You are on page 1of 99

EFFECT OF SILICA FUME TO THE STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY

OF HIGH PERFORMANCE GROUND GRANULATED BLASTFURNACE


SLAG CONCRETE

AZLI SHAH BIN ALI BASHAH

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA


EFFECT OF SILICA FUME TO THE STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY
OF HIGH PERFORMANCE GROUND GRANULATED BLASTFURNACE
SLAG CONCRETE

AZLI SHAH BIN ALI BASHAH

A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirements for the award of the degree of
Master of Engineering (Civil – Structure)

Faculty of Civil Engineering


Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

MAY 2006
ii

I declare that this entitled “Effect Of Silica Fume To The Strength And
Permeability Of High Performance Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag
Concrete” is the result of my own research except as cited in the references. The
project report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted
in candidature of any other degree.

Signature : ……………………………….
Name : AZLI SHAH BIN ALI BASHAH
Date : 08 MAY 2006.
iii

TO MY BELOVED PARENT,
HAJI ALI BASHAH BIN YUSOFF
AND
HAJJAH NAEMAH ZAITUN BTE ABDUL HAMID
iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In preparing this thesis, I was in contact with many people, researchers,


academicians, and practitioners. They have contributed towards my understanding
and thoughts. In particular, I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my main
thesis supervisor, Associate Professor Dr. A. Aziz Saim, for encouragement,
guidance, and friendship. I am also very thankful to Ir. Rahmat Bin Abdul Rahman
from Persatuan Jurutera Islam Malaysia and Ir. Y.C. Lee from Buildcon Concrete
Sdn Bhd for their guidance, advices and motivation. Without their continued
support and interest, this thesis would not have been the same as presented here.

I am also indebted to University Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) for the laboratory works
of my Master study. Librarians at UTM also deserve special thanks for their
assistance in supplying the relevant literatures.

My sincere appreciation also extends to my friends Ir. Che Husni Ahmad


(Consultant), Ir. Musfa Mohamed, Ir.. Abdul Kadir Ahyat(Consultant), En. Fairuz
Hussin, En. Sharul Othman who have provided assistance at various occasions.

Lastly, I also reserve special thanks to my beloved wife and my sons Sidi
Muhammad Yusoff, Sidi Zainul Abideen and Sidi Iqbal Shah for their commitment,
encouragement and patient while preparing this thesis and the continued support.
v

ABSTRACT

A durable concrete is one that has the ability to withstand the damaging
effects of the environment and of its service conditions without undue deterioration
and excessive unforeseen maintenance over the design life of a structure. The used
of high performance concrete is an alternative in producing high – strength concrete,
durable and construction friendly. This paper study the effect of silica fume to the
properties of high performance ground granulated blastfurnace slag concrete to
reveal the potential outmost. It was found by compressive strength test, that high-
strength concrete can be achieved. At the age of 28 days, concretes containing 5,
7.5, and 10% silica fume gave compressive strengths of 65.6, 64.6, and 67.1 Mpa,
respectively. At aged 56 days concrete containing 10% of silica fume had the
highest strength. However the concrete containing 5% of silica fume had low
permeability thus may enhance the durability.
vi

ABSTRAK.

Konkrit yang tahan lasak adalah kebolehan konkrit tersebut daripada mengalami
kerosakan akibat dari kesan alam sekitar dan kemerosotan semasa perkhidmatan
serta penyelenggaran yang kurang sepanjang hayat rekabentuk sesuatu struktur.
Penggunaan konkrit berprestasi tinggi digunakan sebagai bahan alternatif untuk
menghasilkan konkrit yang tahan lasak, berkekuatan tinggi dan memudahkan kerja
pembinaan. Sehubungan itu kajian kesan bahan tambah silika peluwap terhadap
sifat konkrit sangga relaubagas berbutir untuk mendedahkan potensi yang wujud.
Dalam kajian ini melalui ujian mampatan, konkrit berkekuatan tinggi boleh dicapai.
Pada konkrit berusia 28 hari yang mengandungi 5, 7.5 dan 10 % silika peluwap
mencapai kekuatan mampatan 65.6, 64.6 dan 67.1 Mpa. Manakala konkrit pada
usia 56 hari yang mengandungi 10% silika peluwap mencapai kekuatan yang paling
tinggi. Walaubagaimanapun konkrit yang mengandungi 5% silika peluwap
mempunyai ketelapan yang rendah dan secara tidak lansung ianya menambah nilai
ketahanlasakan.
vii

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE


Title Page i
Declaration ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Abstrak vi
Table of Content vii
List of Tables x
List of Figure xii
List of Symbols xiv

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Foreword 1
1.2 Objectives 2
1.3 Scope of study 3

2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 4

2.1.1 Definitions Of High Performance 4


Concrete (HPC)

2.2 Development Of High Performance 5


Concrete
2.3 Materials For High Performance 6
Concrete
2.3.1 Supplementary Cementing Materials 7
2.3.2 Silica Fume 8
2.3.3 Ground Blastfurnace Slag Cements 10
2.4 Aggregates 15
2.5 Superplastizer/High Range Water Reducers 16
2.5.1 Superplasticizer Dosage 18
2.6 Water 19
2.7 Supplementary Cementing Materials For 19
Proposal Concrete Mix
2.7.1 Mix Selection For High Performance 19
Concrete

3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 30
3.2 Experimental For The High Performance 30
Concrete
3.3 Material for testing 31
3.4 Water 31
3.5 Admixtures 32
3.6 Cube Compressive Strength 32
3.6.1 Preparation of Concrete Cube 33
Grade 60 with Free W/ C Ratio 0.32
3.7 Permeability Testing 34

4 RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction 47
4.2 The Results of Concrete Cubes Strength 47
4.2.1 Analysis from the Results 48
4.2.1.1 Analysis in respect to strength 48
4.3 The Results of Permeability Test (ISAT) 50
ix

5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction 68
5.2 Discussion about the Concrete Cube
Strength. 68
5.2.1 1 day cube strength 69
5.2.2 3 and 7 days cube strength 69
5.2.3 28 and 56 days cube strength. 70
5.3 Permeability of Concrete Cube. 71

6 SUMMARY AND CONLUSION


6.1 Conclusion 75
6.2 Recommendation 76

REFERENCES 77
APPENDIX A 81
x

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE


2.1 Typical Composition 21
2.2 Some Major Projects That Used Blastfurnace Slag Cement In
Malaysia 22
2.3 Mix Proportions of Some High Performance Concrete 23
3.1 Mixture Proportions 36
3.2 Program for casting and testing of Concrete Cube 37
4.1 The Results Of Cubes Test 52
4.2 Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for I day to YI 53
4.3 Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 3 days to YI 54
4.4 Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 7 days to YI 55
4.5 Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 28 days to YI 56
4.6 Comparison the compressive strength of Y2, Y3, Y4 for 56 days to YI 57
4.7 The Result Of Cube Strength Grade 60 Relate To JKR Specification 58
4.8 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1
At Age 28 Days 60
4.9 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y2
At Age 28 Days 61
4.10 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y3
At Age 28 Days 62
4.11 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y4
At Age 28 Days 63
4.12 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1
At Age 56 Days 64
4.13 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For T he Cube Y2
At Age 56 Days 65
4.14 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y3
At Age 56 Days 66
xi

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE

4.15 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT


For The Cube Y4 At Age 56 Days 67
4.15 The result for Comparisons Relative To Permeability

And Compressive Strength For The Same Specimen 68

5.1 Reference For Permeability (ISAT) Test 74


xii

LIST OF FIGURES.

FIGURE NO TITLE PAGE

2.1 Factors which influences high performance concrete 24


2.2 Typical Strength Development 25
2.3 Higher Resistance to Chloride Diffussion 26
2.4 Higher resistance to sulphate attack 27
2.5 Protection Against Alkali-Silica Reaction 28
2.6 Temperature Profile Of Slagcem (contain 70 % ggbs& OPC) 29
3.1 Silica Fume(SF) 38
3.2 Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag(GGBS) 38
3.3 Admixtures P322N And R1100H 39
3.4 Step for preparation the 150x150x150 concrete cube 40
3.5 Procedure In Preparation Of Concrete Cube 41
3.6 Compacting The Fresh Concrete 41
3.7 Measuring The Slump Of Fresh Concrete 42
3.8 Preparation of Concrete Cube for compressive testing 43
3.9 Cubes In The Tank For Curing Purpose 44
3.10 The procedures carried for the cubes test as in accordance to BS
1881:Part 116 45

3.11 Initial Surface Absorption Apparatus 46


3.12 Plastic Cap 46
4.1 Concrete cube strength in normal water for I day 53
4.2 Concrete cube strength in normal water for 3 days 54
4.3 Concrete cube strength in normal water for 7 days 55
4.4 Concrete cube strength in normal water for 28 days 56
4.5 Concrete cube strength in normal water for 56 days 57
4.6 Comparison Between The Cube Strength At 1,3,7,28,56 Days 59
4.7 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y1 At Age 28 Days 60
4.8 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y2 At Age 28 Days 61
xiii

LIST OF FIGURES.

FIGURE NO TITLE PAGE

4.9 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y3 At Age 28 Days 62


4.10 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y4 At Age 28 Days 63
4.11 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y1 At Age 56 Days 64
4.12 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y2 At Age 56 Days 65
4.13 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y3 At Age 56 Days 66
4.14 The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y4 At Age 56 Days 67
xiv

LIST OF SYMBOLS

BS - British Standard
HPC - High Performance Concrete
ACI - American Concrete Institute
w/c - water/cement
Mpa - Mega pascal
ISAT - Initial Surface Absorption Test
C-S-H - Calcium Silicate Hydrates
AASHTO - American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials
MS - Malaysian Standard
OPC - Ordinary Portland Cement
C3A - Tricalcium Aluminate
Psi - Pound/square inch
GGBS - Ground Blastfurnace Slag Cements
SF - Silica Fume
ASTM - American Society for Testing And Materials
S.O. - Superintendent Officer
UTM - University Technology Malaysia
JKR - Jabatan Kerja Raya
mm - millimeter
2 -
N/mm newton per millimetres square
ml/m2/s - milliliters per square metre per second
SiO2 - Silicon Dioxide
Ca(OH) - Calcium Hydroxide
FM - Figgs Method
2
m /kg - metre square per kilogram
> - More than
< - Less than
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Foreword

Most conventional concrete structures deteriorate rapidly and require


costly repairs before their expected service life is reached. Four major types
of environmental distress affect concrete structures. They are corrosion of
the reinforcement, alkali-aggregate reactivity, freeze-thaw deterioration, and
attack by sulfates (Ozyildirim, 1998). In each case, water or chemical
solutions may penetrate the concrete and initiate or accelerate damages. By
using high-performance concrete (HPC), durability and are enhanced strength,
resulting in long-lasting and economical structure (Lerning and Ahmed,
1993).

American Concrete Institute(ACI) defined high performance concrete


as: “High performance concrete (HPC) defined as concrete which meets
special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be
achieved routinely by using only conventional materials and normal mixing,
placing and curing practices”
2

The high performance concrete mixes designed for low permeability resist
this infiltration of aggressive liquids and, therefore, are more durable. One important
issue need to be addressed in the use of high performance concrete are the
development of the mixes.

Low-permeability concretes are made with a low (0.45 and less) water-
cementations material ratio (w/cm). Pozzolanic material such as fly ash, silica fume,
or slag be used as cementation materials. These modifications to the mixes results in
higher compressive strengths than conventional concretes, above 41 Mpa (6,000 psi).
The initial economic benefit arises from the ability to use fewer borepiles, colums,
beams resulting in lower costs in materials, labour, transportation, and
construction. The structural benefits include increased rigitidy because of the
increased elastic modulus and increased concrete strength that raise the allowable
design stresses (Lane, S.N, and Podolny, W. 1993). This project paper emphasis
will be directed mainly to the applications of ground granulated blastfurnace slag and
silica fume.

1.2 Objectives

i) To develop the concrete mix and study the effect of silica fume between
the matrix which consist of ground granulated blastfurnace slag with
gradually added percentage f silica fume with minimum cube strength of
60 Mpa.

ii) To develop concrete early age strength of more than 1 Mpa within 24
hour.

ii) To test concrete mix for compressive strength and preliminary study on
permeability by Initial Surface Absorption Test (ISAT).
3

1.3 Scope of study

This study focuses on investigating the properties of the proposal


concrete mix of high performance concrete. Among the properties
investigated for such designed mixes are compressive strength, and
permeability for durability while maintaining the high workability.
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

High performance concrete is not a revolutionary material, nor does it contain


ingredients which are not used in the concrete considered this far
(A. M Neville, 1995). It is a concrete made with suitable materials as per selected
mix design, transported, placed and cures so that it gives better performance in terms
of high strength, ease of placement and compaction without segregation,
enhancement of long term mechanical properties and long service life in robust
environment. The factors which influences high performance concrete are shown in
Figure 2.1.

2.1.1 Definitions Of High Performance Concrete (HPC)

High performance concrete is defined as the concrete which satisfy special


performance and uniformity requirements that cannot be always achieves by using
conventional materials, normal mixing, planning and curing practices. According to
Strategic Highway Research Program, USA, it shall have one of the following
strength characteristics : (Bickley and Mitchel 2001)
5

• 4-hour compressive strength 17.5 MPa (2500 psi) or very early strength
• 24-hour compressive strength 35 MPa (5,000 psi) or high early strength
• 28-day compressive strength 70 MPa (10,000 psi) or very high strength
• It should have durability factor greater than 80% after 300 cycles of freezing
and thawing.
• It should have a water-cementitious ratio < 0.35.

Thus the high performance concrete should definitely have the following :

a) High compressive strength, thermal capacity, acid/alkali resistance, ductility


and better tensile properties
b) Low shrinkage and permeability
c) High fire resistance
d) Excellent flow characteristics
e) Good bond characteristics

2.2 Development Of High Performance Concrete

The design mix of concrete is primarily based on the water-cement ratio. It


is generally assumed that for strength up to 40 MPa, any normal weight aggregate
can be used. Basically there is no mixed design procedure is consider for aggregate
strength/elastic modulus. Similarly the interfacial regions regarding cement
aggregate bond are also not clearly addressed. Generally it is assumed that the
strength of the hardening cement paste will be the limiting factor in controlling the
concrete strength. In high performance concrete, however all the component of the
mixtures are pushed to limit (Jianxin Ma; Holger Schneider, 2002).
6

High performance concrete can be model as three phase composite materials.


The phases are :

a) the hardening cement paste


b) the aggregates
c) the interfacial zone between the hardened cement paste and the aggregates

All these phase have to be optimized, which means that each must be
considered in the design process. It is very important to pay careful attention to all
the aspects of concrete production. It indicates that quality control is an essential
part of the production of high performance concrete and requires full co-operation
among the materials, ready mixed supplier, the engineer and the contractor. The
proportioning of high performance concrete consists of three inter-related steps :

1. Selection of suitable ingredients : cement, supplementary cementing materials,


aggregates, water and chemical admixtures.
2. Determination of the relative quantities of the ingredients in order to produce a
concrete that has desired properties, strength and durability.
3. Quality control of each and every phase of concrete making process.

2.3 Materials For High Performance Concrete

Cement to be used for high performance concrete have to meet the following
two requirements (C. F. Ferraris 1999).

i. It must develop the appropriate strength


ii. It must represent the appropriate rheological behavior.
7

Generally same types of cements have quite different rheological and strength
characteristics, particularly when used in combination with chemical admixtures and
supplementary cementing materials. Therefore, while selecting cement for use in
high performance concrete, it is necessary to look carefully at cement fineness and
other chemical properties.

Mostly in the literature stated that(A.M Neville 1995, Wang 2004, Mitchel
2001) increase in the fineness of the Portland cement usually increases the early
strength of the concrete. It is due to higher surface area in contact with water of the
concrete which lead to a more rapid hydration.

2.3.1 Supplementary Cementing Materials

The materials for making concrete consist of a cementitious


binder, aggregates, water and in most cases with ready mixed
concrete, one or more types in chemical admixtures. To day the cementitious
binder such Ordinary Portland Cement or Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement
is often blended with either or ground granulated blastfurnace slag. In general,
pulverized fuel up to 30% and ground granulated blastfurnace slag up to 70%
with the balance made up of are used depending on the intended applications.
Within the past decade, silica fume has been introduced in addition to the other
mineral admixtures to improve the performance of concrete. These mineral
admixtures are chemicals that provide cementitious gel similar to those
produced by the hydration of Ordinary Portland Cement. Hence they are often
called supplementary cementing materials (A.M.Neville1995).

In recent years, (C.T.Tam 1998) the use of pozzolanic materials and slag
as replacement for cement in concrete has become more and more widespread
throughout the world. Particularly, in countries where such materials are
produced as by-products of industry, such usage has the added value of
8

providing a partial solution to the problem of disposal of such materials. In the


following sections, discussions on these supplementary cementing materials
will be confined to, silica fume and ground granulated blastfurnace slag. They
are used together with ordinary portland cement which provides the calcium
hydroxide needed for the pozzolanic reaction. Others such as natural pozzolans
and non-ferrous slags will not be included. The chemical and physical
composition of the cementation binder is indicated in Table 2.1.

2.3.2 Silica Fume

Silica Fume is a by-product of the smelting process in the production of


silicon metal and ferrosilicon alloys. It has also been called silica fume, microsilica,
amorphous silica and other similar names. However, the silica fume used in
concrete are those from the production process of silicon metal or ferrosilicon alloy
containing more than 75% silicon (C.T.Tam 1998).

In general, they have:


d) Si02 contents ranging from 85 to 96%;
e) Amorphous structures

silica fume may be obtained in its powder form, densified, or


in slurry form mixed with 50% water by weight. Its specific gravity is about 2.20,
but its bulk density is only 200 to 300 kg per cubic meter. The specific surface
area ranges from 13,000 to 25,000 sq. m per kg (Silica Fume User Manual, SFA
2005).

Due to extreme fineness and high silica content, silica fume is a highly
effective pozzolanic material. Silica Fume is used in concrete to improve its
9

properties. It has been found that silica fume improves compressive strength, bond
strength, and abrasion resistance, reduces permeability, and therefore helps in
protecting reinforcing steel from corrosion.

Pozzolanic reaction between and calcium hydroxide released by


hydration of Portland cement leads to the formation of C-S-H gel. It is a very
reactive pozzolan. Although the nature of the hydration products of (C.T.Tam 2001)
and its influence on cement hydration are not fully understood at present, the effect
is a refinement of the pore structure when is added to the cementitious
system. This leads to a reduction in permeability and hence the enhancement
of the mechanical properties and durability of concrete containing silica fume.

There are two main methods of using silica fume in concrete:


(a) as a partial replacement of cement to obtain reduction in cement content
but not economical in the local context,
(b) as an addition to improve concrete properties for both in fresh and
hardened concrete.

Silica fume has been used as an addition to concrete up to 15 percent by


weight of cement, although the normal proportion is 7 to 10 percent. With an
addition of 15 percent, the potential exists for very strong and brittle concrete. It
increases the water demand in a concrete mix, however, dosage rates of less than 5
percent will not typically require a water reducer. High replacement rates will
require the use of a high range water reducer (Silica Fume User Manual, SFA 2005)

The dosage of air-entraining agent needed to maintain the required air content
when using silica fume is slightly higher than that for conventional concrete because
of high surface area and the presence of carbon. This dosage is increased with
increasing amounts of silica fume content in concrete. Concrete incorporating more
10

than 10% silica fume becomes sticky, in order to enhance workability, the initial
slump should be increased. It has been found that silica fume reduces bleeding
because of its effect on rheological properties (A.M Neville 1995).

It has been shown by several researchers that addition of silica fume to


concrete reduces its permeability. Rapid chloride permeability testing (AASHTO
277) conducted on silica fume concrete showed that addition 8% of silica fume
significantly reduces the chloride permeability. This reduction is primarily the result
of the increased density of the matrix due to the presence of silica fume (Ozyildirim
1998).

2.3.3 Ground Blastfurnace Slag Cements

The usage of blended cements containing slag in Malaysia is relatively recent


compare to developed country. Its used in Malaysia began in the mid and late 90’s
when the Malaysian Standards for slag cement were developed. Table 2.2 indicate
the used of blended cements containing slag in several projects in Malaysia.

In early all circumstances ground blastfurnace slag cement can be used as an


alternative to normal Portland Cement. Additionally, the enhanced properties will
enable it to be used in certain applications where normal Portland Cement would be
inadequate. Although in many situations, the differences in properties are very
minor, slag cements do offer certain technical advantages, generally proportionally
to the usage in terms of percentage. The ground blastfurnace slag cements in
Malaysia conform to Malaysian Standard MS 1388: 1995 “ Specification for High
Slag Blastfurnace Cement” and MS 1389 : 1995 “ Specification for Portland
Blastfurnace Cement”. While MS 1389 permits slag content up from 6 to 65% of
the total cementitious content, MS 1388 allow even higher slag content of up to 85
% for special applications. The normal product is a run of the mill 30 - 50% slag
blend and is the blend most commonly used in the Malaysian market where slag
11

cement is specified. The slag that is used in blended cements is a non-metallic


mineral byproduct formed when iron is produced in a blast furnace. It does not come
from steel or non-ferrous material production. It is produced simultaneously with
iron at around 1500 0C It is taken off and cooled in a controlled manner. If cooled
slowly it forms a material that is useful for aggregate but of no practical use for
cement.

If rapid quenching with water is applied it solidifies into a glassy material


which, when ground, results in a product that possesses latent hydraulicity similar to
Portland cements. The end product is a complex material consisting mainly of
calcium silicates and calcium aluminates. Putting it simply, it is used to produce a
hydraulic cement which can be used in the same way as other Portland Cements.
The calcium hydroxide which is produced as a by product of Ordinary Portland
Cement hydration reaction is used as the activating component in ground
blastfurnace slag. One interesting feature which is worthy of highlighting is the fact
that the lime formed by the cement hydration is the weakest link in the hydrated
cement matrix.

Another feature is that the fine slag particles fill the pores in the cement matrix
with cementitious hydration products and thereby reduces permeability. So ground
blastfurnace slag not only remove the calcium hydroxide links but it also effectively
transforms it into and builds further cementitious components adding to strength and
chemical resistance. Generally, the properties will tend to reflect the properties of
the predominant material. This paper discusses the properties in very general terms.
This is because the properties achieved are very dependent on the particular materials
used and in-depth testing containing all materials is essential to provide the necessary
background on material properties. Among the properties are as below (C.T. Tam
2001, Wang 2004, HPC Structural Designer Guide 2005).
12

(i) Compressive Strength


The key area to watch is that of early strengths (1 to 7 days). These will generally be
reduced for concretes of equal 28 day strengths and depending on the materials used
can show reductions of 10 o 20%.

In itself this is not a problem other than it affects things like formwork stripping
times, and precast demoulding. The other concern is in the prestressed concrete
works where stage prestressing very often requires high early strength to be
developed. The strength patterns can be controlled through concrete mix design,
cement and slag fineness as well as slag proportioning. The longer term and ultimate
strengths are improved with the addition of slag. The improvement increases with
increasing slag content. A reduced fineness of the ground blastfurnace slag
component for a given 28 days strength also will improve the ultimate strength. A
typical strength development for concrete made from Ordinary Portland Cement
(OPC), ground blastfurnace slag cement with 30% slag content and ground
blastfurnace slag cement with 50% slag content is shown in Figure 2.2 to illustrate
how this property is affected by the type of cement and the slag content.

(ii)Setting Time

Generally the setting time increases with the addition of slag and this is particularly
the case in cooler climates as ground blastfurnace slag cements, like all Portland
Cements, are temperature sensitive. However this can be overcome through the use
of appropriate concrete mix design and admixtures. In temperatures in excess of
about 23 to 25 0C. there is virtually no difference. The longer setting times is usually
of little concern in Malaysia, due to the high ambient temperature exceeding 25 0C.
13

(iii) Bleeding

The fine slag particles block pores which tends to produce a concrete which bleeds
less provided proper mix design is done. This indeed is an advantage in cooler
climates and in winter. In summer and during freak weather conditions care is
needed as reduced bleeding may promote plastic cracking. Awareness is important
and mix modifications can be made to eliminate this potential problem. Again, this
is not a big issue in the mild weather conditions in Malaysia.

(iv) Workability

There is a need to clear the confusion here due largely to the general impression that
workability is measured by concrete slump. Slump only measures consistency. The
fact is, blast ground blastfurnace slag cements have, for a given slump, a better
workability. This is important as field practice confirms that the addition of slag
reduces the slump without affecting the workability and particularly the ease of
consolidation under vibration and the finish ability. On this basis it is possible to
accept ground blastfurnace slag cement based concretes on sites with a lower slump
than Ordinary Portland Cement concretes.

(v) Durability

Comment on durability would not be complete without covering the following four
areas.

(a) Water - Marine Environments


Ground blastfurnace slag improve the impermeability due to their fine nature
and physical structure and can reduce chloride diffussity significantly. The
latter advantage is already evident with slag percentages of the order of 40%
and is greatly enhanced by slag percentages of 60 to 70% or greater. At
lower rates the performance is similar to Normal Type A Portland Cement in
terms of chlorides and some improvement can be expected due to the
14

reduction in permeability. The excellent resistance of high slag cement


content to chloride diffusion by penetration is illustrated in Figure 2.3.

(b) Sulphate Attack

The ability of Blast-Furnace cements to withstand sulphate attack is obvious


from overseas work which again generally points to reduced concrete
permeability, reduced amount of Calcium Hydroxide hydration product and
reactive aluminates which are components readily attacked by sulphates..
Whilst 30% Ground Blastfurnace Slag may give a performance similar to
Normal Type A Portland Cement, it requires around 70% to equal the
performance of Type D Sulphate Resisting Cement. Regardless of this it must
be stated that, like chloride diffusion, the overriding factor in gaining sulphate
resistance is an adequate cement content. This is often the best way of
addressing this problem. If this is done a change to Ground Blastfurnace Slag
cement will offer further benefit. Figure 2.4 shows the superior performance
of high slag content over the Ordinary Portland Cement against sulphate
attack.

(c) Alkali Aggregate Reaction

Although the Axle Load Study (Ministry of Works 1988 Report) has
suspected a case of alkali silica reaction in Johore, this phenomenon is not of
major concern in Malaysia, but where it is a problem, slag contents in excess
of 40% can be successfully used. These reduce the potential expansion to
amounts that are unlikely to cause distress. The benefit of applying ground
blastfurnace slag cements in areas of potential alkali aggregate reactivity is
well recognized. Figure 2.5 shows the protection offered by slag cement
against alkali-silica reaction.
15

(d) Heat of Hydration

Slag hydration is an exothermic reaction in the same way as Ordinary


Portland Cement hydration. However it does not react as quickly and thus
generates heat more slowly. This enables more time for dissipation of heat
and peak concrete temperatures are reduced. This is an advantage when
thermal cracking would be a problem. For normal ground blastfurnace slag
cement concretes, the peak temperatures may be reduced by 8 to 10 0C for
40% slag blends and proportionally more for the higher slag blends.

Figure 2.6 shows the temperature profile of Ordinary Portland Cement and
slag cement. It is precisely due to this heat property that makes slag cement
so useful in massive pours such as raft foundations as the reduced heat of
hydration greatly reduces the thermal cracks associated with thick concrete
sections.

2.4 Aggregates

As coarse aggregate in concrete occupy 35 to 70% of the volume of


the high performance concrete, their properties play significant role in determining
the properties of the hardened concrete (C.F.Feraris 1999). It may be proper to
categories the properties into two groups : exterior features such as maximum size,
particle shape, textures and interior quality such as strength, density, porosity,
hardness, elastic modulus and chemical mineral composition. Smaller sized
aggregates produce higher concrete strength. Particle shape and texture effect the
workability of fresh concrete and the strength of hardened concrete. The fine
aggregate should be free from clay or slit, and the use of a relatively coarser sand
with a fineness modulus of about 3.0 is generally recommended. The weakest
component in normal concrete, made with w/c ratio of 0.38 to 0.65 are the hardened
16

cement paste and the transition zone between cement paste and coarse aggregates,
rather than the properties of the coarse aggregates it self. However for high
performance concrete the strength of the aggregate plays an important role in the
strength of the concrete (Bentz D. P. 1995).

As there is no standard method for evaluating the bonding characteristics and


internal defects in aggregate particle, the choice of coarse aggregate can be made by
examining the stress-strain curve and loading unloading hysterics loop for high
performance concrete mixture made with various types of coarse aggregates. The
aggregates giving higher stress-strain ratio and narrow hysterics loop are best suited
(Karsten 1996). The tests such as abrasion resistance, hardness, soundness, void
ratio, also indicate the strength of coarse aggregate. Rigid aggregate contribute to
the compressive strength as well as the abrasion resistance of high performance
concrete.

Aggregate with good soundness can resist weathering action and increase the
durability of concrete. Low abrasion resistance, indicate lower strength of
aggregates. Higher soundness also gives lower aggregate strength. Where aggregate
strength is higher, concrete strength shows likewise.

2.5 Superplastizer/High Range Water Reducers

Admixture are used to modify the properties of concrete or mortar to make


them more suitable for working, for economy or for other purposes for instances to
obtained such concrete that acquire very high strength, resistance to freezing and
thawing, retarding and accelerating. An admixtures may be the solutions or means
of achieving the desired result (Faris, Tair and Benmarce 2001).
17

For long time concrete was simply a mixture of cement, water and
aggregates whose workability was essentially controlled by the amount of water
added during mixing. The important of water/cement ratio was rapidly recognized as
the most important factor governing strength. In modern concrete practice, it is
impossible to make high performance concrete having adequate workability without
the use of super-plasticizer (Vanchai Sata 2004).

There are basically, three principal types of superplasticizers

i) Lignosulfonate based.
ii) Polycondensate of formaldehyde and melamine sulfonate often referred, as
melamine sulfonate
iii) Polycondensate of formaldehyde and naphthalene sulfonate often referred as
naphthalene sulfonate.

The workability of a fresh concrete mix depends to some extent on the


characteristics of superplasticizer used. However the mix composition, variability in
cement composition or properties, and other factor such as the mixing procedure and
equipment play an important role, but it is now ell established that the average
molecular mass of the superplasticizer is of the prime importance for its efficiency in
reducing water in Ordinary Portland Cement mixes (Hajime Okamura 2003). The
chemical nature of the superplasticizer whether naphthalene based or melamine
based, can also have an effect on the rheological behaviour of a concrete mix.
However no definite trend could be identifies from properties like slump and slump
loss, retardation, and air entrainment. This clearly indicate that several intrinsic
properties of the superplasticizer may influence its performance.

The influence of the cement fineness on the amount of superplasticizer


needed to reach a certain level of workability in the case of concrete has been clearly
18

established such as at concrete lab Buildcon Concrete Sdn. Bhd. The finer the cement,
the higher the superplasticizer dosage required to achieve a given workability.

2.5.1 Superplasticizer Dosage

There is no exact method of determining the required superplasticizer dosage


(A.M Neville 1995). It has to be determined, by trial and error method especially in
this project paper. When achieving strength is the primary criterion, then it should
be with the lowest water-cement ratio, and the highest superplasticizer rate.
However, the water-cement may have to be adjusted so that both the strength and
rheological properties can be optimized.

Marsh Cone Test is generally used to study the behavior of the cement
superplasticizer mixture. In this test, the time taken by a mixture of cement, water
and superplasticizer to pass through opening is measured. The time so measured is
called as Marsh flow time, and is directly related to the viscosity decreases with the
increase in superplasticizer dosage till a stage is reached after which any further
addition of superplasticizer does not significantly reduce the viscosity of the mix.
This point as called as ‘the saturation point’ (Faris, Tair and Benmarce 2001).

The saturation point varies from one cement to another, when using the same
superplasticizer, and from one superplasticizer to another, with the same cement.
The superplasticizer dosage at saturation point depends on the water cement ratio of
the mix, the fitness of the cements, the total amount of C3A, the sulfate content
and the rate of dissolution of the sulfates. So, for each cement-superplasticizer
combinantion and mix design, there is be one optimal superplasticizer dosage.
19

2.6 Water

Water is the most important and least expansive ingredient of concrete. Apart
of water gets utilized is the hydration of cement to form the binding matrix has
hardened. The remaining water serves as a lubricant between the fine aggregate and
coarse aggregate and make the concrete workable. Generally the cement requires
about 3/10 of its weight of water by hydration. Hence minimum water cement ratio
required is 0.35 (Mitchel 2001) water is required to lubricate the mix which makes
the concrete workable. The additional water should be kept minimum, since too
much water reduces the strength of concrete. If too much water is added to the
concrete, the excess water along with cement comes to the surface by capillary
action and this cement-water mixture forms a thin layer of chalky material known as
‘Laitance”. This laitance prevents bond formation and forms a plane of weakness in
concrete.

2.7 Supplementary Cementing Materials For Proposal Concrete Mix

2.7.1 Mix Selection For High Performance Concrete

In Table 2.3 details of several high performance concrete mixes were given.
However, a generalized systematic approach to the selection of mix proportions of
high performance concretes has not yet been developed (A.M.Neville1995).

Despite the absence of an accepted method for mix selection for high
performance concrete, some specific comments can be made. First, because
workability can be controlled by a appropriate dosage of superplactizer, the water
content should be chosen on the basis of the water/cement ratio required from
strength considerations. Excessive content of cementitious material should be
20

avoided so as to control shrinkage, a value of 500 to 550 kg/m3, of which about 10


per cent is silica fume, is a desirable maximum(A.M.Neville1995). Some help in
mix selection for high performance concrete can be obtained from ACI 211.4R-93,
which is intended to apply to concretes with compressive strengths between 40 and
80 Mpa ( 6000 psi to 12000 psi).

High performance concrete, the specified strength is sometimes required at


ages well beyond 28 days usually at 56 days, this should be clearly taken into
account in considering the strength criterion. With respect to the content of coarse
aggregate, ACI 211.4R-93 recommends that the bulk volume of oven-dry rodded
coarse aggregate size is 10mm (3/8in.) and 0.68 when the maximum aggregate size is
12mm (1/2in). It seems that, unlike ordinary concrete, the value of the bulk volume
of coarse aggregate is unaffected by the fineness modulus of fine aggregate, at least
in the range 2.5 to 3.2. While the broad guidance of ACI 2.11.4R-93 is useful, it has
to be repeated that an experimental approach to the mix selection to high
performance concrete is unavoidable.
21

Table 2.1: Typical Composition

Source: Ozyildirium 1998


22

Table 2.2 Some Major Projects That Used Blastfurnace Slag Cement In
Malaysia (Source from: YTL Cement Sdn Bhd.)
No. PROJECTS LOCATIONS APPLICATIONS % GGBS
IN
CEMENT
1 PRT Monorail K.Lumpur Bore piles, pile caps
and columns 30
2 Dewan Bahasa & K. Lumpur Foundation &
Pustaka basement 70
Extension
3 Kuala Lumpur Sepang Parking apron and 50
International building structures
Airport
4 Southern Finance K. Lumpur Raft foundations 70
New
Headquarters
5 Putrajaya Selangor Wall diaphragm 70
6 JB-Waterfront J. Bharu Deck and building 50
City structures
7 Hollywood Plaza J. Bharu Pile caps 50
8 Sg. Johor Kota Tinggi Foundation, 50-70%
Waterworks treatment plant,
(PUB, Singapore) reservoir etc
9 Indah Water- Sg. Besi All concrete 70
sewage treatment structures
plant
10 KLIA Mosque Sepang Building structures 50
11 Cyberjaya – Cyberjaya Highway and 50
Putrajaya B15 bridges
Highway Link
(JKR)
23

Table 2.3: Mix Proportions of Some High Performance Concrete

Ingredient
(kg/m3 )
A B C D E F G
Portland cement 534 500 315 513 163 228 425
Silica fume 40 30 36 43 54 46 40
Fly ash 59 - - - - - -
Ggbs - - 137 - 325 182 -

Fine aggregate 623 700 745 685 730 800 755

Coarse aggregate 1069 1100 1130 1080 1100 1100 1045

Total water 139 143 150 139 136 138 175

Water/cementitious 0.22 0.27 0.31 0.25 0.25 0.30 0.38


Material ratio
Slump, mm 255 - - - 200 220 230
Cylinder strength
(Mpa) at age (days)
1 - - - - 13 19 -
2 - - - 65 - - -
7 - - 67 91 72 62 -
28 - 93 83 119 114 105 95
56 124 - - - - - -
91 - 107 93 145 126 121 105
365 - - - - 136 126 -

Information about mixes: (A) United States; (B) Canada; (D) United States; (E)
Canada; (F) Canada; (G) Morocco; (H) France; (I) Canada;
24

CEMENT AGGREGATE WATER


Composition Size, Shape, Grading,
Quality Quality, Moisture

PERFORMANCE OF
FRESH CONCRETE Mixing

Transporting
Placing &
C ti

PERFORMANCE OF HARDENED
CONCRETE
Curing

Figure 2.1 : Factors which influences high performance concrete


25

60

50
Compressive Strength (N/mm2 )

40

30

OPC SLAGCEM 30 SLAGCEM 50


20
Cementitious Content : 330kg/m 3
28O C Water Cured
10

0
1 3 7 14 28 56 90
Age (Days)

Figure 2.2 : Typical Strength Developement


(Source from:. Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd)
26

O
D iffu sio n o f C h lo rid e Io n s at 25 C
in C em en t P astes o f W /C 0.5

-9 2
Typ e o f C em en t D if fu sivit y (x10 cm /s

SRPC 100.0
O PC 44.7
70% O P C / 30% P FA 14.7
35% O P C /65% G G B S 4.1

Figure 2.3: Higher Resistance to Chloride Diffussion


(Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)
27

0.25
0.5 water/cement
Disintegrated
0.45 water/cement
0.2
100%
SRPC
Disruptive Expansion (%)

0.15 100%
OPC

0.1

0.05
70% GGBS

0
10 15 20 25 30
5

-0.05 Months

Figure 2.4: Higher resistance to sulphate attack


(Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)
28

1.5

100% OPC
Expan sion (%)

30% GGBS

0.5

Visible
40% GGBS
Cracking 50% GGBS

0 100 200

Days

FIG. 2.5: Protection Against Alkali-Silica Reaction


(Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)
29

100
OPC
90 SLAGCEM70
1m3 Test Block Cementitious
80 O
Peak at 77 C Content 386kg/m3

70 O
Peak at 64 C
Temperature ( O C)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
1 5 10 50 100 168

Elapsed Time (Hours)

Figure 2.6: Temperature Profile Of Slagcem (contain 70 % ggbs& OPC)


(Source from: Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd.)
CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Since the scope and the objectives of the study has been mentioned earlier,
there are procedures should be followed to perform a specific function in this chapter.
All the tests and the results shall be shown from appropriate table and graph that can
be prepared simultaneously. At this stage, the main function is to show the various
steps and systems that lead to the results of testing materials selected. Once the
characteristic of the materials selected has been performed through appropriate
testing, the comparisons between the materials should be analyzed comprehensively
to produce a good results as well as good conclusions.

3.2 Experimental For The High Performance Concrete

In this research the methods is emphasis on laboratory test. The test on fresh
concrete, the making of test specimens, the curing of the specimens and their
method of test accordance with the relevant part of BS 1881 as follows:
31

3.2.1 Compression testing BS1881:Part 116 of cubes.


3.2.2 Permeability test (ISAT)

3.3 Material for testing

The concrete mixes were prepared with material available at Buildcon


Concrete Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur plant, except silica fume and ground
granulated blastfurnace slag was imported for the used in the trial batches to
produce high strength concrete, low permeability and high workability.

The cementious material was a combination of Type 1 cement, silica fume


(SF) and ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS). Silica fume (Figure 3.1)
conforming to the requirements of ASTM C. Ground granulated blastfurnace slag
(Figure 3.2) conforming to the requirements MS 1389 : 1995. Crushed coarse
aggregate with relative density aggregate 2.62 and fine aggregate shall comply
with M.S 7.5 and maximum aggregate size was 19 mm .

3.4 Water

Water shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 28. It shall be clean and
free from materials deleterious to concrete in the plastic and hardened state and shall
be from a source approved by the S.O. If in doubt, the S.O. may instruct the
contractor to carry out chemical test at any approved laboratory at the expense of the
contractor. The contractor shall make adequate arrangement to supply and store
sufficient water at the work site for use in mixing and curing of concrete. All costs
for installing and maintaining the supply shall be borne by the contractor.
32

3.5 Admixtures

(i) Retarders

These admixture which are used for this purpose is P322N as


prescribed in BS 5075:Part 1: 1982.

(ii) Superplasticizers

These admixture which are used for this purpose is R1100H


prescribed in BS 5075:Part 3: 1985.as shown in Figure 3.3.

(iii) Dosage

There is no exact method of determining the required admixture


dosage. It has to be determined, by trial and error method to maintain the
slump of the trial mixes at 125mm to 175mm.

3.6 Cube Compressive Strength

This test is used to determine the compressive strength of a concrete cube,


which has usually been made from fresh concrete cast in a standard test mould. The
value of compressive strength can then be used to assess whether the batch that the
concrete cube represents meets the required compressive strength. Following cube
manufacture and after curing which immersed in normal water for a period 1, 7, 14,
28 and 56 days, then the cube is crushed at a stated constant speed until it can
sustain no further increase in load. The strength is then derived by calculation using
the maximum load and cube dimensions. This test was done at Buildcon Concrete
Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur plant and UTM, Johor Bahru.
33

3.6.1 Preparation of Concrete Cube Grade 60 With Free W/ C Ratio 0.32

The preparation of the concrete cube was carried out by the supervisor of
Buildcon Concrete Sdn. Bhd., and his assistant. In the laboratory, three small
batches, Y2 through Y4, were prepared with silica fume and ground granulated
blast-furnace slag. Then, a batch, Y1 was prepared with ground granulated blast-
furnace slag but without silica fume as a control mix. The mixture proportions
follow and the test to be carried out as shown in Table 3.1 and Table 3.2, and for
the purpose of the test, there were 60 numbers of cube to be prepared. The details
designed mix can be referred to Appendix A.

The procedure for the preparation of concrete cube should be followed


according to the general procedure through the flow chart as Figure 3.4. During the
placing of concrete into the mould, there are a standard procedure for the
compaction of the concrete. The concrete to be poured into the mould shall be in
separate time with three layers compaction and each layers need 25 strokes by steel
25x25 square pattern. The methods of compaction the concrete in the mould as
shown through the Figure 3.5 and Figure 3.6. The concrete mixes were tested in the
freshly mixed for, unit weight and slump as shown in Figure 3.7.

In the laboratory, specimens were moist and cured at room temperature


and tested for compression as shown in Figure 3.8, Figure 3.9 and Figure 3.10.
Concrete in batches Y1 through Y4 was tested for compressive strength and
permeability at various times up to 56 days.
34

3.7 Permeability Testing

As mentioned earlier, permeability is the ease which liquids or gases can


travel through concrete. Although the testing concrete for permeability has not been
generally standardized by ASTM and BS but for practical purpose, it is the
absorption characteristic of the outer zone of concrete which protect the
reinforcement are the greatest interest.

For that purpose in this paper, preliminary study towards permeability


through ISAT test as specified in BS 1881 part 5 was developed to determined the
initial surface absorption as shown in Figure 3.11.

The samples for this testing have a size of 150mm x 150mm x 150mm and
shall be dried in a well ventilated oven at 105 + 5 0C until constant weight is
achieved. By constant weight is meant not more than 0.1% weight change over any
24 h drying period. When the sample has reached constant weight is shall be placed
in a suitable airtight cooling cabinet. Each sample shall remain in the cabinet until
required for testing.

The ISAT test consists of the measurement of water flow into the test
specimen through a known surface area. The contact area is defined by a plastic cap
sealed onto the surface. Measurement of the volume flow is obtained by
measurement of the length of flow along a 600 mm long of bore glass capillary tube.
The tube is manufactured from clear glass to allow observation of the water level and
ensure the complete renewal of air. A clear reservoir is connected to the 'inlet' of the
cap. The 'outlet' of the cap is connected to a capillary tube with an affixed scale. A
valve is fitted to the inlet side to isolate the reservoir. The cap is clamped to the test
surface so as to ensure an even pressure and good seal around the perimeter. The
seal is improved with silicone sealant as shown in Figure 3.12. The capillary tube
and reservoir are mounted 200mm above the cap.
35

Before starting the test, the tap from the reservoir shall be closed and the
reservoir filled with water. The time of the start of the test shall be recorded with
time watch and the tap opened to allow the water to run into the cap and out of the
outlet tubing until no more air escapes. At all times care shall be taken that the
reservoir does not empty itself. The outlet tubing shall be connected to the capillary
tube and any additional trapped air shall be flushed out by allowing the capillary to
overflow and, it necessary, by sharply pinching the flexible tubing. The reservoir
shall be replenished to maintain the specified head of water.

After filling the cap completely the reservoir is closed off and measurements
taken of flow along the capillary tube. Sets of readings are taken at 10 minutes, 30
minutes and 1 hour after the first wetting of the surface with time watch. There are
also optional reading depends to the porosity of the samples. For each samples
set of readings the reservoir is closed off and the flow distance along the capillary is
measured for 5 seconds. The number of scale units determines the observation
period. Detail results will be shown under next chapter.
36

Table 3.1: Mixture Proportions


Sample Quantity OPC GGBS SF Sand Coarse Water P322N R1100H
m3 kg kg kg kg Agg. kg ml ml
kg

Y1 0.06 16.2 16.2 0 40.1 63 9.3 97 324

Y2 0.06 15.4 15.4 1.6 40.1 63 9.3 97 390

Y3 0.06 15 15 2.4 40.1 63 9.3 97 421

Y4 0.06 14.6 14.6 3.2 39.7 63 9.7 97 454

Y1- 50% OPC + 50% GGBS


Y3 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 7.5% SF
Y2 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 10% SF;
Y4 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 5% SF
37

Table 3.2 Program For Casting And Testing Of Concrete Cube

Samples Number Date of Date of Date of Date of Date Date of Slumps Dosage
of casting testing testing testing of testing (mm) of
Samples For For For testing For R1100H
1-Day 3-Days 7-Days For 56- (ml)
24- Days
Days

Y1* 15 11.1.06 12.1.06 14.1.06 18.1.06 4.2.06 8.3.06 150 164

Y2* 15 11.1.06 12.1.06 14.1.06 18.1.06 4.2.06 8.3.06 170 270

Y3* 15 11.1.06 12.1.06 14.1.06 18.1.06 4.2.06 8.3.06 150 291

Y4* 15 26.1.06 27.1.06 30.1.06 3.2.06 20.206 24.3.06 180 364

Y1- 50% OPC + 50% GGBS


Y3 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 7.5% SF
Y2 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 10% SF;
Y4 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 5% SF
38

Figure 3.1: Silica Fume(SF)

Figure 3.2 : Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag(GGBS)


39

Figure 3.3 Admixtures P322N And R1100H


40

Prepare the concrete mix as concrete design forms

Once the concrete mix ready, take out the sample and measure the
slump as shown from Picture below.

Then prepare the mould and place the concrete into 150x150x150
Steel Mould Shown on Figure 3.9

Differentiate the marked, example; No.Y1,Y2, Y3 &Y4


respectively.

End

Figure 3.4: Step For Preparation The 150x150x150 Concrete Cube.


41

150

Layer 3(25 stroke)

Layer 2(25 stroke) 150

Layer 1(25 stroke)

Concrete Formed Steel Rammer


In Three Layers. 25 x 25 square.

Figure 3.5 : Procedure In Preparation Of Concrete Cube

Figure 3.6: Compacting The Fresh Concrete


42

Figure 3.7 : Measuring The Slump Of Fresh Concrete


43

Figure 3.8: Preparation Of Concrete Cube For Compressive Testing


44

Figure 3.9 : Cubes In The Tank For Curing Purpose


45

• Weighting The Cube Sample

• test under compression

• Record the Compressive Strength From Dial Gauge


• Record Any Failure Pattern Of Cube

Figure 3.10: The Procedures Carried For The Cubes Test As In Accordance
To BS 1881:Part 116
46

Figure 3.11: Initial Surface Absorption Apparatus

Figure 3.12 : Plastic Cap


CHAPTER 4

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction.

Although the use of high performance concrete has increase significantly in


past years recently, however its beneficial properties were not well explore or
realized. On other hand in this chapter, the analyzed of the results which gains
from experimental program are foremost important especially regarding the back
ground problem arise.

4.2 The Results of Concrete Cubes Strength.

The compressive strength of concrete is the most important factor of all the
properties. Therefore, it is always tested for its strength at the laboratory for the
concrete structural purposes. The results of the test could reveal the quality of
concrete and enable adjustment to be made for further concrete production, if the
achievement are doubtful or unsatisfactory. However it is better to be remember the
48

standard compression test which have been used for decades is only give a measure
of the potential strength of the concrete and not of the actual strength of the concrete
structures. The durability and strength are two different issues in concrete structure,
however in general the higher strength of the concrete mostly are more durable than
the lower strength of concrete. The result of the cube test are as per Table 4.1.

4.2.1 Analysis from the Results.

The tests which has been done was taken at the Buildcon Concrete Sdn. Bhd.,
Kuala Lumpur plant and UTM, Johor Bahru. From the results from Figure 4.1,
Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3, Figure 4.4 and Figure 4.5, which show the compressive
strength of each samples relative to number of days can be analyzed for their
characteristics.

4.2.1.1 Analysis in respect to strength.

The most important properties in concrete structures are those concerning


with strength, because the strength gives an overall picture of the quality of
concrete. Among the various strength of concrete, the compressive strength is
dominant because the concrete is primarily meant to withstand compressive stress.

All the results show as above were complies with the clause in JKR
specification as mentioned below:
“On test cube from each sample-batch shall be tested for the 7 days compressive
strength. If the cube strength falls below 75% of the 28 days compressive strength,
then the ENGINEER may direct the Contractor to take necessary steps to review the
49

process of the production of concrete for nature use.

The remaining two test cubes from the sample-batch shall be tested for the 28
day compressive strength. The appropriate strength requirement shall be considered
to be satisfied if at least one of the following is complied with :-

i) none of the two test cubes is below the specified compressive strength.
ii) The average strength of the two test cubes is not less than the specified
compressive strength and the difference between the two strengths is not
more than 20% of the average strength.

In the event that the results of the test do not meet the specific requirements, the
ENGINEER shall determine the action to be taken in respect of the concrete member
represented by the sample-batch test cubes. Such action may include demolition of
the member. The Contractor shall, if required by the ENGINEER, take cored
samples from the hardened concrete member and carry out the compressive strength
test.(JKR,1988)”

By referring to the value obtained from column (3) of the Table 4.7, can be
written as below:-

i) Cube Strength of Specimen for 7 days = 0.75 x value from column (3) >
45 (JKR Spec), Satisfied

ii) Cube Strength of Specimen for 28 days = value from column (3) > 60
(JKR Spec), Satisfied
50

In this study, it was found that the compressive strength of the specimens
increase accordingly to the ages respectively. Figure 4.6 show the Y4 have the
highest strength for the compression test at 3days, 7 days, 28 days and 56 days.

4.3 The Results of Permeability Test (ISAT)

Permeability is a measure of the concrete’ ability to resist penetration of


water or other substances. So that in order to be durable, concrete must be
relatively impervious. The more water the concrete contains beyond that necessary
for workability, the more pervious it will become. It is important to remember that
the permeability of concrete should be kept low in order to protect the reinforcing
steel bar. In general, low permeability concrete is also associated with high strength
and high resistance to weathering. Due to the fact that impervious concrete won’t
allow the aggressive liquids and gases to penetrate. There are many of the
permeability tests are done using water and an apparatus that directs flow through
block of hardened concrete. It is also common to find experiments that use air, a
chloride solution and electricity. For the purposes of this project paper, only Initial
Surface Absorption Test (ISAT) as specified in BS 1881 Part 5 is adopted, which
have been done at structure and material laboratory University Technology Malaysia.

All the results are clearly shown for the permeability test at age 28 days as
tabulated in Table 4.8 to Table 4.11 and from Table 4.12 to Table 4.15 for the test at
age 56 days. In this study, the rate of absorption of water by the surface zone and
the comparison of compressive strength between the cubes which subjected to under
a head of 200 mm of water at 56 days as shown in Figure 4.16 was observed. The
rate of absorption is expressed in milliliters per square metre per second and
compressive strength expressed in newton per millimetres square.
51

The specimens which subjected under the same pressure whether for the test
at age 28 days and 56 days show almost the same pattern of the absorption rate when
plotted in graphs, as shown from Figure 4.8 to Figure 4.15 . From Table 4.15 it
show that cube Y2 which contain five percent (5%) have low rate of absorption thus
more impervious and the affect of strength after the surface immersed in water is
more hardened than other specimens.
52

Table 4.1: The Results Of Cubes Test

Concrete Compressive Strength(N/mm2)


Mixes

1 Day 3 Days 7 Days 28 Days 56 Days

Y1 13.33 19.5 43.17 60.5 76


Y2 16.17 22.67 45 65.6 74
Y3 15.30 21.33 46.5 64.6 74
Y4 14.3 23.5 48 67.1 81

Y1- 50% OPC + 50% GGBS


Y3 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 7.5% SF
Y2 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 10% SF;
Y4 - 50% OPC + 50 % GGBS + 5% SF
53

Cube Strength For 1 Days

18 16.17 15.3
16 14.3
13.33
14 Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
12
Compressive 10 Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
Strength 8 Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
6
4 Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF 10%
2
0
1
Specimen

Figure 4.1: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For I Day.

Table 4.2: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For I Day To YI

Cube Mix 1- Day Compressive Ratio Difference Of Compressive


Strength (N/Mm2) Strength Between Y1

Y1 13.13 1

Y2 16.17 1.23

Y3 15.3 1.17

Y4 14.3 1.09
54

Cube Strength For 3 Days

22.67 23.5
25 21.33
19.5
20
Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Compressive 15
``` Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
Strength 10
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
5 Y4+OPC+GGBS+SF 10%
0
1
Specimen

Figure 4.2: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 3 Days.

Table 4.3: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 3 Days To YI

Cube Mix 3- Days Compressive Ratio Difference Of Compressive


Strength(N/Mm2) Strength Between Y1

Y1 19.5 1

Y2 22.67 1.16

Y3 21.33 1.09

Y4 23.5 1.21
55

Cube Strength For 7 Days

48
48
46.5
47
46 45
45 YI OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Compressive 43.17
44 Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
Strength
43
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
42
41 Y4 0PC+GGBS+SF 10%
40
1
Specimen

Figure 4.3: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 7 Days.

Table 4.4: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 7 Days To YI

Cube Mix 7- Days Compressive Ratio Difference Of Compressive


Strength (N/Mm2) Strength Between Y1

Y1 43.17 1

Y2 45 1.04

Y3 46.5 1.08

Y4 48 1.11
56

Cube Strength For 28 Days

68 67.1
65.6
66 64.6
64 Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%
Compressive
62 60.5 Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
Strength
60 Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF 7.5%
58 Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF 10%
56
1
Specimen

Figure 4.4: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 28 Days.

Table 4.5: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 28 Days To

YI

Cube Mix 28- Days Compressive Ratio Difference Of Compressive


Strength(N/Mm2) Strength Between Y1

Y1 60.5 1

Y2 65.6 1.08

Y3 64.6 1.07

Y4 67.1 1.11
57

Cube Strength For 56 Days

78
78
77 76
76 Series1
Compressive
75 74 74 Series2
Strength
74 Series3
73 Series4
72
1
Specimen

Figure 4.5: Concrete Cube Strength In Normal Water For 56 Days.

Table 4.6: Comparison The Compressive Strength Of Y2, Y3, Y4 For 56 Days To

YI

Cube Mix 56- Days Compressive Ratio Difference Of Compressive


2
Strength(N/Mm ) Strength Between Y1

Y1 76 1

Y2 74 0.97

Y3 74 0.97

Y4 81 1.07
58

Table 4.7: The Result Of Cube Strength Grade 60 Relate To JKR Specification

Average Cube Appropriate Strength


No. Of Samples
Strength In Normal Requirement By JKR
Days Water
( N/mm2)

Y1 43.17 non complied


7 Y2 45 satisfied
Y3 46.5 satisfied
Y4 48 satisfied

Y1 60.5 satisfied
28 Y2 65.6 satisfied
Y3 64.6 satisfied
Y4 67.1 satisfied
59

Comparisons Between The Cubes Strength At 1,3,7,28 And 56


Days

Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF0%
90
80 Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF 5%
S t r e n g t h ( N /m m 2 )

70
C o m p r e s s iv e

60 Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5%
50
40
Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF 10%
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5
Age Days

Figure 4.6: Comparison Between The Cube Strength At 1,3,7,28,56 Days


60

Table 4.8: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1 At Age 28 Days

1 min 2 min 4 Min 6 Min


CUBE 1
Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 544 428 72 0

Differences(mm) 56 172 528 600

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.05292 0.16254 0.49896 0.56700

Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

28 DAYS
0.60000 0.56700
Permeability

0.50000 0.49896
(ml/m2/s

0.40000
0.30000
0.20000 0.16254
0.10000
0.05292
0.00000
0 2 4 6 8
Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0% Time (minutes)

Figure 4.7: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y1 At Age 28 Days
61

Table 4.9: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y2 At Age 28 Days

5 min 10 min 20 Min 60 Min


CUBE Y2

Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 499 397 35 0

Differences(mm) 101 203 565 600

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.09545 0.19184 0.53393 0.56700

Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

28 DAYS
Permeability (ml/m2/s)

0.6 0.567
0.5 0.53393
0.4
0.3
0.2 0.19184
0.1 0.09545
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF5% Time (minutes)

Figure 4.8: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y2 At Age 28 Days
62

Table 4.10: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y3 At Age 28
Days

2 min 6 minit 8 min 10 Min


CUBE Y3
Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 501 221 80.4 10

Differences(mm) 99 379 519.6 590

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.09356 0.35816 0.49102 0.55755

Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

28 DAYS
Permeability (ml/m2/s)

0.6
0.55755
0.5 0.49102
0.4
0.35816
0.3
0.2
0.1 0.09356
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Time (minutes)
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5%

Figure 4.9: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y3 At Age 28 Days
63

Table 4.11 The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y4 At Age 28
Days

5 min 10 min 15 Min 20 Min


CUBE Y4
Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 429 249 35 0

Differences(mm) 171 351 565 600

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.16160 0.33170 0.53393 0.56700

Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

28 DAYS

0.6
Permeability (ml/m2/s)

0.567
0.53393
0.5
0.4
0.3317
0.3
0.2
0.1616
0.1
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (minutes)

Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF10%

Figure 4.10: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y4 At Age 28 Days
64

Table 4.12: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y1 At Age 56
Days
1 min 4 min 6 Min 8 Min
CUBE 1

Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 330 112 72 0

Differences(mm) 270 488 528 600

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.25515 0.46116 0.49896 0.56700


Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

56 DAYS
Permeability (ml/m2/s

0.60000 0.56700
0.50000 0.49896
0.40000
0.30000
0.20000
0.16254
0.10000
0.05292
0.00000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time (minutes)

Y1 OPC+GGBS+SF 0%

Figure 4.11: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y1 At Age 56 Days
65

Table 4.13: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y2 At Age 56
Days
5 min 10 min 60 Min 120 Min
CUBE Y2

Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 588 575 542 534

Differences(mm) 12 25 58 66

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.01134 0.02363 0.05481 0.06237


Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

56 DAYS
Permeability (ml/m2/s)

0.07
0.06 0.06237
0.05481
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02363
0.02
0.01 0.01134
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Y2 OPC+GGBS+SF5% Time (minutes)

Figure 4.12: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y2 At Age 56 Days
66

Table 4.14: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y3 At Age 56
Days
8 min 20 minit 30 min 60 Min
CUBE Y3
Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 313 252 122 0

Differences(mm) 287 348 478 600

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.27122 0.32886 0.45171 0.56700

Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

56 DAYS
0.6 0.567
0.5
Permeability

0.45171
(ml/m2/s)

0.4
0.3 0.32886
0.27122
0.2
0.1
0
0 20 40 60 80
Time (minutes)
Y3 OPC+GGBS+SF7.5%

Figure 4.13: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y3 At Age 56 Days
67

Table 4.15: The Test Result Of Permeability ISAT For The Cube Y4 At Age 56
Days
5 min 10 min 20 Min 40 Min
CUBE Y4

Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 577 455 264 104

Differences(mm) 23 145 336 496

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.02174 0.13703 0.31752 0.46872


Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s

56 DAYS
0.5
0.46872
0.4
Permeability

0.31752
(ml/m2/s)

0.3

0.2
0.13703
0.1
0.02174
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Tim e (m inutes)
Y4 OPC+GGBS+SF10%

Figure 4.14: The Graph Pattern For The Cube Y4 At Age 56 Days
68

Table 4.16 The Result For Comparisons Relative To Permeability And


Compressive Strength For The Same Specimen After ISAT Test
At Age 56 Days

Cube Y1 Cube Y2 Cube Y3 Cube Y4

Initial Reading (mm) 600 600 600 600

End Reading (mm) 0 534 0 104

Time(minutes) 8 120 60 40

Results (ml/m2/s) 0.56700 0.06237 0.56700 0.46872

Compressive
Strength (N/mm2) 46.67 62.2 40 60
CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION

5.1 Introduction.

The main issue in this chapter is related to the compression strength of the
designed mixes with the added percentage of silica fume and durability through
investigation on permeability of the mixes.

5.2 Discussion about the Concrete Cube Strength.

The compressive strength test has become part of the structural testing in
construction to determine the grade of concrete which have to comply according to
the JKR specification and other design standards. Normally 6 cube to be prepared
for testing purposes. For this particular study, 60 cubes have been prepared and also
have been tested to the required strength of 1 days, 3 days 7 days, 28 days and 56
days inclusively. During the preparation of the cube, slump test has been done and
70

maintain at 150+/- 20mm by added superplasticizers by trial and error to gain high
workability.

5.2.1 1 day cube strength.

From the Table 4.1 showed all the cube strength achieved above 10 N/mm2
which meet the objective of this paper and can be considered for early removal of
formwork as mentioned in JKR specification as below:

‘The contractor shall inform the S.O and obtain his approval before striking any
formwork, but such approval shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities
for the safety of the work.

The removal shall be done in such a manner as not of damage the concrete, and shall
take place at times to suit the requirements for its curing.

Where the concrete compressive strength is confirmed by tests on concrete cubes


stored under conditions that simulate the field conditions, formwork supporting
concrete in bending may be struck when the cube strength is 10 N/sq.mm or twice
the stress to which it will be subjected, whichever is the greater.’

5.2.2 3 and 7 days cube strength.

Three and seven days compressive strengths are reported in Table 4.1 and
are presented in graphic form in Figure 4.2 and 4.3 respectively. Observation is
indicates obviously that the strength increases as the period increased due that the
hydration process still takes place. In this testing, all the cubes accept Y1 achieved a
minimum of 75% of the 28 days compressive strength as shown at table 4.6. This
71

results showed that the hydration rate of cube Y1 is slower compare than other cubes
at this period thus affected the strength development .

5.2.3 28 and 56 days cube strength.

Since concrete cube strength increases as the time goes, it is important to


point out that a period of 28 days may not be sufficient for the development of the
full marginal potential strengths for high performance concrete. Generally, greater
later age strengths beyond twenty eight days are expected for pozzolanic mixes as
compared to ordinary portland cement at a given water binder to cement ratio
(A.M Neville 1995).

As compressive strengths and percentage of control concrete (Y1)


compressive strength are tabulated in Table 4.4 and Table 4.5, it can be observed
that compressive strengths at the age of 28 days varied between 60.5 Mpa (Y1) and
67.1 Mpa (Y4) which higher than 60 Mpa, thus meet the purpose or objective in this
paper. Therefore, they could be categorized as high strength concrete
(Pittman, Ramey, Webster and Carden 1999). The higher compressive strength
among the samples which refer as Y1, Y2, Y3 and Y4 are due to the filler effects
and pozzolanic reaction of high fineness of silica fume and ground granulated blast
furnace slag, which improve the concrete pore structure (A.M Neville 1995). The
high SiO2 content in cube Y2, Y3 and Y4 is able to bind more Ca(OH) and
increases the extent of the pozzolanic reaction (Silica Users Manual, SFA 2000)
thus produce an additional calcium silicate hydrate, which improves the compressive
strength concrete.

The results of compressive strengths for at the age of 56 days varied between
74 Mpa and 81Mpa. It can be observed that cube Y4 seems to produce higher
72

compressive strength than that Y2 and Y3 which reached up to 81 Mpa. The results
confirmed that those high performance concrete should be testing beyond 28 days for
compressive strength.

The compressive strength of control concrete (Y1) at age of 56 days was


76 Mpa or 2.63% higher than those Y2 and Y3. It seems at this point the control
concrete show late strength development as compared to Y2 and Y3. This is due to
the high content of portland cement in Y1, which induces higher hydration reaction
those of Y2 and Y3. However further research using ground granulated blast
furnace slag should be done for beneficial in construction industries.

5.3 Permeability of Concrete Cube.

In Malaysia, concrete structures such as buildings and bridges were built


over the past 30 years. They were designed to comply with codes requirement in
which essences of durability is being stressed. However most of these structure
have shown signs of deterioration and some at the advance stage concrete spalling
(Wahid and Lim 2003).

In present specifications, durability of concrete is still based on conventional


method to satisfied several of the concrete requirement or limit value such as
concrete grade, cover thickness, minimum cement content, water-cement ratio and
maximum structural crack. Theoretically the permeability is one of the important
point which may indicate durability. Low permeability concrete is also associated
with high strength and high resistance to weathering. There are several methods that
can be applied to measure the permeability of concrete and presently two widely
used permeability test (Waleed and Jaafar 2002) are the Initial Surface Absorption
73

Test (ISAT) and Figg’s Method (FM). In this study ISAT method had been used for
permeability test and Table 5.1 as references for comparing among the cubes.

A summary data at aged 28 days and 56 days is shown in Table 4.15 and
Table 4.16. From the results attained, it is evident that the concrete cube sample
which contained silica fume has low permeability and its also showed that the
concrete containing 5% of silica fume had low permeability than other cubes. It is
due to the fineness of silica fume in term of specific area which range around 20000
m2/kg as compared to 350 m 2 - 474 m 2 / kg for ground granulated blast furnace as
((Ozyildirim, 1993). Its influence on cement hydration due to more refined pore
structure in cementitious system. This lead to a low permeability and hence the
enhancement of the mechanical properties and durability of concrete containing
silica fume (C T Tam 2001).

Furthermore the Table 4.16 showed that cube Y2 maintain higher


compressive strength than Y4 after crushed under compression, immediately
followed after ISAT test. It showed that cube Y2 is more impervious than cube Y4
although it reached compression strength 81 Mpa at age 56 days, thus cube Y2 can
be consider more durable than other cubes. This was attributed to the fact that at
high dosages of the superplasticizer substantial segregation in the concrete mixture
were occurred. This resulted more micro pores and capillary pores which adversely
affected concrete permeability (A.M Neville 1995 and Shiw S. Singh 1997).
However further research has to be done for validity purposes due to the lacking of
samples and time constrain.
74

Table 5.1: Reference For Permeability (ISAT) Test

Result ISAT ml/m2 /s


Category of Concrete Time
Absorption
10 minutes 30 minutes 1 hour
High > 0.5 > 0.35 > 0.2
Medium 0.25 – 0.5 0.17 – 0.35 0.1 – 0.2
Low < 0.25 < 0.17 < 0.1

Note:
1mm = 0.000945 ml/m2/s
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Conclusion

In many codes and specifications, the compressive strength of concrete


usually is used as a criterion for durability. Though it may lead some indication of
the potential durability of concrete, it cannot be a generally valid criterion for
several reasons (Wahid Omar 2003).

Generally the addition of silica fume to ground granulated blastfurnace slag


was increased as time goes. The high strength concrete showed good strength
development between the ages of 7 and 28 days depending on the mix proportion.
The concrete contain 10% silica fume produce higher compressive than that 7.5%
and 5% silica fume at any aged from 1 day to 56 days. One of the key factor in
producing high strength concrete which above 60 Mpa is to use a reactive
pozzolanic material and low water to cement ratio (0.32). The incorporation of silica
fume in mixes resulted in finer pore structure thus produce low permeability concrete.
The use of ground granulated blast furnace slag as a supplementary cement material
improved the characteristics of the pore structure when appropriate water curing was
carried out. The longer curing durations reduce permeability and result in finer pore
structure. This is very important for concrete directly exposed to aggressive
76

environments. And this has been confirmed and discussed in chapter 5 where the
concrete contain 5% silica fume is more durable than others. It also observed that
high performance concrete may be used in term of high strength and durability are
significant to special structured such as marine structures.

With the availability of admixtures and a good knowledge in supplementary


cement technology it is possible to custom made durable concrete and improved
quality concrete for most applications.

6.2 Recommendation

There are various recommendations suggested for future works are as follows:

• To increase the workability of the concrete, a superplasticizer in


liquid form is recommended.

• Further studies should include a wider range of variables to


significantly modify the mixes and testing for definite applications to
produce intelligent constructions materials.

• Other characteristic of high performance concrete, such as tensile


strength, creep and crack should be investigated.

• It is important that the agencies involved in the development of


specifications and standards on concrete, such as SIRIM, CIDB and
JKR should gather similar information regarding high performance
concrete to expedite the formulation of specifications for pozzolanic
concretes for constructions industries.
77

REFERENCE

1. Ministry of Works .Report of Axle Load Study .1988

2. Leming And Ahmad Mechanical Behaviour Of High Performance


Concrete Volume 1 Summary Report Strategic Highway Research
Program. Washington D.C,1993.

3. Lane, S.N., And Podolny, The Federal Outlook For High Strength
Concrete Bridges.Pci Journal. Vol. 38. No 3. 1993.

4. D.P. Bentz. Interfacial Zone Percolation In Concrete Effects Of


Interfacial Zone Thickness And Aggregate Shape. Materials
Research Society. Microstructure of Cement-Based Systems/Bonding
and Interfaces in Cementitious Materials, Symposia, November 28-
December 1994, Boston: 438-442

5. Neville, A. M. : Properties of Concrete, Longman Group Limited,


England, 1995.

6. U.S Department of Transportation. Silica Fume User’s Manual, Silica


Fume Association .FHWA-1F-05-016.1995

7. Malaysian Standard. “ Specification for High Slag Blastfurnace


Cement.” MS 1388: 1995

8. Malaysian Standard. “ Specification for Portland Blastfurnace


Cement”. MS 1389 : 1995

9. Karsten Deutschmann, James Lewis, and Angelika Sicker1 (1996)


Improving The Ductility Of High Performance Concrete Unde
Compression Without Steel Fibres. University Leipzig.
78

10. Tarun R. Naik and Shiw S. Singh (1997) Effect Of Dosage Of


Superplasticizers On Concrete Microstructure And Strength Center
for By- Products Utilization (CBU) at the University of Wisconsin-
Milwaukee

11. Celik Ozyildirim (1998) Fabricating And Testing Low – Permeability


Concrete For Transportation Structures Virginia Transportation
Research Council .

12. C. T. Tam (1998) Supplementary Cementing Materials For Concrete,


University Of Singapore.

13. Celik Ozyildirim And Jose P Gomez (1999) High Performance


Concrete In A Bridge In Richland, Virginia Virginia Transportation
Research Council

14. C. F. Ferraris,(1999) Measurement of the Rheological Properties of


High Performance Concrete:State of the Art Report , Journal of
Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology .

15. Sprinkel, M. M., and Ozyildirim, C. Evaluation of the Installation and

Initial Condition of High Performance Concrete Overlays Placed on


Rte 60 Over Lynnhaven Inlet in Virginia.VTRC 99-IR4. Virginia
Transportation Research Council, Charlottesville, 1999.

16. Pittman,Webster, Carden. Laboratary Evaluation Of Concrete


Mixture Designs Employing Type I And Type K Cement. Journal Of
Materials In Civil Engineering, 1999. pp 144 – 150.
79

17. John A. Bickley and Denis Mitchell (2001) A State-of-the-Art Review

of High Performance Concrete Structures Built in Canada: 1990-


2000. The Cement Association of Canada.

18. C. T. Tam. Conceptual Design Of A Concrete Mix, Specialty


Conference The Conceptual Approach To Structural Design,
Singapore. 2001.

19. Faris A. Ali, Abid abu Tair and Abdelaziz Benmarce.Useful And
Practical Hints On The Process of Producing High Strength Concrete.
Practice Periodical on Structural Design and Construction.Vol 4.No
4.2001.pp 150-153

20. Jianxin Ma;Holger Schneider, (2002) Properties Of Ultra High


Performance Concrete, University Leipzig .

21. Mohd Salleh Jaafar And Waleed A.M. Thanoon. Non Destructive
Test For Concrete Structures Types And Interpretations, Specialist
Course On Bridge Assessment . Selangor. Malaysia. 2002.

22. L. Iliff And Remadevi Dhanasekar (2003) Investigating The Water

Permeability Of Concrete By Means Of The Constant Flow Method,


Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Australia.

23. Hajime Okamura And Masahiro Ouchi. Self Compacting Concrete


Journal Of Advance Concrete Technology . 2003. Vol 1: pp 5-15,

24. Wahid Omar And Lim Char Ching Concrete Durability Issues In
Malaysian Construction. Short Course On Concrete Durability,
Assesment,Maintenance And Repair Techniques. September 22-24.
2003. Penang : pp 1-11.
80

25. Vanchai Sata , Chai Jaturapitakkul And Kraiwood Kiattikomoi.


Utilization Of Palm Oil Fuel Ash In High Strength Concrete: Journal
Of Materials In Civil Engineering, 2004: pp 623-628

26. Wang Ling, Tian Pei, And Yao Yan. Application Of Ground
Granulated Blast Furnace Slag In High-Performance Concrete In
China, International Workshop on Sustainable Development and
Concrete Technology, Beijing, China Building Materials Academy,
2004.pp 309-317.

27. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration


High Performance Concrete Structural Designers’ Guide . Atlanta:
FHWA.pp 11-42; 2005.

28. Slag Cement Sdn. Bhd. Slagcem Concrete. Kuala Lumpur:Trade


brochure.2004.
81

APPENDIX A - 1
82

APPENDIX A -2