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1) The codec mode in the uplink may be different from the one used in

downlink, but the channel mode (full rate or half rate) must be the same.

• 2)Codec mode adaptation for AMR is based on received channel quality estimation
• in both MS and BTS, followed by a decision on the most appropriate speech and
• channel codec mode to apply at a given time.
• In high-error conditions more bits are used for error correction to obtain error robust
coding, while in good transmission conditions a lower amount of bits are needed for
sufficient error protection and more bits can therefore be allocated for the source coding.

3)An in-band signalling channel is defined for AMR that enables the MS and the
BTS to exchange messages on applied or requested speech and channel codec
modes. The selected speech codec mode mentioned above is then sent to the
transmitting side by using the in-band signalling channel, where it is applied for
the other link. The BTS commands the MS to apply a particular speech codec
mode in the uplink by Codec Mode Command. The MS sends a Codec Mode
Request (Mode requested to be used in the down-link) to the BTS. The BTS has
an option to override the MS' request. The codec mode in the up-link may be
different from the one used in the down-link, but the channel mode (full rate or
half rate) must be the same.
3)Mobile stations must support all speech codec modes, although only a set of up to
4 speech codec modes is used during a call. BSC supports all of speech codec
modes, except 7.95 kbit/s on HR channel, and it has one default set for each
channel mode.
5) GSM speech codecs (full rate - FR, half rate - HR and enhanced full rate - EFR)
operate at a fixed coding rate. The channel protection (against errors) is also
added at a fixed rate. The coding rates are chosen as a compromise between best
clear channel performance and robustness to channel errors.
The AMR system exploits the implied performance compromises by adapting the
speech and channel coding rates according to the quality of the radio channel.
This gives better and clearer channel quality and better robustness to errors.
These benefits are realised regardless of whether operating in full rate or half rate
6)Link adaptation is the capacity of AMR feature to vary the codec used according
to the link conditions. Both networks, for up-link, and MS, for down-link,
measure the radio conditions in each link and decide on which codec to apply to
each way.
7)Two different types of link adaptation algorithms are defined: codec mode
adaptation and channel mode adaptation.
8)The channel mode adaptation algorithm
decides whether speech can be handled by a full rate channel or by a half rate
channel according to the link conditions, whereas for the channel selected, the
codec mode adaptation algorithm decides which codec is the one that provides
the best speech quality for the current radio conditions. Because each codec has a
different channel protection and speech encoding performance, the idea of the
codec mode adaptation is to select the codec that provides the best speech quality
for the radio conditions that the receivers are submitted to.
9)There are two link adaptation (LA) modes; the standardised fast LA and the
Nokia proprietary slow LA. Fast LA BTS allows in-band codec mode changes on
every other TCH frame, but in Nokia proprietary slow LA BTS allows in-band
codec mode changes only on SACCH frame interval.
10)The choice of the LA mode is done on BSC basis with the parameter
slowAmrLaEnabled: if it is set to N (default) it is used fast LA; if it is set to Y
it used Nokia slow LA. With slow LA, BTS allows in-band codec mode changes
only on the SACCH frame interval of 480 ms and this option gives better
flexibility with HO and PC algorithms.
11) During both LA modes, the BTS indicates
the first and the last used codec during the last measurement interval and the
average quality. The BTS commands the MS to apply a particular speech codec
mode in the up-link, but the MS can only request the BTS to apply a particular
speech codec mode in the downlink, because the BTS has an option to override
the MS's request
12)The codec mode bit rate, that is, the bit rate partitioning between the speech and
channel coding for a given channel mode, may be varied rapidly.
13)The codec mode can be switched one up or one down at the time so that it is not possible to
switch from the mode12.2 kbit/s to 4.75 kbit/s when for example the modes 5.9 kbit/s and 7.4
kbit/s are included to the mode set.
14)it should be noted that codec changes do not take
place immediately after the Codec Mode Command/Request is sent: there is a
delay until a frame is received with the new codec.
Codec mode adaptation operates independently on the up-links and down-links. It
is transparent to the channel allocation and operates without of it. Control
depends mainly on measurements of the quality of the respective links.
• 15)The channel mode (FR or HR) is switched to achieve the optimum balance
• between speech quality and capacity enhancements. The up-links and down-links
• use the same channel mode. The channel mode is selected by the network based
• on measurements of the quality of the up-links and down-links.