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Chapter 4 : Function of GPRS Elements

Objectives
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Describe the locations for the CCU Describe the four different types of channel codec services Understand where the options are for locating the PCU Discuss the role of the GGSN and SGSN Understand the way that the HLR and VLR interact in the GPRS network.

Impact on the Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


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No major changes occur inside the BSS. However, two functions must be inserted inside BSS
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Channel Codec Unit (CCU)


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Located in the Base Transceiver System (BTS) without any hardware impact. impact. Can be located at the Network Service Subsystem (NSS) side or at the Base Station Controller (BSC) side or it can be located in the PCU Support Node (PCUSN), which resides between the BSC an the SGSN.

Packet Control Unit (PCU)


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Figure 4-1: Different places to locate the CCU and PCU

The Packet Control Unit Support Node (PCUSN)


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PCUSN is a new functional unit PCUSN is a stand-alone node in the BSS


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Main function is to complement the BSCs (2G & 3G standards) with the PCU capability.

Typically connected to the BSC with Agprs interface and to the SGSN with Gb interface PCUSN can be connected to a single BSC or multiple BSCs.

Channel Codec Unit (CCU)


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CCU functions:
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The channel-coding functions (such as forward error correction and interleaving on the air interface) Radio channel measurements (quality of receive signal) Radio management

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CCU is located in the BTS Can be software-only upgrades or hardware and software upgrades, depending on the coding being performed.

The initial releases of the CCUs support four different coding schemes: CS-1: offers a data rate between 8 Kbps to 64 Kbps CS-2: 12 Kbps to 96 Kbps CS-3: 14.4 Kbps to 96+ Kbps CS-4: 20 Kbps to 115+ Kbps

LAPD

OML: Operation and maintenance links GSL: GPRS radio signaling links RSL: Radio signaling links

Function of the PCUSN

Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Functions

Routing of packet data using the Internet Protocol Mobility management


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The SGSN performs the following functions:

Session management State control; mobile station state Data packet routing on the downlink, including location tracking

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Authentication Encryption Compression

Figure: The additional functions of the SGSN

The additional functions of the SGSN


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Tracks the mobile station location by routing areas or cell location Keeps track of the connected Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) (IP, intranets, the Internet, X.25) Maintains a log of the active Packet Data Protocol(PDP) contexts SGPRS attach

Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)

The GGSN serves as the interconnect point between the SGSN and the external packet data network. Tunneling
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GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP)

Like IP routing

Home Location Register (HLR)

Home Location Register (HLR)


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Is an existing GSM network element Responsible for keeping track of the mobiles location in the network For GPRS services:
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GPRS subscription data


subscribed QoS ! statically allocated PDP addresses ! roaming permissions
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The Visitor Location Register (VLR)


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One with each MSC temporary Contains additional information


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Stored authentication parameters Location area identity (LAI) Routing area identity Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) TMSI or P_TMSI

Other Network Elements

BG = Border Gateway (Security)

SS7/IP Gateway Functions

Domain Name System (DNS)

Domain Name System (DNS)


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A GPRS network will likely be connected to the Internet (IPv4) DHCP server is installed The address resolution between IP address and GSM address is performed by the GGSN, using the appropriate PDP context. Domain Name Server can be used to map between external IP addresses and hostname

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Charging
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Examples:
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all-you-can-eat - model DoCoMo model (0.0025 $ / packet) pay-as-you-go model pay-per-minute model QoS

Charging Gateway Function

Billing Record Collector


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Collects billing records from the GPRS nodes Aggregates several billing records produced during a PDP session into a single GPRS accounting record. (Network Accounting Record, NAR) Provides access to the GPRS accounting records to the customer billing system

Flow Aggregation Processor


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Flow Data Distributor


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The Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)


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Functions include
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Events and alarms on all switching components and procedures Fault management Performance management Security management

Local

The Network Management Center (NMC)


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Regional or national Functions include


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Trunk route management High-level alarms OMC assistance

Figure: Domain Management

PCUSN OAM Server

OMC-D Architecture
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OMC-D device support provides


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fault management configuration management performance management security management

for the following devices (next slide->)

SMR = Service Management Reporter MDP = Management Data Provider