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INTEGRATION: AN OVERVIEW 30/07/2008

FORMULAE NOT FOUND IN MF15


( ax + b )
n +1
x n +1
∫ where n ≠ −1 ∫ ( ax + b ) dx = a ( n + 1) +c where n ≠ −1
n
x n
dx = +c
n +1
1 1 1
∫ ( ax + b )
−1
∫x dx = ∫ dx = ln x + c dx = ∫
−1
dx = ln ax + b + c
x ax + b a
⎡⎣f ( x ) ⎤⎦
n +1
f ′( x)
( ) ( ) ∫ f ( x) dx = ln f ( x ) + c

n
f ′ x ⎡
⎣ f x ⎤
⎦ dx = +c
n +1
1 f ( x)
∫ f ′( x) e
f ( x)
dx = ef ( x ) + c ∫ f ′( x) a
f ( x)
dx = a +c
ln a
1 ax +b 1
∫ e dx = e +c ∫e ∫ a dx = ln a a
ax + b
x x
dx = e +c x x
+c
a
∫ cos x dx = sin x + c ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + c ∫ sec x dx = tan x + c
2

∫ cosec x dx = − cot x + c ∫ sec x tan x dx = sec x + c ∫ cosec x cot x dx = −cosecx + c


2

FORMULAE FOUND IN MF15


⎛x⎞ ⎛x⎞
( x < a) ∫
1 1 1
∫ a2 − x2
dx = sin −1 ⎜ ⎟ + c
⎝a⎠ a 2
+x 2
dx = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ + c
a ⎝a⎠
1 ⎛ x−a⎞ 1 ⎛a+ x⎞
∫x 2
1
−a 2
dx = ln ⎜ ⎟+c
2a ⎝ x + a ⎠
( x > a) ∫a 2
1
−x 2
dx = ln ⎜ ⎟+c
2a ⎝ a − x ⎠
( x < a)

⎛ π⎞ ⎛ π⎞
∫ tan x dx = ln ( sec x ) + c ⎜x < ⎟
⎝ 2⎠ ∫ sec x dx = ln ( sec x + tan x ) + c ⎜ x < ⎟
⎝ 2⎠

∫ cot x dx = ln ( sin x ) + c (0 < x < π ) ∫ cosec x dx = − ln ( cosec x + cot x ) + c ( 0 < x < π )


TRIGONOMETRIC FORMULAE USED IN INTEGRATION
Trigonometric Identities (NOT FOUND IN MF15)
sin 2 x + cos2 x = 1 tan 2 x + 1 = sec2 x 1 + cot 2 x = cosec2 x
Double Angle Formulae (FOUND IN MF15)
cos 2 A = cos 2 A − sin 2 A
1
sin 2 A = 2sin A cos A = 2 cos 2 A − 1 ⇒ cos 2 A = (1 + cos 2 A)
2
1
= 1 − 2sin 2 A ⇒ sin 2 A = (1 − cos 2 A )
2
Factor Formulae (FOUND IN MF15)
1 1 1 1
sin P + sin Q = 2sin ( P + Q ) cos ( P − Q ) cos P + cosQ = 2 cos ( P + Q ) cos ( P − Q )
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
sin P − sin Q = 2 cos ( P + Q ) sin ( P − Q ) cos P − cosQ = −2sin ( P + Q ) sin ( P − Q )
2 2 2 2

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An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)
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OTHER TECHNIQUES USED IN INTEGRATION
Integration by a given Substitution
⎛ dv ⎞ ⎛ du ⎞
Integration by Parts ∫ ⎜⎝ u dx ⎟⎠ dx = uv − ∫ ⎜⎝ v dx ⎟⎠ dx
SUMMARY (PLANE AREA & VOLUME OF SOLID OF REVOLUTION)
Area under a curve Area under a curve
(bounded by the x-axis) (bounded by the y-axis)
y y
d

δy
y x
x c x

a δx b
vertical strips horizontal strips
y is written as a function of x x is written as a function of y
curve above x-axis − positive area curve to the right of y-axis − positive area
curve below x-axis − negative area curve to the left of y-axis − negative area
b d
∫ a
y dx ∫ c
x dy

Volume of solid of revolution Volume of solid of revolution


(rotated about the x-axis) (rotated about the y-axis)

y δy
x
a b
δx
c

Volume of solid formed when region under the Volume of solid formed when region bounded
curve bounded by the x-axis is rotated about by the curve and the y-axis is rotated about the
the x-axis = π ∫ a y 2 dx y-axis = π ∫ c x 2 dy
b d

Volume of solid formed when region between Volume of solid formed when region between
two curves is rotated about the x-axis two curves is rotated about the y-axis
= π ∫ a y1 dx − π ∫ a y2 dx = π ∫ c x12 dy − π ∫ c x2 2 dy
b 2 b 2 d d

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An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)
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EXERCISE

3 − 2x
1. Express in partial fractions.
x ( x 2 + 3)
3 − 2x
Hence or otherwise, find ∫ x( x 2 + 3)
dx . [ACJC 2006]

1
( 4 − x 2 ) dx .
1
2. (i) By using the substitution x = 2 sin θ , find the exact value of ∫ 0 3

(ii) The region R, bounded by the curves y =


1
x
and y =
1
3
(
4 − x 2 , the x-axis, the y- )
axis and the line x = 1.3 is shown in the diagram below.
y

1 R
y= (4 − x 2 ) 1
3 y=
x x
O 1.3

(a) Find the area of R, correct to 3 significant figures.


(b) Find the volume formed when the shaded region, R, is rotated through 360°
about the x-axis. [HCI 2006]

∫ ∫
3 3
3. (a) Find (i) x 2 e x dx (ii) x 5 e x dx .
9
∫1 x − 4
x
(b) Use the substitution u = x to find the exact value of dx .
x +5
[NYJC 2006]

d ⎡
4. (i) Find x 1 − x 2 ⎤ , simplifying your answer.
dx ⎣ ⎦

∫ 4 x sin
−1
(ii) Find x dx . [AJC 2006]

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An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)
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5. (a) The graph of y = x 2 + 1 , for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 , is shown in the diagram. Rectangles, each of
1
width , are drawn under the curve.
n y

1 2 3 n − 3 n − 2 n −1 1
x
O
8n 2 − 3n + 1
n n n n n n
(i) Show that the total area of all the n rectangles is given by .
6n 2
(ii) By considering the area of the region bounded by the curve y = x 2 + 1, x = 1

8n 2 − 3n + 1 4
and the axes, briefly explain why < .
6n 2 3
(b) The region R is bounded by the curves x = 2 y , x = 4 y and the line x = 16 as shown.
y

x = 2y

R x = 4y

x
O
x = 16
Find the volume of solid formed when R is rotated through four right angles about
the y-axis. Leave your answer in the form aπ where a is a real constant corrected to
three significant figures. [NJC 2006]

ANSWERS
3 − 2x 1 ⎛ 2+ x ⎞
− ln ( x 2 + 3) + C
2 x 1
1. = −⎜ ⎟ ln x − tan −1
x ( x + 3)
2
x ⎝ x2 + 3 ⎠ 3 3 2
1 ⎛π 3⎞
2. (i) ⎜⎜ + ⎟ (ii) (a) 1.37 (b) 4.56
3⎝3 2 ⎟⎠
1 3 1 x3 3 1 x3
3. (a) (i) e x + C (ii) e x − e +C (b) 4 + 3π
3 3 3
1 − 2x2
4. (i) (ii) 2 x 2 sin −1 x + x 1 − x 2 − sin −1 x + C
1 − x2
5. (b) 420π

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An Open Source Education Project H2 Mathematics 9740: INTEGRATION (REVISION 2008)
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