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SECTION 1

General Information
This sect ion includes a br ief descript ion of t he t echnical ac-
t ivit ies of t he Gas Processor s Associat ion (GPA) and t he Gas
Pr ocessors Suppliers Associat ion (GPSA). It includes a com-
pilat ion of curr ent GPA st andar ds, publicat ions and Resear ch
Repor t s, a glossary of t er ms used in t he gas processing indus-
t ry and several t ables of common conversion fact ors and
equivalent s. At t he end of t he Sect ion is a list ing of ot her t ech-
nical associat ions and societ ies t hat publish codes, st andards
and ot her informat ion pert inent t o t he nat ural gas processing
indust ry.
GPA TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES
The Gas Processor s Associat ion is an int ernat ional organi-
zat ion wit h a member ship of about 135 companies, each of
which is engaged in one or mor e funct ions of t he nat ural gas
and gas processing indust ry, including: nat ural gas produc-
t ion, gat hering and pr ocessing; product ion of nat ural gas liq-
uids (NGLs); volume t r ansport or furt her processing of
nat ural gas or gas liquids; or ot her commer ce in nat ur al gas
or gas liquids. It s principal funct ions include t he advancement
of gas processing t echnology t hr ough development and pr om-
ulgat ion of int ernat ional st andar ds for NGL product specifi-
cat ions, t est met hods, measur ement , and handling. In
addit ion, GPA sponsor s basic r esear ch in t hermodynamic and
t ranspor t pr opert ies of nat ur al gases, gas liquids, synt het ic
gases, and relat ed pr ocess st r eam component s. The dissemi-
nat ion of GPA t echnology is accomplished t hrough publicat ion
of indust ry st andar ds, research r eport s, and comput er pr o-
gr ams. This t echnology is developed in r esponse t o indust ry
needs by a t echnical commit t ee or ganizat ion wit h t he follow-
ing st ruct ure and r esponsibilit ies:
Technical Commi ttee The par ent body r esponsible
for a ssessing t he t echnological needs of t he ga s pr ocessing
indust ry, est ablishing pr ior it ies, assigning problems t o appr o-
priat e working sect ions, and r eviewing result s and r ecommen-
dat ions of sect ions as needed.
The seven working sect ions of t he Technical Commit t ee are:
Section A, Facili ti es De si gn and Opti mi zati on
Maint ains a cont inuing st udy of all phases of gas processing
design (process, mechanical, elect rical, inst rument at ion) of
broad indust r y int er est ; t his r esponsibilit y does not include
analyt ical met hods nor basic dat a on product pr opert ies, but
does include onst r eam pr ocess and plant cont r ol inst r ument a-
t ion.
Section B, Analysi s St udies and develops analyt ical
procedur es and met hods t o impr ove accuracy and r eliabilit y
of t est met hods and dat a t o meet t he needs of t he gas process-
ing indust r y. All of t he indust rys sampling procedur es, speci-
ficat ion t est met hods, and analyt ical st andar ds have issued
from t his sect ion.
Section C, Speci fi cati ons Maint ains exist ing product
specificat ions, and gener at es new and revised specificat ions
in r esponse t o changing indust r y and mar ket needs. All U.S.
and many int er nat ional specificat ions for LP-gas and ot her
NGL product s ar e based on t he work of t his sect ion.
Section F, Techni cal Data Deve lopme nt Monit or s t he
st at us, availabilit y, and reliabilit y of t hermodynamic and
physical proper t y dat a needed for design and oper at ion of
nat ural gas and gas processing facilit ies. This sect ion ident i-
fies indust r y needs for per t inent dat a, develops r esear ch pr o-
ject s t o pr ovide needed dat a, and supervises research t o meet
t hose needs. The sect ion also evaluat es new corr elat ions and
comput er models for calculat ion and applicat ion of t hermody-
namic and physical proper t ies applicable t o nat ural gas proc-
essing and t ranspor t .
Primary r esponsibilit y for init iat ion and super vision of t her -
modynamic and physical pr opert ies research is vest ed in t wo
st eer ing commit t ees comprised of highly qualified and exper i-
enced specialist s. One commit t ee dir ect s r esea r ch int o en-
t halpy a nd heat t r a nsfer, and t he second dir ect s r esear ch
int o phase beha vior of ga s liquids a nd r elat ed pr ocess
st r ea ms.
Section H, Product Me asure ment and Handli ng
Monit ors measur ement dat a and corr elat ions for bot h nat ur al
gas and nat ural gas liquids, and reviews handling procedures
for gas liquids, including under ground st or age t echnology. The
sect ion init iat es improvement s in st andards for accurat e
measurement and safe handling of bot h nat ural gas and gas
liquids.
Section L, Computer Te chnology and Data Distri bu-
ti on - This Sect ion is focused on t wo primar y ar eas: 1) t he
cont inued development of t he GPA Home Page on t he Int ernet
and; 2) t he pusuit of dat a in support of t he associat ion and t he
act ivit ies of t he GPSA Edit orial Review Board.
Section M, Ope rations and Maintenance - This Sect ion
was for med t o assist member companies in addr essing and
r esolving t heir oper at ions and maint enance issues, and t o be
a forum where such issues on gas gat her ing and processing
can be discussed. It is ant icipat ed t hat t he result s of t his com-
mit t ee can supplement t he progr ams of t he GPA r egional
Meet ings.
GPSA TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES
The Gas Pr ocessors Supplier s Associat ion is an affiliat ed
organizat ion of appr oximat ely 400 companies t hat cat er t o t he
supply and ser vice needs of t he nat ural gas pr oducing and
processing indust r y. The principal t echnical funct ion of GPSA
is t o publish GPA and ot her t echnical informat ion t hr ough t he
GPSA Engineer ing Dat a Book. In addit ion, t echnical expert s
from GPSA companies part icipat e in GPA t echnical commit t ee
act ivit ies described above, and also provide valuable suppor t
and counsel in dir ect ing t her modynamic r esear ch and t echni-
cal dat a development for t he advancement of t he indust r ys
t echnology.
1-1
Editori al Revi ew Board The Edit orial Review
Board for t he Engineer ing Dat a Book is t he single GPSA t ech-
nical commit t ee. The Board is composed of r ecognized expert s
from bot h GPA and GPSA member companies, and is r espon-
sible for t he cont inuing r eview and revision of t he Engineer ing
Dat a Book t o assur e t hat it meet s t he needs of t he nat ural gas
processing indust ry wit h t he lat est dat a and t echnology.
Definitions of Words and Terms Used
in the Gas Processing Industry
absorbe r
A t ower or column t hat pr ovides cont act bet ween nat ural gas
being processed and a liquid solvent .
absorption
The oper at ion in which one or more component s in t he gas
phase ar e t r ansferr ed t o (absorbed int o) a liquid solvent .
absorption factor
A fact or which is an indicat ion of t he t endency for a given gas
phase component t o be t r ansferr ed t o t he liquid solvent . It is
gener ally expressed as A = L/KV where L and V ar e t he moles
of liquid and vapor, and K is t he average value of t he vapor-
liquid equilibrium const ant for t he component of concer n.
absorption oil
A hydrocar bon liquid used t o absor b and r ecover component s
from t he nat ur al gas being processed.
acid gas
The hydr ogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide cont ained in, or
ext r act ed from, gas or ot her st reams.
adi abati c expansi on
The expansion of a gas, vapor, or liquid st ream from a higher
pressur e t o a lower pressur e in which t here is no heat t r ansfer
bet ween t he gas, vapor, or liquid and t he surr oundings.
adsorbent
A solid subst ance used t o r emove component s from nat ural gas
being processed.
adsorpti on
The pr ocess by which gaseous component s are adsor bed on
solids because of t heir molecular at t r act ion t o t he solid sur -
face.
ami ne (alkanolami ne )
Any of several liquid compounds cont aining amino nit r ogen
gener ally used in wat er solut ion t o remove, by r ever sible
chemical r eact ion, hydrogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide
from gas and liquid hydrocar bon st reams.
API Gravi ty
An arbit r ary scale expressing t he relat ive densit y of liquid pe-
t roleum product s. The scale is calibr at ed in degrees API, cal-
culat ed by t he following formula:
Deg API

141.5
Rel Den (15.56C/15.56C)
]
]
]
131.5
associ ate d gas
Gaseous hydr ocarbons occuring as a free-gas phase under
original oil-reservoir condit ions of t emperat ur e and pr essure.
atmospheri c pre ssure
The pr essure exer t ed on t he ear t h by t he ear t hs at mosphere.
A pressur e of 760 mm of mercury or 101.3250 kPa is used as
a st andard for some measurement s. St at e r egulat ory bodies
have set ot her st andar ds for use in measur ing t he legal volume
of gas. At mospheric pressur e may also r efer t o t he absolut e
ambient pr essure at any given locat ion.
barrel
A common English-unit measure of liquid volume which, in
t he pet roleum indust ry, equals 42 U.S. liquid gallons for pe-
t roleum or nat ur al gas liquid pr oduct s measured at 60F and
equilibr ium vapor pr essure. One barr el equals 0.159 cubic me-
t er s, or 6.29 bar rels per cubic met er (See Fig. 1-2).
blanket gas
A ga s phase ma int a ined in a vessel cont aining liquid t o pr o-
t ect t he liquid a ga inst air cont amina t ion, t o r educe t he ha z-
a r d of det ona t ion, or t o ma int a in pr essur e of t he liquid. The
sour ce of t he gas is ext er nal t o t he vessel.
Component s
CO
2
H
2
S N
2
C
1
C
2
C
3
iC
4
nC
4
iC
5
nC
5
C
6
C
7
+
Iner t Gas
Acid Gas
LNG
Nat ural Gas
LPG
Nat ural Gasoline
NGL
Condensat e (St abilized)
FIG. 1-1
Typical Components of Industry Streams
1-2
blow case
A small t ank in which liquid is accumulat ed and t hen forced
from t he t ank by applying as or air pressur e above t he liquid
level.
blowdown
The act of empt ying or depr essuring a vessel. This may also
r efer t o discarded mat er ial, such as blowdown wat er from a
boiler or cooling t ower.
boi laway te st
Somet imes used t o describe t he GPA weat her ing t est for LP-
gas. Refer t o definit ion for "weat hering t est ".
bottoms
The liquid or r esidual mat t er which is wit hdr awn fr om t he
bot t om of a fract ionat or or ot her vessel dur ing pr ocessing or
while in st orage.
B-P mi x
A liquefied hydrocar bon product composed chiefly of but anes
and propane. If it originat es in a refinery, it may also cont ain
but ylenes and propylene. More specifically, it conforms t o t he
GPA specificat ions for commer cial B-P mixes as descr ibed in
GPA St andard 2140.
breathi ng
The movement of vapor in or out of an at mospheric pr essure
st orage t ank because of a change of level of t he st or ed liquid,
a change in t he t emperat ur e of t he vapor space above t he liq-
uid, or a change of at mospheric pr essure.
bs&w (basic se dime nt and water)
Wast e t hat collect s in t he bot t om of vessels and t anks cont ain-
ing pet roleum or pet roleum pr oduct s.
bubble poi nt
The t emper at ure at a specified pressur e at which t he first st a-
ble vapor forms above a liquid.
butane, comme rci al
A liquefied hydrocar bon consist ing predominat ely of but ane
and/or but ylene and which conforms t o t he GPA specificat ion
for commercial but ane defined in GPA St andard 2140.
butane, normal
In commer cial t r ansact ions, a pr oduct meet ing t he GPA speci-
ficat ions for commercial but ane and, in addit ion, cont aining a
minimum of 95 liquid volume percent nor mal but ane. Chemi-
cally, nor mal but ane is an aliphat ic compound of t he par affin
ser ies having t he chemical for mula C4
H
10
and having all of it s
car bon at oms joined in a st r aight chain.
calorime ter
An appar at us which is used t o det ermine t he heat ing value of
a combust ible mat er ial.
carbonyl sulfi de
A chemical compound of t he aldehyde group cont aining a car -
bonyl group and sulfur (COS). Somet imes a cont aminant in
nat ural gas and NGL. It may need t o be r emoved in or der t o
meet sulfur specificat ions.
casi nghead gas
Unprocessed nat ural gas pr oduced fr om a reservoir cont aining
oil. It cont ains heavier hydrocar bon vapor s and is usually pr o-
duced under low pr essure from a casing head on t he well.
charcoal test
A t est st andar dized by t he Gas Pr ocessor s Associat ion and t he
Amer ican Gas Associat ion for det ermining t he nat ur al gaso-
line cont ent of a given nat ural gas. The gasoline is adsorbed
from t he gas on act ivat ed char coal and t hen r ecovered by dis-
t illat ion. The t est is prescribed in Test ing Code 101-43, a joint
publicat ion of AGA and GPA.
chromatography
A t echnique for separat ing a mixt ur e int o individual compo-
nent s by repeat ed adsorpt ion and desorpt ion on a confined
solid bed. It is used for analysis of nat ur al gas and NGL.
Claus Proce ss
A pr ocess t o convert hydrogen sulfide int o element al sulfur by
select ive oxidat ion.
compressi bi lity factor
A fact or, usually expressed as "Z," which gives t he rat io of t he
act ual volume of gas at a given t emper at ure and pressur e t o
t he volume of gas when calculat ed by t he ideal gas law.
compressi on rati o
The r at io of t he absolut e discharge pressur e fr om a compr essor
t o t he absolut e int ake pressur e. Also applies t o one cylinder
of a r ecipr ocat ing compressor and one or mor e st ages of a r o-
t at ing compressor.
conde nsate
The liquid for med by t he condensat ion of a vapor or gas; spe-
cifically, t he hydr ocarbon liquid separat ed fr om nat ural gas
because of changes in t emperat ur e and pr essure when t he gas
from t he reservoir was deliver ed t o t he sur face separ at ors. In
a st eam syst em it may be wat er t hat is condensed and r e-
t ur ned t o t he boilers.
converge nce pre ssure
The pr essure at a given t emper at ure for a hydrocar bon syst em
of fixed composit ion at which t he vapor-liquid equilibr ium K-
values of t he various component s in t he syst em become, or
t end t o become, unit y. The convergence pressur e is used t o
adjust vapor-liquid equilibrium K-values t o t he par t icular sys-
t em under considerat ion.
copper stri p te st
A t est using a small st rip of pur e copper t o det ermine qualit a-
t ively t he hydr ogen sulfide cor rosivit y of a product . Refer t o
GPA LP-gas copper st r ip t est (Copper St r ip Met hod), ASTM
D-1838 t est procedur e.
cri condenbar
The highest pr essure at which liquid and vapor phases can
exist at equilibr ium in a mult icomponent syst em.
cri condenthe rm
The highest t emperat ur e at which liquid and vapor phases can
exist at equilibr ium in a mult icomponent syst em.
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E
C
O
N
S
T
A
N
T

L
I
Q
U
I
D

%
C
R
I
C
O
N
D
E
N
T
H
E
R
M
D
E
W

P
O
I
N
T
CRICONDENBAR
B
U
B
B
L
E

P
O
I
N
T
TEMPERATURE
C
R
I
T
I
C
A
L
P
O
I
N
T
1-3
cri tical de nsi ty
The densit y of a subst ance at it s crit ical t emperat ur e and cr it i-
cal pressur e.
cri tical pre ssure
The vapor pr essure of a subst ance at it s cr it ical t emper at ure.
cri tical tempe rature
For a pur e component , t he maximum t emperat ur e at which
t he component can exist as a liquid.
cryoge ni c plant
A gas processing plant which is capable of producing nat ur al
gas liquid product s, including et hane, at ver y low operat ing
t emperat ur es, usually below minus 50C.
cubic me ter
A unit of volume measurement commonly used in int ernat ional
commerce for petroleum, pet roleum products and nat ural gas.
One cubic met er measured at 15.56C = 264.172 U.S. gallons =
6.29 bar rels = 35.315 cubic feet measured at 15.56C.
de ae rator
An it em of equipment used for removing air or ot her non-con-
densible gases fr om a process st ream or from st eam conden-
sat e or boiler feed wat er.
de butani ze r
A fract ionat or designed t o separ at e but ane (and more volat ile
component s if pr esent ) from a hydrocar bon mixt ure.
de hydration
The act or process of removing wat er from gases or liquids.
de methanize d product
A pr oduct fr om which essent ially all met hane and light er ma-
t er ials have been r emoved.
de methanize r
A fr act ionat or designed t o separat e met hane (and mor e vola-
t ile component s if pr esent ) from a hydrocar bon mixt ure.
de propani zer
A fr act ionat or designed t o separ at e propane (and mor e volat ile
component s if pr esent ) from a hydrocar bon mixt ure.
de si ccant
A subst ance used in a dehydr at or t o r emove wat er and mois-
t ur e. Also a mat erial used t o r emove moist ur e fr om t he air.
de sulfuri zati on
A pr ocess by which sulfur and sulfur compounds are removed
from gases or liquid hydrocar bon mixt ures.
de w poi nt
The t emper at ure at any given pr essure, or t he pressur e at any
given t emper at ure, at which liquid init ially condenses fr om a
gas or vapor. It is specifically applied t o t he t emper at ure at
which wat er vapor st ar t s t o condense fr om a gas mixt ure
(wat er dew point ), or at which hydr ocarbons st art t o condense
(hydrocar bon dew point ).
di sti llation
The pr ocess of separ at ing mat er ials by successively heat ing t o
vapor ize a port ion and t hen cooling t o liquefy a part of t he
vapor. Mat erials t o be separ at ed must differ in boiling point
and/or relat ive volat ilit y.
doctor te st
A qualit at ive met hod for det ect ing hydr ogen sulfide and mer -
capt ans in NGL. The t est dist inguishes bet ween "sour " and
"sweet " pr oduct s.
dry gas
(1) Gas whose wat er cont ent has been reduced by a dehydr a-
t ion pr ocess. (2) Gas cont aining lit t le or no hydr ocarbons com-
mer cially r ecover able as liquid product . Gas in t his second
definit ion prefer ably should be called lean gas.
e nd poi nt
The maximum t emper at ure observed on t he t hermomet er
dur ing an ASTM dist illat ion t est .
EP-mi x (e thane -propane mi x)
A pr oduct consist ing of a mixt ur e of essent ially et hane and
propane.
e xpansi on turbi ne
A device which convert s par t of t he energy cont ent of a gas or
liquid st r eam int o mechanical wor k by expanding t he gas or
liquid t hrough a t ur bine fr om which work is ext r act ed.
e xtraction
The process of t r ansferr ing one or mor e component s from one
liquid phase t o anot her by vir t ue of differ ent solubilit y in t he
t wo liquids. It is also used t o indicat e r emoval of one or more
const it uent s from a st r eam.
fie ld separator
A vessel in t he oil or gas field for separat ing gas, hydrocar bon
liquid, and wat er fr om each ot her.
flash point
The lowest t emper at ure at which vapors from a hydrocar bon
liquid will ignit e. See ASTM D-56.
fracti onation
See definit ion of "dist illat ion." Generally used t o descr ibe
separ at ion of a mixt ur e of hydrocar bons int o individual prod-
uct s based on differ ence in boiling point and/or relat ive vola-
t ilit y.
free ze valve
A specially const r uct ed and calibrat ed valve designed and
used solely for det ermining t he wat er cont ent in propane prod-
uct . See ASTM D-2713.
gas constant (R)
The const ant mult iplier in t he Ideal Gas Law. Numerically,
R=PV/T, if V is t he volume of one mole of an ideal gas at t em-
per at ure T and pr essure P.
gas hydrate
Refer t o definit ion of "hydrat e".
gas injecti on
The inject ion of nat ur al gas int o a r eser voir t o maint ain or
incr ease t he reservoir pressur e or r educe t he rat e of decline of
t he r eservoir pressur e.
gas lift
A met hod for br inging crude oil or wat er t o t he sur face by in-
ject ing gas int o t he producing well bor e.
gas-oil rati o (GOR)
The rat io of gas t o liquid hydr ocarbon pr oduced fr om a well.
This may be expressed as st andard cubic met ers of gas per
cubic met er of st ock t ank liquid.
gas proce ssi ng
The separ at ion of const it uent s from nat ur al gas for t he pur -
pose of making salable pr oduct s and also for t reat ing t he r esi-
due gas t o meet requir ed specificat ions.
gas proce ssi ng plant
A plant which pr ocesses nat ur al gas for r ecover y of nat ur al gas
liquids and somet imes ot her subst ances such as sulfur.
gas-we ll gas
The gas pr oduced or separat ed at surface condit ions from t he
full well st r eam pr oduced fr om a gas r eservoir.
gas-we ll li qui ds
The liquid separat ed at sur face condit ions from t he full well
st ream produced from a gas reser voir.
1-4
gathering system
The net work of pipelines which car ry gas from t he wells t o t he
processing plant or ot her separ at ion equipment .
heat medi a (he ati ng me di a)
A mat erial, whet her flowing or st at ic, used t o t r ansport heat
from a pr imary source such as combust ion of fuel t o anot her
mat er ial. Heat ing oil, st eam, and an eut ect ic salt mixt ure are
examples of heat media.
heating value (heat of combusti on)
The amount of heat obt ained by t he complet e combust ion of a
unit quant it y of mat erial. The gr oss, or higher, heat ing value
is t he amount of heat obt ained when t he wat er pr oduced in
t he combust ion is condensed. The net , or lower, heat ing value
is t he amount of heat obt ained when t he wat er pr oduced in
t he combust ion is not condensed.
heavy ends
The port ion of a hydrocar bon mixt ure having t he highest boil-
ing point . Usually hexanes or hept anes and all heavier hydr o-
car bons ar e t he heavy ends in a nat ural gas st ream.
hexane s plus (or he ptanes plus)
The port ion of a hydr ocarbon fluid mixt ure or t he last compo-
nent of a hydr ocarbon analysis which cont ains t he hexanes (or
hept anes) and all hydrocar bons heavier t han t he hexanes (or
hept anes).
hydrate
A solid mat erial result ing fr om t he combinat ion of a hydrocar -
bon wit h wat er under pressur e.
i mmi sci ble
Liquids t hat will not mix nor blend t o give homogeneit y are
said t o be immiscible.
i ne rts
Element s or compounds not act ed upon chemically by t he sur -
r ounding environment . Nit rogen and helium are examples of
iner t const it uent s of nat ur al gases.
i sobutane
In commer cial t r ansact ions, a pr oduct meet ing t he GPA speci-
ficat ion for commer cial but ane and, in addit ion, cont aining a
minimum of 95 liquid volume percent isobut ane. Chemically,
a hydrocar bon of t he par affin ser ies wit h t he formula C
4
H
10
and having it s carbon at oms br anched.
jacket water
Wat er which fills, or is cir culat ed t hr ough, a casing which par -
t ially or wholly sur rounds a vessel or machine element in order
t o remove, add, or dist r ibut e heat in or der t o cont r ol t he t em-
per at ure wit hin t he vessel or element .
Joule-Thomson e ffect
The change in gas t emper at ure which occur s when t he gas is
expanded at const ant ent halpy from a higher pr essure t o a
lower pressur e. The effect for most gases at nor mal pr essure,
except hydrogen and helium, is a cooling of t he gas.
le ad ace tate te st
A met hod for det ect ing t he presence of hydrogen sulfide by
discolor at ion of paper which has been moist ened wit h lead ace-
t at e solut ion. See ASTM D-2420.
le an gas
(1) The residue gas r emaining aft er r ecovery of nat ur al gas
liquids in a gas pr ocessing plant . (2) Unprocessed gas cont ain-
ing lit t le or no r ecoverable nat ur al gas liquids.
le an oi l
Absorpt ion oil as purchased or recover ed by t he plant , or oil
from which t he absor bed const it uent s have been removed.
li ft gas
Gas used in a gas lift operat ion.
li ght e nds
The low-boiling, easily evapor at ed component s of a hydrocar -
bon liquid mixt ur e.
li ght hydrocarbons
The low molecular weight hydr ocarbons such as met hane, et h-
ane, pr opane and but anes.
LNG (li quefi ed natural gas)
The light hydrocar bon por t ion of nat ural gas, pr edominat ely
met hane, which has been liquefied.
loading rack
A st ruct ural and piping inst allat ion alongside a railr oad t r ack
or roadway used for t he pur pose of filling r ailr oad t ank car s
or t r ansport t r ucks.
LPG (li quefi ed pe troleum gas)
Refer t o definit ion of "LP-gas".
LP-gas (li que fi e d petrole um gas)
Pr edominat ely pr opane or but ane, eit her separat ely or in mix-
t ur es, which is maint ained in a liquid st at e under pr essure
wit hin t he confining vessel.
LRG (lique fi ed refi ne ry gas)
Liquid pr opane or but ane pr oduced by a crude oil r efiner y. It
may differ from LP-gas in t hat pr opylene and but ylene may
be pr esent .
LTX (low te mperature extracti on uni t)
A unit which uses t he cooling of a const ant ent halpy expansion
t o incr ease liquid recovery fr om st r eams produced from high
pressur e gas condensat e r eser voir s. Also called LTS (low t em-
per at ure separat ion) unit .
me rcaptan
Any of a homologous series of compounds of t he general for -
mula RSH. All mer capt ans possess a foul odor.
mi sci ble flood
A met hod of secondary r ecovery of fluids fr om a reservoir by
inject ion of fluids t hat are miscible wit h t he reservoir fluids.
natural gas
Gaseous for m of pet r oleum. Consist ing pr edominat ely of mix-
t ur es of hydr ocarbon gases. The most common component is
met hane.
natural gasoli ne
A mixt ur e of hydr ocarbons, most ly pent anes and heavier, ex-
t ract ed fr om nat ural gas, which meet s vapor pressur e, end
point , and ot her specificat ions for nat ur al gasoline as adopt ed
by t he GPA. See GPA St andar d 3132.
natural gas processi ng plant
Term used for gas pr ocessing plant , nat ur al gasoline plant ,
gasoline plant , et c.
NGL (natural gas li qui ds)
Nat ural gas liquids ar e t hose hydr ocarbons liquefied at t he
sur face in field facilit ies or in gas processing plant s. Nat ur al
gas liquids include et hane, pr opane, but anes, and nat ur al
gasoline.
odorant
An odor iferous compound added t o nat ural or LP-gas t o impar t
a dist inct ive odor for det ect ion of fugit ive vapors. Et hyl mer -
capt an is t he most widely used odorant for LP-gas, while t er -
t iar y but yl mer capt an, usually mixed wit h small amount s of
ot her compounds, is t he predominant odor ant for nat ur al gas.
oi l-we ll gas
Gas t hat is produced from an oil well.
1-5
on-stream factor
The per cent age of t ime a unit is on-st ream.
operati ng factor
The percent age of t ime a unit is perfor ming t he funct ion for
which it was designed.
outage
The vapor volume in a liquid vessel left for liquid expansion.
Somet imes r eferr ed t o as ullage.
package d uni t
A shop-assembled group of equipment and accessories which
needs only foundat ions, inlet and out let piping, and ut ilit y
connect ions t o make an operat ing unit .
packed column
A fract ionat ion or absorpt ion column filled wit h packing de-
signed t o give t he r equired cont act bet ween t he r ising vapor s
and t he descending liquid.
pe ak shavi ng
The use of non-convent ional fuels t o supplement t he normal
supply of pipeline gas during periods of ext remely high de-
mand.
pe ntane -plus
A hydr ocarbon mixt ure consist ing of isopent ane (C
5
H
12
) and
heavier component s wit h higher boiling point s.
pi ggi ng
A pr ocedur e for for cing a device t hr ough a pipeline for cleaning
pur poses, separ at ing pr oduct s, or inspect ing t he line.
pi peli ne gas
Gas which meet s a t ransmission companys minimum specifi-
cat ions.
propane
A nor mally gaseous par affinic compound (C
3
H
8
). The t erm in-
cludes all pr oduct s cover ed by GPA specificat ions for commer -
cial and HD-5 propane. See GPA St andard 2140.
propane , commerci al
A liquefied hydrocar bon product consist ing predominat ely of
propane and/or pr opylene and which conforms t o t he GPA
specificat ion for commercial propane as defined in GPA St and-
ard 2140.
propane HD-5
A special grade of pr opane consist ing predominat ely of pr o-
pane and which confor ms t o t he GPA specificat ion for HD-5
propane as defined in GPA St andar d 2140.
raw gas
Unprocessed gas, or t he inlet gas t o a gas processing plant .
raw mix li qui ds
A mixt ur e of nat ur al gas liquids pr ior t o fr act ionat ion. Also
called "raw make".
re cove ry
That percent or fract ion of a given component in t he plant feed
which is r ecovered as plant product .
re cycle
Ret ur n of par t of a process st ream t o a point upst ream from
where it was removed t o enhance r ecovery or cont r ol.
re flux
In fr act ionat ion, t he por t ion of condensed overhead r et urned
t o t he column t o enhance achievable pur it y of t he overhead
product .
re flux ratio
A way of giving a r elat ive measur ement t o t he volume of reflux.
Usually r eferr ed eit her t o t he feed or overhead product .
re lati ve densi ty
The r at io of t he mass of a given volume of a subst ance t o t hat
of anot her equal volume of anot her subst ance used as st and-
ard. Unless ot herwise st at ed, air is used as t he st andar d for
gases and wat er for liquids, wit h t he volumes measur ed at
15.56C and at mospher ic pressur e (101.325 kPa).
re li ef system
The syst em for safely r elieving excess pr essure t o avoid ex-
ceeding equipment design pr essure.
re sidue
The mat er ial which r emains aft er a separ at ion process. (1)
Residue gas is t hat gas remaining aft er t he recover y of liquid
product s. (2) Residue may also be t he heaviest liquid or solid
r emaining aft er dist illat ion or r eclaiming process.
re trograde conde nsati on (vaporizati on)
Condensat ion or vaporizat ion t hat is t he r ever se of expect ed
behavior. Condensat ion caused by a decrease in pr essure or an
incr ease in t emperat ur e. Vaporizat ion caused by an incr ease
in pr essure or a decrease in t emper at ure.
ri ch gas
Gas feed t o a gas pr ocessing plant for liquid r ecover y.
ri ch oi l
The oil leaving t he bot t om of an absor ber. It is t he lean oil plus
t he absorbed const it uent s.
RVP (Re id Vapor Pre ssure)
The vapor pr essure of a mat er ial measured by t he Reid
Met hod and appar at us as det ailed in ASTM Test Pr ocedure
D-323.
s & w (Se e bs&w)
saturated compounds
Hydrocar bon compounds having no unsat ur at ed carbon va-
lence bonds. Nat ur al gas and nat ur al gas liquids are sat ur at ed
compounds.
saturated li qui d
Liquid which is at it s boiling point or is in equilibrium wit h a
vapor phase in it s cont aining vessel.
saturated vapor
Vapor at it s dew point .
shrinkage
The r educt ion in volume of a gas st r eam by removal of some
of it s const it uent s such as for recover ed pr oduct s, fuel, or
losses.
SNG (Syntheti c or Substi tute Natural Gas)
The gas product r esult ing fr om t he gasificat ion of coal and/or
gas liquids or heavier hydr ocarbons.
soluti on gas
Gas which or iginat es fr om t he liquid phase in an oil r eservoir.
sour
Liquids and gases are said t o be "sour " if t hey cont ain hydr o-
gen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and/or mercapt ans above a speci-
fied level. It also is used t o r efer t o t he feed st ream t o a
sweet ening unit .
sour gas
Gas cont aining undesirable quant it ies of hydrogen sulfide,
mer capt ans, and/or carbon dioxide. It also is used t o r efer t o
t he feed st ream t o a sweet ening unit .
spli tter
A name applied t o fract ionat or s, par t icularly t hose separat ing
isomers (e.g., but ane split t er r efers t o a t ower pr oducing most
of t he isobut ane in t he feed as over head and most of t he normal
but ane in t he feed as bot t oms).
1-6
sponge absorbent
An absorbent for recover ing vapors of a light er absor bent t hat
is used in t he main absorpt ion pr ocess of a gas processing
plant .
stabili zed condensate
Condensat e t hat has been st abilized t o a definit e vapor pr es-
sur e in a fract ionat ion syst em.
stabili zer
A fract ionat ion column designed t o reduce t he vapor pr essure
of a liquid st ream.
stage separation system
A syst em of separ at ors where t he liquid port ion of t he well
effluent is separ at ed from format ion gas and flash vapor s.
still
The column wher e t he absor bed product is r ecover ed fr om t he
lean absorpt ion oil. In plant s using a low molecular weight
absorpt ion oil, t he st ill is designed as a fract ionat ion column.
In plant s using a high molecular weight absorpt ion oil, t he st ill
may use st eam or ot her fluids as st ripping medium. Also used
t o refer t o r egenerat or s in amine t r eat ing and glycol dehydr a-
t ion syst ems.
strapping
A t erm applied t o t he pr ocess of calibrat ing liquid st or age ca-
pacit y of st or age t anks in increment s of dept h.
stream day
A cont inuous 24 hour period of plant operat ion.
stri pper
A column wher ein absor bed const it uent s are st ripped from t he
absorpt ion oil. The t er m is applicable t o columns using a st rip-
ping medium, such as st eam or gas.
stri pping factor
An expression used t o descr ibe t he degr ee of st r ipping. Mat he-
mat ically, it is KV/L, t he reciprocal of t he absor pt ion fact or.
stri pping medi um
As st at ed under "stripper", t he medium may be st eam, gas, or
ot her material that will increase t he driving force for st ripping.
sulfur
A yellow, non-met allic chemical element . In it s element al
st at e, it exist s in bot h cryst alline and amor phous forms. In
many gas st r eams, sulfur may be found as volat ile sulfur com-
pounds, such as hydr ogen sulfide, sulfur oxides, mer capt ans,
and carbonyl sulfide. Reduct ion of t he concent rat ion of t hese
gaseous sulfur compounds is oft en necessary for cor rosion con-
t rol and possibly for healt h and safet y r easons.
sulfur di oxi de (SO2)
A heavy, color less, suffocat ing gas t hat is chemically an oxide
of sulfur. Conver sion of t he gaseous sulfur oxides t o sulfur is
necessar y for cor rosion cont r ol, for healt h and safet y reasons,
and for complying wit h government al st andar ds.
sweet
Gas cont aining essent ially no object ionable sulfur compounds.
Also, t reat ed gas leaving a sweet ening unit .
swe et gas
Gas which has no more t han t he maximum sulfur and/or CO
2
cont ent defined by (1) t he specificat ions for t he sales gas from
a plant ; (2) t he definit ion by a legal body. Also, t he t r eat ed gas
leaving a sweet ening unit .
tempe rature corre cti on factor
A fact or for cor rect ing volume at a given t emper at ure t o t hat
at a specific refer ence t emper at ure. Reference t emper at ure
most commonly used in t he pet roleum indust r y is 15.56C.
the rm
A unit of gross heat ing value equivalent t o (1.055) X 10
7
kJ .
tonne
A unit of mass measurement , commonly used in int ernat ional
pet roleum commer ce; an expression for t he met ric t on, or 1000
kilogr ams.
trayed column
A vessel wherein gas and liquid, or t wo par t ially miscible liq-
uids, ar e cont act ed, usually concurr ent ly on t rays. Also r efer
t o packed column.
turboexpande r
Refer t o definit ion of "expansion t ur bine."
ullage (Se e outage )
unsaturated compounds
Hydrocar bon compounds having one or mor e unsat urat ed va-
lence bonds, i.e., et hylene, propylene. These compounds are
not found in nat ural gas st r eams or gas liquids because of t heir
r elat ively high chemical react ivit y. Unsat ur at es are produced
by a t hermal cracking or chemical r eact ion and can be found
in synt het ic gas (SNG) or light refinery gases (LRG).
vapor pre ssure (true vapor pre ssure )
The pressure exert ed by t he equilibrium vapor of a liquid when
confined in a closed previously evacuat ed t ank or t est apparat us.
vapor pre ssure gasoline
A descr ipt ive phr ase for nat ural gasoline meet ing a specified
vapor pr essure.
vapor pre ssure, GPA
Vapor pr essure as specified by GPA pr ocedur es.
vapor re covery
Equipment or process for t he r ecover y of desir ed component s
from st ock t ank vapors or vapor s from some ot her sour ce.
volati le sulfur
An obsolet e t erm r eferr ing t o sulfur compounds t hat will va-
por ize readily (See sulfur).
we athering
The evapor at ion of liquid caused by exposing it t o t he condi-
t ions of at mospher ic t emperat ur e and pr essure. Part ial evapo-
r at ion of liquid by use of heat may also be called weat her ing.
we athering test
A GPA t est for LP-gas for t he det erminat ion of heavy compo-
nent s in a sample by evapor at ion under specified condit ions.
we i ght i n ai r
Weight compar ed t o a st andar d wit h no cor rect ion for air buoy-
ancy.
we llhe ad
The assembly of fit t ings, valves, and cont rols locat ed at t he
sur face and connect ed t o t he flow lines, t ubing, and casing of
t he well so as t o cont r ol t he flow from t he reservoir.
we t gas
(1) A gas cont aining wat er, or a gas which has not been dehy-
drat ed. (2) A t erm synonymous wit h r ich gas. Refer t o defini-
t ion of "r ich gas".
Wobbe number
A number propor t ional t o t he heat input t o a burner at con-
st ant pr essure. In Br it ish pract ice, it is t he gross heat ing value
of a gas divided by t he square root of it s gravit y. Widely used
in Eur ope, t oget her wit h a measur ed or calculat ed flame
speed, t o det er mine int er changeabilit y of fuel gases.
1-7
Conversion Factors
In t hese t ables, fact or s for conver sion, including conversions
t o t he Int er nat ional Syst em of Unit s (SI), are based on ASTM
St andard for Met r ic Pract ice, E380-91. The lat est edit ion of
t his publicat ion should be st udied for more det ail on t he SI
syst em, including definit ions and symbols.
In calculat ing derived fact ors in t he t ables t hat follow, exact
conversions were used, when available, r at her t han t he 7-digit
r ound-offs list ed in ASTM E380 conversion t ables. Der ived fac-
t or s given below are r ounded t o t he same number of significant
digit s as t he sour ce fact or s.
In any conversion of fundament al measurement unit s, some
confusion may result due t o r edefinit ion of unit s used in earlier
t ables. For example, in 1959 a small r efinement was made in
t he definit ion of t he yard, which changed it s lengt h from
3600/3937 met er (or 1 inch = 25.4000508 mm) t o 0.9144 m
exact ly (or 1 inch = 25.4 mm exact ly). The t ables below are
based on t he new definit ion, but one should be aware t hat
where U.S. land measurement s ar e concerned, t he old rela-
t ionship applies. Refer t o ASTM E380-91, not e 13, for more
det ail.
Similar confusion may ar ise in t he definit ion of unit s for
heat or ener gy. In t he t ables below, t he Bt u (IT) and calor ie
(IT) ar e used. These ar e t he heat unit s r ecommended by t he
Int er nat ional Conference on t he Pr opert ies of St eam, as de-
fined:
1 Bt u (IT) = 1055.055 852 62 joule (exact ly)
1 Calorie (IT) = 4.186 800 joule (exact ly)
For i nformati on only, ot her definit ions t hat may be used
elsewher e:
1 Bt u (Mean) = 1055.87 joule
1 Bt u (39F) = 1059.67 joule
1 Bt u (60F) = 1054.68 joule
1 Bt u (Thermochemical) = 1054.350 joule
1 calor ie (Mean) = 4.190 02 joule
1 calor ie (15C) = 4.185 80 joule
1 calor ie (20C) = 4.181 90 joule
1 calor ie (Ther mochemical) = 4.184 000 joule
The fundament al relat ionship bet ween t he Bt u and t he calo-
r ie:
grampound r elat ionship
Fahr enheit Celsius scale relat ionship
or: Bt u
453.592 29
1.8
calor ie (IT, mean, or ot her )
Vel oci ty
(Lengt h/unit of t ime)
ft /sec ft /min Miles/hr (U.S. St at ut e) m/sec m/min km/hr
1 60 0.6818182 0.3048 18.288 1.09728
0.01666667 1 0.01136364 5.08 x 10
3
0.3048 0.018288
1.466667 88 1 0.44704 26.8224 1.609344
3.280840 196.8504 2.236936 1 60 3.6
0.05468066 3.280840 0.03728227 0.016667 1 0.06
0.9113444 54.68066 0.6213712 0.2777778 16.66667 1
Energy
Ft -lbf Kg-met er Bt u (IT) Kilo-calorie (IT) Hp-hr Kilowat t -hr joule (J )
1 0.1382550 1.285068 x 10
3
3.238316 x 10
4
5.050505 x 10
7
3.766161 x 10
7
1.355818
7.233014 1 9.294911 x 10
3
2.342278 x 10
3
3.653037 x 10
6
2.724070 x 10
6
9.806650
778.1692 107.5858 1 0.2519958 3.930148 x 10
4
2.930711 x 10
4
1055.056
3088.025 426.9348 3.968321 1 1.559609 x 10
3
1.163 x 10
3
4186.8
1980000 273744.8 2544.434 641.1865 1 0.7456999 2684520.
2655224 367097.8 3412.142 859.8452 1.341022 1 3600000.
0.7375621 0.1019716 9.478171 x 10
4
2.388459 x 10
4
3.725061 x 10
7
2.777778 x 10
7
1
FIG. 1-2
Conversion Factor Tables
1-8
Le ngth
Inches Feet Yar ds Miles (U.S. St at ut e) Millimet er s Met er s
1 0.08333333 0.02777778 1.578283 x 10
5
25.4 0.0254
12 1 0.3333333 1.893939 x 10
4
304.8 0.3048
36 3 1 5.681818 x 10
4
914.4 0.9144
63360. 5280 1760 1 1609344 1609.344
0.03937008 3.280840 x 10
3
1.093613 x 10
3
6.213712 x 10
7
1 0.001
39.37008 3.280840 1.093613 6.213712 x 10
4
1000 1
Area
Sq inches Sq feet Sq yar ds Acres Sq miles (U.S. St at ut e) Sq met er s
1 6.944444 x 10
3
7.716049 x 10
4
1.594225 x 10
7
2.490977 x 10
10
6.4516 x 10
4
144 1 0.1111111 2.295684 x 10
5
3.587006 x 10
8
9.290304 x 10
2
1296 9 1 2.066116 x 10
4
3.228306 x 10
7
0.8361274
6272640. 43560. 4840. 1 0.0015625 4046.856
4014489600 27878400 3097600. 640 1 2589988.
1550.0031 10.76391 1.195990 2.471054 x 10
4
3.861022 x 10
7
1
Capaci tyvol ume
Cu inches Cu feet Cu yar ds Lit er s Cu met er s U.S. gallons Imp. gallons Barr els (42 U.S. gal)
1 5.787037 x 10
4
2.143347 x 10
5
0.01638706 1.638706 x 10
5
4.329004 x 10
3
3.604649 x 10
3
1.030715 x 10
4
1728 1 0.03703704 28.31685 0.02831685 7.480520 6.228833 0.1781076
46656 27 1 764.5549 0.7645549 201.9740 168.1784 4.808905
61.02374 0.03531467 1.307951 x 10
3
1 0.001 0.2641720 0.2199692 6.289810 x 10
3
61023.74 35.31467 1.307951 1000 1 264.1720 219.9692 6.289810
231.0000 0.1336806 4.951132 x 10
3
3.785412 0.003785412 1 0.8326739 2.380952 x 10
2
277.4196 0.1605437 5.946064 x 10
3
4.546092 0.004546092 1.200950 1 0.02859406
9702.001 5.614584 0.2079475 158.9873 0.1589873 42 34.97230 1
Mas s
Ounces Pounds Shor t t ons Long t ons Kilogr ams Met r ic t ons
1 0.0625 3.125 x 10
5
2.790179 x 10
5
0.02834952 2.834950 x 10
5
16 1 5 x 10
4
4.464286 x 10
4
0.4535924 4.535924 x 10
4
32000 2000 1 0.8928571 907.1847 0.9071847
35840 2240 1.12 1 1016.047 1.016047
35.27396 2.204623 1.102311 x 10
3
9.842065 x 10
4
1 0.001
35273.96 2204.623 1.102311 0.9842065 1000 1
Wei ght per uni t of area
Lb/sq ft Lb/sq in kg/sq cm kg/sq m Shor t t ons/sq ft Long t ons/sq ft kg/sq mm
1 0.006944444 4.882428 x 10
4
4.882428 0.0005 4.464286 x 10
4
4.882428 x 10
6
144 1 0.07030695 703.0695 0.072 0.06428571 7.030695 x 10
4
2048.161 14.22334 1 10000 1.024081 0.9143578 0.01
0.2048161 0.001422334 0.0001 1 1.024081 x 10
4
9.143578 x 10
5
0.000001
2000 13.88889 0.9764855 9764.855 1 0.8928571 0.009764855
2240 15.55556 1.093664 10936.64 1.12 1 0.01093664
204816.1 1422.334 100 1 000 000 102.4081 91.43578 1
Wei ght per uni t of area, pres sure
kgf/cm
2
kPa lbf/in
2
Mm mercur y (0C) in. mer cur y (32F) in. wat er (39.2F)
at mospher es
(st andard)
Millibar s
1 98.06650 14.22334 735.561 28.9591 393.712 0.9678411 980.6650
0.01019716 1 0.1450377 7.50064 0.295301 4.01474 0.009869233 10
0.07030695 6.894757 1 51.7151 2.03603 27.6807 0.06804596 68.94757
0.00135951 0.133322 0.0193367 1 0.0393701 0.535253 0.00131579 1.33322
0.0345315 3.38638 0.491153 25.4 1 13.5954 0.0334210 33.8638
0.00253993 0.249082 0.0361263 1.86827 0.0735541 1 0.00245825 2.49082
1.033227 101.3250 14.69595 760.002 29.9213 406.794 1 1013.250
0.001019716 0.1 0.01450377 0.750064 0.0295301 0.401474 9.869233 x 10
4
1
FIG. 1-2 (Contd)
Conversion Factor Tables
1-9
A.P.I.
gr avit y
Baum
gr avit y
Specific
gravit y
Lb/
U.S. gal
U.S. gal/
lb
kg/
Cu Met er
Cu
Met er /kg
0 10.2473 1.0760 8.9616 0.1116 1073.838 0.000931
1 9.2226 1.0679 8.8940 0.1124 1065.733 0.000938
2 8.1979 1.0599 8.8274 0.1133 1057.750 0.000945
3 7.1731 1.0520 8.7617 0.1141 1049.886 0.000952
4 6.1484 1.0443 8.6971 0.1150 1042.138 0.000960
5 5.1237 1.0366 8.6333 0.1158 1034.503 0.000967
6 4.0989 1.0291 8.5706 0.1167 1026.979 0.000974
7 3.0742 1.0217 8.5087 0.1175 1019.564 0.000981
8 2.0495 1.0143 8.4477 0.1184 1012.256 0.000988
9 1.0247 1.0071 8.3876 0.1192 1005.051 0.000995
10 10.0000 1.0000 8.3283 0.1201 997.948 0.001002
11 10.9894 0.9930 8.2698 0.1209 990.945 0.001009
12 11.9788 0.9861 8.2122 0.1218 984.039 0.001016
13 12.9682 0.9792 8.1554 0.1226 977.229 0.001023
14 13.9576 0.9725 8.0993 0.1235 970.513 0.001030
15 14.9470 0.9659 8.0440 0.1243 963.888 0.001037
16 15.9364 0.9593 7.9895 0.1252 957.354 0.001045
17 16.9258 0.9529 7.9357 0.1260 950.907 0.001052
18 17.9152 0.9465 7.8826 0.1269 944.546 0.001059
19 18.9046 0.9402 7.8302 0.1277 938.270 0.001066
20 19.8940 0.9340 7.7786 0.1286 932.077 0.001073
21 20.8834 0.9279 7.7276 0.1294 925.965 0.001080
22 21.8728 0.9218 7.6772 0.1303 919.933 0.001087
23 22.8622 0.9159 7.6275 0.1311 913.978 0.001094
24 23.8516 0.9100 7.5785 0.1320 908.101 0.001101
25 24.8410 0.9042 7.5300 0.1328 902.298 0.001108
26 25.8304 0.8984 7.4822 0.1336 896.569 0.001115
27 26.8198 0.8927 7.4350 0.1345 890.913 0.001122
28 27.8092 0.8871 7.3884 0.1353 885.327 0.001130
29 28.7986 0.8816 7.3424 0.1362 879.811 0.001137
30 29.7880 0.8762 7.2969 0.1370 874.363 0.001144
31 30.7774 0.8708 7.2520 0.1379 868.982 0.001151
32 31.7668 0.8654 7.2077 0.1387 863.668 0.001158
33 32.7562 0.8602 7.1638 0.1396 858.417 0.001165
34 33.7456 0.8550 7.1206 0.1404 853.231 0.001172
35 34.7350 0.8498 7.0778 0.1413 848.106 0.001179
36 35.7244 0.8448 7.0355 0.1421 843.043 0.001186
37 36.7138 0.8398 6.9938 0.1430 838.039 0.001193
38 37.7032 0.8348 6.9525 0.1438 833.095 0.001200
39 38.6926 0.8299 6.9117 0.1447 828.209 0.001207
40 39.6820 0.8251 6.8714 0.1455 823.380 0.001215
41 40.6714 0.8203 6.8316 0.1464 818.607 0.001222
42 41.6608 0.8156 6.7922 0.1472 813.888 0.001229
43 42.6502 0.8109 6.7533 0.1481 809.224 0.001236
44 43.6396 0.8063 6.7148 0.1489 804.613 0.001243
45 44.6290 0.8017 6.6768 0.1498 800.055 0.001250
46 45.6184 0.7972 6.6392 0.1506 795.547 0.001257
47 46.6078 0.7927 6.6020 0.1515 791.090 0.001264
48 47.5972 0.7883 6.5652 0.1523 786.683 0.001271
49 48.5866 0.7839 6.5288 0.1532 782.325 0.001278
50 49.5760 0.7796 6.4928 0.1540 778.015 0.001285
A.P.I.
gr avit y
Baum
gr avit y
Specific
gravit y
Lb/
U.S. gal
U.S. gal/
lb
kg/
Cu Met er
Cu
Met er /kg
51 50.5654 0.7753 6.4573 0.1549 773.751 0.001292
52 51.5548 0.7711 6.4221 0.1557 769.535 0.001299
53 52.5442 0.7669 6.3873 0.1566 765.364 0.001307
54 53.5336 0.7628 6.3528 0.1574 761.238 0.001314
55 54.5230 0.7587 6.3188 0.1583 757.156 0.001321
56 55.5124 0.7547 6.2851 0.1591 753.118 0.001328
57 56.5018 0.7507 6.2517 0.1600 749.123 0.001335
58 57.4912 0.7467 6.2187 0.1608 745.170 0.001342
59 58.4806 0.7428 6.1861 0.1617 741.258 0.001349
60 59.4700 0.7389 6.1538 0.1625 737.387 0.001356
61 60.4594 0.7351 6.1218 0.1633 733.557 0.001363
62 61.4488 0.7313 6.0902 0.1642 729.766 0.001370
63 62.4382 0.7275 6.0589 0.1650 726.014 0.001377
64 63.4276 0.7238 6.0279 0.1659 722.300 0.001384
65 64.4170 0.7201 5.9972 0.1667 718.624 0.001392
66 65.4064 0.7165 5.9668 0.1676 714.986 0.001399
67 66.3958 0.7128 5.9368 0.1684 711.384 0.001406
68 67.3852 0.7093 5.9070 0.1693 707.818 0.001413
69 68.3746 0.7057 5.8776 0.1701 704.288 0.001420
70 69.3640 0.7022 5.8484 0.1710 700.792 0.001427
71 70.3534 0.6988 5.8195 0.1718 697.332 0.001434
72 71.3428 0.6953 5.7909 0.1727 693.905 0.001441
73 72.3322 0.6919 5.7626 0.1735 690.512 0.001448
74 73.3216 0.6886 5.7346 0.1744 687.152 0.001455
75 74.3110 0.6852 5.7068 0.1752 683.824 0.001462
76 75.3004 0.6819 5.6793 0.1761 680.528 0.001469
77 76.2898 0.6787 5.6520 0.1769 677.265 0.001477
78 77.2792 0.6754 5.6251 0.1778 674.032 0.001484
79 78.2686 0.6722 5.5983 0.1786 670.830 0.001491
80 79.2580 0.6690 5.5719 0.1795 667.658 0.001498
81 80.2473 0.6659 5.5457 0.1803 664.516 0.001505
82 81.2367 0.6628 5.5197 0.1812 661.404 0.001512
83 82.2261 0.6597 5.4939 0.1820 658.320 0.001519
84 83.2155 0.6566 5.4685 0.1829 655.265 0.001526
85 84.2049 0.6536 5.4432 0.1837 652.239 0.001533
86 85.1943 0.6506 5.4182 0.1846 649.240 0.001540
87 86.1837 0.6476 5.3934 0.1854 646.268 0.001547
88 87.1731 0.6446 5.3688 0.1863 643.324 0.001554
89 88.1625 0.6417 5.3445 0.1871 640.407 0.001562
90 89.1519 0.6388 5.3203 0.1880 637.515 0.001569
91 90.1413 0.6360 5.2964 0.1888 634.650 0.001576
92 91.1307 0.6331 5.2727 0.1897 631.811 0.001583
93 92.1201 0.6303 5.2492 0.1905 628.996 0.001590
94 93.1095 0.6275 5.2259 0.1914 626.207 0.001597
95 94.0989 0.6247 5.2029 0.1922 623.442 0.001604
96 95.0883 0.6220 5.1800 0.1930 620.702 0.001611
97 96.0777 0.6193 5.1573 0.1939 617.985 0.001618
98 97.0671 0.6166 5.1349 0.1947 615.293 0.001625
99 98.0565 0.6139 5.1126 0.1956 612.623 0.001632
100 99.0459 0.6112 5.0905 0.1964 609.977 0.001639
FIG. 1-3
A.P.I. and Baum Gravity Tables and Weight Factors
The relat ion of Degr ees Baum or A.P.I. t o Relat ive Densit y is expr essed by
t he following for mulas:
For liquids light er t han wat er:
Degr ees Baum
140
G
130, G
140
130 + Degr ees Baum

Degr ees A.P.I.
141.5
G
131.5, G
141.5
131.5 + Degr ees A.P.I.

For liquids heavier t han wat er :
Degr ees Baum 145
145
G
, G
145
145 + Degr ees Baum

G = Relat ive Densit y = r at io of t he weight of a given volume of oil at 15.56C
t o t he weight of t he same volume of wat er at 15.56C.
The above t ables ar e based on t he weight of 1 U.S. gallon (3.785 lit ers) of
oil wit h a volume of 231 cubic inches (3785 cubic cent imet er s) at 60F (15.56C)
in air at 760 mm pr essur e and 50% humidit y. Assumed weight of 1 U.S. gallon
of wat er at 60F in air is 8.32828 pounds (3.77764 kg).
To det er mine t he r esult ing gr avit y by mixing oils of differ ent gravit ies:
D
md
1
+ nd
2

m + n
D = Densit y or Specific Gr avit y of mixt ure
m = Volume propor t ion of oil of d1 densit y
n = Volume propor t ion of oil of d2 densit y
d1 = Specific Gravit y of m oil
d2 = Specific Gravit y of n oil
1-10
Basis of unit s list ed below is 22.4140 lit er s at 0C and 1 at m for t he volume of 1 g mole. All ot her values calculat ed fr om conver sion fact or s list ed in t ables.
n Temper at ur e Pr essur e Volume R n Temperat ur e Energy R
gm mol K at m lit er 0.082 057 477 gm mol K calor ie 1.985 9
gm mol K at m cm
3
82.057 gm mol K joule 8.314 5
gm mol K mm Hg lit er 62.364
gm mol K bar lit er 0.083 145 lb mol R Bt u 1.985 9
gm mol K kg/cm
2
lit er 0.084 784 lb mol R hp-hr 0.000 780 48
gm mol K kPa m
3
0.008 314 5 lb mol R Kw-hr 0.000 582 00
lb mol R at m ft
3
0.730 24 lb mol R ft -lb 1 545.3
lb mol R in.Hg ft
3
21.850
lb mol R mm Hg ft
3
554.98 k mol K joule 8 314.5
lb mol R lb/in
2
ft
3
10.732
lb mol R lb/ft
2
ft
3
1 545.3
lb mol K at m ft
3
1.3144
lb mol K mm Hg ft
3
998.97
k mol K kPa m
3
8.3145
k mol K bar m
3
0.083 145
FIG. 1-4
Values of the Gas Constant R in PV = nRT
Given base pr essur e
(See not es 1&2)
13.9 14.65
101.325 kPa
@15C
760 mm Hg
or 14.696
14.696 @
59F
14.7 14.73
14.73
Sat .
30" Hg 14.9 15.025 16.4
13.9 1.0000 0.9488 0.9440 0.9458 0.9440 0.9456 0.9437 0.9603 0.9434 0.9329 0.9251 0.8476
14.65 1.0540 1.0000 0.9950 0.9969 0.9950 0.9966 0.9946 1.0122 0.9943 0.9832 0.9750 0.8933
101.325 kPa @15C 1.0593 1.0050 1.0000 1.0019 1.0000 1.0016 0.9996 1.0173 0.9993 0.9882 0.9800 0.8978
14.696 or 760 mm Hg 1.0573 1.0031 0.9981 1.0000 0.9981 0.9997 0.9977 1.0153 0.9974 0.9863 0.9781 0.8960
14.696 @59F 1.0593 1.0050 1.0000 1.0019 1.0000 1.0016 0.9996 1.0173 0.9993 0.9882 0.9800 0.8978
14.7 1.0576 1.0034 0.9984 1.0003 0.9984 1.0000 0.9980 1.0156 0.9976 0.9866 0.9784 0.8963
14.73 1.0597 1.0055 1.0004 1.0023 1.0004 1.0020 1.0000 1.0177 0.9997 0.9886 0.9804 0.8982
14.73 Sat . 1.0413 0.9880 0.9830 0.9849 0.9830 0.9846 0.9826 1.0000 0.9823 0.9714 0.9633 0.8826
30" Hg 1.0601 1.0058 1.0007 1.0026 1.0007 1.0024 1.0003 1.0180 1.0000 0.9889 0.9807 0.8984
14.9 1.0719 1.0171 1.0119 1.0139 1.0119 1.0136 1.0115 1.0294 1.0112 1.0000 0.9917 0.9085
15.025 1.0809 1.0256 1.0204 1.0224 1.0204 1.0221 1.0200 1.0381 1.0197 1.0084 1.0000 0.9162
16.4 1.1795 1.1195 1.1138 1.1159 1.1138 1.1156 1.1134 1.1331 1.1130 1.1007 1.0915 1.0000
Fact or
Given Base Pr essur e
Ot her Base Pr essur e

Ot her Base Temper at ur e
Given Base Temperat ur e
Exa mp le : 14.65 t o 14.73, 60F
|

.
14.65
14.73
`

,

459.67 + 60
459.67 + 60
0.9946
FIG. 1-5
Commercial Base Pressure Conversion Factors
(Factors to Convert to Other Base Pressures)
psia in.Hg @32F mm Hg @0C kPa
1 2.03603 51.7151 6.8948
0.491153 1 25.400 3.38638
0.019337 0.3937 1 0.1333
0.14504 0.2953 7.5006 1
13.9 28.3008 718.8399 95.83772
14.65 29.82784 757.62621 101.00882
14.696 29.9215 760.0051 101.32598
14.6959 29.9213 760.00 101.3250
14.7 29.9296 760.21197 101.3536
14.73 29.9907 761.7634 101.5604
14.73456 30.00 761.999 101.5918
14.9 30.3368 770.55499 102.73252
15.025 30.59135 777.01937 103.5944
16.4 33.39532 848.12764 113.0747
FIG. 1-6
Pressure Equivalents
1-11
Kinemat ic viscosity (cent ist okes)
absolut e viscosit y (cent ipoises)
densit y (g/cm
3
)
ft
2
/sec (cent ist okes)(1.07639 10
5
)
cent ist okes (ft
2
/sec)(92903.4)
* Usually same as specific gr avit y.
APPROXIMATE VISCOSITY CONVERSIONS
ft
2
/sec (50100 SSU)
=
[(SSU)(2.433 10
6
)] (0.00210/SSU)
ft
2
/sec (100350 SSU)
=
[(SSU)(2.368 10
6
)] (0.00145/SSU)
ft
2
/sec (over 350 SSU)
=
[SSU (at 100F) (2.3210 10
6
)]
cent ist okes (50100 SSU) = [(SSU) (0.226)] (205.3/SSU)
cent ist okes (100350 SSU) = [(SSU) (0.220)] (147.7/SSU)
cent ist okes (over 350 SSU) = [SSU (a t 100F or 37.8C) (0.21576)]
cent ist okes (over 350 SSU) = [SSU (a t 210F or 98.9C) (0.21426)]
cent ist okes (over 500 SSU) = [SSU (at 122F or 50C) (2.120)]
cent ist okes (over 300 Redwood #1) = [Redwood #1 (St a n d a r d) (0.255)]
cent ist okes (over 50 Redwood #2) = [Redwood #2 (Admir alt y) (2.3392)]
cent ist okes (over 18 Engler) = (Engler ) (7.389)
cent ist okes (over 20 St or mer) = (St ormer ) (2.802)
cent ist okes (over 1.0 Demler #10) = (Demler #10) (31.506)
cent ist okes (over 1.3 Demler #1) = (Demler #1) (3.151)
cent ist okes (over 14 Parlin #20) = (Par lin Cup #20) (61.652)
cent ist okes (over 230 For d #4) = (For d Cup #4) (3.753)
cent ist okes = 6200 Bar bey
VISCOSITY UNIT CONVERSIONS
KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN
ft
2
/sec 92903.04 cent ist okes
ft
2
/sec 0.092903 sq met er s/sec
sq met er s/sec 10.7639 ft
2
/sec
sq met er s/sec 1 000 000.0 cent ist okes
cent ist okes 0.000 001 sq met er s/sec
cent ist okes 0.000 010 763 9 ft
2
/sec
ABSOLUTE OR DYNAMIC VISCOSITY
lbf-sec/ft
2
47880.26 cent ipoises
lbf-sec/ft
2
47.8803 Pascal-sec
cent ipoises 0.000 102 kg-sec/sq met er
cent ipoises 0.000 020 885 4 lbf-sec/sq ft *
cent ipoises 0.001 Pascal-sec
Pascal-sec 0.020 885 4 lbf-sec/sq ft
Pascal-sec 1000 cent ipoises
* Somet imes absolut e viscosit y is given in t er ms of pounds mass. In t his case
(cent ipoises)(0.000672) = lbm/ft sec.
ABSOLUTE TO KINEMATIC VISCOSITY
cent ipoises 1/densit y (g/cm
3
) cent ist okes
cent ipoises 0.000 671 97/densit y (lb/ft
3
) ft
2
/sec
lbf-sec/ft
2
32.174/densit y (lb/ft
3
) ft
2
/sec
kg-sec/m
2
9.80665/densit y (kg/m
3
) sq met er s/sec
Pascal-sec 1000/densit y (g/cm
3
) cent ist okes
KINEMATIC TO ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY
cent ist okes densit y (g/cm
3
) cent ipoises
sq met er s/sec (0.10197)[densit y (kg/m
3
)] kg-sec/sq met er
ft
2
/sec (0.03108) [densit y (lb/ft
3
)] lbf-sec/ft
2
ft
2
/sec (1488.16) [densit y (lb/ft
3
)] cent ipoises
cent ist okes (0.001) [densit y (g/cm
3
)] Pascal-sec
sq met er s/sec (1000) [densit y (g/cm
3
)] Pascal-sec
FIG. 1-7
Viscosity Relationships
1-12
Ot her useful relat ionships:
1 Thermochemical unit x 0.999 331 2 = IT Unit (Bt u or
ot her )
1 Thermochemical cal/gm x 1.8 x 0.999 331 2 = IT Bt u/lb
Ent ropy, 1 Bt u/(lb R) = 4.186 8 kJ /(kg K)
Ent halpy, 1 Bt u/lb = 2.326 kJ /kg
1 Gr ain = 64.798 91 mg
1 Gr ain/100 scf = 22.888 352 mg/m
3
1 Gr ain/U.S. gallon = 17.118 06 g/m
3
C 5/9 (F 32)
F 9/5 (C) + 32
K C + 273.15 5/9 R
R F + 459.67 1.8 K
1 newt on of force = 1 kg m/s
2
= 1 N
1 pascal pressur e = 1 N/m
2
= 1 Pa
Notes:
1. Pr essure is st at ed as psia except wher e specifically indi-
cat ed ot her wise.
2. Base t emper at ure is assumed t o be 60F except where
specifically indicat ed ot herwise.
3. Sat urat ed wat er vapor pressur e at 60F equals 0.2561
psi (Int ernat ional Cr it ical Tables).
4. 60F = 15.6C 15C = 59F
5. 30" Hg @32F is normally assumed equivalent t o 14.73
psi commer cially.
6. To conver t heat ing value or gas pr ice from one base pr es-
sur e t o anot her, t he reciprocals of t he above conver sion
fact or s apply.
7. kPa repr esent s kPa (abs) unless indicat ed as kPa (ga) for
gauge pr essure.
8. kJ /(kmol K) = kJ /(kmol C)
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LP-GAS ODORIZATION SYMPOSIA PROCEEDINGS
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1-13
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GPA Standard 2l88 Tent at ive Met hod for t he Det ermina-
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GPA Standard 2194 Low Pressur e Field Met hod for De-
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t ion of Car bonyl Sulfide (COS) in Unodor ized Liquid Pr o-
pane.
GPA Standard 2377 Test for Hydr ogen Sulfide and Car bon
Dioxide in Nat ur al Gas Using Lengt h of St ain Tubes.
Measurement Standards
GPA Standard 2142 St andar d Fact ors for Volume Cor rec-
t ion and Specific Gravit y Conver sion of Liquefied Pet r o-
leum Gases.
GPA Standard 2145 Physical Const ant s for Paraffin Hy-
drocar bons and Ot her Component s of Nat ural Gas. Dat a
are given in bot h English and SI Unit s. Revised year ly.
GPA Standard 2172 Calculat ion of Gross Heat ing Value,
Specific Gr avit y and Compr essibilit y of Nat ur al Gas Mix-
t ur es fr om Composit ional Analysis.
GPA Standard 8173 Met hod for Convert ing Mass Nat ur al
Gas Liquids and Vapor s t o Equivalent Liquid Volumes.
Dat a ar e given in bot h English and SI Unit s.
GPA Standard 8182 Tent at ive St andard for t he Mass
Measurement of Nat ural Gas Liquids.
GPA Standard 8186 Measurement of Liquid Hydrocar bon
by Tr uck Scales.
GPA Standard 8195 Tent at ive St andard for Convert ing
Net Vapor Space Volumes t o Equivalent Liquid Volumes.
GPA Re fe rence Bulle ti n 181 Heat ing Value as a Basis for
Cust ody Transfer of Nat ur al Gas. A refer ence t o provide
aut horit at ive int erpret at ion of accept ed pr ocedur es for de-
t er mining heat ing values.
GPA Refere nce Bulle ti n 184 Tent at ive NGL Loading
Pr act ices
GPA Standard 8185 Orifice Met er ing of Nat ural Gas and
Ot her Relat ed Hydr ocarbon Fluids. This is t he 1985 ver sion
of AGA #3, now issued as API/ANSI 2530 and GPA 8l85. The
lat est edit ion of t his publicat ion is being published in four
par t s and is available fr om API.
Sampli ng Methods
GPA Standard 2166 Obt aining Nat ural Gas Samples for
Analysis by Gas Chromat ogr aphy.
GPA Standard 2174 Met hod for Obt aining Liquid Hydr o-
car bon Samples Using A Float ing Pist on Cylinder.
Miscellaneous Standards
GPA Publication 1167 GPA Glossary-Definit ion of Words
and Ter ms Used in t he Gas Processing Indust ry.
* GPA Committees periodically update or revise GPA publica-
tions. The last two digits of the year in which the publication
is revised are appended to the publication number, e.g., GPA
2145-93.
1-14
GPA Research Reports
Result s of most of t he GPA sponsor ed r esear ch project s since
1971 have been published as numbered Research Report s. In
some cases, individual company sponsored dat a have been
published as Technical Publicat ions.
RR-1 Bibliography of Data Sources for Low-Temperature
Vapor-Liquid Equilibria in Non-Absorber Oil Sys-
tems R. D. Gunn and S. V. Mainkar, Univer sit y
of Texas, Aust in, Texas. Project 692-A.
RR-2 K-Values in Highly Aromatic and Highly
Naphthenic Real Oil Absorber Systems - Gr ant Wil-
son and Sherman T. Bar t on, P-V-T, Inc., Houst on,
Texas. Pr oject 691.
RR-3 Enthalpy and Entropy of Non-Polar Liquids at Low
Temperatures - K. C. Chao and R. A. Gr eenkorn,
Purdue Univer sit y, Lafayet t e, Indiana.
RR-4 Evaluation of Eight Enthalpy Correlations - Ken-
net h E. St arling, David W. J ohnson and Philip C.
Colver, Univer sit y of Oklahoma, Nor man, Okla-
homa. Pr oject 68l.
RR-5 Experimental Measurements of Vapor-Liquid Equilib-
rium Data for the Ethane-Carbon Dioxide and Nitro-
gen-n-Pentane Binary Systems - Kurat a-Swift
Consult ing Engineers, Lawrence, Kansas. Project
692-B.
RR-6 Enthalpies of Methane-C7 Systems - Ber t Eakin,
Gr ant M. Wilson and Will E. DeVaney, P-V-T, Inc.,
Houst on, Texas. Project 661.
RR-7 The Equilibrium Phase Properties of the Binary Sys-
tems: Nitrogen-Hydrogen Sulfide, Isobutane-Hydro-
gen Sulfide, Isobutane-Carbon Dioxide and
Isobutane-Ethane - D. B. Robinson and G. J . Besserer,
Universit y of Albert a, Edmont on, Alberta.
RR-8 1971-1972 Enthalpy Correlation Evaluation Study
- Kennet h E. St arling, Universit y of Oklahoma,
Nor man, Oklahoma. Project 713.
RR-9 Enthalpies of Hydrogen Sulfide-Methane-Ethane
Systems - Ber t Eakin and Will E. DeVaney, P-V-T,
Inc., Houst on, Texas. Pr oject 722.
RR-10 Solubility of Solid Carbon Dioxide in Pure Light
Hydrocarbons and Mixtures of Light Hydrocar-
bons - Fr ed Kurat a, Cent er for Resear ch, Inc.,
Lawrence, Kansas.
RR-11 GPA Experimental Enthalpy Values Referred to Two
Base Levels - J ohn M. Lenoir and Gene A. Cochran,
Universit y of Sout her n California, Los Angeles,
California. Project 733.
RR-12 Enthalpy and Phase Boundary Measurements on
Carbon Dioxide and Mixtures of Carbon Dioxide
with Methane, Ethane and Hydrogen Sulfide -
Gr ant M. Wilson and J ames M. Pet er son, Br igham
Young Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 731.
RR-13 Prediction of Absorber Oil K-Values and Enthalpies
- J ohn H. Er bar, Oklahoma St at e Univer sit y, St ill-
wat er, Oklahoma. Pr oject 714.
RR-14 Solubility of Heavier Hydrocarbons in Liquid Meth-
ane - Fred Kur at a, Cent er For Research, Inc.,
Lawrence, Kansas. Project 738-A.
RR-15 The Equilibrium Phase Properties of Selected Bi-
nary Systems at Low Temperature: Nitrogen-Hy-
drogen Sulfide, Ethane-Hydrogen Sulfide and
n-Butane-Carbon Dioxide - D. B. Robinson and H.
Kalra, Univer sit y of Alber t a, Edmont on, Alber t a.
Pr oject 738.
RR-16 Solubility Limits of Heavy Hydrocarbons in NGL
and LNG Mixtures - Will DeVaney, Ber t Eakin and
J ames M. Berr yman, P-V-T, Inc., Houst on, Texas.
Pr oject 735-A.
RR-17 Smoothed Experimental Enthalpy Data for Three
Methane-Ethane Binaries and a Methane-Ethane-
Propane Ternary - J ohn E. Power s, Andre W. Fur -
t ado, Ravi Kant and Adriana Kwan, Universit y of
Michigan, Ann Ar bor, Michigan. Pr oject 723.
RR-18 The Equilibrium Phase Properties of Selected Bi-
nary Systems: n-Heptane-Hydrogen Sulfide, n-
Heptane-Carbon Dioxide and i-Butane-Nitrogen -
D. B. Robinson and H. Kalr a, Univer sit y of Alber t a,
Edmont on, Alber t a. Project 745.
RR-19 Vapor Phase Data for the Binary Systems of Meth-
ane with n-Butane, n-Pentane, n-Hexane and n-
Heptane - Roger J . J . Chen, Pat sy S. Chappelear
and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Houst on,
Texas. Pr oject 692-B.
RR-20 K-Values for the Methane-n-Butane, Methane-n-
Pentane and Methane-n-Hexane Systems - Doug El-
liot , Y. N. Lin, T. C. Chu, Pat sy S. Chappelear and
Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Houst on, Texas.
Pr oject 692-B.
RR-21 Dew-Point Values for the Methane-Carbon Dioxide
System - S. C. Hwang, Ho-Mu Lin, Pat sy S. Chap-
pelear and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Hous-
t on, Texas. Project 739.
RR-22 Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Cryogenic LNG and
NGL Mixtures - J ames P. Kohn and Kr aemer D.
Luks, Univer sit y of Not re Dame, Not r e Dame, In-
diana. Pr oject 735.
RR-23 Measurement of Ethane and Propane Recovery and
Total Fraction Condensed for Simulated Natural
Gas Mixtures - Gr ant M. Wilson, J ohn R. Cunning-
ham, B. St eve Lofgr en and Veldon E. Messick, Ther -
mochemical Inst it ut e, Brigham Young Universit y,
Pr ovo, Ut ah. Project 737.
RR-24 Enthalpy and Phase Boundary Measurements on
Mixtures of Nitrogen with Methane, Carbon Dioxide
and Hydrogen Sulfide - Gr ant M. Wilson, J ohn R.
Cunningham and Paul F. Nielsen, Br igham Young
Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 741.
RR-25 The Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of the CH4-CO2 Sys-
tem at Low Temperatures - S. C. Mr aw, S. C. Hwang
and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Houst on,
Texas. Pr oject 739.
1-15
RR-26 Statistical Thermodynamics of Solutions in Natu-
ral Gas and Petroleum Refining - M. D. Donohue
and J . M. Prausnit z, Universit y of Califor nia,
Berkeley, California. Pr oject 721.
RR-27 Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Cryogenic LNG and
NGL Mixtures - J ames P. Kohn and Kr aemer D.
Luks, Univer sit y of Not re Dame, Not r e Dame, In-
diana. Pr oject 735-A.
RR-28 The Characterization of the Heptanes and Heavier
Fractions for the GPA Peng-Robinson Programs - D.
B. Robinson and D. Y. Peng, Universit y of Alber t a,
Edmont on, Alber t a. Project 756.
RR-29 The Equilibrium Phase Compositions of Selected
Aromatic and Naphthenic Binary Systems: Tolu-
ene-Carbon Dioxide, Toluene-Hydrogen Sulfide,
Methylcyclohexane-Carbon Dioxide and Methylcy-
clohexane-Hydrogen Sulfide - D. B. Robinson and
H-J Ng, Univer sit y of Albert a, Edmont on, Alber t a.
Pr oject 755, 755-A and 757-B.
RR-30 High Temperature V-L-E Measurements for Substi-
tute Gas Components - Will DeVaney, J ames M. Ber -
r yman, Pen-Li Kao and Ber t Eakin, P-V-T, Inc.,
Houst on, Texas. Project 757.
RR-31 The Equilibrium Phase Properties of a Synthetic
Sour Gas Mixture and a Simulated Natural Gas
Mixture - D. B. Robinson, H. Kalra and Hans Rem-
pis, Univer sit y of Alber t a, Edmont on, Albert a. Pr o-
ject 737-A & 737-B.
RR-32 Vapor-Liquid Compositions of Propane-Butane
Mixtures in Cold Weather Field Tests - Thomas H.
May and Dorab N. Bar ia, Univer sit y of Nor t h Da-
kot a, Grand For ks, Nort h Dakot a. Project 789-A.
RR-33 Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Cryogenic LNG and
NGL Mixtures - J ames P. Kohn and Kr aemer D.
Luks, Univer sit y of Not re Dame, Not r e Dame, In-
diana. Pr oject 735.
RR-34 Sour Water Equilibria: Ammonia Volatility Down
to ppm; Effect of Electrolytes on Ammonia Volatility;
pH vs. Composition - Grant Wilson, Richar d S.
Owens and Marshall W. Roe, Wilco Resear ch,
Pr ovo, Ut ah. Project 758-A.
RR-35 Computer Simulations of Vapor-Liquid Composi-
tions of Propane-Butane Mixtures in Cold Weather
Field Tests - Thomas H. May and Dorab N. Baria,
Universit y of Nor t h Dakot a, Gr and Forks, Nor t h
Dakot a. Pr oject 789-B.
RR-36 Literature Survey for Synthetic Gas Components--
Thermodynamic Properties - P. Pendergraft , M. Mar-
ston, M. Gonzales, V. Rice and J . Erbar, Oklahoma
St ate Universit y, St illwat er, Oklahoma. Project 746.
RR-37 Enthalpy Measurements on Synthetic Gas Systems:
Hydrogen-Methane, Hydrogen-Carbon Monoxide -
J ames M. Berr yman, Will E. DeVaney, Bert E.
Eakin and Nancy L. Bailey, P-V-T, Inc., Houst on,
Texas. Pr oject 742.
RR-38 A Preliminary Version of the PHC Equation of State
Computerized for Engineering Calculations - E. C.
Hohmann, Califor nia St at e Polyt echnic Universit y,
Pomona, Califor nia. Project 771.
RR-39 The Equilibrium Phase Properties of Selected m-
Xylene and Mesitylene Binary Systems: CH2-m-
Xylene, CO2-m-Xylene, CH4-Mesitylene - D. B.
Robinson, H-J Ng and S-S Huang, Univer sit y of Al-
bert a, Edmont on, Albert a. Project 755-B.
RR-40 Measurement of Ethane and Propane Recovery and
Total Fraction Condensed in the Bubble Point Re-
gion of Two Simulated Natural Gas Mixtures - J ohn
R. Cunningham, J ohn L. Oscarson and Mar k L.
J enson, Br igham Young Univer sit y, Pr ovo, Ut ah.
Pr oject 737.
RR-40A Phase Equilibria of a High Nitrogen Content Syn-
thetic Natural Gas - J ames P. Kohn and Rober t C.
Mer rill, Universit y of Not r e Dame, Not r e Dame, In-
diana. Pr oject 795.
RR-4l Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data on Water-Substi-
tute Gas Components: N2-H2O, H2-H2O, CO-H2O
and H2-CO-H2O and H2S-H2O - Paul C. Gillespie
and Grant Wilson, Wilco Research Co., Pr ovo, Ut ah.
Pr oject 758-B.
RR-42 Predicting Synthetic Gas and Natural Gas Thermody-
namic Properties Using a Modified Soave Redlich
Kwong Equation of State - J . H. Erbar, A. K. J agot a,
S. Mut hswamy and M. Moshfeghian, Oklahoma Stat e
Universit y, St illwat er, Oklahoma. Project 752.
RR-43 The Equilibrium Phase Properties of Selected m-
Xylene and Mesitylene Binary Systems: m-Xylene-
Mesitylene-H2S, Mesitylene-CO2 - D. B. Robinson
and S-S Huang, Universit y of Albert a, Edmont on,
Alber t a. Project 755-B.
RR-44 Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibria in the
Methane-Toluene System and Relation of Liquid-
Liquid Equilibrium Behavior at Low Temperatures
to Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Behavior at High Tem-
peratures and Elevated Pressures - Yeuh-Neu Lin,
Shuen-Cheng Swang and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Uni-
versit y, Houst on, Scot t W. Hopke, Exxon Pr oduct ion
Company, Houst on, Texas. Project 757.
RR-45 The Water Content and Correlation of the Water
Content of Methane in Equilibrium with Hydrates,
(I); and the Water Content of a High Carbon Dioxide
Simulated Prudhoe Bay Gas in Equilibrium with
Hydrates, (II) - Keichi Aoyagi, Kyoo Y. Song and Riki
Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Houst on, Texas, E.
Dendy Sloan and P. B. Dharmawar dhana, Dept . of
Chemical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines,
Golden, Color ado. Pr oject 775.
RR-46 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium Study of the H2-CH4 Sys-
tem at Low Temperatures and Elevated Pressures -
J oint research r eport for GPA and Gas Resear ch In-
st it ut e. J ane Huey Hong and Riki Kobayashi, Rice
Universit y, Houst on, Texas. Pr oject 757.
RR-47 Behavior of CH4-CO2-H2S Mixtures at Sub-Ambi-
ent Temperatures - J oint r esear ch repor t for GPA
and Canadian Gas Processor s Associat ion. D. B. Ro-
binson, H-J . Ng and A. D. Leu, Universit y of Al-
bert a, Edmont on, Albert a. Project 738-A.
RR-48 Vapor-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibria:
Water-Methane; Water-Carbon Dioxide; Water-Hy-
drogen Sulfide; Water-nPentane; Water-Methane-
1-16
nPentane - Paul Gillespie and Gr ant Wilson, Wilt ec
Research Company, Pr ovo, Ut ah. Project 758-B.
RR-49 Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG
Mixtures - J ames P. Kohn, Universit y of Not re
Dame, Not re Dame, Indiana and Kraemer Luks,
Universit y of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Pr oject 795.
RR-49A Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG
Mixtures (raw data). J ames P. Kohn, Universit y of
Not re Dame, Not re Dame, Indiana and Kr aemer
D. Luks, Univer sit y of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Pr oject 795.
RR-50 Measurement and Interpretation of the Water Con-
tent of a Methane-Propane (5.31 mol %) Mixture in
the Gaseous State in Equilibrium with Hydrate -
Hyoo Y. Song and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Universit y,
Houst on, Texas. Project 775.
RR-5l The Equilibrium Phase Properties of Selected
Naphthenic Binary Systems: Methylcyclohexane-
Nitrogen, Ethylcyclohexane-Hydrogen Sulfide and
n-Propylcyclohexane-Hydrogen Sulfide - D. B. Ro-
binson, S-S Huang and A. D. Leu, Univer sit y of Al-
bert a, Edmont on, Alber t a. Project 755-B.
RR-52 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Sour Water Systems
with Inert Gases Present - J onat han L. Owens, J ohn
R. Cunningham and Grant Wilson, Wilt ec Resear ch
Co., Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 805.
RR-53 Experimental Densities and Enthalpies for Water-
Natural Gas Systems - J ohn J . Scheloske, Kennet h
R. Hall, Philip T. Eubank and J ames C. Holst e,
Texas A & M Univer sit y, College St at ion, Texas. Pr o-
ject 772.
RR-53A Thermophysical Properties Tables for Wet, Sweet
and Sour Natural Gases: Data Supplement to RR-
53 - J ohn J . Scheloske, Kennet h R. Hall, Philip T.
Eubank and J ames C. Holst e, Texas A & M Univer -
sit y, College St at ion, Texas. Project 772.
RR-54 The Equilibrium Phase Behavior of Several Solute
Gases in the Solvent Phenanthrene - Robert L. Ro-
binson, J r., Philip J . Carlber g, J ohn J . Heidman and
Yick-Kwan Chen, Oklahoma St at e Univer sit y, St ill-
wat er, Oklahoma. Pr oject 757-A.
RR-55 Phase Equilibrium Studies for Methane/Synthesis
Gas Separation: The Hydrogen-Carbon Monoxide-
Methane System - J oint research report for GPA and
Gas Research Inst it ute. J ane Huey Hong and Riki Ko-
bayashi, Rice Universit y, Houst on, Texas. Project 757.
RR-56 Measurement of Total Fraction Condensed and
Phase Boundary for a Simulated Natural Gas -
J oint research r eport for GPA and Gas Resear ch In-
st it ut e. J ohn L. Oscarson and Ber t Saxey, Br igham
Young Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 737.
RR-57 The Phase Behavior of Two Mixtures of Methane,
Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulfide and Water - D. B.
Robinson, S-S Huang, A. D. Leu and H-J Ng, Univer-
sity of Albert a, Edmont on, Albert a. Project 758-A.
RR-58 The Equilibrium Phase Properties of Selected
Naphthenic Binary Systems: Ethylcyclohexane-
Carbon Dioxide, Ethylcyclohexane-Nitrogen and
Ethylcyclohexane-Methane - D. B. Robinson, C-J
Chen and H-J Ng, Univer sit y of Alber t a, Edmont on,
Alber t a. Project 755-B.
RR-59 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Measurements on the Sys-
tems N2-Toluene, N2-m-Xylene, and N2-Mesitylene - S.
Laugier, D. Legret, J . Dest eve, D. Richon and H.
Renon, A.R.M.I.N.E.S., Paris, France. Project 755-C.
RR-60 Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG
Mixtures: Phase II - J ames P. Kohn and Robert C.
Mer rill, Universit y of Not r e Dame, Not r e Dame, In-
diana and Kraemer D. Luks, Univer sit y of Tulsa,
Tulsa, Oklahoma. Project 795.
RR-6l An Evaluation of the GPSA Engineering Data Book
Volume Correction Factor Table for Light Ends -
David B. Manley, Univer sit y of Missouri, Rolla,
Missour i. Project 819.
RR-62 Water-Hydrocarbon Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilib-
rium Measurements to 277C - J oint r esear ch repor t
for GPA and American Pet r oleum Inst it ut e. C. J ef-
frey Brady, J ohn R. Cunningham and Gr ant Wilson,
Wilt ec Resear ch Co., Provo, Ut ah.
RR-63 Experimental Enthalpies for Pure Toluene and Pure
Methylcyclohexane - Luis E. Cediel, Philip T.
Eubank, J ames C. Holst e and Kennet h R. Hall,
Texas A & M Univer sit y, College St at ion, Texas. Pr o-
ject 792-82.
RR-64 Development of GPA Data Bank of Selected En-
thalpy and Equilibria Values - Thomas E. Daubert ,
Pennsylvania St at e Univer sit y, Universit y Par k,
Pennsylvania. Project 806/822.
RR-64C GPA Data Bank of Selected Enthalpy and Equili-
bria Values- Thomas E. Dauber t , Pennsylvania
St at e Univer sit y, Univer sit y Par k, Pennsylvania.
Pr oject s 806 & 822.
RR-65 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Sour Water Systems at
High Temperatures - J onat han L. Owens, J ohn R.
Cunningham and Grant M. Wilson, Wilt ec Re-
search Co., Pr ovo, Ut ah. Project 805-82.
RR-66 Equilibrium Phase Composition and Hydrating
Conditions in Systems Containing Methanol, Light
Hydrocarbons, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sul-
fide - J oint research r eport for GPA and Canadian
Gas Pr ocessor s Associat ion. H-J . Ng and D. B. Ro-
binson, D. B. Robinson & Assoc., Lt d., and Univer -
sit y of Alber t a, Edmont on, Albert a. Pr oject 825-82.
RR-67 Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG
Mixtures: Phase III-Nitrogen Rich Systems - J ames
P. Kohn and Rober t C. Merr ill, J r., Univer sit y of
Not re Dame, Not re Dame, Indiana and Kraemer D.
Luks, Universit y of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Pr oject
795-82.
RR-68 Excess Enthalpy Experimental Data-Binary Systems:
Water + n-Pentane, Water + n-Hexane, Water + n-Hep-
tane, Water + n-Octane - C. J . Wormald, C. N. Colling,
N. M. Lancast er and A. J . Sellers, Universit y of Bris-
t ol, Brist ol, England. Project 773-A-79.
RR-69 Evaluation of GPA*SIM Computer Program with GPA
Data Bank of Selected Enthalpy Values - Thomas E.
Daubert , Pennsylvania St at e Universit y, Univer sit y
Park, Pennsylvania. Project 822-82.
1-17
RR-70 Phase Equilibrium Studies for Processing of Gas
From CO2 EOR Projects - Project supported joint ly by
t he Gas Processors Associat ion and special indust ry
cont ribut ions. J ane Huey Hong and Riki Kobayashi,
Rice Universit y, Houst on, Texas. Project 826-82.
RR-71 Water Content of NGL in Presence of Hydrates - Kevin
A. Sparks and E. Dendy Sloan, Colorado School of
Mines, Golden, Colorado. Project 775-B-82.
RR-72 Measurement of Ethane and Propane Recovery and
Total Fraction Condensed for a Simulated Natural
Gas in the Retrograde Region - J ohn L. Oscar son,
Br igham Young Univer sit y, Pr ovo, Ut ah. Project
8l5-81.
RR-73 Heats of Mixing of Steam with N2, CO2, H2, CH4,
and CO at High Temperatures and Pressures Using
a New High Temperature Calorimeter - Gr ant M.
Wilson and C. J eff Br ady, Wilt ec Resear ch Co.,
Pr ovo, Ut ah. Project 773-79 & 80.
RR-74 The Influence of Methanol on Hydrate Formation at
Low Temperatures - H-J . Ng and D. B. Robinson, D.
B. Robinson & Assoc., Ltd., Edmont on, Albert a. Pro-
ject 825-83.
RR-75 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Measurements on the Sys-
tems N2-n-Propylcyclohexane, CO2-n-Propylcyclo-
hexane, CH4-n-Propylcyclohexane, CH4-n-Propyl-
benzene and CO2-n-Propylbenzene - S. Laugier, P.
Alali, A. Valt z, A. Charet on, F. Font alba, D. Richon
and H. Renon, A.R.M.I.N.E.S., Paris, Fr ance. Pr o-
ject 755-C-82.
RR-76 Phase Equilibrium Studies for Processing of Gas
from CO2 EOR Projects-Phase II - Pr oject support ed
joint ly by t he Gas Pr ocessors Associat ion and spe-
cial indust r y cont r ibut ions. J ane Huey Hong and
Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Houst on, Texas.
Pr oject 826-83.
RR-77 Evaluation of GPA*SIM Computer Program with
GPA Data Bank of Selected V-L-E Data - Thomas E.
Dauber t , Pennsylvania St at e Universit y, Univer -
sit y Park, Pennsylvania. Pr oject 806-83.
RR-78 Sulfur Compounds and Water V-L-E and Mutual
Solubility MESH-H2O; ETSH-H2O; CS2-H2O; and
COS-H2O - Paul C. Gillespie and Gr ant M. Wilson,
Wilt ec Resear ch Co., Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 758-80.
RR-79 Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG
Mixtures (Phase IV - Nitrogen-Rich Systems) -
J ames P. Kohn and Feliciano M. Llave, Univer sit y
of Not r e Dame, Not r e Dame, Indiana and Kraemer
D. Luks, Universit y of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Pr o-
ject 795-83.
RR-80 The Water Content of CO2-Rich Fluids in Equilib-
rium with Liquid Water or Hydrate - Kyoo Y. Song
and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Houst on,
Texas. Pr oject 775-83.
RR-81 Evaluation of Peng-Robinson Computer Program
with GPA Data Bank of Selected Enthalpy Values -
Thomas E. Daubert , Pennsylvania St ate Universit y,
Universit y Park, Pennsylvania. Project 822-83.
RR-82 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Measurements on the Sys-
tems Ethane-Toluene, Ethane-n-Propylbenzene,
Ethane-Metaxylene, Ethane-Mesitylene, Ethane-
Methylcyclohexane - S. Laugier, A. Valt z, A. Char e-
t on, D. Richon and H. Renon, A.R.M.I.N.E.S., Par is,
Fr ance. Project 755-C-83.
RR-83 Excess Enthalpy Experimental Data Binary Systems:
Water-Carbon Monoxide, Water-Carbon Dioxide - C. J .
Wormald, N. M. Lancast er, A. J . Sellars, Universit y of
Bristol, Brist ol, England. Project 773-A-81.
RR-84 Evaluation of Equi-Phase (Peng-Robinson) Computer
Program with GPA Data Bank of Selected V-L-E Data
- Thomas E. Daubert , Pennsylvania St ate Universit y,
Universit y Park, Pennsylvania. Project 806-84.
RR-85 Enthalpies of Solutions of CO2 in Aqueous Diglyco-
lamine Solutions - Scot t P. Chr ist ensen, J ames J .
Christ ensen and Reed M. Izat t , Brigham Young
Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 821-84.
RR-86 Properties of CO2-Rich Mixtures - J oint r esearch
r eport for GPA and Gas Resear ch Inst it ut e. K. R.
Hall, J . C. Holst e, P. T. Eubank and K. N. Mar sh,
Texas A & M Univer sit y, College St at ion, Texas.
Pr oject 842-84.
RR-87 Hydrate Formation and Equilibrium Phase Compo-
sitions in the Presence of Methanol: Selected Sys-
tems Containing Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon
Dioxide, Ethane or Methane - H-J . Ng, C-J . Chen
and D. B. Robinson, D. B. Robinson & Assoc., Lt d.,
Edmont on, Alber t a. Project 825-84.
RR-88 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Measurements on the Sys-
tems Ethane-n-Propylcyclohexane, Propane-Cyclo-
hexane, Propane-n-Propylcyclohexane, Propane-n-
Propylbenzene and Propane-Mesitylene - S. Laugier,
A. Valt z, A. Charet on, D. Richon and H. Renon,
A.R.M.I.N.E.S., Paris, France. Pr oject 755-C-84.
RR-89 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium and Condensing Curves
for a Typical Gas Condensate - H-J Ng and D. B.
Robinson, D. B. Robinson & Assoc., Lt d., Edmont on,
Alber t a. Project 815-82 & 83.
RR-90 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Measurements on the
Ammonia-Water System from 313K to 589K - J oint
r esear ch r eport for GPA and AIChE-DIPPR. C.
Gillespie, W. Vincent Wilding and Gr ant M. Wilson,
Wilt ec Resear ch Co., Pr ovo, Ut ah. Pr oject 758-B-81.
RR-91 Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG
Mixtures - Phase V -J ames P. Kohn and F. M. Llave,
Universit y of Not r e Dame, Not re Dame, Indiana
and Kr aemer D. Luks, Universit y of Tulsa, Tulsa,
Oklahoma. Project 795-85.
RR-92 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol or Methanol on Hy-
drate Formation in Systems Containing Ethane,
Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen Sulfide or a
Typical Gas Condensate - H-J Ng, C. J . Chen and D.
B. Robinson, D. B. Robinson & Assoc., Lt d., Edmon-
t on, Alber t a. Project 825-85.
RR-93 Gas Solubilities and Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium
Measurements of H2, CO2 and NH3 in Water-Phenol
Mixtures from 110 degrees F to 550 degrees F - Paul
C. Gillespie, J onat han L. Owens and Grant M. Wil-
son, Wilt ec Research Co., Pr ovo, Ut ah. Pr oject 758-
B-81 & 82.
1-18
RR-94 Phase Equilibrium Studies for Processing of Gas
from CO2 EOR Projects (Phase III): A. The Effect of
Toluene as an Extractive Agent; B. The Effect of
Methane on V-L-E Behavior in CO2-Rich Gas n-Pen-
tane Quasi-binary Mixtures - Pr oject support ed
joint ly by GPA and special indust ry cont r ibut ions.
J ane Huey Hong and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer -
sit y, Houst on, Texas. Pr oject 826-84 & 85.
RR-95 Application of a High Pressure, Multiproperty Ap-
paratus for the Measurement of Thermodynamic
and Transport Properties to Measure the Phase and
Volumetric Properties of a Supercritical Extractive
System: The Carbon Dioxide-n-Hexadecane System
- J oint r esear ch repor t for Gas Pr ocessors Associa-
t ion and Gas Resear ch Inst it ut e. T. Charoensom-
but -amon and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Universit y,
Houst on, Texas. Project 826-85.
RR-96 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium and Condensing Curves
in the Vicinity of the Critical Point for a Typical Gas
Condensate - H-J . Ng, C. J . Chen and D. B. Robin-
son, D. B. Robinson & Assoc., Lt d., Edmont on, Al-
bert a. Project 815-A-84.
RR-97 Excess Enthalpy Experimental Data Binary Sys-
tems: Water + Ethylene, Water + Ethane, Water +
Propane, Water + n-Butane - Ternary System: Water
+ Methane + Carbon Dioxide - C. J . Wormald and
N. M. Lancast er, Univer sit y of Brist ol, Brist ol, Eng-
land. Pr oject 773-B-82.
RR-98 Glycol Vaporization Losses in Super-Critical CO2 -
Y. Adachi, Pat r ick Malone, Toshikuni Yonemot o and
Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Houst on, Texas.
Pr oject 856-85.
RR-99 The Water Content of CO2-Rich Fluids in Equilib-
rium with Liquid Water and/or Hydrates - Kyoo Y.
Song and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Hous-
t on, Texas. Project 775-85.
RR-100 Water Content of NGL in Presence of Hydrates - Mark
S. Bourrie and E. Dendy Sloan, Colorado School of
Mines, Golden, Colorado. Project 775-A-83 & 84.
RR-101 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Measurements on the Sys-
tems Methane-Methylcyclohexane, Nitrogen-n-
Propylbenzene, Hydrogen Sulfide-n-Propylbenzene,
Propane-Toluene, Propane-m-Xylene and Propane-
Methylcyclohexane - A. Charet on, A. Valt z, C.
Lafeuil, S. Laugier, D. Richon and H. Renon,
A.R.M.I.N.E.S., Paris, France. Pr oject 755-C-85.
RR-102 Enthalpies of Solution of CO2 in Aqueous
Methyldiethanolamine Solutions - Keit h E. Merkley,
J ames J . Christensen and Reed M. Izat t , Brigham
Young Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Project 821.
RR-103 Enthalpies and Phase Boundary Measurements:
Equal Molar Mixtures of n-Pentane with Carbon Di-
oxide and Hydrogen Sulfide - J ohn R. Cunningham,
Brigham Young University, Provo, Ut ah. Project 763.
RR-104 Equilibrium Solubility of Carbon Dioxide or Hydro-
gen Sulfide in Aqueous Solutions of Monoethano-
lamine, Diglycolamine, Diethanolamine and
Methyldiethanolamine - R. N. Maddox, A. H. Bhairi,
J ames R. Dier s and P. A. Thomas, Oklahoma St at e
Universit y, St illwat er, Oklahoma. Pr oject 841.
RR-105 Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium and Condensing Curves
for a Gas Condensate Containing Nitrogen - H-J Ng,
H. Schroeder and D. B. Robinson, D. B. Robinson &
Assoc., Ltd., Edmont on, Albert a. Project 815-85 & 86.
RR-106 The Influence of High Concentrations of Methanol
on Hydrate Formation and the Distribution of Gly-
col in Liquid-Liquid Mixtures - H-J Ng, C. J . Chen
and D. B. Robinson, D. B. Robinson & Assoc., Lt d.,
Edmont on, Alber t a. Project 825-86.
RR-107 Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Hydrogen Sul-
fide and Mixtures Containing Hydrogen Sulfide
with Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Methylcyclohexane
and Toluene - Donald M. Bailey, Chung Hsiu Liu,
J ames C. Holst e, Kennet h R. Hall, Philip T. Eubank
and Kennet h M. Mar sh, Texas A & M Universit y,
College St at ion, Texas. Pr oject 792.
RR-108 Enthalpies of Solution of CO2 in Aqueous Diethano-
lamine Solutions - Rebecca Helt on, J ames J . Chr is-
t ensen and Reed M. Izat t , Brigham Young
Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 821-86.
RR-109 Acoustic Determination of the Thermodynamic Ref-
erence State Heat Capacity of n-Heptane Vapor -
Sam O. Colgat e, A. Sivaraman and Kyle Reed, Uni-
versit y of Florida, Gainesville, Flor ida. Project 831-
83 t hr ough 86.
RR-110 Thermophysical Properties for Special High CO2
Content Mixtures - J ames F. Ely, J . W. Magee and
W. M. Haynes, Nat ional Bureau of St andar ds, Boul-
der, Color ado. Pr oject 839-Par t I.
RR-111 Additional Evaluation of GPA*SIM Computer Pro-
gram with GPA Data Bank of Selected VLE Data -
Thomas E. Dauber t , Pennsylvania St at e Univer -
sit y, Univer sit y Par k, Pennsylvania. Project 856.
RR-112 Additional Evaluation of Equi-Phase (Peng Robin-
son) Computer Program with GPA Data Bank of Se-
lected VLE Data - Thomas E. Daubert ,
Pennsylvania St at e Univer sit y, Universit y Par k,
Pennsylvania. Project 806-86.
RR-113 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium in Propane-Odorant Sys-
tems - Heng-J oo Ng and Donald B. Robinson, DB
Robinson & Associat es, Lt d., Edmont on, Alber t a.
Pr oject 876.
RR-114 Enthalpies of Solution of H2S in Aqueous Diethano-
lamine Solutions - Rebecca Van Dam, J ames J . Chris-
t ensen, Reed M. Izatt , and J ohn L. Oscarson, Brigham
Young Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Project 821.
RR-115 Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Cryogenic LNG
Mixtures - Phase VI - W. L. Chen, J ames P. Kohn,
Universit y of Not r e Dame, Not re Dame, Indiana
and Kr aemer D. Luks, Universit y of Tulsa, Tulsa,
Oklahoma. Project 795.
RR-116 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium and Condensing Curves for
a Highly Aromatic Gas Condensate - H-J . Ng, H.
Schroeder, C. J . Chen, and D. B. Robinson, DB Robin-
son & Associat es, Edmont on, Albert a. Project 815.
RR-117 The Solubility of Methanol or Glycol in Water-Hy-
drocarbon Systems - C. J . Chen, H-J . Ng, and D. B.
Robinson, DB Robinson & Associat es, Edmont on,
Alber t a. Project 825.
1-19
RR-118 GPSWAT: GPA Sour Water Equilibria Correlation
and Computer Program - Grant Wilson and Wayne W.
Y. Eng, Wiltec Research Co., Provo, Ut ah. Project 758.
RR-119 Triethylene Glycol Vaporization Losses In Super-
critical CO2 - T. Yonemot o, T. Charoensombut -
Amon, and Riki Kobayashi, Rice Universit y,
Houst on, Texas. Project 856.
RR-120 Water Content Values of a CO2 - 5.31 Mol Percent Meth-
ane Mixture - Kyoo Y. Song and Riki Kobayashi, Rice
Universit y, Houston, Texas. Project 775.
RR-121 Experimental Enthalpies of Pentanes-plus Frac-
tions - P. T. Eubank, K. R. Hall, J . C. Holst e and M.
G. J ohnson, Texas A&M Universit y, College St a-
t ion, Texas. Project 811.
RR-122 Thermodynamic Properties of Near-Equimolar
Mixtures for CO2-CH4 and CO2-N2 - D. M. Bailey,
G. J . Esper, J . C. Holst e, K. R. Hall, P. T. Eubank,
K. N. Marsh, W. J . Roger s, Texas A&M Universit y,
College St at ion, Texas. Pr oject 842.
RR-123 Reference State Heat Capacities of Three C8 Com-
pounds - Sam Colgate, A. Sivaraman and K. Reed,
Universit y of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Project
831.
RR-124 Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 or H2S in Aqueous
Solutions of DEA at Low Partial Pressures - R. N.
Maddox and E. M. Elizondo, Oklahoma St at e Uni-
versit y, St illwat er, Oklahoma. Pr oject 841.
RR-125 Equilibrium Solubility of CO2 or H2S in Protonated
Solutions of DEA - R. N. Maddox, M. Abu-Ar abi and
E. M. Elizondo, Oklahoma St at e Universit y, St ill-
wat er, Oklahoma. Pr oject 841.
RR-126 Phase Behavior and Properties of an Aromatic Con-
densate Containing 20 Mole Percent Nitrogen - H-J .
Ng, H. Schr oeder, D.B. Robinson, DB Robinson Re-
search Lt d., Edmont on, Alber t a. Pr oject 815.
RR-127 Enthalpies of Solution of H2S in Aqueous
Methyldiethanolamine Solutions - J .L. Oscarson,
R.M. Izat t , Br igham Young Universit y, Pr ovo, Un-
t ah. Project 821.
RR-128 Enthalpies of Water + Methanol Mixtures between
180 and 320 K - S. W. Cochran, J . C. Holst e, K. N.
Mar sh, B. E. Gammon and K. R. Hall, Texas A&M
Universit y, College St at ion, Texas. Pr oject 881.
RR-129 Human Response Research Evaluation of Alternate
Odorants for LP-GAS - D.L. Ripley, J .W. Goet zinger,
M.L. Whisman, NIPER, Bar t lesville, Oklahoma.
Pr oject 898.
RR-130 A Thermodynamically Consistent Model for the Pre-
diction of Solubilities and Enthalpies of Solution of
Acid Gases in Aqueous Aklanolamine Solutions - J ohn
L. Oscarson, Xuemin Chen, Reed M. Izatt , Brigham
Young Universit y, Provo, Ut ah. Project 821.
RR-131 The Solubility of Selected Aromatic Hydrocarbons
in Triethylene Glycol - H.-J . Ng, C.-J . Chen, D. B.
Robinson, DB Robinson Resear ch Lt d., Edmont on,
Alber t a. Project 895.
RR-132 Water Content of Ethane, Propane, and Their Mix-
tures in Equilibrium with Liquid Water or Hydrates
- K. Y. Song, R. Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Hous-
t on, Texas. Project 875.
RR-133 Volume Correction Factors for Natural Gas Liquids
Phase I - J . F. Ely, Nat ional Inst it ut e of St andards
and Technology, Boulder, Colorado. Project 899.
RR-134 Evaluation of Four Methods for Predicting Hydrate
Equilibria - Thomas E. Daubert , Pennsylvania
St at e Univer sit y, Univer sit y Par k, Pennsylvania.
Pr oject 806.
RR-135 Vapor Liquid Equilibria for Volatile-Sulfur-Con-
taining Systems - A. Valt z, J . Schwar t zent r uber, D.
Richon, H. Renon, A.R.M.I.N.E.S., Par is (Fr ance).
Pr oject 876
RR-136 A Predictive Model for the Thermophysical Properties
of Carbon Dioxide Rich Mixtures - J .W. Magee, J .A.
Howley, Nat ional Instit ut e of St andards and Technol-
ogy, Boulder, Colorado and J .F. Ely, Colorado School
of Mines, Golden, Colorado. Project 839.
RR-137 The Solubility of Selected Aromatic Hydrocarbons
in Monoethylene Glycol - H.J . Ng, C.J . Chen, D.B.
Robinson, DB Robinson Resear ch Lt d., Edmont on,
Alber t a. Project 895.
RR-138 Thermodynamic Properties of CO2 and CH4 Mixtures.
RR-139 Thermodynamic Properties of CO2 and CH6 Mixtures.
RR-140 Thermodynamic Properties of CO2 and N2 Mixtures.
RR-141 Thermodynamic Properties of CO2 and H2S Mixtures.
RR-142 Experimental Enthalpies of Nitrogen-Rich Systems
- L.C. Wilson, W.V. Wilding, G.M. Wilson, Wilt ec Re-
search Company, Inc., Provo, Ut ah. Pr oject 891.
RR-143 A Study of Passivation Agents for Odorized Propane
Containers - W. Goet zinger, D.L. Ripley, Bart les-
ville, Oklahoma. Pr oject 939.
RR-146 Fluoride Contamination in LP Gas - J .W. Manst el-
ler, MSA Resear ch Cor p., Pit t sburg, Pennsylvania.
Pr oject 919.
RR-147 Density Measurements on Natural Gas Liquids.
RR-148 Volume Correction Factors for Natural Gas Liquids
Phase II.
RR-149 Vapor-Liquid and Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Equilibria
for H2S, CO2, Selected Light Hydrocarbons and a
Gas Condensate in Aquaeous Methanol or Ethylene
Glycol Solutions.
RR-150 Mutual Solubility in Water-Hydrocarbon Systems.
GPA TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
TP-1 Liquid Densities of Ethane, Propane and Ethane-
Propane Mixtures - J . R. Tomlinson, Gulf Resear ch
& Development Co., Pit t sburgh, Pennsylvania.
TP-2 Liquid Densities of High-Ethane Raw Make
Streams - T. K. Pr ovence, J r., Mobil Pipe Line Co.,
L. D. Wiener and D. K. Walt on, Mobil Research &
Development Corp., Dallas, Texas.
1-20
TP-3 A Model for the Precise Calculation of Liquefied
Natural Gas Densities - M. A. Albright , Phillips Pe-
t roleum Co., Bart lesville, Oklahoma.
TP-4 Low-Temperature Data from Rice University for Va-
por-Liquid and P-V-T Behavior - R. Kobayashi, P.S.
Chappelear and T. W. Leland, Rice Universit y,
Houst on, Texas.
TP-5 Relation of Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Behavior at
Low Temperatures to Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Be-
havior at High Temperatures and Elevated Pres-
sures - S. C. Hwang, Y. Lin and R. Kobayashi, Rice
Universit y and S.W. Hopke, Exxon Pr oduct ion Re-
search Co., Houst on, Texas.
TP-6 Experimentally Based Thermodynamic Properties
of Propane - V. L. Bhirud and J . E. Power s, Univer -
sit y of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
TP-7 Excess Enthalpy Experimental Data, Binary Sys-
tems: Water-Hydrogen, Water-Methane, Water-Ni-
trogen, Water-Argon - C. J . Wormald, C. N. Colling,
Universit y of Brist ol, Brist ol, England.
TP-8 The Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Propylene Car-
bonate at Elevated Pressures and Higher Than Ambi-
ent Temperatures - P.D. Mant or, O.Abib, J r., K.Y. Song
and R. Kobayashi, Rice Universit y, Houston, Texas.
TP-9 The Water Content and the Solubility of CO2 in Equi-
librium with DEG-Water and TEG-Water Solutions at
Feasible Absorption Conditions - S. Takahashi and R.
Kobayashi, Rice Universit y, Houst on, Texas.
TP-10 Hydrate Decomposition Conditions in the System
Hydrogen Sulfide, Methane and Propane - J . P.
Schroet er and R. Kobayashi, Rice Universit y and
H. A. Hildebrand, Exxon Pr oduct ion Research Co.,
Houst on, Texas.
TP-11 Vapor-Liquid-Equilibria Study of Light Gases in
Hydrogen-Coal Liquid Model Compound Systems -
T. Kr agas and R. Kobayashi, Rice Univer sit y, Hous-
t on, Texas.
TP-12 Liquid Densities of Ethane-Propane Mixtures - W.
R. Parr ish, Phillips Pet roleum Co., Bar t lesville,
Oklahoma.
TP-13 Experimental Orifice Meter Studies - R. G. Teyssan-
dier, Z. D. Husian and M. F. Zendan, Daniel Indus-
t ries, Inc., Houst on, Texas.
TP-14 Energy Functions for Gaseous CO2-H2O Mixtures -
M.R. Pat el, J .C. Holst e, K.R. Hall and P.T. Eubank,
Texas A & M Univer sit y, College St at ion, Texas.
TP-15 A Simplified Vapor Pressure Correlation for Com-
mercial NGLS - D. L. Embr y, D. G. Glascock, and
R. W. Hankinson, Phillips Pet roleum Company,
Bart lesville, Oklahoma.
TP-16 Composite Pressure and Temperature Volume Correc-
tion Factor Table for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
and Natural Gasoline - GPA Technical Sect ion H.
TP-16-1 .501 HD-5 Propane
TP-16-2 .505 HD-5 Propane
TP-16-3 .510 HD-5 Propane
TP-16-4 .565 Iso-But ane
TP-16-5 .585 Nor mal But ane
TP-16-6 .665 Nat ural Gasoline
TP-17 Table of Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons for Ex-
tended Analysis of Natural Gases - B. E. Gammon,
Thermodynamic Research Cent er, Texas A & M
Universit y, College St at ion, Texas.
TP-18 GPA Experimental Enthalpy Values Referred to Two
Base Levels from Excess Enthalpy Data - P.S. Chap-
pelear, Houst on, Texas.
TP-19 Vapor-Solid Equilibrium Ratios for Structure I and
Structure II Natural Gas Hydrates - S.L. Mann, Mo-
bil Oil Cor p., L.M. McClur e, Columbus Energy
Corp., E.D. Sloan and F.H. Poet t mann, Colorado
School of Mines.
TP-20 Effect of Ammonia on LP-Gas Odorant - J .W. Goet z-
inger and D.L. Ripley, Nat ional Inst it ut e for Pet r o-
leum Ener gy Research, Bart lesville, Oklahoma.
TP-21 Trace Contaminants in Natural Gas Liquids - GPA
Technical Sect ion C, Pr oduct Specificat ions, Tulsa,
Oklahoma.
TP-22 K-Value Charts, GPSA Engineering Data Book Re-
vised 10th Edition, Gas Processor s Supplier s Asso-
ciat ion, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
TP-23 A History of LP-Gas Specifications, Ronald Cannon,
Gas Processing Associat ion, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION
AFNOR Associ ation Francai se de Normali sati on
Tour Eur ope Cedex 7
92080 Par is La Defense
Par is, Fr ance
33-(1) 42 91 55 55
AGA Ame ri can Gas Associ ation
1515 Wilson Blvd
Ar lingt on, VA 22209
(703) 841-8400
AIChE Ame ri can Institute of Che mical Enginee rs
345 East 47t h St reet
New York, NY 10017
(212) 705-7338
AISC Ame ri can Institute of Ste el Construction
1 East Wacker Dr., St e 3100
Chicago, IL 60601
(312) 670-2400
AISI Ame ri can Iron and Stee l Insti tute
1101 17t h St ., N.W., St e 1300
Washingt on, D.C. 20036
(202) 452-7100
ANSI Ame ri can Nati onal Standards Insti tute
11 W. 42nd St .
New York, NY 10036
(212) 642-4900
API Ame ri can Pe troleum Insti tute
1220 L. St r eet , N.W.
Washingt on, D.C. 20005
(202) 682-8000
1-21
ASHRAE Ame ri can Socie ty of Heating,
Refri ge rating & Ai r-Condi ti oni ng
Enginee rs
1791 Tullie Cir cle, N.E.
At lant a, GA 30329
(404) 636-8400
ASME Ame ri can Socie ty of Mechani cal Engi ne ers
Unit ed Engineer ing Cent er
345 East 47t h St reet
New York, NY 10017
(212) 705-7722
ASTM Ame ri can Socie ty for Te sti ng and
Mate ri als
100 Barr Harbor Dr.
West Conshohocen, PA 19428
(610) 832-9500
BSI Bri ti sh Standards Instituti on
2 Par k St reet
London W1A 2BS, U.K.
44-71-629-9000
CGPA Canadi an Gas Processors Associati on
1600 - 700 4t h Ave. S.W.
Calgary, Albert a
CANADA T2P 3J 4
(403) 263-5388
CSS Customs Standards Servi ces, Inc.
802 Oakland Ave., St e 5
Ann Ar bor , MI 48104
(800) 699-9277
CTI Cooling Tower Insti tute
Box 73383
Houst on, TX 77273
(713) 583-4087
GRI Gas Research Insti tute
8600 W. Bryn Mawr
Chicago, IL 60631
(773) 399-8100
IEEE Institute of Electri cal and Ele ctroni cs
Enginee rs
Unit ed Engineer ing Cent er
345 East 47t h St reet
New York, NY 10017
(212) 705-7900
IGT Institute of Gas Technology
1700 S. Mount Prospect Rd.
Des Plaines, IL 60618
(847) 768-0500
IP Institute of Petroleum
61 New Cavendish St r eet
London W1M 8AR, U.K.
ISA Instrume nt Soci ety of Ameri ca
67 Alexander Dr ive
Box 12277
Research Triangle Par k, NC 27709
(919) 549-8411
ISO International Organi zati on for
Standardi zati on
Case post ale 56
CH-211 Geneva, Swit zerland
NACE Nati onal Associ ati on of Corrosi on
Enginee rs
Box 218340
Houst on, TX 77218
(713) 492-0535
NFPA Nati onal Fi re Protection Associ ati on
1 Bat t erymar ch Par k
Quincy, MA 02269
(617) 770-3000
NOAA Nati onal Oceanic and Atmospheric
Admi nistration
Nat ional Climat ic Cent er
151 Pat t on Ave. Rm. 120
Asheville, NC 28801
(704) 271-4800
NPGA Nati onal Propane Gas Associ ation
1600 Eisenhower Lane, St e 100
Lisle, IL 60532
(630) 515-0600
PEA Paci fi c Energy Associ ation
5212 Kat ella Ave., St e 202
Los Alamit os, CA 90720
(310) 594-8729
SPE Socie ty of Pe troleum Engi nee rs
Box 833836
Richar dson, TX 75083
(214) 952-9393
TEMA Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers
Associ ation
25 Nor t h Br oadway
Tar ryt own, NY 10591
(914) 332-0040
1-22