marinoni
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil). e-mail: lmarinon@bio.ufpr.br

To characterize the local insect fauna, weekly samples were obtained from
September/1999 to August/2000 through Malaise traps installed on the edge and
within a forest in Vila Velha State Park, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The Syrphidae
were sorted out and morphospecies defined. A temporal analysis between the
Syrphidae species collected approximately fifteen years ago in the same local within
the forest was made. Also, the abundance and diversity between the areas were
analyzed and the influence of climate on the seasonality was tested using correlation
analysis.
The family was more abundant in the forest edge (n=682 individuals) than in
the forest interior (n=103), as it was the number of species (61 and 30 species
respectively). Comparing the current data with the data obtained in 1986/1987
(Marinoni & Dutra, 1993, Marinoni & Thompson, in press) a decrease in the local
diversity was registered. In both areas a significant correlation between seasonality
and temperature was observed, but the correlation was negative in the edge and
positive in the interior of the forest. Syrphinae was the most abundant subfamily. Both
areas had the following species in common: Mixogaster polistes Hull, Copestylum
selectum (Curran), Toxomerus tibicen (Wiedemann), T. procrastinatus Metz, T. pictus
(Macquart), Syrphus phaeostigma Wiedemann, Leucopodella gracilis (Williston) and
Allograpta neotropica Curran. The genus Ocyptamus Macquart (33 specimens) was
the most abundant in the trap located in the forest interior and Toxomerus Macquart
(253 specimens) was the most abundant in the trap located in the forest edge. The
genus Ocyptamus Macquart was the most diverse in both areas.

Keywords: Syrphidae, Neotropical, Brazil, Malaise trap.


58 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
MARINONI, L. & THOMPSON , F.C. (In press.): Flower Flies of Southeastern Brazil
(Diptera: Syrphidae). Part I. Introduction and New species. Studia Dipterologica. MARINONI,
R.C. & DUTRA, R.R.C. (1993): Levantamento da fauna entomológica no Estado do Paraná. I.
Introdução. Situações climática e florística de oito pontos de coleta. Dados faunísticos de
agosto de 1986 a julho de 1987. Rev. bras. Zool. 8(1/2/3/4): 31-73.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 59
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

A novel method to investigate the pollen diets of hoverflies


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
*Yvonne Golding & 1**Malcolm Edmunds
*School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT (UK).
e-mail: yvonne.c.golding@man.ac.uk
*Department of Biological Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (UK)
1
Present address: Department of Environmental Management, University of Central Lancashire,
Preston PR1 2HE (UK) e-mail: medmunds@uclan.ac.uk

In this paper we describe a novel method to investigate the pollen diets of hoverflies.
The method dispenses with the need for dissection skills or the use of hazardous
chemicals thus making it particularly useful for school, college or undergraduate
projects and for amateurs. It utilises the properties of the indigestible pollen coat or
exine which enables pollen to pass through the gut of a hoverfly intact and remain
identifiable, even when defecated. Importantly it does not require the harvesting of
insects making it particularly useful for work with rare species. We tested the method
on 11 Episyrphus balteatus individuals caught foraging in one area of a meadow; we
found they had been feeding on 9 different plant species. We also used the method to
compare the pollen diets of hoverflies found foraging with honeybees but it could
equally be used to investigate other aspects of syrphid ecology.

Keywords: hoverflies, pollen-feeding.

References
H OLLOWAY , B.A. (1976): Pollen-feeding in hoverflies (Diptera:Syrphidae). New
Zealand Journal of Zoology 3, 339-350. MOORE, P.D. & WEBB, J.A. (1978): An illustrated
guide to pollen analysis. London: Hodder & Stoughton. HASLETT, J.R. (1983): A photographic
account of pollen digestion by adult hoverflies. Physiological Entomology, 8, 167-171.
60 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 61
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Does the abundance of hoverfly mimics (Diptera: Syrphidae) depend on


the numbers of their hymenopteran models?
1
*Brigitte Howarth, 2*Malcolm Edmunds & **Francis Gilbert
*Department of Biological Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (UK)
1
Present address: Al Ain English Speaking School, P.O. Box 17939, Al Ain, (United Arab Emirates)
e-mail: bhowarth@emirates.net.ae
2
Present address: Department of Environmental Management, University of Central Lancashire,
Preston PR1 2HE (UK) e-mail: medmunds@uclan.ac.uk
**School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD,
(UK) e-mail: Francis.Gilbert@nottingham.ac.uk

We tested the prediction that, if hoverflies are Batesian mimics, this may extend to
behavioural mimicry such that their numerical abundance at each hour of the day (the
daily activity pattern) is related to the numbers of their hymenopteran models. After
accounting for site, season, microclimatic responses and for general hoverfly
abundance at three sites in north-west England, the residual numbers of mimics were
significantly correlated positively with their models 9 times out of 17, while 16 out of
17 relationships were positive, itself a highly significant non-random pattern. Several
eristaline flies showed significant relationships with honeybees even though some of
them mimic wasps or bumblebees, perhaps reflecting an ancestral resemblance to
honeybees. There was no evidence that good and poor mimics differed in their daily
activity pattern relationships with models. However, the common mimics showed
significant activity pattern relationships with their models, but the rarer mimics did
not. We conclude that many hoverflies show behavioural mimicry of their
hymenopteran models.

Keywords: Batesian mimicry, hoverflies, Hymenoptera, Syrphidae, GLM analysis.


62 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 63
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in vegetation complexes


of river valleys
Axel Ssymank
Bundesamt für Naturschutz (Federal Office for Nature Conservation), Konstantinstrasse 110,
53179 Bonn (Germany) e-mail: Ssymanka@bfn.de

Objectives: For a number of methodical and practical reasons it is very difficult to


assess the hoverfly community of a landscape. Important questions are: Which
parameters are suitable for describing hoverfly communities and how stable are they at
a local or regional level? Which ecological unit is fitting the “needs” of hoverflies best
and can be used to predict or assess hoverfly communities in a landscape? While the
knowledge on macro- and microsite features is constantly growing (Syrph-The-Net-
Database of Speight et al. 2000), the distribution and behaviour of hoverfly
communities in landscapes remains largely unknown. The following results will
contribute to answer these questions. The Drachenfelser Ländchen is a cultural
landscape near Bonn (Germany) with semi-natural small river systems, where a long
term research project provides the necessary background for detailed data analysis and
comparism between predicted hoverfly communities and field data.
M e t h o d o l o g y : A very detailed vegetation analysis including a
phytosociological mapping of linear vegetation complexes of river valleys is
differentiating 5 types (10 subtypes) of vegetation complexes with a distinct pattern of
plant communities in this landscape. 45 transects were chosen to sample the
vegetation complexes for hoverflies in the year 1999.
Main results/Conclusion: 71 species with a total of 4187 observations were
recorded on the transects. The main types of vegetation complexes had clearly
different syrphid assemblages. The results are compared with predicted data on the
basis of a regional checklist, respecting the phenological period of sampling using
Syrph-The-Net. Frequency and Constancy of hoverfly assemblages in the vegetation
complexes of river systems will be discussed.
64 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Furthermore questions of the “ideal” unit for assessing hoverfly communities in


terms of level of hierarchy (biotope types or associations versus syntaxa or vegetation
complexes) and factors determining hoverfly diversity will be discussed using
comparative data from grid mapping from the same region (Ssymank, 2001).

Keywords: hoverfly communities, river valleys, vegetation complexes, species diversity, site
evaluation.

References
SPEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E. & OBRDLIK , P. (2000): Use of the Syrph the Net
database 2000. In M.C.D., Speight, E. Castella, P. Obrdlik & S. Ball (eds.) Syrph the Net, the
database of European Syrphidae. Vol. 25, 99 pp. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin.
S SYMANK , A. (2001): Vegetation und blütenbesuchende Insekten in der Kulturlandschaft. -
Pflanzengesellschaften, Blühphänologie, Biotopbindung und Raumnutzung von Schwebfliegen
(Diptera, Syrphidae) im Drachenfelser Ländchen sowie Methodenoptimierung und
Landschaftsbewertung. - Bundesamt f. Naturschutz, Bonn -Bad Godesberg.- Schriftenreihe für
Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz, Heft 64, 513 S.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 65
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Oral contribution

Climate change and its effect on the phenology of some British hoverflies
(Diptera, Syrphidae)
Stuart Ball & Roger K.A. Morris
British Hoverfly Recording Scheme (United Kingdom). e-mail: stuart.ball@jncc.gov.uk

If our climate is indeed warming up, one of the predicted effects on our hoverfly fauna
is that they should emerge earlier in the spring and remain active later in the autumn.
Data collated by the British Hoverfly Recording Scheme has been investigated to see
whether such an effect is evident. Epistrophe eligans is a widespread and abundant
spring hoverfly in England and Wales which clearly demonstrates a tendency to
emerge increasingly early over the last three decades. A general investigation of the
data showed that this trend is shared by many other species for which we have
adequate data. However, there are very few species which are active exclusively in the
autumn, making it very difficult to investigate whether activity is indeed persisting
later in the season.

Keywords: Epistrophe eligans, climate change, phenology.


66 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 67
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Life history strategies and prey specialization. A study on the genera


Melanostoma and Platycheirus (Diptera: Syrphidae)
Frank Dziock
UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Conservation Biology,
04318 Leipzig (Germany). e-mail: Dziock@pro.ufz.de

Life history strategies are the result of the coordinated evolution of all the life history
traits together under the action of selective forces. They may be summarized by a
relatively small number of traits, e.g. reproduction, body size, growth rate, and
migration. Life history strategies summarize how evolution has shaped organisms in
order to cope with their environment. In predatory insects, prey specialization is a
major component of the life history strategy. Knowledge on the relationship between
prey specialization and life history traits is essential for example for the use of a
species in biological control.
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between prey
specialization and life history strategies in four hoverfly species feeding mainly on
aphids (Melanostoma mellinum, M. scalare, Platycheirus clypeatus, P. fulviventris).
These four species can be grouped along a gradient of increasing prey specialization
and increasing aphid defense mechanisms: M. mellinum (generalist with 32 known
prey species) --> P. clypeatus (12) --> M. scalare (10) --> P. fulviventris (specialist, 3
known prey species). In laboratory experiments and in the field, the main components
of life history in these species were recorded: reproductive strategies, size and life
span, biomass investment, and phenology and migration. Major differences between
the species life history traits could be found in clutch size, egg size, egg number, prey
defense mechanisms and size. Trade-offs seem to occur between egg size and egg
number and between clutch size and egg size. To my own results, literature records of
Platycheirus and Melanostoma biology were added. Three major life history strategies
could then be identified in these genera: generalists, one-egg-specialists, many-egg-
specialists. Results are being discussed in the context of predator-prey theory and the
habitat templet theory.
68 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Keywords: life history strategies, prey specialization, reproduction, clutch size, egg size, egg
cannibalism, Syrphidae.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 69
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Colouration of third-instar larvae of the genus Epistrophe


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
1
Libor Mazánek 1Pavel Láska & 2Vítezslav Bicík
Dept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,
771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)
1 2
e-mail: Mazanek@prfnw.upol.cz e-mail: flagell@prfnw.upol.cz

Colour photographs are presented of larvae of the genus Epistrophe Walker, 1852,
obtained during a study of the third-instar larvae and puparia of Central European
species. Part of the material was obtained from aphid colonies in the field, and part
was reared in the laboratory from eggs laid by gravid females. Females were placed in
separate containers with small plants of Vicia faba infested by the aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum. Diapausing larvae were put in fridges into decreasing
temperatures at the end of summer (minimum -5°C). In the middle of January larvae
were then placed into increasing temperatures and in a 13L:11D photoperiod (later
16L:8D). The colouration of the live larva was photographed, and the posterior
respiratory process of the puparium or of the lyophilised larva was photographed by
SEM. In spite of the fact that the most specific character for distinguishing the larvae
of many species is their colour patterns, the colour photographs could not be published
in black and white scientific journal (Mazánek et al., 2001a). The colour patterns were
published in colour only in a Czech popular journal (Mazánek et al., 2001b), and
therefore we decided to present them as a poster.
Colour photographs of third-instar larvae of seven Central European species of
this genus are presented here: E. diaphana (Zetterstedt, 1843); E. cryptica Doczkal &
Schmid, 1994; E. melanostoma (Zetterstedt, 1843); E. eligans (Harris, 1780); E. flava
Doczkal & Schmid, 1994; E. nitidicollis (Meigen, 1822); and E. grossulariae
(Meigen, 1822). The ground colour of the larvae is usually greenish with a whitish
mid-dorsal stripe and dispersed whitish flecks. The green colour can change during
diapause, usually towards an orange-brownish colour, especially in E. grossulariae
larvae. Only the larva of E. cryptica is completely without green pigmentation, and the
70 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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structure of the dorsal integument is also unique among species of the genus. This
autapomorphy is probably an adaptation to some unknown special natural biotope.

Keywords: Larval morphology, aphidophagous larvae, laboratory preeding.

References
M AZÁNEK, L., LÁSKA, P., BICÍK, V., NOVOTN, R., (2001a): Descriptions with key to
third larval stage and puparia of the genus Epistrophe s. str. (Diptera: Syrphidae). - Acta Univ.
Carolinae Biologica 45, 115-128. M AZÁNEK, L., LÁSKA, P., BICÍK, V. (2001b): M˚icoıravé
larvy pestenek. [Aphidophagous Larvae of Hover Flies from the genus Epistrophe]. iva 5: 224.
[in Czech only].

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 71
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Bombus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mimicry in British Syrphidae (Diptera)


David Iliff
Editor of UK Hoverfly Newsletter, GL52 9HN Cheltenham, (United Kingdom)
davidiliff@talk21.com

Of all British Syrphidae, those species that mimic Bombus show a greater range of
different colour forms than those that do not. This is true of the majority of Bombus
mimics even though they belong to several different (often not closely related) tribes.
In a number of cases a single Syrphid species has forms that mimic two or more
different species of Bombus. Although it might be expected that the frequency of
occurrence of a particular form of mimic would mirror the frequency of occurrence of
the Bombus species that it resembles, this does not appear to be the case in the UK; for
example black haired species with white tail hairs (without any yellow hairs) are
relatively common among the British Syrphidae (e.g Eristalis intricarius and
Criorhina ranunculi); Bombus exhibiting this colour scheme are relatively uncommon.
Also, in at least two of the mimic species, particular colour forms seem to be confined
to one sex only.
72 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

ECOLOGY–BIOLOGY // Poster

Diet and pollen transport of Merodon aberrans Egger, 1860


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
Predag Radisic, J. Papadopoulos, 1Ante Vujic & 2Smiljka Simic
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
1 2
e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: simics@im.ns.ac.yu

Merodon aberrans Egger, 1860 belongs to clavipes group of species of genus


Merodon (Hurkmans, 1993). The range of this species extends from the central and
south Europe to the Caucasus, Turkey and Lebanon. It has been recorded on the whole
territory of the Balkans. Adults of this species were registered on flowers of Stenactis
annua (L.) Ness 1832 (Glumac, 1959), but their behaviour is relatively unknown.
The aim of this paper is to obtain new data on biology of species M. aberrans
acc. qualitative and quantitative analysis of the registered spectrum of pollen
integument and diet of individuals.
The specimens of M. aberrans were collected in the area of Vrsac hills (Serbia)
during July 1988. The pollen was collected from 58 samples (36 males and 22
females). The permanent preparations were made in glycerine-gelatine with fuchsine.
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of registered pollen spectrum from the
integument and diet are presented. The species was found on blossoms of Conium
maculatum L. 1753. It is interesting that no sample was observed on linden flowers,
while the pollen collected from the integument and gut predominantly belong to Tilia
spp. and C. maculatum.
74 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


SESSION III
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT
Oral Contributions
Posters
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 77
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Plenary session

Specialisation in syrphid predators (Diptera: Syrphidae)


Francis Gilbert
School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Univers., Nottingham NG7 2RD, (UK)
e-mail: Francis.Gilbert@nottingham.ac.uk

The syrphid literature is surveyed for instances where a range of predator species has
been recorded from the colonies of a range of different aphid species. There are
relatively few such studies in the literature, but these show common features that
suggest that all species are selective to a greater or lesser extent in their oviposition
choices, even so-called ‘generalist’ species. These data are then compared with data
on the oviposition preferences of gravid females, and also with evidence that some
aphids are toxic at least to the neonate larvae of syrphids. More work is needed on this
last point, since older larvae do not seem to show the same sensitivity, and probably
many of the reasons for selectivity are being missed. A further complication is that
particular aphids may not be toxic under all circumstances, but instead may only be
toxic on certain plant species, or particular individual plants (since plants vary in
toxicity). A new level of complexity is therefore required in studies of food specificity
in predatory syrphids.
A series of measures of performance are reviewed. Many authors use one or
perhaps two components of fitness (eg survival, or development time), but fitness
components are not necessarily correlated and the use of only one component can be
misleading. It is concluded that only “individual fitness” includes all the appropriate
components of survival, development time and reproduction. An experimental study
of the relative fitness during development of two generalist species (Syrphus ribesii
and Episyrphus balteatus) on a range of aphid species is described. Relative fitness is
then compared with the observational data. I conclude that even generalists choose
among aphids on the basis of expected fitness. More studies are needed that include all
the components of fitness into one composite measure of performance, “individual
fitness”, and then compare fitness across different aphid species.
78 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 79
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Influence of aphid host plant chemistry on behaviour and performances of


Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae)
1
Nicolas Vanhaelen, 2Eric Haubruge, 3Charles Gaspar & 4Frédéric Francis
Department of pure and applied zoology, Faculté des sciences agronomiques de Gembloux,
Gembloux Agricultural University, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)
1 2
e-mail: vanhaelen.n@fsagx.ac.be e-mail: haubruge.e@fsagx.ac.be
3 4
e-mail: gaspar.c@fsagx.ac.be e-mail: francis.f@fsagx.ac.be

The role of aphid species in oviposition choices of female Episyrphus balteatus has
clearly been established. Little attention was given to role of the host plant of the prey
even if they could have an influence on the volatiles used by the predator. This impact
may be direct trough the alteration of attractive compounds emitted by the plant or
through modification of aphids odours. The comparison of eggs laid according to
aphids host plant demonstrated this hypothesis. Furthermore, the oviposition
preferences were correlated to offspring performances. The latter were related to the
predators ability to detoxify the host plant metabolites sequestrated or transformed in
more toxic compounds by the aphid prey. These results confirm the importance of
oviposition preferences of the syrphid but also underline the co-evolutionary process
of tri-trophic interactions between host plant, aphids and predator.

Keywords: tri-trophic interactions, oviposition preferences, detoxification.


80 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 81
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Genetic structure in Episyrphus balteatus populations (Diptera: Syrphidae)


1
Peter Hondelmann & 2Hans-Michael Poehling
Institute of Plant Protection, University Hannover, 30419 Hannover (Germany)
1
e-mail: hondelmann@ipp.uni-hannover.de
2
e-mail: Poehling@ipp.uni-hannover.de

There are many indications that the syrphid Episyrphus balteatus has two
overwintering strategies in Europe: Local overwintering in Central Europe and long-
range migrations that lead to Mediterranean Europe. Nevertheless migrations are still
discussed controversial, because clear evidence is still missing (e.g. Salveter 1996). In
order to elucidate migration further, different populations were analysed by means of
PCR-RFLP: Possible polymorphic DNA-regions (from mtDNA and nDNA) were
amplified with universal primers and sequenced. After developing specific primers
from DNA-sequences, the PCR-amplified DNA was used for RFLP-analysis.
Aims of the study were: 1. Detection of genetic variability within populations 2.
Detection of genetic variability between populations 3. Detection of gene flow
between populations As result altogether eight haplotypes were found, many
populations consist of only one common haplotype. Genetic variation between and
within populations as well as genetic distances between populations were low, gene
flow very high. These results indicate that in Europe all E. balteatus populations are
genetically similar and connected by migration/gene flow, which are traits of
panmictic populations.

Keywords: Episyrphus balteatus, migration, PCR-RFLP, population structure.

References
S ALVETER , R. (1996): Populationsaufbau aphidophager Schwebfliegen (Diptera:
Syrphidae) in der Agrarlandschaft [Population build-up of aphidophagous hoverflies in the
agrarian landscape; Phd thesis University Berne.
82 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 83
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Attractiveness of flowering plants to aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera,


Syrphidae): suitability as insectary plants to enhance biological control
1
Miguel Louis-Maldonado & 2Oscar Alomar
Dep. Protecció Vegetal, Institut de Recerca i Tecnología Agroalimentàries (IRTA),
E-08348 Cabrils, Barcelona (Spain)
1
e-mail: tmp275@irta.es
2
e-mail: Oscar.Alomar@irta.es

Insectary plants are increasingly being used in Conservation Biological Control to


enhance predators in crops. In this study, attractiveness of plant species to
aphidophagous hoverflies has been evaluated in an experimental field. Plant species
were selected according to published results of previously examined plants, flowering
time, and commercial availability of the same or similar species. Attractiveness of
flowering plants was assessed by conducting timed observations of visit frequencies
and also recording the observed behaviour on each plot. Plants were also inspected for
aphids and syrphid larvae.

Keywords: Insectary plants, floral attraction, aphidophagous hoverflies, biological control.


84 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 85
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Study of the genetic variation of aphidophagous syrphid populations


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
1
Frédéric Francis, 2Nicolas Vanhaelen, 3Pierre Colignon & 4Eric Haubruge
Department of pure and applied zoology, Faculté des sciences agronomiques de Gembloux,
Gembloux Agricultural University, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)
1 2
e-mail: francis.f@fsagx.ac.be e-mail: vanhaelen.n@fsagx.ac.be
3 4
e-mail: colignon.p@fsagx.ac.be e-mail: haubruge.e@fsagx.ac.be

The dispersion of predators such as aphidophagous hoverflies have important


consequences in terms of efficacy in aphid control over large areas. The predator
dispersion at the field scale is not really understood due to the difficulty in identifying
the origins of predators. To quantify the genetic diversity within the species and
monitor the spatial foraging, populations were sampled in Belgium and analysed based
on PCR technique using SSR primers to assess the DNA variation. The polymorphism
generated and pairwise distances were calculated between populations according to
Nei and Li, then used to construct a radial neighbour-joining dendrogram and examine
intra- and inter-population variance coefficients, by analysis of molecular variation
(AMOVA). This study shows that SSR analysis can be a valuable technique for
studies of inter-population genetic variations in predators. The SSR technique provide
a tool in the molecular ecology of aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly species.

Keywords: SSR, molecular ecology, predator dispersion.


86 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 87
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Syrphinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) larvae on cabbage in Central Europe and


their effectiveness as natural enemies
Pavel Láska
Dept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,
771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic). e-mail: Mazanek@prfnw.upol.cz

Syrphid larvae were often observed on cabbage plants with Brevicoryne brassicae in
our experimental fields. During our biological studies of syrphine larvae (Dusek &
Láska 1974) we collected larvae of the following species: Syrphus ribesii, Syrphus
vitripennis, Eupeodes luniger, Scaeva pyrastri, Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria
scripta, Sphaerophoria rueppellii, Platycheirus scutatus, Platycheirus peltatus and
Melanostoma mellinum. Ten cabbage plants were sampled every 15 days over three
years to monitor the community during the course of the vegetative season. Each larva
was identified and its size measured individually to estimate the number of aphids
consumed each day (Láska 1959). This number of aphids was defined as the potential
daily capacity. The real capacity takes into account only larvae with sufficient aphids
as food, not those starving from a shortage of aphids (Láska 1984). At the same time
the biomass of aphids was weighed. Larvae of Sphaerophoria represented 71% of the
number of syrphid larvae. As to capacity, the two species of Sphaerophoria
represented 49% of the total real capacity of syrphid larvae. The occurrence of aphids
during a season has two peaks, one in July and the second at the end of September,
with a minimum in between in August. The density of syrphid larvae follows this
course with a time delay. The ratio between the number of aphids and syrphid larvae
was lowest during August. If we take into account all the natural enemies including
other predators and the parasitoid Diaretiella rapae, the real capacity of all the
syrphids was 76.5 % of all the aphids destroyed by natural enemies. This means that
syrphid larvae were the most important and noteworthy natural enemies in the cabbage
fields we observed.

Keywords: Aphidophagous larvae, Brevicoryne brassicae, aphid predators.


88 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
LÁSKA, P. (1959): Contributions to the knowledge of aphidophagous hoverflies,
especially to the food ecology of larvae. Bohemia centralis, A-1(6), 321-344. [in Czech with
English abstract]. DUSEK, J., LÁSKA, P. (1974): Overwintering and spring emergence of some
common species of aphidophagous syrphids (Syrphidae, Diptera). (IIIrd Meeting of
Czechoslovak dipterists). - Folia Fac. Sci. nat. Univ. Purk. Brun. 15, Biol. 43(1), 71-75 [2 tab,
in English]. LÁSKA, P. (1984): A method of comparing the role of aphid parasitoids and
predators exemplified by the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae. - Acta Ent. Bohemoslov.
81, 81-89 [5 tabs, in English, Russian abstract].

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 89
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Oral contribution

Presentation of the book “A world review of predatory hoverflies (Diptera,


Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and their prey”
1
*Santos Rojo, **Francis Gilbert, 2*Mª Ángeles Marcos-García,
***Juan M. Nieto & ***M. Pilar Mier
*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,
Alicante 03080 (Spain). 1e-mail: santos.rojo@ua.es 2
e-mail: marcos@ua.es
**School of Life & Environmental Sciences, Nottingham University, Nottingham NG7 2RD,
(United Kingdom). e-mail: Francis.Gilbert@nottingham.ac.uk
***Departamento de Biología Animal, Universidad de León, León 24071-Spain.
e-mail: dbajnn@unileon.es

There is a CD including among the documentation of this Symposium. The CD carries


a special commemorative issue of the book “A world review of predatory hoverflies
(Diptera, Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and their prey”. This consists in a database of the
book saved in two formats (autoexe SirfiGest 1.0, and FileMakerPro ©). We have
reviewed most of the available literature (about 1000 references) but of course it is not
an absolutely complete list.
There have been several collations of such prey records before this one.
Fulmek’s (1957) list is full of errors, has incomplete information, and does not provide
a reliable dataset. The monumental work of Thompson & Simmonds (1965) is reliable
but very out of date, and is awkward to use. Finally Okuno (1967) and Ghorpade
(1981) provided excellent lists of prey records, but are limited in geographical scope
to Japan or India and surrounding countries respectively.
There are dangers in collating records from the literature. One cannot certain
about the accuracy of identifications of predator, prey or host plant, and usually there
is no information on the relative frequencies with which the larvae of individual
species feed on particular prey. Each record must then be treated as of equivalent
worth, even if actually it is derived from an oviposition mistake by one gravid female.
The collated lists then run the risk of concealing more than they reveal, since
specialised species can seem to be much more generalised than they actually are. Thus
theses lists should be interpreted with caution. Here we have evaluated every record
90 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

for the plausibility of both prey-hostplant and syrphid-prey relationships, making


changes where deemed necessary. We have also included information where present
on the hostplant and location of the observation, so as to begin to look for
geographical variation in the spectrum of prey taken.
We have made every effort to modernise the taxonomy of most of the names.
For plant genera we used Mabberley (1997), and the most up-to-date local floras for
the species; the Aphididae names come from Remaudière & Remaudière (1997); the
Coccoidea, the Adelgidae and Phylloxeridae names have been reviewed by courtesy of
Dr I. Foldi (France) and Dr A. Binazzi Casa (Italy); the syrphid names are updated
from F.C. Thompson’s electronic database of names and synonyms (currently
available on the Web at http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/diptera/biosys.htm)

References
FULMEK, L. (1957): Insekten als Blattlausfeinde. [Insects as aphid predators]. Annalen des
Naturhistorischen Museums Wien 6, 110-227. GHORPADE, K.D. (1981): Insect prey of Syrphidae
(Diptera) from India and neighbouring countries: A review and bibliography. Tropical Pest
Management 27(1), 62-82. MABBERLEY, D.J. (1997): The plant book: a portable dictionary of the
vascular plants, 2nd ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 874 pp. OKUNO, T. (1967): On
the syrphid larvae attacking the aphids in Japan (Diptera). Mushi 41, 123-141. REMAUDIÈRE,
G. & REMAUDIÈRE, M. (1997): Catalogue des Aphididae du monde. Catalogue of the world’s
Aphididae. Homoptera Aphidoidea. INRA editions, Paris 473 pp. R OJO , S., GILBERT, F.,
MARCOS-GARCÍA . M.A., NIETO , J.M. & M IER , M.P. (2003): A world review of predatory
hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae: Syrphinae) and their prey. CIBIO Ediciones, Alicante, 320 pp.
THOMPSON, W.R. & SIMMONDS , F.J. (1965): A catalogue of the parasites and predators of
insect pests. Section 4. Host-Predator catalogue: Syrphidae, 115-127. Commonwealth Institute
of Biological Control (ed.), London.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 91
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Density fluctuation of syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) aphid-predators on


alfalfa field in Northeast of Argentina
1
*José Benito Valenciano, 2**A. S. Paravano & 3*M. Victoria Seco
*Departamento de Ingeniería Agraria. ESTIA. Universidad de León, 24071 León (Spain)
1 3
e-mail: diajva@unileon.es e-mail: diamsf@unileon.es
**Facultad de Agronomía y Veterinaria. Universidad Nacional del Litoral.
3080 Esperanza (Argentina)

Among other factors, alfalfa fields of Argentina are threatened by attacks of aphids
that reduce yield, lowering the profit and shortening the plants’ useful lifetime. Aphid-
predators play a very important role in the aphid regulation. In Argentina, the main
aphids predators are Coccinellidae (Valenciano et al., 1997); although Syrphidae also
are quite important predators, they are only predators in larval stages, these suck up
the corporal contents, soft and easy assimilable, they don’t ever devour the aphids
(Núñez, 1991).
This work assesses the abundance and distribution of syrphids aphid-predators
on an alfalfa field in the Santa Fe Province (Argentina). For the tracking of syrphids
population a total of 48 samples were taken over 366 days. A bag net of mouth
diameter 33 cm was thrown 20 times weekly, which represents 10 square meters each
time. The predators were subsequently identified in the laboratory, counted and
classified according to development stage. The total population of Syrphidae aphid-
predators presents its maximums in spring and other lower peaks appear in autumn. Its
population is very little during the winter, and there are not population in summer. The
biggest presence of Syrphidae occur during the period of mild temperatures, as spring
and autumn; while the population is little when there are extremes of temperature, as
winter and summer. The population fluctuations of Syrphidae aphid-predators are
related to population fluctuation of aphids (Ekbom, 1994; Gosselke et al., 2001). The
adult forms dominate over the larval forms.
92 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Syrphids are predators in larval stages (Núñez, 1991), its maximum presence
must coincide with the season in which food exists in abundance, during spring and
during the end of summer-beginning of autumn, in the other hand, the larval
population during the rest of the year is low (Tremblay & Pennacchio 1988).

Keywords: Alfalfa, lucerne, aphid-predator, syrphids, population.

References
EKBOM, B. (1994): Arthropod predators of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harr.
(Hom., Aphididae) in peas (Pisum sativum L.), clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and alfalfa
(Medicago sativa L.). Journal of Applied Entomology 117, 469-476. GOSSELKE, U., TRILTSCH,
H., ROßBERG , D. AND F REIER , B. (2001): GETLAUS01- the latest version of a model for
simulating aphid population dynamics in dependence on antagonists in wheat. Ecological
Modelling 145, 143-157. NÚÑEZ, E. (1991): Bases para el desarrollo del control integrado de
los pulgones (Hom., Aphididae) de los cultivos de la provincia de León. Tesis doctoral.
Universidad de León. León (Spain). TREMBLAY, E. & PENNACCHIO , F. (1988): Populations
trends of key aphids and of their main natural enemies in an alfalfa ecosystem in Southern
Italy. Ecology and Effectiveness of Aphidophaga, 261-265. VALENCIANO, J. B., PARAVANO, A.
S. & IMWINKELRIED, J. M. (1997): Aphididae and their Coccinellidae predators on a lucerne
field in the Province of Santa Fe (Argentina). In: J.M. Nieto and A.F.G. Dixon (eds.). Aphids in
natural and managed ecosystems. Universidad de León, León (Spain) 291-298 pp

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 93
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Natural enemies of Syrphinae (Diptera:Syrphidae) in Lara, Venezuela


1
Evelin Arcaya & 2Francisco Díaz
Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas. Decanato de Agronomía. Universidad Centroccidental
“Lisandro Alvarado”. Lara state, Apartado 400, Cabudare. (Venezuela).
1
e-mail: evearcaya@hotmail.com
2
e-mail: dbfrancis@hotmail.com

The main aims of this study were to identify the parasitoid species that attack
Syrphinae associated to aphids and whiteflies in Lara state, Venezuela, and gather
information on host plants and distribution. The study was based on specimens
collected during the period June 1997- February 2003. Larvae and pupae of Syrphinae
found in plants attacked by aphids or whiteflies were collected, carried to the
laboratory. The larvae were fed with preys got from their host plants. Disposable Petri
dishes which covers were perforated, and the resultant holes were covered with a fine
gauze to facilitate ventilation were used for rearing larvae.
Twelve plant species served as hosts for Allograpta exotica (Wiedemann),
Ocyptamus dimidiatus (F.), O. gastroctactus (Wiedemann), Ocyptamus sp. and
Pseudodorus clavatus (F.). Members of the families Ichneumonidae, Figitidae,
Encyrtidae, Eulophidae and Pteromalidae were recovered. A 55.5 % of specimens
reported belong to Pteromalidae. Pachyneuron syrphiphagum (Brethes) was the most
frequent parasitoid found attacking four species of Syrphinae. Diplazon laetatorius
(F.) (Ichneumonidae) as usual was represented only by females individuals. Two
hyperparasitoids species (Eulophidae) were also recovered.

Keywords: Syrphinae, parasitoids, Pachyneuron.


94 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
BELLIURE, B. & MICHAUD, J.P. (2001): Biology and behavior of Pseudodorus clavatus
(Diptera: Syrphidae), an important predator of Citrus aphids. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 94(1),
91-96. FREITAS , C.D. (1982): Estudos sobre os Syrphidae neotropicais. I: redescriçao de
Pseudororus clavatus (Fabricius,1794) (Diptera). Rev. Brasil. Biol. 42(3), 583-587.
G O N Ç A L V E S , C.R. & G ONÇALVES , A.J. (1976): Observaçoes sobre moscas da familia
Syrphidae predadoras de Homopteros. Anais da S.E.B. 5(1), 3-10. HANSON, P. & GAULD, I.D.
(1995): The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford University Press. 893pp. L EAL , C.A.,
OLIVEIRA, H.C.C. & SMITH, J.G. (1976): Syrphidae predadores dos afídeos de Citrus spp. em
Recife, Pe. Anais da S.E.B. 5(2), 138-142.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 95
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Diurnal activity of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and beneficial


insectary plants
1
Miguel Louis-Maldonado & 2Oscar Alomar
Dep. Protecció Vegetal, Institut de Recerca i Tecnología Agroalimentàries (IRTA),
E-08348 Cabrils, Barcelona (Spain)
1
e-mail: tmp275@irta.es
2
e-mail: Oscar.Alomar@irta.es

Beneficial insectary planting is a form of conservation biological control that involves


introducing flowering plants into agricultural and horticultural systems to increase
nectar and pollen resources required by some natural enemies of insect pests. Research
is still needed to identify which plants have the greatest potential as beneficial
insectary plants, and that are adapted to local conditions. Use of direct observations to
determine relative attractiveness of selected insectary plants at our Research Station
only recorded relatively few visits. The objectives of this work are to determine the
best sampling time during the day and the influence of the length of the observations.
96 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 97
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Syrphid (Diptera: Syrphidae) population in an agrosystem


without pesticides
Anne Vallet
* ENTOMO-LOGIC, 14 rue Bailly, 54000 Nancy (France)
e-mail: avallet@club-internet.fr

To attain the water quality of Vittel and Contrexéville springs, the AGRIVAIR society
has a policy of agreements with the farmers to helps them to suppress pesticides from
their agricultural practices. We studied the impact of this no pesticides management
on the syrphid population using the Syrph-The-Net procedures (Speight, 2001).
We found 70 species. Six of them were new for the Lorraine region (Carrières
& Vallet, in prep). Eleven syrphid macro-habitats were present on the area. For 3 of
them: crops, farmyard organic waste and scattered Quercus trees in open ground, we
caught 100% of the potentially present hoverflies. For 3 others macro-habitats
(scattered trees in open ground, culture macro-habitats and field margin/hedge bank)
we found between 60 and 80% of the potentially present hoverflies.
We evaluated also the impact of farm management operation (Speight et al,
2001). Crops are the only farm management operation that had more than 50% of the
sensitive syrphid observed on the site.
Most of the observed species that were not among predicted ones were forest species,
although no forest were present on the area but, only hedge and isolated trees. Probably
because of the absence of pesticides, the site was very rich in syrphids.

References
CARRIÈRES, E. & VALLET, A. (2003): Liste provisoire des Syrphes (Diptera, Syrphidae)
de Lorraine. SPEIGHT M.C.D. (2001) Species accounts of European Syrphidae (Diptera), 2001.
In: Speight M.D.C., Castella E., Obrdlik P. and Ball S. (eds) Syrph the Net , The database of
European Syrphidae, vol 27, 281p. Syrph the Net publications, Dublin. SPEIGHT, M.C.D.,
GOOD, J.A. & SARTHOU, J.-P. (2001): Impact of farm management operation on the European
Syrphidae (Diptera), 2001. In: Speight M.D.C., Castella E., Obrdlik P. and Ball S. (eds) Syrph
the Net , The database of European Syrphidae, vol 32, 141p. Syrph the Net publications,
Dublin.
98 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer, 1776) (Diptera: Syrphidae) as a vector of


entomopathogenic fungi for the control of aphid pests
1
*Leticia Asensio, 2**Santos Rojo, 3*Luis Vicente López-Llorca &
4
**Mª Ángeles Marcos-García
*Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y R. Naturales, Universidad de Alicante,
Alicante 03080 (Spain)
1 3
e-mail: leti.asensio@ua.es e-mail: lv.lopez@ua.es
*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,
Alicante 03080 (Spain)
2 4
e-mail: santos.rojo@ua.es e-mail: marcos@ua.es

An important group of organisms used as insect enemies in the biological control


programs are entomopathogenic fungi. Fungal biocontrol agents could be used where
chemical pesticides are banned or where pests have developed resistance to
conventional pesticides. Entomopathogenic fungi produce mycoses on the insect: first
of all conidia stick on the insect cuticle and produce enzymes that destroy it and the, a
special hypha penetrates on the hemocele. Inside the hoste, the fungus grows and
produces toxins. Finally the host dies and the fungus comes out and is ready to
parasite another host.
But, how can the fungus arrive to the insect? An easy and practical way to
transport fungal inoculum to the part of the plant where target insects are, is using
natural vectors; these can fly, lay on flowers and leaves, carrying fungal conidia.
It is well known the role of the Syrphidae as biological control agents of aphids.
Moreover they are good flyers and have a lot of setae to transport and disperse conidia
of entomopathogenic fungi (Lecanicillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.)
Vuill 1912) that can parasite aphids. In laboratory experiments we have used adults of
Epysirphus balteatus from Font Roja Natural Park (Alicante province, Spain) as
carriers of the entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana (isolated from Langia sp in
Orihuela, Alicante) and L. lecanii (isolated from Saissetia oleae in Denia, Alicante).
100 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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Using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) we have studied the way that
conidia stick on syrphid surface. We have followed syrphids carrying on conidia and
checked their life span.
Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y
Tecnología (project AGL2000-0342-P4-02).

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT // Poster

Life history of the ichneumon flies (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)


parasites of aphidophagous syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae) in
Mediterranean areas
1
**Santos Rojo, 2*Santiago Bordera, 3*Celeste Pérez-Bañón &
4
**Estefanía Hernández-Rodríguez
*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,
Alicante 03080 (Spain)
1 2 3
e-mail: santos.rojo@ua.es e-mail: s.bordera@ua.es e-mail: celeste.perez@ua.es
4
e-mail: fani.hernandez @ua.es

In this contribution we investigate the importance of parasitoidism in aphidophagous


syrphids in Mediterranean areas. The aim of the study is twofold: 1. Know the species
composition of Diplazontinae (Ichneumonidae) and 2. Study the life history of these
natural enemies of the aphidophagous hoverflies. Both studies are going to be
comparatively carried out on cultivated agroecosystems (almond trees). The species
composition from east Mediterranean (W Greece) will be compared with fauna
present in the west Mediterranean (SE Spain).
Aphidophagous Syrphidae are attacked by a wide range of parasitoids such as
Figitidae (Cynipoidea) and Encyrtidae (Chalcidoidea), but one of the most common
group are the Diplazontinae, that seem entirely specialised to hoverfly larvae.
Diplazontines are koinobiont endoparasitoids. They ovoposit into the egg or larva and
its emergence is from the puparium.
We have sampled syrphid larvae from the aphid colonies of Hyalopterus pruni,
which it is an important pest of Prunus trees. Larvae have been reared in a climatic
room (21 °C., 80% R.H. and 14 daylength to allow them to develop into adults. In the
present contribution we undertake the following items: the relative abundance of each
parasitoid species, the relationship syrphid-diplazontine, the phenology in relation
with the presence of the syrphid larvae, and different aspects related with the life cycle
of hoverflies larvae (length of preimaginal stages, percentage of parasitism etc.).
102 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y


Tecnología (projects BOS 2000-0148 and AGL2000-0342-P4-02).

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


SESSION IV
SYSTEMATICS / PHYLOGENY / EVOLUTION
Oral Contributions
Posters
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 105
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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Plenary session

Generating DNA sequence characters for syrphid phylogenetics:


possibilities and future directions (Diptera: Syrphidae)
Gunilla Ståhls
Entomology department, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, FIN-
00014 Helsinki, (Finland)
e-mail: gunilla.stahls@helsinki.fi

The addition of molecular techniques to the toolkit of insect systematists has brought
much into the field of insect taxonomy and systematics. Obtaining characters that are
informative for a specific taxonomic problem can be difficult, characters are often
limited or conflicting. All sources of data present certain limitations when applied to
specific problems of phylogeny reconstruction. Molecular characters, the DNA
sequences, are increasingly often applied to bring light on taxonomic questions on
different levels or phylogeny reconstruction.
The number of morphological character that can be employed to a particular
study is typically tens to a few hundreds, while molecular characters are easily
collected in thousands. If the choice of gene (or non-coding sequence) was appropriate
for the study, the number of potentially phylogenetically informative characters could
be significant. The genes used for species level questions in studies of insect
taxonomy and systematics almost invariably include mitochondrial gene(s), often in
combination with a nuclear non-coding region. The high rate of nucleotide substitution
makes mtDNA particularly valuable in studying the relationships of recently diverged
lineages. Sequence variability (mutations and insertion-deletion events) of nuclear
non-coding regions is found even between species of the same genus, while nuclear
ribosomal genes are highly conserved and used for taxonomic levels of genera to
families. For several studies of syrphid species boundaries, the mitochondrial protein-
coding gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) was found to be highly informative.
Additional molecular evidence for species level questions was gathered from the
internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2), an independent molecular locus.
106 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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For all taxonomic studies it is essential to contrast the molecular evidence with
the morphological evidence, and base conclusions on both sources. The COI was
informative for resolving species-level phylogenies of several genera of syrphids. The
same gene was used in combination with the ribosomal gene 28S and morphological
characters for a study of the phylogenetic relationships within the family Syrphidae.
Examples of on-going studies of syrphid taxonomy and systematics using molecular
characters will be presented.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

The genus Chrysotoxum: problems and advance in its taxonomy


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
*Daniele Sommaggio, **Antonio Masetti, ***Andrea Luchetti, **Giovanni
Burgio & ***Barbara Mantovani
*Biostudio, Via Riello, 4. 36010 Velo d'Astico (VI) (Italy) e-mail: dsommaggio@tiscalinet.it
**Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Alma Mater Università di Bologna,
40127 Bologna (Italy). e-mail: gburgio@entom.agrsci.unibo.it
*** Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica Sperimentale, Università di Bologna,
40126 Bologna (Italy). e-mail: barman@alma.unibo.it

The genus Chrysotoxum has been recognized since the very beginning of the 1800 by
Meigen. The generic characters to recognize Chrysotoxum are clear but the position of
the genus inside the family is strongly discussed and crucial problems have followed
in the intra- and supraspecific systematic of the group. Only after 1950 the genus has
been correctly considered as belonging to the Syrphinae subfamily, even if frequently
treated as a separated tribe. Many species have been described in the genus, mainly on
the basis of small differences in the colour of black and yellow bands on the abdomen,
such as for example for C. sackeni, only recently proposed as synonym of C .
octomaculatum.
In the Palaearctic region 114 species has been described, 45 of which are
actually considered as synonym. The crucial problem in the taxonomy is due to the
lack of good morphological characters; for example the male genitalia, highly useful
in other hoverfly genera, are, with only few exceptions, not appropriate to
unambiguously identify Chrysotoxum species. The authors will deal with the
taxonomy of the genus on the basis of morphological and molecular approaches with
the aim to clarify in particular the position of some critical species.

Keywords: Chrysotoxum, morphology, molecular taxonomy, phylogeny.


108 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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References
ICZN (2001): Opinion 1982 (Case 3090): Musca arcuata Linnaeus, 1758 and M. festiva
Linnaeus, 1758 (currently Chrysotoxum arcuatum and C. festivum) and M. citrofasciata De
Geer, 1776 (currently Xanthogramma citrofasciatum) (Insecta, Diptera): specific names
conserved by the designation of neotypes for M. arcuata and M. festiva. Bulletin of Zoological
Nomenclature 58, 241-242. SOMMAGGIO D. (2000): The Species of the Genus Chrysotoxum,
Meigen, 1822 (Diptera, Syrphidae) described By Giglio Tos. Bollettino Museo Regionale di
Scienze Naturali, Torino 18, 115-127. S T Å H L S , G. & N YBLOM , K. (2000): Phylogenetic
Analysis of the genus Cheilosia (Diptera Syrphidae) using mitochondrial COI sequence data.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 15, 235-241. VIOLOVITCH, N.A. (1974): A review of
the Palaearctic species of the genus C h r y s o t o x u m Mg. (Diptera, Syrphidae).
Entomologicheskoe Obozernie 53, 196-217.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

When and where Cheilosia (Diptera: Syrphidae) appeared?


Anatolii Barkalov
*Zoological Museum of the Institute of Animal Systematics and Ecology of RAS,
Novosibirsk-91, 630091 (Russia) e-mail: mu4@eco.nsc.ru

It is possible to judge time of an origin of any group of animals or plants proceeding


from paleontological evidence. Thus it is necessary to take into account, at what level
of morphological evolution were paleotaxa. If they have many apomorphic features,
the age of occurrence of the group should be carried on the earlier time. Taking into
account above stated, I consider, that the origin of Cheilosia should be carried to early
eocen, that corresponds approximately 50 millions years ago. By establishing age of
Cheilosia I shall address to the second part of a question. For its decision it is
necessary to know common ecological preferences of investigated group. About it, if
is not present direct paleontological items of information, we can judge on recent
representatives of the group. The genus Cheilosia now is dated to moderately warm
ecological conditions appropriate to distribution deciduous forests and mountain
meadows. I assume, as on the initial stage of development of the genus these
conditions were preferable for it. In the Eocene time such conditions were presented at
two regions - in extreme northwest of Europe and in northeast of Asia. I propose, that
the region of occurrence of the genus was northeast of Asia. The modern distribution
of the subgenera testifies to it. From territory of East Asia now it is known 11 of 13
subgenera, thus 4 of them are endemics for this region.

Keywords: Cheilosia, time of appearance.


110 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Present status of the World revision of the genus Eupeodes


(Diptera: Syrphidae)
1
Libor Mazánek 1Pavel Láska & 2Vítezslav Bicík
Dept. of Zoology and Anthropology, Natural Science Faculty, Palacky University,
771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic).
1 2
e-mail: Mazanek@prfnw.upol.cz e-mail: flagell@prfnw.upol.cz

The genus Eupeodes Osten Sacken consists of a group of species related to Scaeva and
allied genera. The species form four distinct natural groups of very unequal size.
Those groups should be classified at least as subgenera: 1) sg. Eupeodes Nearctic
region, monotype; 2) sg. Lapposyrphus Dusek & Láska Holarctic, 2 species; 3) sg.
Macrosyrphus Matsumura South-west Palaearctic, Oriental and Australian, with at
least 6 species; 4) sg. Metasyrphus Matsumura that are topic of our revision work.
Within the subgenus Metasyrphus only E. corollae with 1 species (+1
unrevised, newly described species) and the E. lundbecki group with 3 species
(Scaevosyrphus of Dusek & Láska, 1967) could be distinguished from other species
(Posthosyrphus of Enderlein, 1938) since most are extremely similar to one another
both in terminalia and in external characters. The subgenus forms the largest single
group of closely related species of Syrphini in the Holarctic region. Moreover the
revision is complicated by great external variability (see Dusek & Láska, 1974) that
has led to the redescription of many synonymous species by some authors (Matsumura
and recently Ho). We recorded a total of about 126 available names within
Metasyrphus. 78 names are valid according to the literature up to now, but only 46
clear species are known to us: 7 species with Holarctic distribution, 6 Euroasian, 5
European (+2 nameless and +1 unclear); 16 Nearctic (+3 nameless +6 unclear); 7
Asian (+30 valid names, 16 of them described by Matsumura from Japan and 13 by
He from China). One species extends also to the Neotropic region, two to the
Ethiopian region (+2 unrevised valid names from that region), and 3 species extend
into the Oriental region (+2 unrevised valid names from that region).

Keywords: Metasyrphus, taxonomy, Macrosyrphus, Lapposyrphus.


112 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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References
DUSEK, J. & LÁSKA, P. (1974): Influence of temperature during pupal development on
the colour of adult syrphids (Syrphidae, Diptera). Folia Fac. Sci. Univ. Purk. Brun. 15, Biol.
43(1), 77-81.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

On the Phylogeny of Syrphini (Diptera: Syrphinae, Syrphidae) using adult


morphological data
Luciane Marinoni
*Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil).
e-mail: lmarinon@bio.ufpr.br

A preliminary cladistic analysis of the tribe Syrphini (Diptera: Syrphidae: Syrphinae)


based on adult morphological characters is presented. Fifty-four species representative
of the various genera and subgenera of Syrphini were studied and five genera of three
other tribes: Toxomerus Macquart (Toxomerini), Paragus Latreille (Paragini),
Leucopodella Hull, Melanostoma Schinner and Platycheirus (Bacchini) [Vockeroth
(1969); Thompson et al., (1976)]. In the genus Ocyptamus Macquart, one
representative species of each group recognized by Thompson (1981) was added to the
analysis for a total of seven species. Three outgroups, Cheilosia Meigen (Cheilosiini),
Pipiza Fallén and Pipizella Rondani (Pipizini) belonging to the subfamily Eristalinae
were used. From the 37 genera currently recognized as Syrphini, only two were not
included in this analysis: Eosphaerophoria Frey (Oriental) and Pelloloma Vockeroth
(Afrotropical). The type species of each genus was studied because studying all
species within the genera is impractical and the type species name is always linked to
the appropriate generic name. When the type species was not available the species
studied by Stahls et al., (1999) and Rotheray & Gilbert (1999) were analyzed.
The monophyly of Syrphinae and Syrphini were corroborated. For the
establishment of a consistent phylogeny within the genera of Syrphini a combined
study using larval and pupal characters and DNA is necessary and more characters
need to be included in the morphological analysis.

Keywords: Syrphini, cladistic analysis, morphological data.


114 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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References
ROTHERAY, G. & GILBERT , F. (1999): Phylogeny of Palaeartic Syrphidae (Diptera):
evidence from larval stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 127, 1-112. STÅHLS,
G., ROTHERAY, G., HIPPA , H., MUONA, J. & GILBERT , F. (1999): On the phylogeny of
hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) using molecular and morphological characters. THOMPSON,
F.C. (1981): The Flower Flies of the West Indies (Diptera: Syrphidae). Memoirs of the
entomological society of Washington, number 9. THOMPSON , F.C., VOCKEROTH , J.R. &
SEDMAN, Y.S. (1976): Syrphidae. In: Papavero, N. (ed.), A catalogue of the Diptera of the
Americas south of the United States. Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria de Agricultura. São
Paulo, Brazil, 195 pp. V OCKEROTH , J. R. (1969): A revision of the genera of the Syrphini
(Diptera: Syrphidae). Mem. Canad. Ento. Soc. 62, 1-176.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Concept of the species of the genus Pipiza Fallen, 1810


(Diptera: Syrphidae) on the Balkan Peninsula
Ante Vujic
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu

The European species of the genus Pipiza are badly in need of revision. At present
species concepts in this genus are uncertain and the number of European species
cannot be decided (Speight, 2001). This author mentioned only 4 species in European
species accounts: P. accola Vilovitsh, 1985, P. festiva Meigen, 1822, P. luteitarsis
Zetterstedt, 1843 and P. quadrimaculata (Panzer, 1802). Peck (1988) listed 17 species
for the Palaearctic region. This paper presents the concept of Balkan species of genus
based on the voluminous material from the Balkan Peninsula and revision of available
Meigen types. Morphological analysis has shown the presence of 11 species in this
area. The correct names for some of species are still uncertain without study of the
type material of other described species, but this problem will stay for the future work.
This contribution presents the conceptual foundation of species with set of stable and
set of variable morphological features.
The possible names of established taxa follow:
Pipiza austriaca Meigen, 1822 (type not studied);
Pipiza bimaculata Meigen, 1822 (types studied; synonyms based on studied
material: notata Meigen, anthracina Meigen);
? Pipiza carbonaria Meigen, 1822 (type not studied, but this can be the name of
this species based on male genitalia figured by Goeldlin, 1997; other possible name
for this taxon can be lugubris Fabricius);
Pipiza festiva Meigen, 1822 (types studied; confirmed synonym: fenestrata
Meigen);
Pipiza luteitarsis Zetterstedt, 1843 (type not studied);
116 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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? Pipiza noctiluca L. (type not studied; confirmed synonyms: guttata Meigen,


calceata Meigen);
Pipiza quadrimaculata (Panzer, 1804) (type not studied);
Pipiza signata Meigen, 1822 (type studied; confirmed synonyms: geniculata
Meigen, funebris Meigen);
? Pipiza sp 1 (fenestrata of recent authors, but based on the type from Meigen
collection this name is only synonym of P. festiva);
Pipiza sp 2 (probably undescribed species related to P. luteitarsis);
Pipiza sp 3 (rare species on the Balkan Peninsula nearly related to “P .
noctiluca”).

Keywords: Pipiza, taxonomy, concept species, Balkan peninsule.

References
PECK, L.V. (1988): Family Syrphidae. In: Catalogue of Palaearctic Diptera. Syrphidae-
Conopidae, Vol 8. Á. Soós (ed.), Budapest, 11-230 pp. S PEIGHT, M.C.D., CASTELLA, E.,
OBRDLIK, P. & BALL, S. (eds., 2001): Syrph the Net: the database of European Syrphidae.
Vols. 27 to 32. - Syrph the Net Publications, Dublin. ISSN 1393-4546.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Larval morphology of some xylobiont Syrphidae: adaptation or evolution?


Marina Krivosheina
Institute of Ecology and Evolution, 119071 Moscow (Russia)
e-mail: marina@zmmu.msu.ru

The study on xylobiont larvae of Syrphidae showed that as a rule it is possible to find
differentiations among larvae at species level. For example we can distinguish Xylota
species by the morphology of sclerotized hooks and anterior spiracles. Callicera
species differ by relative size among thoracical hooks. In Ceriana species we can
observe different length of terminal projections and in Mallota species - different size
and morphology of lateral papillae-. As for Temnostoma larvae - they differ mainly by
morphology of spiracular disc of posterior breathing tube-. The representatives of all
abovementioned genera breed in tree trunks: they inhabit tree holes filled with moist
dust or settle bast or dust saturated with sap under the bark. It means that the majority
of their external morphological characters may reflect adaptations of larvae for such
conditions.
However larvae of different species from the same genus can be often found not
only in certain species of tree but in the same trunk. Differences among species though
they may be in minute details of morphology show us that their significance is not
only adaptive but some evolutionary process takes place in larvae.
It is easy to prove this. Mallota dimorpha and M. eurasiatica both breed in tree
holes of Ulmus propinqua under same conditions but have different larval
morphology. Mallota parvula, M. sogdiana and M. tadzhikorum inhabit trunks of
Populus diversifolia. Larvae of Ceriana caesarea and C. naja live under the bark of P.
diversifolia and have close conditions for breeding. We hope that further studies on
syrphid larvae will give new examples to support this theory.

Keywords: species, larva, xylobiont, character, morphology, adaptation, evolution.


118 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


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SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Oral contribution

Taxonomy and Phylogeny of West Palaearctic Eristalinus (Diptera:


Syrphidae) using both morphological and molecular data
1
*Celeste Pérez-Bañón, 2*Santos Rojo, **Gunilla Ståhls
& 3*Mª Ángeles Marcos-García
*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,
Alicante 03080 (Spain).
1 2 3
e-mail: celeste.perez@ua.es e-mail: santos.rojo@ua.es e-mail: marcos@ua.es
**Entomology department, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, FIN-
00014 Helsinki, (Finland)
e-mail: gunilla.stahls@helsinki.fi

The taxonomy of European Eristalinus syrphid flies is reviewed. The larva and
puparium of Eristalinus taeniops (Wiedemann, 1818) and Eristalinus megacephalus
(Rossi, 1794) is described for the first time, including new morphological characters
of the thoracic respiratory process of all species. The morphology of the male genitalia
of E. megacephalus is described and compared with that of E. taeniops.
The results of our morphological studies of the male genitalia and molecular
data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S rDNA) do not support the traditional adult
classification based on the patterning on the eyes (fasciate vs punctate). The molecular
and morphological data indicate that the relationship between some species with
punctate eyes and those with fasciate eyes may be closer than with other species with
punctate eyes. Moreover the results of the molecular studies support two clades, which
does not accord with the traditional arrangement of this group of Syrphidae.
Accordingly we propose that the characters of male genitalia stated by Kanervo
in 1938 (but subsequently largely ignored) for arranging the European species of the
Eristalinus-Eristalodes-Lathyrophthalmus complex, are suitable for classifying these
species. We present a preliminary phylogeny of Eristalinus species showing also the
position of the genus in the Eristalinae.
Financial support was provided by the Finnish Carl Cedercreutz Foundation, the
Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (project BOS 2000-0148) and the
University of Alicante (GR02-09).
120 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

References
KANERVO E. (1938): Zur Systematic und Phylogenie der westpaläarktischen Eristalis-
arten (Dipt. Syrphidae) mit einer Revision derjenigen Finnlands. Ann. Univ. Turk. 6(4), 1-54.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 121
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

Population-genetic analysis of the Merodon aeneus group


(Diptera: Syrphidae) from the Balkan Peninsula
1
V. Milankov & 2Ante Vujic
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
1 2
e-mail: vesnam@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu

Allozyme variability at 15 isozyme loci (Aat, Fum, Gpd-2, Gpi, Had, Hk-2, Hk-3, Idh-
2, Mdh-1. Mdh-2, Me, Pgm, Sod-1. Sod-2 and Sod-3) of the aeneus group, genus
Merodon on the Balkan Peninsula was investigated. Genetic variability of 11 natural
populations of species: Merodon aeneus A, M. aeneus B, M. aeneus C, M. cinereus A,
M. cinereus B, M. desuturinus and M. funestus from five geographical regions on the
Balkan Peninsula: Kopaonik Mountain, E 20°40', N 43°15' (Serbia); Sar planinana
Mountain, E 21°05', N 42°12' (Serbia); Prokletije Mountain, E 19°50', N 42°32'
(Serbia); Durmitor Mountain, E 19°00', N 43°11' (Montenegro) and Morinj, E 18°40',
N 43°29' (Montenegro) were investigated.
Statistical analysis of electrophoretic variability data was performed using the
computer program BIOSYS-1 (Swofford and Selander, 1981). Analyses of the mean
number of alleles per locus (A), frequency of polymorphic loci (P) and average
frequency of observed heterozygosity (Ho) show that populations of M. aeneus C
origin from Durmitor Mountain and Morinj as well as the population of M. funestus
from Morinj were slightly more variable (A: 1.3, 1.5, 1.5; P: 0.33, 0.33, 0.33; Ho:
0.021, 0.033, 0.033, respectively) than populations of M. aeneus A from Durmitor
Mountain and Morinj (A: 1.3, 1.2; P: 0.267, 0.133; Ho: 0.019, 0.027, respectively) and
both populations of M. cinereus A (from Kopaonik Mountain and Sar planina
Mountain) (A: 1.3, 1.1; P: 0.267, 0.133; Ho: 0.031, 0.013, respectively).
The least values of genetic structure parameters was determined in the
population of M. aeneus B from Kopaonik Mountain (no heterozygous genotype; A:
1.3; P: 0.200), M. cinereus B from Durmitor Mountain (no polymorphic loci; A: 1.2;
Ho: 0.005) and Prokletije Mountain (no heterozygous genotype; A: 1.3; P: 0.267) as
122 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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well as population of M. desuturinus from Kopaonik Mountain (no heterozygous


genotype; A: 1.1; P: 0.067).

Keywords: Merodon aeneus, Syrphidae, allozyme, population-genetic analysis

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 123
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

Geographic differentiation between conspecific populations of Cheilosia


cumanica, Ch. hypena and Ch. urbana (Diptera: Syrphidae)
1
J. Ludoski 2V. Milankov & 3Ante Vujic
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad,
21000 Novi Sad (Serbia and Montenegro)
1 2 2
e-mail: vesnam@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu e-mail: jasminal@im.ns.ac.yu

Allozyme variability of 12 isozyme loci (Aat, Fum, Gpd-2, Gpi, Had, Hk-2, Hk-3,
Mdh-1. Mdh-2, Me, Pgm and Sod) in four populations of Cheilosia cumanica and Ch.
hypena from two region on the Balkan Peninsula: Vrsacke planine Mountain; E
21°20', N 45°08' (Serbia) and Dubasnica Mountain, E 21°59', N 44°01' (Serbia) as
well as 10 isozyme loci (Aat, Fum, Gpd-2, Gpi, Hk-2, Hk-3, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Pgm,
Sod) in three populations of the Cheilosia urbana species from Fruska Gora
Mountain, E 19°50', N 45°10' (Serbia); Dubasnica Mountain (Serbia) and Durmitor
Mountain, E 19°00', N 43°11' (Montenegro) was done.
Genetic analysis of the Cheilosia cumanica, Ch. hypena and Ch. urbana species
were investigated using the computer program BIOSYS-1 (Swofford and Selander,
1981). Statistically significant difference in the allele frequencies at Pgm (Fst=0.005),
as well as at Me (Fst=0.287) and Pgm (Fst=0.174) were observed analyzing
geographic variability of conspecific populations of Ch. hypena and Ch. cumanica,
respectively. Differentiation among conspecific populations of Ch. urbana was mainly
caused by statistically significant difference in the allele frequencies at Fum
(Fst=0.247) and Pgm (Fst=0.133) loci. Distribution of genetic identity values per locus
among conspecific populations of Ch. hypena, Ch. cumanica and Ch. urbana
indicated high percent of genetic identity (I>0.95) per locus (91.67%; 75%; 80%;
respectively), while there were no genetically completely different isozyme loci
(I<0.05). Genetic identity among analyzed populations of species Ch. urbana showed
high degree of genetic similarity (I: 0.958-0.991). Also, average values of the genetic
identity among conspecific populations of Ch. hypena and Ch. cumanica were high
(0.995 and 0.964, respectively).
124 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

Keywords: Cheilosia, Syrphidae, allozyme, geographic variation

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 125
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

The chorologic analysis of Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the


Far Eastern Russia
Valeri Mutin
Department of Biology, Komsomolsk-na-Amure State Pedagogical University, 681000
(Russia). e-mail: valerimutin@mail.ru

Heterogeneity of syrphid fauna within the boundaries of the Far Eastern Russia is
caused by the variety of species areas. A classification of the areas is component part
for the following biogeographic research. On the strength of the approach of the
actualism results of the chorological analysis can be used, too, for reconstruction of
some events of the regional faunogenesis.
The present analysis is based on the works of K.B. Gorodkov about principles
of area modeling. The material for its is employed foremost syrphid collections, kept
in the largest museum of Russia or caught by the author.
On the basis of similarity of spreading of the Far Eastern syrphids their areas
were divided into 38 types, which accord to the same name chorological groups.
About 33% of syrphids of the fauna of the Russian Far East are known only from the
Sea of Japan Region. Some among them belong to monotypic genera, and likewise to
species from the genera with disjunctive areas, they are evidently the Tertiary relicts
outlived Pleistocene glacial stages within the Seas of Japan Region. But most species
from the Sea of Japan Region chorological group are rated as neoendemics, which
arose on account of multiple vicariance during the Pleistocene. It is supposed, that at
the postPleistocene time emigrants from refuges of the Sea of Japan Region had great
influence on the forming of the fauna of the South Siberia and all taiga zone.
Apparently the many species of the Sea of Japan Region - Southern Siberian, the
Eastern Palaearctic and the Subtranspalaearctic chorological groups are such
emigrants.
Other large chorological group contains the transpalaearctic species widely
spread in temperate latitudes of Eurasia (28%). Species of the Cyrcumholartic widely-
temperate group (8,7%) are similar to them by ecological requirements.
126 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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Chorological analysis affirms ancient historical connections of the Far Eastern


fauna with the ones of the Oriental and Nearctic Regions.

. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 127
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

SYSTEMATICS–PHYLOGENY–EVOLUTION // Poster

Preliminary molecular data of Merodon species (Diptera: Syrphidae) in


comparison with morphological characters
1
*Ximo Mengual, **Gunilla Ståhls & 2*Mª Ángeles Marcos-García
*CIBIO (Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad), Universidad de Alicante,
Alicante 03080 (Spain)
1 2
e-mail: xmengual@hotmail.com e-mail: marcos@ua.es
**Entomology department, Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki, FIN-
00014 Helsinki, (Finland). e-mail: gunilla.stahls@helsinki.fi

The genus Merodon Meigen, 1903 with more than 50 European species is one of the
most widespread in the Mediterranean region. There are about 30 species occurring in
the Iberian Peninsula and most of them are poorly known and inadequately treated in
identification keys.
The morphological variation found within some species and varieties prompted
us to study their taxonomic status. Our aim was to describe the phylogenetic
relationships between them using molecular data.
The mitochondrial protein-coding gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)
was chosen for sequencing, as well as the nuclear 28S ribosomal gene and the nuclear
internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region. Molecular data of the COI gene identified
three well supported clades within Merodon. The phylogenetic informativeness of 28S
in resolving relationships at species level is low, due to the conservative nature of the
gene. The molecular non-coding ITS2 as well as the COI data supported the same
taxonomic conclusions for the studied species and varieties. The molecular results
show a high intraspecific variability in “albifrons group”, and promote to continue
work on this subject.
Financial support was provided by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y
Tecnología (project BOS 2000-0148) and the University of Alicante (GR02-09).
128 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
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. Notes / Notas / Anmerkungen


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
INDEX OF AUTHORS
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 131
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LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

ALOMAR, OSCAR BARKALOV, ANATOLII


Institut de Recerca i Tecnología Institute of Animal Systematics and
Agroalimentàries (IRTA) Ecology RAS
E-08348 Cabrils Frunze str. 11, Novosibirsk-91, 630091
Barcelona (Spain) Novosibirsk (Russia)
e-mail: oscar.alomar@irta.es e-mail: mu4@eco.nsc.ru

ARCAYA, EVELIN BORDERA, SANTIAGO


Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad
Alvarado Universidad de Alicante
Canato de Agronomía. Departamento de Apartado de correos 99.
Ciencias Biológicas 03080 Alicante (Spain)
Cabudare (Venezuela) e-mail: s.bordera@ua.es
e-mail: evearcaya@hotmail.com

BURGIO, GIOVANNI
ASENSIO, LETICIA DiSTA
Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Alma Mater Università di Bologna
Recursos Naturales viale Fanin, 42, 40127
Universidad de Alicante Bologna (Italy)
Apartado de correos 99. 03080 e-mail: gburgio@entom.agrsci.unibo.it
Alicante (Spain)
e-mail: leti.asensio@ua.es
CARLSON, CATHY
UCCE (University of California
BALL, STUART G. Cooperative Extensión)
British Hoverfly Recording Scheme 1432 Abbott st.
7 Vine Street 93901 Salinas
Stamford, Lincolnshire PE9 1QE California (USA)
(United Kingdom) e-mail: 3cacres@redshift.com
e-mail: stuart.ball@jncc.gov.uk
132 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

DOZKAL, DIETER GILBERT, FRANCIS


Königsberger Strabe 4 School of Life & Environmental Sciences,
76316 Malsch Nottingham University,
Malsch (Germany) Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
e-mail: dieter.doczkal@t-online.de e-mail: Francis.Gilbert@nottingham.ac.uk

DZIOCK, FRANK GITTINGS, TOM


UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Dep. of Zoology and Animal Ecology
Leipzig-Halle University College Cork
Department of Conservation Biology Lee Maltings, Prospect Row
Permoser Str. 15, 04318 Cork (Ireland)
Leipzig (Germany) e-mail: t.gittings@ucc.ie
e-mail: dziock@pro.ufz.de

GOLDING, YVONNE
EDMUNDS, MALCOLM University of Manchester.
Department of Biological Sciences Manchester M13 9PT
University of Central Lancashire Manchester (United Kingdom)
Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom) e-mail: yvonne.c.golding@man.ac.uk
e-mail: medmunds@unclan.ac.uk

HANCOCK, GEOFFREY
ENNOS, ROLAND Hunterian Museum
University of Manchester Graham Kerr Building
47 Tatton RD, Sale M33 7EE University of Glasgow
Manchester (United Kingdom) Glasgow (United Kingdom)
e-mail: r.ennos@man.ac.uk e-mail: gnancock@museum.gla.ac.uk

FISHER, ERIC HERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ,


Calif. Dept. of Food & Agriculture
ESTEFANÍA
Plant Pest Diagnostics Lab.
Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad
3294 Meadowview Road, Sacramento
Universidad de Alicante.
California 95832 (USA)
Apartado de correos 99. 03080
e-mail: efisher@cdfa.ca.gov
Alicante (Spain)
e-mail: fani.hernandez@ua.es
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 133
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

HONDELMANN, PETER KRIVOSHEINA, MARINA


Institute of Plant Protection Institute of Ecology and Evolution
University Hannover. Herrenhaeuserstr 33 Leninsky prospect
2, 30419 Hannover (Germany) 119071 Moscow
e-mail: hondelmann@ipp.uni-hannover.de Moscow (Russia)
e-mail: marina@zmmu.msu.ru

HOWARTH, BRIGITTE
Department of Biological Sciences
LÁSKA, PAVEL
University of Central Lancashire Dep. of Zoology, Natural Science Faculty

Preston PR1 2HE Palacky University

Preston (United Kingdom). Svobody 26, 771 46

(Present address: Al Ain English Speaking Olomouc (Czech Republic)

School, P.O. Box 17939, Al Ain, U.A.E.) e-mail: Mazanek@prfnw.upol.cz

e-mail: bhowarth@emirates.net.ae
LOUIS-MALDONADO, MIGUEL
ILIFF, DAVID Institut de Recerca i Tecnología

Editor of UK Hoverfly Newsletter Agroalimentàries (IRTA)

Green Willows E-08348 Cabrils

Station Road Barcelona (Spain)

Woodmancote e-mail: tmp275@irta.es

Cheltenham (United Kingdom)


e-mail: davidiliff@talk21.com MARCOS-GACÍA, Mª ANGELES
Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad
KRÁLIKOVÁ, ADRIANA Universidad de Alicante
Department of environmentalism and Apartado de correos 99. 03080
Zoology Alicante (spain)
Faculty of Agrobiology and Food e-mail: marcos@ua.es
Resources
Slovak Agricultural University
MARINONI, LUCIANE
Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76
Universidade Federal do Paraná.
Nitra (Slovak Republic)
Rua Alcebíades Plaisant, 850 ap 43
e-mail: Adrianna.Kralikova@uniag.sk
Curitiba (Brazil)
e-mail: lmarinon@bio.ufpr.br
134 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

MAZÁNEK, LIBOR PEREZ-BAÑON, CELESTE


Dep. of Zoology. Natural Science Faculty Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad
Palacky University Universidad de Alicante
Svobody 26, 771 46 Apartado de correos 99. 03080
Olomouc (Czech Republic) Alicante (Spain)
e-mail: mazanek@prfnw.upol.cz e-mail: celeste.perez@ua.es

MENGUAL, XIMO POPOV, GRIGORY


Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad Donetsk Botanical Gardens Nat. Ukr.
Universidad de Alicante Acad. Sci. 83059 Donetsk (Ukraine)
Apartado de correos 99. 03080 e-mail: mbu@yandex.ru
Alicante (Spain)
e-mail: xmengual@hotmail.com RADENKOVIC, SNEZANA
University of Novi Sad
MORRIS, ROGER, K. A. Faculty of Science

British Hoverfly Recording Scheme Department of Biology and Ecology

7 Vine Street, Stamford Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2

Lincolnshire PE9 1QE 21000 Novi Sad

(United Kingdom) (Serbia and Montenegro)

mail: roger.morris@english-nature.org.uk e-mail: kalorin@im.ns.ac.yu

MUTIN, VALERI REEMER, MENNO


Department of Zoology National Natuurhistorisch Museum

Komsomolsk-na-Amure State Pedagogical Postbus 9517

University 681000 2300 RA Leiden (The Netherlands)

Komsomolsk-na-Amure (Russia) e-mail: reemer@naturalis.nnm.nl

e-mail: valerimutin@mail.ru
ROJO, SANTOS
NIELSEN, TORE RANDULFF Centro Iberoamericano de la Biodiversidad

Sandvedhagen 8 Universidad de Alicante

NO-4318 Apartado de correos 99. 03080

Sandnes (Norway). Alicante (Spain)

e-mail: trnielsen@c2i.net e-mail: santos.rojo@ua.es


II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 135
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ROTHERAY, GRAHAM E SMIT, JOHN


Department of Natural History European Invertebrate Survey
National Museums of Scotland P O box 9517 2300 RA
Chambers Street, Edinburgh (UK) Leiden (The Netherlands)
e-mail: g.rotheray@nms.ac.uk

SOMMAGGIO, DANIELE
SADEGHI NAMAGHI, HUSSEIN Biostudio, Via Riello
Dept. of Plant Protection 4. 36010
College of Agriculture Velo d'Astico (VI) (Italy)
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad e-mail: dsommaggio@tiscalinet.it
Mashhad (Iran)
e-mail: husseinsadeghi@yahoo.co.uk
SPEIGHT, MARTIN, C.D.
Research Branch
SARIBIYIK, SULEYMAN National Parks & Wildlife Service
Gazi University Dublin 2 (Ireland)
G.U. Kastamonu Egitim Fakultesi e-mail: speightm@indigo.ie
Kastamonu (Turkey)
e-mail: sbiyik@gazi.edu.tr
SSYMANK, AXEL
Bundesamt für Naturschutz (Federal
SHERIDAN, HELEN Office for Nature Conservation),
Teagasc Johnstown Castle Co. Wexford Konstantinstrasse 110, 53179 Bonn
and Dept of Envir. Resource Management Bonn (Germany)
Faculty of Agriculture, University College e-mail: ssymanka@bfn.de
Dublin (Ireland)
e-mail: hsheridan@johnstown.teagasc.ie
STÅHLS, GUNILLA
Entomology department & Molecular
SIMIC, SMILJKA Ecology and Systematics (MES)
Department of Biology and Ecology Laboratory Finnish Museum of Natural
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Science History. University of Helsinki
Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2 Helsinki (Finland)
21000 Novi Sad e-mail: gunilla.stahls@helsinki.fi
(Serbia and Montenegro)
e-mail: simics@im.ns.ac.yu
136 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

STEENIS, JEROEN VAN VANHAELEN, NICOLAS


Department of Systematic Zoology Department of pure and applied zoology
Evolutionary Biology Centre Faculté des sciences agronomiques de
Uppsala University Gembloux
Uppsala (Sweden) Gembloux Agricultural University
e-mail: jeroen.van steenis@ebc.uu.se Passage des Déportés 2,
j.van.steenis@hetnet.nl B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)
e-mail: vanhaelen.n@fsagx.ac.be
STUBBS, ALAN E.
Peterborough VUJIC, ANTE
PE1 4DS University of Novi Sad
Peterborough (United Kingdom) Faculty of Science
Department of Biology and Ecology
THOMPSON, F. CHRISTIAN Trg Dositeja Obradovica 2
Systematic Entomology Lab. 21000 Novi Sad
ARS-USDA. (Serbia and Montenegro)
Washington, D.C. (USA) e-mail: antev@im.ns.ac.yu
e-mail: cthompson@sel.barc.usda.gov

WAKKIE, BASTIAAN
VALENCIANO, JOSÉ BENITO
Syrphidae.com
Departamento de Ingeniería Agraria.
Rue de la Jonchaine 15/22
ESTIA
Brussel (Belgium)
Universidad de León.
e-mail
Avda. Portugal, nº 41.
bastiaan.wakkie@manpowerinc.com
24071 León (Spain)
e-mail: diajva@unileon.es
ZUIJEN, MENNO VAN
Droevendaalsesteeg 81
VALLET, ANNE 6708 PR Wageningen
ENTOMO-LOGIC Wageningen (The Netherlands)
14 rue Bailly e-mail: mennopepijn@zonnet.nl
F-54000
Nancy (France)
e-mail: avallet@club-internet.fr
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INDEX OF AUTHORS

ALOMAR, OSCAR ........................................................................................ 83, 95


ARCAYA, EVELIN ............................................................................................. 93
ASENSIO, LETICIA ............................................................................................ 99
BALL, STUART G. ....................................................................................... 31, 65
BARKALOV, ANATOLII ................................................................................... 109
BICÍK, VÍTEZSLAV .............................................................................. 55, 69, 111
BORDERA, SANTIAGO ..................................................................................... 101
BURGIO, GIOVANNI .................................................................................. 23, 107
COLIGNON, PIERRE ........................................................................................... 85
CULLETON, N. .................................................................................................. 33
DIAZ, FRANCISCO ............................................................................................. 93
DZIOCK, FRANK ......................................................................................... 21, 67
EDMUNDS, MALCOLM ................................................................................. 59, 61
FRANCIS, FRÉDÉRIC .................................................................................... 79, 85
GASPAR, CHARLES ........................................................................................... 79
GILBERT, FRANCIS ............................................................................... 61, 77, 89
GILLER, PAUL S. ............................................................................................... 25
GITTINGS, TOM ................................................................................................ 25
GOLDING, YVONNE .......................................................................................... 59
HAUBRUGE, ERIC ....................................................................................... 79, 85
HERNÁNDEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, ESTEFANÍA ........................................................... 101
HONDELMANN, PETER ...................................................................................... 81
HOWARTH, BRIGITTE ....................................................................................... 61
ILIFF, DAVID ..................................................................................................... 71
KRÁLIKOVÁ, ADRIANA ..................................................................................... 47
KRIVOSHEINA, MARINA ................................................................................. 117
LÁSKA, PAVEL ............................................................................. 55, 69, 87, 111
LÓPEZ-LLORCA, LUIS VICENTE ........................................................................ 99
138 II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

LOUIS-MALDONADO, MIGUEL ................................................................... 83, 95


LUCHETTI, ANDREA ....................................................................................... 107
LUDOSKI, J. .................................................................................................... 123
MANTOVANI, BARBARA ................................................................................. 107
MARCOS-GACÍA, Mª ANGELES .................................................. 89, 99, 119, 127
MARINONI, LUCIANE .......................................................................... 27, 57, 113
MASETTI, ANTONIO ....................................................................................... 107
MAZÁNEK, LIBOR .................................................................................... 69, 111
MENGUAL, XIMO ........................................................................................... 127
MIER, M. PILAR ............................................................................................... 89
MILANKOV, V. ....................................................................................... 121, 123
MIRANDA, G. F. ............................................................................................... 57
MORRIS, ROGER, K. A................................................................................ 31, 65
MUTIN, VALERI .............................................................................................. 125
NIELSEN, TORE RANDULFF .............................................................................. 45
NIETO, JUAN MANUEL ..................................................................................... 88
O’DONOVAN .................................................................................................... 33
O’HALLORAN J. ............................................................................................... 25
PAPADOPOULOS, J. ........................................................................................... 73
PARAVANO, A. S. ............................................................................................ 91
PEREZ-BAÑON, CELESTE ........................................................................ 101, 119
POEHLING, HANS-MICHAEL ............................................................................. 81
POPOV, GRIGORY ............................................................................................. 49
RADENKOVIC, SNEZANA ................................................................ 35, 37, 39, 45
RADISIC, PREDAG ............................................................................................. 73
ROJO, SANTOS ............................................................................ 89, 99, 101, 119
ROTHERAY, GRAHAM E ................................................................................... 53
SADEGHI, HUSSEIN ........................................................................................... 41
SARIBIYIK, SULEYMAN .................................................................................... 29
SECO, M. VICTORIA ......................................................................................... 91
II International Symposium on the Syrphidae. Biodiversity and Conservation 139
16-19th June 2003, Alicante, Spain. CIBIO (ed.). Alicante, 139 pp. Copyright © 2003. ISBN 84-933249-0-6

SHERIDAN, HELEN ............................................................................................ 33


SIMIC, SMILJKA ........................................................................ 35, 37, 39, 45, 73
SOMMAGGIO, DANIELE ............................................................................. 23, 107
SPEIGHT, MARTIN, C.D. ................................................................................... 19
SSYMANK, AXEL .............................................................................................. 63
STÅHLS-MÄKELÄ, GUNILLA .......................................................... 105, 119, 127
STUBBS, ALAN E............................................................................................... 43
THOMPSON, F. CHRISTIAN .......................................................................... 11, 27
VALENCIANO, JOSÉ BENITO ............................................................................. 91
VALLET, ANNE ................................................................................................. 97
VANHAELEN, NICOLAS ............................................................................... 79, 85
VUJIC, ANTE ..................................................... 35, 37, 39, 45, 73, 115, 121, 123