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H :V V F such that (i) H(v1 + v2 , w) = H(v1 , w) + H(v2 , w), for all v1 , v2 , w V (ii) H(av, w) = aH(v, w), for all v, w V, a F A bilinear form H is called symmetric if H(v, w) = H(w, v) for all v, w V . A bilinear form H is called skew-symmetric if H(v, w) = H(w, v) for all v, w V . A bilinear form H is called non-degenerate if for all v V , there exists w V , such that H(w, v) = 0. A bilinear form H denes a map H # : V V which takes w to the linear map v H(v, w). In other words, H # (w)(v) = H(v, w). Note that H is non-degenerate if and only if the map H # : V V is injective. Since V and V are nite-dimensional vector spaces of the same dimension, this map is injective if and only if it is invertible.

0.2

If we take V = Fn , then every n n matrix A gives rise to a bilinear form by the formula HA (v, w) = v t Aw Example 0.1. Take V = R2 . Some nice examples of bilinear forms are the ones coming from the matrices: 1 0 0 , 1 1 0 0 , 1 0 1 1 0

Conversely, if V is any vector space and if v1 , . . . , vn is a basis for V , then we dene the matrix [H]v1 ,...,vn for H with respect to this basis to be the matrix whose i, j entry is H(vi , vj ). 1

Proposition 0.2. Take V = Fn . The matrix for HA with respect to the standard basis is A itself. Proof. By denition, HA (ei , ej ) = et Aej = Aij . i

Recall that if V is a vector space with basis v1 , . . . , vn , then its dual space V has a dual basis 1 , . . . , n . The element j of the dual basis is dened as the unique linear map from V to F such that j (vi ) = 1 if i = j 0 otherwise

Proposition 0.3. The matrix for H with respect to v1 , . . . , vn is the same as the matrix for v1 , . . . , vn and 1 , . . . , n with respect to the map H # : V V .

1 ,...,n Proof. Let A = [H # ]1 ,...,vn . Then v

H # vj =

k=1

Akj k

Hence, H(ei , ej ) = H # (ej )(ei ) = Aij as desired. From this proposition, we deduce the following corollary. Corollary 0.4. H is non-degenerate if and only if the matrix [H]v1 ,...,vn is invertible. It is interesting to see how the matrix for a bilinear form changes when we changes the basis. Theorem 0.5. Let V be a vector space with two bases v1 , . . . , vn and w1 , . . . , wn . Let Q be the change of basis matrix. Let H be a bilinear form on V . Then Qt [H]v1 ,...,vn Q = [H]w1 ,...,wn Proof. Choosing the basis v1 , . . . , vn means that we can consider the case where V = Fn , and v1 , . . . , vn denotes the standard basis. Then w1 , . . . , wn are the columns of Q and wi = Qvi . Let A = [H]v1 ,...,vn . So we have

t t H(wi , wj ) = wi Awj = (Qvi )t AQvj = vi Qt AQvj

as desired. You can think of this operation A Qt AQ as simultaneous row and column operations. 2

After doing simultaneous row and column operations we reach Qt AQ = The new basis is (1, 2), (0, 1). 8 0 0 2

0.3

A vector v is called isotropic if H(v, v) = 0. If H is skew-symmetric, then H(v, v) = H(v, v), so every vector is isotropic. Let H be a non-degenerate bilinear form on a vector space V and let W V be a subspace. We dene the perp space to W as W = {v V : H(w, v) = 0 for all w W } Notice that W may intersect W . For example if W is the span of a vector v, then W W if and only if v is isotropic. Example 0.7. If we take R2 with the bilinear form isotropic vector and span(1, 1) = span(1, 1). So in general, V is not the direct sum of W and W . However, we have the following result which says that they have complementary dimension. Proposition 0.8. dim W = dim V dim W Proof. We have dened H # : V V . The inclusion of W V gives us a surjective linear map : V W , and so by composition we get T = H # : V W . This map T is surjective since H # is an isomorphism. Thus dim null(T ) = dim V dim W = dim V dim W Checking through the denitions, we see that v null(T ) if and only if H # (v)(w) = 0 for all w W Since H # (v)(w) = H(w, v), this shows that v null(T ) if and only if v W . Thus W = null(T ) and so the result follows. 1 0 , then (1, 1) is an 0 1

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