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CHAPTER 1:- INTRODUCTION

A turbocharger, or turbo, is a gas compressor that is used for forced induction of an internal combustion engine. A form of supercharger, the turbocharger increases the pressure of air entering the engine to create more power. A turbocharger has the compressor powered by a turbine which is driven by the engine's own exhaust gases rather than direct mechanical drive. This allows a turbocharger to achieve a higher degree of efficiency than other types of forced induction compressors which are more vulnerable to parasitic loss. Early manufacturers of turbochargers referred to them as "turbo superchargers". A supercharger is an air compressor used for forced induction of an engine. Logically then, adding a turbine to turn the supercharger would yield a "turbo supercharger". However, the term was soon shortened to "turbocharger". This is now a source of confusion, as the term "turbo supercharged" is sometimes used to refer to an engine that uses both a crankshaft-driven supercharger and an exhaust-driven turbocharger, often referred to as twin charging. Aviation engine manufacturers such as Teledyne Continental Motors still use the term turbo supercharged to refer to turbo chargers that are used to boost manifold pressure above 1 ATM. Turbochargers that maintain 1 ATM of manifold pressure to a specific altitude are considered turbo-normalized. Though these represent true turbochargers, they should not be confused with some aircraft engines that employ actual engine-driven superchargers.

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CHAPTER 2:- TURBOCHARGER

2.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLE:A turbocharger is a small centrifugal pump driven by the energy of the exhaust gases of an engine. A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor on a shared shaft. The turbine converts kinetic energy from the engine exhaust's velocity and potential energy from the exhaust's higher-than-atmospheric pressure into rotational kinetic energy, which is in turn used to drive the compressor. The compressor draws in ambient air and pumps it into the intake manifold at increased pressure, resulting in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The objective of a turbocharger is the same as that of a supercharger, to improve an engine's volumetric efficiency by solving one of its cardinal limitations. A naturally aspirated automobile engine relies mostly on the downward stroke of a piston to create an area of low pressure in order to draw air into the cylinder through one or more intake valves. The pressure in the atmosphere is no more than 1 atm (approximately 14.7 psi, or 1 bar), so there ultimately will be a limit to the pressure difference across the intake valves and thus the amount of airflow entering the chamber. Since the turbocharger increases the pressure at the point where air is entering the cylinder, a greater mass of air (oxygen) will be forced in as the inlet manifold pressure increases. The presence of additional air mass in the cylinder makes it possible to create a bigger explosion if more fuel is injected, increasing the power and torque output of the engine. To avoid detonation and physical damage to the host engine, the intake manifold pressure must not get too high, thus the pressure at the intake manifold of the engine must be controlled by some means a waste gate, which vents excess exhaust gas so that it will bypass the exhaust turbine is the most common boost control device. An actuator, connected to the compressor outlet via a signal hose, and usually controlled via a solenoid by the car's Engine Control Unit, forces the waste gate to open as the boost pressure rises. The reduction in turbine speed results in the compressor slowing and in less air pressure at the intake manifold.

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Modern Group N Rally cars are forced by the rules to use a 34mm restrictor at the compressor inlet, which effectively limits the maximum boost (pressure above atmospheric) that the cars can achieve at high rpm. Interestingly, at low rpm they can reach boost pressures of above 22psi (1.5bar).

2.2 HISTORY:The turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Bchi. His patent for a turbocharger was applied for use in 1905. Diesel ships and locomotives with turbochargers began appearing in the 1920s.

AVIATION:During the First World War French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Moss attached a turbo to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine. The engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 feet (4,300 m) to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power losses usually experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines in the 1920s before World War II, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. The primary purpose behind most aircraft-based applications was to increase the altitude at which the airplane could fly, by compensating for the lower atmospheric pressure present at high altitude. Aircraft such as the Fw 190D, B-17 Flying Fortress, and P-47 Thunderbolt all used turbochargers to increase high altitude engine power.

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PRODUCTION AUTOMOBILES:The first turbocharged diesel truck was produced by Schweizer Maschinenfabrik Saurer (Swiss Machine Works Saurer) in 1938. The first production turbocharged automobile engines came from General Motors in 1962. The Y-body Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire was fitted with a Garrett Air search turbocharger and the Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder with a TRW turbocharger. At the Paris auto show in 1974, during the height of the oil crisis, Porsche introduced the 911 Turbo the worlds first production sports car with an exhaust turbocharger and pressure regulator. This was made possible by the introduction of a waste gate to direct excess exhaust gasses away from the exhaust turbine. The world's first production turbo diesel automobiles were the Garrettturbocharged Mercedes 300SD and the Peugeot 604, both introduced in 1978. Today, most automotive diesels are turbocharged. 1962 Oldsmobile Cutlass Jetfire 1962 Chevrolet Corvair Monza Spyder 1973 BMW 2002 Turbo 1974 Porsche 911 Turbo 1978 Buick Regal 1978 Saab 99 1978 Peugeot 604 turbo diesel 1978 Mercedes-Benz 300SD turbo diesel (United States/Canada) 1979 Alfa Romeo Alfetta GTV 2000 Turbo delta 1980 Mitsubishi Lancer GT Turbo 1980 Pontiac Firebird 1980 Renault 5 Turbo 1981 Volvo 240-series Turbo

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2.3 TURBO CHARGER TYPES:The turbocharger turbine, which consists of a turbine wheel and turbine housing, converts the engine exhaust gas into mechanical energy to drive the compressor. The gas, which is restricted by the turbine's flow cross-sectional area, results in a pressure and temperature drop between the inlet and outlet. This pressure drop is converted by the turbine into kinetic energy to drive the turbine wheel. There are two main turbine types: axial and radial flow. In the axial-flow type, flow through the wheel is only in the axial direction. In radial-flow turbines, gas inflow is centripetal, i.e. in a radial direction from the outside in, and gas outflow in an axial direction. Up to a wheel diameter of about 160 mm, only radial-flow turbines are used. This corresponds to an engine power of approximately 1000 kW per turbocharger. From 300 mm onwards, only axialflow turbines are used. Between these two values, both variants are possible. As the radial-flow turbine is the most popular type for automotive applications, the following description is limited to the design and function of this turbine type. In the volute of such radial or centripetal turbines, exhaust gas pressure is converted into kinetic energy and the exhaust gas at the wheel circumference is directed at constant velocity to the turbine wheel. Energy transfer from kinetic energy into shaft power takes place in the turbine wheel, which is designed so that nearly all the kinetic energy is converted by the time the gas reaches the wheel outlet.

TWIN ENTRY TURBINE:The turbine is rarely subjected to constant exhaust pressure. In pulse turbocharged commercial diesel engines, twin-entry turbines allow exhaust gas pulsations to be optimized, because a higher turbine pressure ratio is reached in a shorter time. Thus through the increasing pressure ratio, the efficiency rises, improving the all-important time interval when a high, more efficient mass flow is passing through the turbine. As a result of this improved exhaust gas energy utilization, the engine's boost pressure characteristics and, hence, torque behavior is improved, particularly at low engine speeds. To prevent the various cylinders from interfering with each other during the charge exchange cycles, three cylinders are connected into one exhaust gas manifold. Twin entry turbines then allow the exhaust gas flow to be fed separately through the turbine.

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Figure:-2.1 Twin entry turbine

WATER-COOLED TURBINE HOUSINGS:Safety aspects also have to be taken into account in turbocharger design. In ship engine rooms, for instance, hot surfaces have to be avoided because of fire risks. Therefore, watercooled turbocharger turbine housings or housings coated with insulating material are used for marine applications

Figure:-2.2 Water cooled turbine housing Page | 6

2.4 HOW A TURBO SYSTEM WORKS:Engine power is proportional to the amount of air and fuel that can get into the cylinders. All things being equal, larger engines flow more air and as such will produce more power. If we want our small engine to perform like a big engine, or simply make our bigger engine produce more power, our ultimate objective is to draw more air into the cylinder. By installing a Garrett turbocharger, the power and performance of an engine can be dramatically increased. So how does a turbocharger get more air into the engine? Let us first look at the schematic below:

Figure: - 2.3 Turbo system working 1 Compressor Inlet 2 Compressor Discharge 3 Charge air cooler (CAC) 4 Intake Valve 5 Exhaust Valve 6 Turbine Inlets 7 Turbine Discharge The components that make up a typical turbocharger system are: The air filter (not shown) through which ambient air passes before entering the compressor (1) The air is then compressed which raises the airs density (mass / unit volume) (2) Page | 7

Many turbocharged engines have a charge air cooler (aka intercooler) (3) that cools the compressed air to further increase its density and to increase resistance to detonation After passing through the intake manifold (4), the air enters the engines cylinders, which contain a fixed volume. Since the air is at elevated density, each cylinder can draw in an increased mass flow rate of air. Higher air mass flow rate allows a higher fuel flow rate (with similar air/fuel ratio). Combusting more fuel results in more power being produced for a given size or displacement After the fuel is burned in the cylinder it is exhausted during the cylinders exhaust stroke in to the exhaust manifold (5) The high temperature gas then continues on to the turbine (6). The turbine creates backpressure on the engine which means engine exhaust pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure A pressure and temperature drop occurs (expansion) across the turbine (7), which harnesses the exhaust gas energy to provide the power necessary to drive the compressor.

2.5 COMPONENTS OF A TURBOCHARGER:-

Figure:-2.4 Component of turbocharger Page | 8

The turbocharger has four main components. The turbine (almost always a radial turbine) and impeller/compressor wheels are each contained within their own folded conical housing on opposite sides of the third component, the center housing/hub rotating assembly (CHRA). The housings fitted around the compressor impeller and turbine collect and direct the gas flow through the wheels as they spin. The size and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. Often the same basic turbocharger assembly will be available from the manufacturer with multiple housing choices for the turbine and sometimes the compressor cover as well. This allows the designer of the engine system to tailor the compromises between performance, response, and efficiency to application or preference. The turbine and impeller wheel sizes also dictate the amount of air or exhaust that can be flowed through the system, and the relative efficiency at which they operate. Generally, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel, the larger the flow capacity. Measurements and shapes can vary, as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels. The center hub rotating assembly houses the shaft which connects the compressor impeller and turbine. It also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. For instance, in automotive applications the CHRA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressurized engine oil. The CHRA may also be considered "water cooled" by having an entry and exit point for engine coolant to be cycled. Water cooled models allow engine coolant to be the layout of the turbocharger in a given application is critical to a properly performing system. Intake and exhaust plumbing is often driven primarily by packaging constraints. We will explore exhaust manifolds in more detail in subsequent tutorials; however, it is important to understand the need for a compressor bypass valve (commonly referred to as a Blow-Off valve) on the intake tract and a Waste gates for the exhaust flow.

Turbine housing:Turbine housings are manufactured in various grades of spheroidal graphite iron to deal with thermal fatigue and wheel burst containment. As with the impeller, profile machining to suit turbine blade shape is carefully controlled for optimum performance. The turbine housing inlet flange acts as the reference point for fixing turbocharger position relative to its installation. It is normally the load bearing surfaces. Page | 9

Figure: - 2.5 Turbine housing Wheel:The Turbine Wheel is housed in the turbine casing and is connected to a shaft that in turn rotates the compressor wheel.

Figure: - 2.6 Wheel Compressor cover:Compressor housings are also made in cast aluminum. Various grades are used to suit the application. Both gravity die and sand casting techniques are used. Profile machining to match the developed compressor blade shape is important to achieve performance consistency.

Figure: - 2.7 Compressor cover

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Compressor wheel (impeller):Compressor impellers are produced using a variant of the aluminum investment casting process. A rubber former is made to replicate the impeller around which a casting mould is created. The rubber former can then be extracted from the mould into which the metal is poured. Accurate blade sections and profiles are important in achieving compressor performance. Back face profile machining optimizes impeller stress conditions. Boring to tight tolerance and burnishing assist balancing and fatigue resistance. The impeller is located on the shaft assembly using a threaded nut.

Figure:-2.8 Compressor wheel

Blow Off (by pass) valves:The Blow-Off valve (BOV) is a pressure relief device on the intake tract to prevent the turbo compressor from going into surge. The BOV should be installed between the compressor discharge and the throttle body, preferably downstream of the charge air cooler (if equipped). When the throttle is closed rapidly, the airflow is quickly reduced, causing flow instability and pressure fluctuations. These rapidly cycling pressure fluctuations are the audible evidence of surge. Surge can eventually lead to thrust bearing failure due to the high loads associated with it. Blow-Off valves use a combination of manifold pressure signal and spring force to detect when the throttle is closed. When the throttle is closed rapidly, the BOV vents boost in the intake tract to atmosphere to relieve the pressure; helping to eliminate the phenomenon of surge.

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Figure: - 2.9 Blow of valves Waste gates:On the exhaust side, a Waste gate provides us a means to control the boost pressure of the engine. Some commercial diesel applications do not use a Waste gate at all. This type of system is called a free-floating turbocharger. However, the vast majority of gasoline performance applications require Waste gates. There are two (2) configurations of Waste gates, internal or external. Both internal and external Waste gates provide a means to bypass exhaust flow from the turbine wheel. Bypassing this energy (e.g. exhaust flow) reduces the power driving the turbine wheel to match the power required for a given boost level. Similar to the BOV, the Waste gates uses boost pressure and spring force to regulate the flow bypassing the turbine. Internal Waste gate are built into the turbine housing and consist of a flapper valve, Crank arm, rod end, and pneumatic actuator. It is important to connect this actuator only to boost pressure; i.e. it is not designed to handle vacuum and as such should not be referenced to an intake manifold. External Waste gates are added to the exhaust plumbing on the exhaust manifold or header. The advantage of external Waste gates is that the bypassed flow can be reintroduced into the exhaust stream further downstream of the turbine. This tends to improve the turbines performance. On racing applications, this Waste gated exhaust flow can be vented directly to atmosphere.

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Figure: - 2.10 Waste gates

Oil water plumbing:The intake and exhaust plumbing often receives the focus leaving the oil and water plumbing neglected. Garrett ball bearing turbochargers require less oil than journal bearing turbo. Therefore an oil inlet restrictor is recommended if you have oil pressure over about 60 psig. The oil outlet should be plumbed to the oil pan above the oil level (for wet sump systems). Since the oil drain is gravity fed, it is important that the oil outlet points downward, and that the drain tube does not become horizontal or go uphill at any point. Following a hot shutdown of a turbocharger, heat soak begins. This means that the heat in the head, exhaust manifold, and turbine housing finds its way to the turbo center housing, raising its temperature. These extreme temperatures in the center housing can result in oil coking. To minimize the effects of heat soakback, water-cooled center housings were introduced. These use coolant from the engine to act as a heat sink after engine shutdown, preventing the oil from coking. The water lines utilize a thermal siphon effect to reduce the peak heat soak-back temperature after key-off. The layout of the pipes should minimize peaks and troughs with the (cool) water inlet on the low side. To help this along, it is advantageous to tilt the turbocharger about 25 about the axis of shaft rotation. Many Garrett turbo are water-cooled for enhanced durability.

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Bearing housing:A grey cast iron bearing housing provides locations for a fully floating bearing system for the shaft, turbine and compressor which can rotate at speeds up to 170,000 rev/min. Shell molding is used to provide positional accuracy of critical features of the housing such as the shaft bearing and seal locations. CNC machinery mills, turns, drills and taps housing faces and connections. The bore is finish honed to meet stringent roundness, straightness and surface finish specifications.

Figure: - 2.11 Bearing housing

Bearing system:The bearing system has to withstand high temperatures, hot shut down, soot loading in the oil, contaminants, oil additives, dry starts. Journal bearings are manufactured from specially developed bronze or brass bearing alloys. The manufacturing process is designed to create geometric tolerances and surface finishes to suit very high speed operation. Hardened steel thrust collars and oil slingers are manufactured to strict tolerances using lapping. End thrust is absorbed in a bronze hydrodynamic thrust bearing located at the compressor end of the shaft assembly. Careful sizing provides adequate load bearing capacity without excessive losses.

Figure: - 2.12 Bearing system Page | 14

2.6 TESTING OF TURBOCHARGER:The turbocharger has to operate as reliably and for as long as the engine. Before a turbocharger is released for series production, it has to undergo a number of tests. This test program includes tests of individual turbocharger components, tests on the turbocharger test stand and a test on the engine. Some tests from this complex testing program are described below in detail.

CONTAINMENT TEST:If a compressor or turbine wheel bursts, the remaining parts of the wheel must not penetrate the compressor or turbine housing. To achieve this, the shaft and turbine wheel assembly is accelerated to such a high speed that the respective wheel bursts. After bursting, the housing's containment safety is assessed. The burst speed is typically 50 percent above the maximum permissible speed. LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE TEST (LCF TEST):The LCF test is a load test of the compressor or turbine wheel resulting in the component's destruction. It is used to determine the wheel material load limits. The compressor or turbine wheel is installed on an over speed test stand. The wheel is accelerated by means of an electric motor until the specified tip speed is reached and then slowed down. On the basis of the results and the component's S/N curve, the expected lifetime can be calculated for every load cycle. ROTOR DYNAMIC MEASUREMENT:The rotational movement of the rotor is affected by the pulsating gas forces on the turbine. Through its own residual imbalance and through the mechanical vibrations of the engine, it is stimulated to vibrate. Large amplitudes may therefore occur within the bearing clearance and lead to instabilities, especially when the lubricating oil pressures are too low and the oil temperatures too high. At worst, this will result in metallic contact and abnormal mechanical wear. The motion of the rotor is measured and recorded by contactless transducers located in the suction area of the compressor by means of the eddy current method. In all Page | 15

conditions and at all operating points, the rotor amplitudes should not exceed 80 percent of maximum possible values. The motion of the rotor must not show any instability.

START-STOP TEST:The temperature drop in the turbocharger between the gases at the hot turbine side and at the cold compressor inlet can amount to as much as 1000 C in a distance of only a few centimeters. During the engine's operation, the lubricating oil passing through the bearing cools the center housing so that no critical component temperatures occur. After the engine has been shut down, especially from high loads, heat can accumulate in the center housing, resulting in coking of the lubricating oil. It is therefore of vital importance to determine the maximum component temperatures at the critical points, to avoid the formation of lacquer and carbonized oil in the turbine-side bearing area and on the piston ring. After the engine has been shut down at the full-load operating point, the turbocharger's heat build-up is measured. After a specified number of cycles, the turbocharger components are inspected. Only when the maximum permissible component temperatures are not exceeded and the carbonized oil quantities around the bearing are found to be low, is this test considered passed. CYCLIC ENDURANCE TEST:During engine operation, the waste gate is exposed to high thermal and mechanical loads. During the waste gate test, these loads are simulated on the test stand the checking of all components and the determination of the rates of wear is included in the cycle test. In this test, the turbocharger is run on the engine for several hundred hours at varying load points. The rates of wear are determined by detailed measurements of the individual components, before and after the test.

2.7 TURBO CONTROL SYSTEMS:The drivability of passenger car turbo engines must meet the same high requirements as naturally aspirated engines of the same power output. That means full boost pressure must be Page | 16

available at low engine speeds. This can only be achieved with a boost pressure control system on the turbine side.

CONTROL BY TURBINE-SIDE BYPASS (WASTEGATE):The turbine-side bypass is the simplest form of boost pressure control. The turbine size is chosen such that torque characteristic requirements at low engine speeds can be met and good vehicle drivability achieved. With this design, more exhaust gas than required to produce the necessary boost pressure is supplied to the turbine shortly before the maximum torque is reached. Therefore, once a specific boost pressure is achieved part of the exhaust gas flow is fed around the turbine via a bypass. The waste gate which opens or closes the bypass is usually operated by a spring-loaded diaphragm in response to the boost pressure. BOOST CONTROLLER:Today, electronic boost pressure control systems are increasingly used in modern passenger car diesel and petrol engines. When compared with purely pneumatic control, which can only function as a full-load pressure limiter, a flexible boost pressure control allows an optimal part-load boost pressure setting. This operates in accordance with various parameters such as charge air temperature, degree of timing advance and fuel quality. The operation of the flap corresponds to that of the previously described actuator. The actuator diaphragm is subjected to a modulated control pressure instead of full boost pressure.

Figure: - 2.13 Boost controller

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This control pressure is lower than the boost pressure and generated by a proportional valve. This ensures that the diaphragm is subjected to the boost pressure and the pressure at the compressor inlet in varying proportions. The proportional valve is controlled by the engine electronics. For diesel engines, a vacuum regulated actuator is used for electronic boost pressure control.

VARIABLE TURBINE GEOMETRY:The variable turbine geometry allows the turbine flow cross-section to be varied in accordance with the engine operating point. This allows the entire exhaust gas energy to be utilized and the turbine flow cross-section to be set optimally for each operating point. As a result, the efficiency of the turbocharger and hence that of the engine is higher than that achieved with the bypass control.

Figure: - 2.14 Variable turbine geometry

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CHAPTER 3 I.C ENGINE

Internal combustion engines are those heat engines that burn their fuel inside the engine cylinder. In internal combustion engine the chemical energy stored in their operation. The heat energy is converted in to mechanical energy by the expansion of gases against the piston attached to the crankshaft that can rotate.

3.1 PETROL ENGINE


The engine which gives power to propel the automobile vehicle is a petrol burning internal combustion engine. Petrol is a liquid fuel and is called by the name gasoline in America. The ability of petrol to furnish power rests on the two basic principles; Burning or combustions always accomplished by the production of heat. When a gas is heated, it expands. If the volume remains constant, the pressure rises

according to Charless law.

3. 2 WORKING:There are only two strokes involved namely the compression stroke and the power stroke; they are usually called as upward stroke and downward stroke respectively. 3.2.1 UPWARD STROKE:During this stroke, the piston moves from bottom dead center to top dead center, compressing the charge-air petrol mixture in combustion chamber of the cylinder, at the time the inlet port is uncovered and the exhaust, transfer ports are covered. The compressed charge is ignited in the combustion chamber by a spark given by spark plug.

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3.2.2 DOWNWARD STROKE:The charge is ignited the hot gases compress the piston moves downwards, during this stroke the inlet port is covered by the piston and the new charge is compressed in the crankcase, further downward movement of the piston uncovers first exhaust port and then transfer port and hence the exhaust starts through the exhaust port. As soon as the transfer port open the charge through it is forced in to the cylinder, the cycle is then repeated.

3.3 ENGINE TERMINOLOGY


The engine terminologies are detailed below, 3.3.1 CYLINDER:It is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the piston makes a reciprocating motion. 3.3.2 PISTON:It is a cylindrical component fitted to the cylinder which transmits the bore of explosion to the crankshaft. 3.3.3 COMBUSTION CHAMBER:It is the space exposed in the upper part of the cylinder where the combustion of fuel takes place. 3.3.4 CONNECTING ROD:It inter connects the piston and the crankshaft and transmits the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotary motion of crankshaft. 3.3.5 CRACKSHAFT:It is a solid shaft from which the power is transmitted to the clutch.

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3.3.6 CAM SHAFT:It is drive by the crankshaft through timing gears and it is used to control the opening and closing of two valves. 3.3.7 CAM:These are made as internal part of the camshaft and are designed in such a way to open the valves at the current timing. 3.3.8 PISTON RINGS:It provides a tight seal between the piston and cylinder wall and preventing leakage of combustion gases. 3.3.9 GUDGEON PIN:It forms a link between the small end of the connecting rod and the piston. 3.3.10 INLET:The pipe which connects the intake system to the inlet valve of the engine end through which air or air fuel mixture is drawn in to the cylinder. 3.3.11 EXHAUST MANIFOLD:The pipe which connects the exhaust system to the exhaust valve of the engine through which the product of combustion escape in to the atmosphere.

3.3.12 INLET AND EXHAUST VALVE:They are provided on either on the cylinder head or on the side of the cylinder and regulating the charge coming in to the cylinder and for discharging the product of combustion from the cylinder.

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3.3.13 FLYWHEEL:It is a heavy steel wheel attached to the rear end of the crank shaft. It absorbs energy when the engine speed is high and gives back when the engine speed is low.

3.4 NOMENCLATURE
This refers to the position of the crank shaft when the piston is in it slowest position. 3.4.1 BORE (d):Diameter of the engine cylinder is refers to as the bore. 3.4.2 STROKE(s)Distance traveled by the piston in moving from TDC to the piston in moving from TDC to the BDC. 3.4.3 CLEARANCE VOLUME (V):The volume of cylinder above the piston when it is in the TDC position. 3.4.4 SWEPT VOLUME (V):The swept volume of the entire cylinder Vd = Vs N Where, Vs ------- Swept Volume N --------- Number of cylinder 3.4.5 COMPRESSION RATIO (R):It is the ratio of the total cylinder volume when the piston is at BDC to the clearance volume.

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3.5 ENGINE SPECIFICATION


Type of fuel used Cooling system Number of cylinder Number of stroke Arrangement Cubic capacity : : : : : : Petrol Air cooled Single two Stroke Vertical 100 cc

3.6 ADVANTAGES:A century of development and refinement - For the last century the SI engine has been developed and used widely in automobiles. Continual development of this technology has produced an engine that easily meets emissions and fuel economy standards. With current computer controls and reformulated gasoline, today's engines are much more efficient and less polluting than those built 20 years ago. Low cost - The SI engine is the lowest cost engine because of the huge volume currently produced.

3.7 DISADVANTAGES:The SI engine has a few weaknesses that have not been significant problems in the past, but may become problems in the future. Difficulty in meeting future emissions and fuel economy standards at a reasonable cost Technology has progressed and will enable the SI engine to meet current standards, but as requirements become tougher to meet, the associated engine cost will continue to rise. Throttling loss lowers the efficiency - To control an SI engine, the air allowed into the engine is restricted using a throttling plate. The engine is constantly fighting to draw air past the throttle, which expends energy. Page | 23

Friction loss due to many moving parts - The SI engine is very complex and has many moving parts. The losses through bearing friction and sliding friction further reduce the efficiency of the engine. Limited compression ratio lowers efficiency - Because the fuel is already mixed with the air during compression, it will auto-ignite (undesirable in a gasoline engine) if the compression ratio is too high. The compression ratio of the engine is limited by the octane rating of the engine.

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CHAPTER 4 MAIN COMPONENT OF FABRICATION OF TURBOCHARGER IN TWO WHEELER

There are many types of components to be used in wind mill water pump construction. The list of the component: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Frame or body Two stroke petrol engine Turbine blade Compressor blade Casing Petrol reserve tank Supply pipe Accelerator Carburetor

4.1 FRAME OR BODY:-

Figure:-4.1 Frame or Body Page | 25

Frame is the main part of the entire component in the automobile. It is the rigid structure of that forms a skeleton to hold the entire major part together. The engine is mounted in the forward end of the frame and is connected to the clutch and transmission system. The petrol tank is fastened to the front end of frame.

4.2 TWO STROKE PETROL ENGINE:-

Figure:-4.2 Two stroke petrol engine 4.2.1 INTRODUCTION The engine which gives power to propel the automobile vehicle is a petrol burning internal combustion engine. Petrol is a liquid fuel and is called by the name gasoline in America. The ability of petrol to furnish power rests on the two basic principles; Burning or combustions always accomplished by the production of heat. When a gas is heated, it expands. If the volume remains constant, the pressure rises

according to Charless law.

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4.2.2 WORKING There are only two strokes involved namely the compression stroke and the power stroke; they are usually called as upward stroke and downward stroke respectively. UPWARD STROKE During this stroke, the piston moves from bottom dead center to top dead center, compressing the charge-air petrol mixture in combustion chamber of the cylinder, at the time the inlet port is uncovered and the exhaust, transfer ports are covered. The compressed charge is ignited in the combustion chamber by a spark given by spark plug. DOWNWARD STROKE The charge is ignited the hot gases compress the piston moves downwards, during this stroke the inlet port is covered by the piston and the new charge is compressed in the crankcase, further downward movement of the piston uncovers first exhaust port and then transfer port and hence the exhaust starts through the exhaust port. As soon as the transfer port open the charge through it is forced in to the cylinder, the cycle is then repeated. 4.2.3 ENGINE SPECIFICATION

Company Type of fuel used Cooling system Number of cylinder Number of stroke Arrangement Cubic capacity

Suzuki Petrol Air cooled Single two Stroke Vertical 100cc

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Transmission Max power Max speed

four speed 7.48 hpp@5500 78kmp

4.3 TURBINE AND COMPRESSOR BLADE:-

Figure -4.3 Turbine and compressor blade

The compressor impeller (Figure 1.17) in most automotive type turbochargers is made of aluminum (LM-16-WP or C-355T61). Aluminum LM-27-M is also used for the compressor casing, unless the compressor impeller is made from other material than aluminum. On the other hand, the turbine rotor should withstand a much higher operating temperatures that could be as high as 1000 K (1340.6 F), or more. Therefore the most convenient material to use for that purpose is 713C Inconel (a high nickel alloy). The turbine rotor casing should also withstand high temperatures, but not resist as high pressure as the turbine. There are three different types of materials used for the turbine rotor casing depending on their operating temperatures. S.G. iron (spheroid graphite) is used for operating temperatures up to 975 K, high-silicon S.G. iron is for temperatures up to 1000 K, and high nickel cast iron for temperatures above 1000 K. The shaft is usually made of high-carbon steel (C1144 steel, EN 19C) to allow induction hardening of journals. Page | 28

Figure:-4.4 Turbine and compressor blade The turbine rotor in most common automotive turbochargers is connected to its shaft by using friction welding or an electron beam welding method. The compressor is usually a loose or very light interference fit on the other end of the shaft. A self locking nut is used to hold the impeller against an abutment on the shaft. A friction created between the shaft and compressor is sufficient to transmit the torque. Therefore, no splines or keys are needed. Most of automotivesize turbochargers, if not all of them, incorporate simple journal bearings. They use the engine lubricating oil system for their bearings to assure low cost and simplicity of maintenance, instead of having a separate system. Ball bearings are not used for most commercial engine applications because of their short life and difficult access for replacement. Special high performance engines in automotive racing applications, can afford the added expense of ball bearings. Current designs make use of ceramic ball elements.

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4.4 CASING OF COMPRESSOR

Figure:-4.5 Casing of compressor The turbine rotor casing should also withstand high temperatures, but not resist as high pressure as the turbine. There are three different types of materials used for the turbine rotor casing depending on their operating temperatures. S.G. iron (spheroid graphite) is used for operating temperatures up to 975 K, high-silicon S.G. iron is for temperatures up to 1000 K, and high nickel cast iron for temperatures above 1000 K. The shaft is usually made of high-carbon steel (C1144 steel, EN 19C) to allow induction hardening of journals.

Figure:-4.6 Casing design Page | 30

4.5 PETROL RESERVE TANK:-

Figure:-4.7 Petrol reserve tank Petrol reserve tank is provided for the store the petrol in the tank and supply the petrol to the engine. Below the tank one control valve is provided to on and off the petrol to the carburetor. Tank is hinged to the frame.

4.6 SUPPLY PIPE:As shown in the figure 1.22 the supply pipe is connecting the compressor outlet to the carburetor inlet. The supply pipe is made of plastic material for easy handling and fitting to the carburetor. When the compressor is running the high pressurized air inlet to the supply pipe and through the supply pipe it goes to the carburetor thus the supply pipe is the main component of the turbocharger.

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Figure:-4.8 Supply pipe

4.7 ACCELERATOR:-

Figure:-4.9 Accelerator handle Accelerator is used to increase the engine speed through the throttle valve opening and closing through the handle as shown in the figure1.23.Handle is joint to the carburetor through the heavy cable. Page | 32

CHAPTER -5 ANALYSES AND CONCLUSION ON TURBOCHARGER IN TWO WHEELER

5.1:- OBSERVATION TABLE AND CHART


The experiment of this project was done and reading was taken which are under as follow:

S.R. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6

ENGINE SPEED (RPM) 0 500 1000 2000 3000 4000

TURBINE SPEED(RPM) 0 65 140 300 465 625

AIR PRESSURE(BAR) 0 0.15 0.35 0.75 1.10 1.60

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Chart no. 5.1:-ENGINE SPEED Vs TURBINE SPEED X axes: -Engine speed (rpm) Y axes: -turbine speed (rpm) SR. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ENGINE SPEED 0 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 TURBINE SPEED 0 65 140 300 465 625

700

600

500

400

Y-Values Column1

Y a x e s

300

200

100

0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

X -axes

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Chart no. 5.2:-ENGINE SPEED Vs TURBOCHARGER OUTLET PRESSURE (bar) X axes: -Engine speed (rpm) Y axes: -Pressure (bar) SR. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ENGINE SPEED 0 500 1000 2000 3000 4000 TURBOCHARGER PRESSURE 0 0.15 0.35 0.75 1.10 1.60

1.8
1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4

Y-Values

Y-Values

0.2
0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000

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Chart no. 5.3:-TURBINE SPEED Vs TURBOCHARGER OUTLET PRESSURE (bar) X axes: -Turbine speed (rpm) Y axes: -Pressure (bar) SR. NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 TURBINE SPEED 0 65 140 300 465 625 TURBOCHARGER PRESSURE 0 0.15 0.35 0.75 1.10 1.60

Y-Values
1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Y-Values

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5.1 ADVANTAGES:-

(1) More specific power over naturally aspirated engine. This means a turbocharged engine can achieve more power from same engine volume. (2) Better thermal efficiency over both naturally aspirated and supercharged engine when under full load (i.e. on boost). This is because the excess exhaust heat and pressure, which would normally be wasted, contributes some of the work required to compress the air. (3) Weight/Packaging. Smaller and lighter than alternative forced induction systems and may be more easily fitted in an engine bay. (4) Fuel Economy. Although adding a turbocharger itself does not save fuel, it will allow a vehicle to use a smaller engine while achieving power levels of a much larger engine, while attaining near normal fuel economy while off boost/cruising. This is because without boost, less fuel is used to create a proper air/fuel ratio.

5.2 DISADVANTAGES:-

1. Lack of responsiveness if an incorrectly sized turbocharger is used. If a turbocharger that is too large is used it reduces throttle response as it builds up boost slowly otherwise known as "lag". However, doing this may result in more peak power. 2. Boost threshold- A turbocharger starts producing boost only above a certain rpm due to a lack of exhaust gas volume to overcome inertia of rest of the turbo propeller. This results in a rapid and nonlinear rise in torque, and will reduce the usable power band of the engine. The sudden surge of power could overwhelm the tires and result in loss of grip, which could lead to under steer/over steer, depending on the drive train and suspension setup of the vehicle. Lag can be disadvantageous in racing, if throttle is applied in a turn, power may unexpectedly increase when the turbo spools up, which can cause excessive wheel spin.

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3. Cost- Turbocharger parts are costly to add to naturally aspirated engines. Heavily modifying OEM turbocharger systems also require extensive upgrades that in most cases requires most (if not all) of the original components to be replaced.

4.

Complexity- Further to cost, turbochargers require numerous additional systems if they are not to damage an engine. Even an engine under only light boost requires a system for properly routing (and sometimes cooling) the lubricating oil, turbo-specific exhaust manifold, application specific downpipe, boosts regulation. In addition inter-cooled turbo engines require additional plumbing, while highly tuned turbocharged engines will require extensive upgrades to their lubrication, cooling, and breathing systems; while reinforcing internal engine and transmission parts.

CONCLUSION

After performing this project Turbocharger in two wheeler, we conclude that the power as well as the efficiency is increasing 10 to 15 % and pollution can also decrease. From the observation we can conclude that when the full throttle valve is open at that time the engine speed is 4000 rpm and by this the turbocharger generate 1.60 bar pressurized air. Generally the naturally aspirated engine takes atmospheric pressurized air to the carburetor for air fuel mixture but we can add the high density air for the combustion so as the result the power and the complete combustion take place so efficiency is increasing. This system most suitable for racing bikes.

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CHAPTER 6:- BIBLIOGRAPHY

Automobile engineering by R.B.Gupta www.cummins.com www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.scribd.com www.howstuffwork.com www.youtube.com

FIGURE:-6.1

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FIGURE: - 6.2

FIGURE:-6.3

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