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LED-wireless

2011-2012

GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE PERUMBAVOOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION 2011-2012


SEMINAR REPORT ON

LED WIRELESS
PRESENTED BY JERIN JOHNY
REGISTER NO: 89200105

Dept. of E&C

G.P.T.C Perumbavoor

LED-wireless

2011-2012

GOVERNMENT POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE PERUMBAVOOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION 2011-2012

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Mr. JERIN JOHNY, REG NO: 89200105 worked under my supervision during the year 2011-12 on the seminar LED WIRELESS.This seminar is being presented in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Diploma in Electronics & Communication by the Department of Technical Education, Kerala.

HEAD OF THE DEPARTNEMT

LECTURER IN CHARGE

JASMINE K S

UMA G KARTHA

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

Dept. of E&C

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LED-wireless

2011-2012

ACKNOLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, I thank God the almighty for his divine grace and blessings in making all this possible. I am grateful to our respected principal , Mr. K.N. Sasikumar, for his guidance and support. I extend deep gratitude to my internal guide, Mrs. Uma G Kartha, lecturer in Electronics & Communication, whose careful and meticulous reviews improved the quality of this work. I express my sincere thanks to Mrs. Jasmine K S, Head of the Department, Electronics and Communication for her support and guidance and thanks to the entire cast and crew of Electronics and Communication for their co-operation. Last but not the least; I would like to thank all my friends and my parents who support with their love and encouragement for the completion of this seminar.
JERIN JOHNY

Dept. of E&C

G.P.T.C Perumbavoor

LED-wireless

2011-2012

ABSTRACT

The visible light from an LED (light emitting diode) traffic light modulated and encoded with information. Hence, it can

can be

be used for the

broadcasting of audio messages or any traffic or road information. Essentially, all LED traffic lights can be used as communications devices. This paper focuses on the description of an audio information system made up of high brightness, visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) in which one or more LEDs are modulated and encoded with audio messages. The system also comprises a receiver combined with a speaker, which is located at a distance from the LED traffic light. The receiver is designed to demodulate the optically transmitted audio information and broadcast the messages with the speaker. The optical link employs intensity modulation with direct detection. The audio information system implemented on an LED traffic light can provide the function of open space, wireless broadcasting of audio messages.

Dept. of E&C

G.P.T.C Perumbavoor

LED-wireless

2011-2012

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 2. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION


y y

1 4
5 6

TRANSMITTER RECIEVER

3. IMPLEMENTATION & EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


y

10
10

LED TRAFFIC SIGNAL HEAD SPECIFICATIONS

4. ADVANTAGES 5. DISADVANTAGES 6. APPLICATIONS


y y y

13 14 15
15 15 16

IN TRAFFIC LIGHT IN TRAFFIC INFORMATION SYSTEM IN MUSEUM

7. CONCLUSION 8. REFERENCE

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Dept. of E&C

G.P.T.C Perumbavoor

LED-wireless

2011-2012

INTRODUCTION
Recently, high intensity light emitting diodes for traffic signals are available in the market. For example, a new bluish-green LED [1] has been designed to meet the color and brightness requirements of green traffic signals based on the standards set in the United States and other worldwide specifications. High brightness red and yellow LEDs have been in the market fo r some years. Hence, all three colors of high intensity, high efficiency LEDs are available to manufacturers of traffic signals. There are many advantages on the use of LEDs [2,3,4]. The incandescent lamps used in conventional 8 -inch diameter traffic signal could consume from 116 to 150 watts of electrical power. The new LED lamp consumes only 10 to 18 watts. The life expectancy is also longer, with higher tolerance to humidity. Usually, the failure of an LED lamp is gradual, and would not cause the red, ye llow or green signal to go dark suddenly. Thisprovides an additional safety factor for motorists. The central idea of this paper is the following. In addition to the normal function of being an indication and illumination device, an LED traffic light can be used as a communications device for the transmission and broadcasting of information. Hence, it becomes part of a wireless optical communication system. This paper describes an audio information system for the broadcasting of audio signal using visible light emitting diodes. This concurrent use of visible LEDs for simultaneous signaling and communication leads to many new and interesting applications. Experimental prototypes of the system described in this paper have been implemented. The work reported in this paper differs from the use of infrared (IR) radiation as a medium for short-range wireless communications [6,7]. Currently, infrared links and localarea networks are
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available. IR transceivers for use as IR data links are widely available in the market at a very low cost. Comparison between the infrared and other media such as radio and microwave is given in.Anyhow, there has been very little work on the use of visible light as a communication medium. The availability of high brightness LEDs also makes the visible light medium even more feasible. Essentially, all products with visible LED components (like LED traffic signal head) can be turned into an information beacon. This paper focuses on its use for audio transmission. Visible light in fiber optics has been used as a communications medium for many years. In this paper, the usage is in the open space, as a short range information beacon. The application has to make use of the directional nature of the communication medium because the receiver requires a line -of-sight to the audio system or transmitter. In the current experi mental setup, the locations of the audio signal broadcasting system and the receiver are relatively stationary. Since the relative speed between the receiver and the source are much less than speed of light, the dopplar frequency shift observed by the receiver can be safely neglected. It should be noted that the transmitter provides easy targets for the line-of-sight reception by the receiver. This is because the LEDs, being on at all time, are also indicator degrees. of the locations of the transmitter. The transmiter can broadcast with a viewing angle close to 180

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The LED traffic light (fig 1 below) can be used for either audio or data transmission.

Audio messages can be sent using the LED transmitter, and the receiver located at a distance around 20 m away can play back the messages with the speaker. Another prototype that resembles a circular speed-limit sign with a 2-ft diameter was built. The audio signal can be received in open air over a distance of 59.3 or 194.5 ft. For data transmission, digital data can be sent using the same LED transmitter, and the experiments were setup to send a speed limit or location ID information.

Dept. of E&C

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LED-wireless

2011-2012

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The audio information system is shown in Figure 1. Figure 2 gives a block diagram representation of the schematic diagram of the transmitter design. The audio signal from the cassette tape or CD player has small amplitude and hence amplification of this audio signal is necessary. The audio amplifier is used to amplify the weak audio signal and to shift the average voltage level of the audio signal to an appropriate level so that the signal is within the capture range of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO). A VCO chip is used to modulate the incoming audio signal variations from the audio amplifier and generate the FM signal. A square wave VCO is used instead of sine wave because there are only two states (ON and OFF) for the LEDs. The carrier frequency is set at 100 kHz with a maximum frequency deviation of 50 kHz. The modulated signal is transmitted by the switching of the LEDs. The frequency of switching is high enough such that the perceivable light appears to be constantly illuminated to the human eye. The following is a detailed description of the receiver design as shown in Figure 3. The photo-detector circuit consists of a photodiode and a resistor. One end of the photodiode is coupled to the current limiting resistor with the other end coupled to ground. Since the signal from the photo-detector circuit is small, amplification is needed for the next stage. The limiting pre -amplifier circuit consists of two op-amplifiers as well as some resistors and diodes. The diodes are used to limit the inp ut voltage level to a desired level (such as between -0.7 V and 0.7 V). This circuit aims to amplify the input signal to a certain level and a comparator is used to produce rectangular signal pulses. Two pre-amplifiers are used in this circuit because using one pre-amplifier will

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LED-wireless

2011-2012

require a very high gain amplifier. Hence, two pre-amplifiers with lower gain each is used to achieve a high gain but with reduced noise. Next, a data reproducing circuit is used which consists of an operational amplifier, a resistor and two NAND Schmitt riggers. The function is to produce rectangular pulses from the amplified signal in the previous stage. An operational amplifier is used as a comparator with uses virtual ground as a reference. Two NAND Schmitt trigger gates are used to enhance the noise immunity and to correct edges from low to high voltage level due to the slew rate of amplifier. Two NAND Schmitt trigger gates are used instead of one so that the signal will not be inverted. Then, a differentiator circuit consisted of a capacitor and a resistor is used to detect the leading edges of the pulse with the trailing edges blocked by a diode. Next, there is the circuit of a pulse generator. A Schmitt trigger gate is used as a pulse generator and the output gives the inverted version of pulses from the differentiator. An integrator and envelope detector can be found in the next stage. The integrator is an envelope detector and double integrations are carried out. If the inverted pulses from the pulse generator contain high frequency, the frequency of integration is higher and the voltage level of the output would be higher. However, if the inverted pulses

TRANSMITTER:

A block diagram representation of the schematic diagram of the transmitter design is shown in figure above. The audio signal from the cassette tape or CD player has small amplitude,hence, amplification of this audio signal is necessary. The audio amplifier is used to amplify the weak audio signal and shift the average voltage level of the audio signal to an appropriate level so that the signal is within the capture range of a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO).
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A VCO chip is used to modulate the incoming audio signal variations from the audio amplifier and generate the FM signal. A square wave VCO is used instead of sine wave because there are only two states (on & off) for the LEDs. The carrier frequency is set at 100 kHz with a maximum frequency deviation of or 50 kHz. The switching of LEDs transmits the modulated signal. The frequency of switching is high enough that the perceivable light appears to be constantly illuminated to the human eye.

RECIEVER:

A block diagram schematic of the audio receiver is shown in figure below. The photo-detector is used to detect a light signal from the transmitter and convert it into an electrical LED Wireless signal. The limiting pre-amplifier is used to amplify the electrical signal from the photo -detector for the next stage. The data-reproducing circuit is used to reconstruct the square wave. The differentiator circuit is used to produce pulses according to the square wave. The pulse generator is used to convert the pulses from the differentiator into sharp pulses for use by the integrator and envelope detector in the next stage for demodulation of the signal. The band -pass filter is used to smooth out the distortions from the integrator and envelope detector to produce an appropriate waveform. Finally, the oweramplifier is used to amplify the weak signal from the band-pass filter so that the audio signal would be comfortable for bearing.Below is a more detailed description of the each stage.

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2011-2012

Block diagram of audio receiver

Photo-Detector Circuit:

The photo detector circuit cnsists of a photo diode and a resistor. One end of the photo diode is coupled to the current limiting resistor with the other end coupled to the ground. Since the signal from the photo -detector circuit is very small, amplification is needed for the next stage. The limiting pre -amplifier circuit consists of two op-amplifiers as well as some resistors and diodes. The diodes are used to limit the input voltage level to a desired level (such as between 0.7 and 0.7 V). This circuit aims to amplify the input voltage to a certain level, and a comparator is used to produce rectangular signal ulses. Two pre-amplifiers are used in this circuit because using one pre -amplifier will require a very high gain amplifier. Hence,two pre-amplifiers, each with lower gain, are used to achieve high gain with reduced noise.
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Data -Reproducing Circuit:

Next, a data reproducing circuit, which consists of an operational amplifier, a resistor, and two NAND Schmitt triggers is used. Its function is to produce rectangular pulses from the amplified signal in the previous stage. An operational mplifier is used as a comparator, which uses a virtual ground as a reference. The NAND Schmitt trigger gates are used to enhance the noise immunity and to correct the edges from low to high voltage levels due to slew rate of the amplifier. Two NAND Schmitt trigger gates are used instead of one so that the signal will not be inverted. Then, a differentiator circuit consisting of a capacitor and a resistor is used to detect the leading edges of the pulse with the trailing edge blocked by the diode. Next, there is a circuit of a pulse generator. A Schmitt trigger gate is used as a pulse generator, and the output gives the inverted version of pulses from the differentia tor.

Integrator & Envelope Detector:

An integrator and envelope detector can be found next. The integrator is an envelope detector, and double integration is carried out. If the inverted pulses from the pulse generator contain high frequency, the frequency of integration is higher and the voltage level of output would be higher. However, if the inverted pulses contain low frequency, the frequency of integration is lower and the voltage level of output would be lower. In this way, the modulated sign al would be reconstructed.

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Band-Pass Filter:

Next, a band-pass filter is used. The output signalfrom the previous stage, integrator and envelope detector hasmany distortions. A band -pass filter is used to filter out all thehigh-frequency distortions. The higher cut-off frequencydepends on a capacitor and a resistor. A lower cut -off is alsoused to filter out the low-frequency noise, such as the 50-Hzpower line frequency. The output signal from the band-passfilter is an audio signal.

Power Amplifier:

The final stage of the receiver circuit is a power amplifier,the output of which is connected to the speaker. The objective isfor the delivery of the audible messages through a speaker orheadphone/ear jack.

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IMPLEMENTATION & EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


An LED traffic-signal head made up of 441 high- brightness LEDs has been implemented in the Industrial Automation Research Laboratory at The University of Hong Kong. Each LED is a Hewlett Packard high intensity lInGaP type with a luminous intensity of 2000 mcd at 20-mA rated driving current, and the viewing angle is 30 . The specifications of the LED traffic signal head are given in table below.

LED TRAFFIC SIGNAL HEAD SPECIFICATIONS

Signal color Red Construction 441 red ultra-bright LEDs with a luminous intensity of 2000mcd @ 20mA Diameter 8 in Nominal usage 17V, 2A Nominal power 8-34W consumption Luminous intensity 300cd Viewing angle 2q1/2 (half 30 deg power)

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The radiation pattern of the LED traffic light is givenin fig. below.

The same Intelligent Traffic Light has also been usedfor digital data transmission. Digital data can be sent using thesame LED transmitter, and experiments have been set up to senddigital information. A receiver, which resembles a portabletraveler location system, has been implemented to obtain thedemodulated signal. A bit error rate (BER) experiment for the LED traffic light performed (figure shown below). has been

In the experiment, frames of data were

transmitted continuously from a computer to the serial communication interface circuit via the printer port of the computer. The modulated signal is transmitted by the LED traffic light.

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The visible-light signal was transmitted to the receiver, and the serial communication interface performs demodulation of the data. The computer at the receiver side would compare the received data with transmitted data. The number of error bits would be recorded.

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ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES


As a medium for wireless short-range communication, visible light hasboth advantages and disadvantages when compared with IR, microwave, and radiomedia.

ADVANTAGES:
This system has many advantages 1) On one hand, LEDs and photo detectors capable of high-speed operation are available at low cost. 2) Like the IR, the visible spectral region is unregulated worldwide and FCC licenses are not necessary, as the commission does not regulate the visible light frequencies. 3) Both IR and visible light penetrate through glasses, but not through walls. For transmission to be possible there must be no obstructions standing in the way of the visible-LED light beam as it requires a clear LOS between the sending side (LED) and the receiving side, whereas IR also allows a nondirected and non-LOS link design. 4) Like microwaves, visible-LED light beams follow a straight-line path and are well suited for the wireless delivery of large quantities of voice and data information. In practical use, one should take the advantage of this highly directional feature of LEDs. 5) High directional features of LEDs.

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DISADVANTAGES:

On the other hand, LEDs also have many drawbacks.

1) 2) 3)

They are suitable for short range only, as the photo -detector current isproportional to the received power. Intensity modulation with direct detection seems the only

practicaltransmission method. It should also be mentioned that the relationship between the radiantintensity and the distance from the receiver follows the inverse square law. Hence, as acommunication medium, it has limited range.

4)

It is subjected to noise arising from sunlight, incandescent lighting,and fluorescent lighting. It is not suitable for broadcasting signals over a wide coveragearea or over long ranges.

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APPLICATIONS
IN TRAFFIC LIGHT:

High-brightness LEDs are increasingly being used in traffic lights due totheir low power consumption and minimal required maintenance, which can be translatedinto considerable cost savings each year. Forexample,Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA,is replacing all of its 28,000 red signals with LEDs, with an estimated annual cost savingsof $1.2 million. The next stage of development will involve the three-color LED signals.In Singapore, there has been a complete change of traffic signals from the incandescent toLED. The $12.7 million project has replaced all 60,000 incandescent lamps in 1,600intersections of the city. Again, power and maintenance savings, as well as safety, arecited as the reasons for the replacement. An LED traffic signal can use only 18 ultrabrightLEDs and is warranted for five years. LED power consumption is only 8-12 W,compared with around 150 W used by its incandescent counterpart.

IN TRAFFIC INFORMATION SYSTEM:

With ideas and developments described in this article, an LED traffic lightcan be used as an audio broadcasting device, in addition to their normal function of beingan indication and signaling device. A receiver some distance away pointing at the trafficlight can receive voice messages. For drivers, the message can announce the time untilthe next signal change. For pedestrians or people with visual impairments, the voicemessage can tell the location or directional information.The above development allows a concurrent use o f traffic lights
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because itcan broadcast local traffic information, location

and road

information to both pedestriansand road users, and simultaneously perform its normal function of being a trafficsignaling-device. The LED traffic light, called Intelligent Traffic Light, becomes a newkind of short -range information beacon. Essentially, all LED-based traffic signs, displays,or illumination devices can perform the above functions.

IN MUSEUM:

Other applications can be found in a museum or exhibit -hall environment.The information on an individual exhibit can be broadcast via a plurality of LEDs, whichis also used for the purpose of illumination. With the guest pointing the receiver to therelevant LEDs on a transmitter, with the head phone or ear ja ck attached to a portablereceiver, he can listen to the audio message about the specific exhibit item he isinterested. Thus, the indoor environment can remain quiet while the guests stroll in themuseum. This is the major advantage over conventional broadca sting systems in thatindividuals with receivers have the freedom of choice to receive specific messageswithout hearing any unwanted announcement, music, or commercials.

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CONCLUSION

High brightness LEDs are getting more popular and are opening up a number of new applications, especially with the improved efficiency and new colors. In this article, the novel idea is based on the fast switching of LEDs and the modulation of visible light is developed into a new kind of information system. A visible-LED audio system that makes use of visual- light rays to transmit audio messages to remotely located receiver is described. Such a system made up of high-brightness visible LEDs can provide the function of open space, wireless broadcasting of audio signals. It can be used as an information beacon for short-distance radio communication. Any illumination device making using of high brightness visi ble LEDs can be used as a kind of short-range information beacon. One example is an LED traffic light for the support of roadside-to-vehicle communications. There are many potential novel uses of visible light from LEDs as a communication medium. This concurrent use of LEDs for simultaneous signaling and communications will open up many new applications.

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REFERANCE

y LED WIRELESS BY Grantham Pang, Thomas Kwan, Hugh Liu

& Chi-Ho Chan IEEE Industry APPLICATIONS Jan/Feb 2002

y INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IEEE

Transactions Dec 2001

y www.bchydro.com/business/programs/led.htm y www.google.com y www.yahoosearch.com

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