You are on page 1of 14

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations
Guey-Jiuh Tzou 1*, Ding-Yeng Chen2, Chun-Yao Hsu1 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, (R.O.C.) 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hwa Hsia institute of Technology, Taiwan (R.O.C.) ABSTRACT
Nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 is a high-strength, thermal-resistant. Because of its excellent mechanical properties, it plays an important part in recent years in aerospace, petroleum and nuclear energy industries. Due to the extreme toughness and work hardening characteristic of the alloy, the problem of machining Inconel 718 is one of ever-increasing magnitude. This investigation optimized the machining characteristics of Inconel 718 bars using tungsten carbide and cermet cutting tools. The approach is based on Taguchi method, the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations. The roundness and flank wear of the ultrasonically and conventionally machined workpieces were measured and compared. Through this study the optimal cutting parameters for turning operations can be obtained.

Key words: Inconel 718; Ultrasonic; Taguchi method; Flank wear; Roundness 1. Introduction
Nickel superalloys are used widely in the hottest components and in those subjected to the greatest tensions, they are used as well in escape valves, furnace equipment, petroleum and nuclear energy industries. The high temperatures that are generated in the cutting area when the machining of nickel-based alloys takes place are due to the low thermal conductivity and the minimum thickness of the chip that is produced during this machining process [1]. The nickel-based alloys have some characteristics that are responsible for its poor machinability, they have an austenitic matrix, and like stainless steels, work harden rapidly during machining. Moveover, these alloys also have a tendency to weld with the tool material at the high temperature generated during machining. The tendency to form a built-up-edge (BUE) during machining and the presence of hard abrasive carbides in their microstructure also deters machinability [2]. Due to precipitate hardening of " secondary phase (Ni3Nb) together with work-hardening during machining makes the cutting condition even worse. All these difficulties lead to serious tool wear and less material removal rate [3]. A study on the performance of machinability of Inconel 718 showed that the tool life of the silicon nitride based

,2006.09

material was mainly dependent on flank wear, whereas for the silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina, the tool life criterion was depth of cut notch wear [4]. Two types of coated cemented cardide inserts were used, various combinations of side cutting edge angles (SCEAs), cutting speeds and feedrates were tested at a constant depth of cut. Cutting results indicate the SCEA, together with cutting speed and federate, do play a significant role in determining the tool life of an inset when machining Inconel 718 [5]. Ultrasonic vibrations have been extensively adopted in manufacturing processes. Weber [6] et al. used high-frequency vibrations (20KHz) in radial directions to cut steel materials and found that this approach could increase tool life. Moreover, Wang and Zhao [7] applied high-frequency vibrations (16KHz) to improve surface roughness, reduce micro cracks on the workpiece surface and increase cutting stability. Additionally, C.S. Liu [8] and others proposed using ultrasonic-aided vibrations to cut SiCp/Al thin-wall parts for precision processing. Compared with conventional cutting, this method is lower in cutting force and does not produce BUE. This paper discusses the machinability of Inconel 718 (70 450 mm) by applying a conventional lathe, subjected to various machining parameters including cutting tools for different materials, depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate, working temperature and ultrasonic power. Flank wear of the inserts and workpiece roundness have been considered.

2. Experimental design
The difficulty or ease of machining a material is called machinability. According to AISI specifications, the machinability rating for free machining steel B1112 is 100% and the machinability rating for nickel-based alloy 6~15%, and reflects the difficulty of free machining steel. Machinability ratings for various metals are shown in Table 1. Tests have been made in several laboratories to determine the practicability of artificially heating the surface of the workpiece just before a cut is taken. While the method does not appear to be of general interest, it may prove to be of particular value in the machining of high temperature alloys where strain hardening is serious [9]. This study gas torch has been employed to heating the workpiece, one object is to supply enough heat to the surface to raise the temperature of a layer about equal to the depth of cut to the desired value. For cutting speed the amount of nickel in a nickel-based high-temperature alloy is very important. An alloy with a nickel content of about 60 %, and a recommended carbide tool speed of 13 m/min were adopted. This cutting speed would be increased to 20 m/min when machining alloys containing about 50 % Ni, and to 26 m/min when machining alloys containing 45 % Ni [9]. To increase efficiency when machining nickel-bases Inconel 718 alloys, this study employed high cutting speed with cutting tools for different materials, and combined hot machining with ultrasonic-aided cutting, to analyze machining behavior. Based on probes into

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations

the relevant literature [4,5] and practical cutting tests, this study selected three cutting tools, TN35, CT3000 and NX2525, as listed in Table 2. This study takes tangent direction as the direction of ultrasonic vibration aided cutting. The Taguchi method is a powerful tool for designing high quality systems. To increase the experimental efficiency, the L18 mixed orthogonal table in the Taguchi quality design [10] is used to determine the significant machining factors. In the experiments, we select six influential machining parameters, such as cutting tools of different materials, depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate, working temperature and ultrasonic power, each of which has three different levels (high, medium and low levels), as shown in Table 3. The machining characteristics studied include roundness of the workpiece, and flank wear of the tools. By adjusting experimental combinations and analyzing experimental results, this work leads to the optimum cutting parameters.

best (NB), and higher is better (HB). The S/N ratios were calculated using the following equations [12]:

= 10 log(
HB:

S ratio) N (

(1)

S 1 ratio) = 2 N 1 1 1 1 2 = ( 2 + 2 + ..... + 2 ) n y1 y2 yn ( 1 S ratio) = 2 N

(2)

LB:

1 (3) n Where denotes the observed value, i.e.,

2 = ( y1 2 + y 2 2 + .... + y n 2 )

the calculated value of the S/N ratio (unit: dB), y n represents the observed value and
n is the repeated number.

3. Results and analysis of the experimental


3.1 Analysis of the S/N ratio Classical experimental design methods are too complex and not easy to use. To solve this problem, the Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study the entire parameter space with a small number of experiments [11]. The Taguchi method employs a generic signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio to quantify the present variation. Depending on the particular type of characteristics involved, different S/N ratios may be applicable, including lower is better (LB), nominal is

Table 4(a) lists the experimental results for roundness and the corresponding signal-noise ratios (S/N) using Eqs.(1) and (3). The mean S/N ratio for each level of the cutting parameters is summarized and called the S/N response table for roundness, the L18 experiments is also calculated and illustrated in Table 4(b). Fig. 1 shows the S/N response graph for roundness, and indicates that roundness without influence from cutting tools, and a smaller feed rate can obtain better roundness. To examining the influence of ultrasonic-aided cutting on roundness, two level conjunctions of No.17 and No.18, listed in Table 4(a), were used for experiment, and represent the maximum and minimum roundness combinations, respectively, among 18 experimental combinations. In Table 4(c), the experimental conditions of No.17 and No.18, No.17-1 and No.18-1 are cutting with and without ultrasonic aid, which obtained

,2006.09

average roundness values of 10.03m and 1.97 m, 12.2 m and 3.63 m, respectively. The results obtained show that the application of ultrasonic vibration can improve the roundness quality considerably. Improvements of up to 17.78- 45.73% have been achieved. This work used an optical microscope and the Optimas software to inspect the flank wear. Table 5(a) lists the experimental results for flank wear and S/N ratios, while Table 5(b) and Fig. 2 show the S/N response table and S/N response graph for flank wear. Fig. 2 indicated that using a cermet cutting tool NX2525 produces smaller flank wear, and that the flank wear decreases with decreasing cut depth. Generally, most materials soften with heating to high temperature. However, at an appropriate temperature, Inconel 718 precipitates the hard second phase of (Ni3Nb), increasing the difficulty of cutting. Observing the working temperatures level in Figs. 2 reveals that when a workpiece is heated for high-temperature (190) cutting, the flank wear increases with temperature. To inspect the effect of ultrasonic-aided cutting on flank wear, this investigation chooses two combinations of No.3 and No.17 in Table 5(a) for an experiment, where these two combinations represent the maximum and minimum flank wear combinations, respectively, from among 18 combinations examined in the experiment. In Table 5(c), the experimental conditions of No.3 and No.17, No.3-1 and No.17-1 are cutting with and without ultrasonic aid, and the flank wear measurements are 28.15mm2 and 1.51mm2, 38.31mm2 and 2.81mm2, respectively. The results obtained show that

the application of ultrasonic vibration can improve the flank wear quality considerably. Improvements of up to 26.52- 46.26 % have been achieved. Figs. 3(a) and (c) show ultrasonically aided cutting, which could obtain a low flank wear of the cutter. Moreover, the BUE occurs at TN35 tungsten carbide, as shown in Figs. 3(a) and (b), and is not found at NX2525 cermet, as illustrated in Figs. 3(c), (d) and the cutting tool of the NX2525 cermet can obtain a low flank wear (Fig. 2). 3.2 Analysis of variance (ANOVA) The purpose of the ANOVA is to investigate the design parameters that significantly affect the quality characteristic. The total sum of square SST from the S/N ratio can be calculated as [13] : SST =

(
i =1

m )2

(4)

Where n is the number of experiments in the orthogonal array and i is the mean S/N ratio for the i th experiment. The sum of squares from the tested parameter SSP can be calculated as : SSP =

j =1

( S j ) 2 t

1 n i n i =1

(5)

Where p represents one of the tested parameters, j the level number of this parameter p, t the repetition of of each level of the parameter p, S j the sum of the S/N ratio involving this parameter p and level j. The sum of squares from error parameters, SSe is (6) SSe =SST SSA SSB SSC The total degrees of freedom is DT = m-1, where the degrees of freedom of the tested parameter DP = t-1. The variance of the

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations

parameter tested is VP=SSP/DP. Then, the F-value for each design parameter is simply the ratio of the mean-of-squares deviations to the mean of the squared error (FP=VP/Ve). The corrected sum of squares S P calculated as:
*

can be

S P = SSP DPVe

(7)

The percentage contribution calculated as :

can be

S P = P SS T

(8)

Table 6 shows the results of ANOVA for the roundness and the flank wear. It is found that depth of cut is the most significant cutting parameters affecting the roundness. The change of the cutting speed and cutting tools are the insignificant effect on roundness of the machined workpiece. The results of ANOVA for flank wear (Table 6). The contribution order of the cutting parameters for flank wear is cutting tools for different materials, then working temperature, then ultrasonic power and then depth of cut. 3.3 Confirmation experiments Once the optimal level of the design parameters has been selected, the final step is to predict and verify the improvement of the quality characteristic using the optimal level of the design parameters. The estimated S/N ratio Ypredicted using the optimal level of the design parameters can be calculated as [14] :

where Ym is the total mean S/N ratio, Yi is the mean S/N ratio at the optimal level, and k is the number of the main design parameters that affect the quality characteristic. The measuring data and the actual S/N ratio of confirmation experiments are listed in Table 7. The largest S/N ratios in the L18 factors combinations of the two types of machining characteristics were 5.92 (Table 4(a)) and 3.61 (Table 5(a)), respectively. However, the S/N ratios of confirmation experiments are 4.59 and 2.10, and both are larger than the above two. In addition, the S/N prediction, -5.04 and 1.70, are very close to the actual value. This finding indicated that the experiments in this study possess excellent repetitiveness and great potential for future references.

4. Conclusion
This paper has discussed an application of the Taguchi method for optimizing the cutting parameters in turning Inconel 718 operations. This study discusses six machining parameters, including cutting tools for different materials, depth of cut, cutting speed, feed rate, working temperature and ultrasonic power. The machining characteristics studied include roundness and flank wear. The conclusions of this study may be summarized as follows : 1. Formation of built-up-edge (BUE) when using a NX2525 cermet cutter is far less than a TN35 tungsten carbide cutter, and the measured flank wear is lower than for a TN35 tungsten carbide cutter. 2. When the workpiece underwent high

Ypredicted = Ym + (Yi Ym )
i =1

(9)

,2006.09

temperature cutting (190), owing to the hard secondary phase of (Ni3Nb) precipitating, cutting becomes increasingly difficult, and thus the flank wear is higher than at room temperature. 3. The percentage contributions of the depth of cut, ultrasonic power and feed rate for roundness are 32.96, 12.6, and 12.18, respectively. 4. The percentage contributions of the cutting tools, working temperature and ultrasonic power for flank wear are 31.29, 16.8, and 11.44, respectively. 5. Cutting with ultrasonic aid improved the roundness by 17.78 % to 45.73 %, as well as improving flank wear by 26.52 % to 46.26 7%. As a result, ultrasonic aid cutting can enhance the cutting quality of Inconel 718.

5. M. Rahman, W. K. H. Seah and T. T. Teo, The machinability of Inconel 718, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 63, pp. 199-204 (1997). 6. H. Weber, J. Herberger and R. Pilz, Turning of machinable glass ceramics with an ultrasonic vibration tool, Annals of the CIRP, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 85-87 (1984).

7. L. J. Wang and J. Zhao,Influence on surface roughness in turning with ultrasonic vibration tool, Int. Journal Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 27, No.2, pp. 181-190 (1987). 8. C. S. Liu, B. Zhao, G. F. Gao and F. Jiao, Research on the characteristics of the cutting force in the vibration cutting of a particle-reinforced metal matrix composites SiCp/Al, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.129, pp. 196-199 (2002). 9. M. C. Shaw, Metal cutting principles, Oxford Science Publications, 1996. 10. P. J. Ross, Taguchi techniques for quality engineering, Mcgraw-Hill, New York, 1988. W. H. Yang, Y. S. Tarng, Design optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations based on the Taguchi method, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.84, pp. 122-129 (1998).

Reference
1. L. N. Lopez de lacalle, J. Perez, J. I. Llorente and J. A. Sanchez Advanced cutting conditions for the milling of aeronautical alloys, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 100, pp. 1-11 (2000). I. A. Choudhury, M. A. El-Baradie, Machinability of nickel-base super alloys: a general rewiew, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 77, pp. 278-284 (1998). N. Richards, D. Aspinwall, Use of ceramic tools for machining nickel based alloys, Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., Vol. 29 (4), pp. 575-588 (1989). S. F. Wayne, S. T. Buljan, Wear of ceramic tools in nickel-based superalloy machining, Tribology Transactions, Vol. 33, pp. 618-626 (1990).

11.

2.

3.

4.

12. C. C. Wang and B. H. Yan, Blind-hole drilling of Al2O3/6061 Al composite using rotary electro-discharge machining, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.102, pp. 90-102 (2000). Technology, Vol.22, pp.344-356 (2003). 13. T. R. Lin, Experimental design and performance analysis of TiN-coated carbide tool in face milling stainless steel, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.127, pp. 1-7 (2002).

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations

14. Z. C. Lin and D. Y. Chang, Tool wear investigation on the precision progressive die for the IC dam-bar cutting process Int. Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.22, pp.344-356 (2003).

Table 1. Machinability rates for metals (AISI Specification) Workpiece material Free machining steel (B1112) Nickel-based alloy Cast-iron Pure iron Machinablility rate ( %) 100 615 50 50 Workpiece material Stainless steel Titanium High-speed steel Carbon steel Machinablility rate ( %) 4065 2030 30 6085

Table 2. Cutting tools Compared with Tpye Material ISO TN35 Carbide Coating Al2O3 Cermet P20P40 P10P15 M10M15 K10K15 P10P20 K10K20

CT3000

NX2525

Cermet

Table 3. Setting of factors and levels in experiment Machining factor S b l T D S F Temp. P Cutter Depth of cut Cutting speed Feed rate Working temp. Ultrasonic power Level 1 TN35 0.1mm 22m/min 0.054mm/rev 25 140 Watt Level 2 CT3000 0.2mm 43m/min 0.103mm/rev 105 160 Watt Level 3 NX2525 0.3mm 73m/min 0.147mm/rev 190 180 Watt

,2006.09

Table 4(a). Experimental results for roundness and S/N ratio Experiment No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 T 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Control Factors D 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 S 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 F 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 Temp. 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 P 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 3 Roundness (m) Rd1 3.60 8.10 3.80 4.20 2.40 4.30 2.70 5.20 5.10 3.80 2.90 4.80 3.00 5.60 1.50 4.70 11.80 2.00 Rd2 2.80 9.50 4.10 3.80 5.60 3.20 2.00 5.80 3.10 3.50 2.70 2.50 3.20 3.90 4.00 3.40 10.20 2.20 Rd3 2.20 S/N (dB) -9.32

10.10 -19.34 4.00 4.50 3.90 2.40 2.30 3.20 2.80 4.20 2.80 2.70 2.40 6.00 3.20 4.00 8.10 1.70 -11.97 -12.42 -12.42 -10.61 -7.42 -13.74 -11.61 -11.70 -8.95 -10.86 -9.21 -14.40 -9.78 -12.19 -20.13 -5.92

Table 4(b). S/N response table for roundness Factors Level 1 2 3 Level effect T -12.02 -11.47 -11.83 0.55 D -10.38 -14.83 -10.12 4.70 S -12.03 -10.86 -12.43 1.57 F -9.44 -13.05 -12.84 3.62 Temp. -12.31 -12.56 -10.45 2.11 P -11.80 -13.16 -10.37 2.79

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations

Table 4(c). An analysis of roundness with and without ultrasonic aid cutting Mean Improve Factors Experiment Roundness (m) ment. value No. rate (m) T D S F Temp P Rd1 Rd2 Rd3 (%) 17 17-1 18 18-1 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 11.80 10.20 13.10 11.60 2.00 5.40 2.20 1.70 8.10 11.90 1.70 3.80 10.03 12.20 1.97 3.63 45.73 17.78

Table 5(a). Experimental results for flank wear and S/N ratio Experiment No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 T 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 D 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Factors S 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 1 2 F 1 2 3 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 Temp. 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 P 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 3 Flank wear (mm2) A1 1.61 9.77 A2 2.12 8.64 A3 4.20 7.64 S/N (dB) -9.16 -18.82 -29.78 -8.84 -13.64 -11.94 -10.40 -5.45 -8.46 -13.79 -24.70 -19.88 -9.49 -9.57 -13.58 -10.76 -3.61 -13.14

45.26 15.33 23.85 2.03 3.33 4.04 3.07 2.25 1.77 6.63 2.55 5.36 3.33 3.52 1.02 2.04 4.25 3.51 5.44 4.42 3.33 2.10 3.71 3.12

18.66 15.47 17.23 14.20 1.05 2.25 6.26 4.20 1.42 4.99 5.62 3.12 1.63 3.06 2.51 1.36 4.92 7.66 3.98 4.41 4.45 3.43 1.74 3.56

,2006.09

Table 5(b). S/N response table for flank wear Level T 1 2 3 Level effect -19.35 -11.18 -8.64 10.72 D -10.41 -12.63 -16.13 5.73 Control factors S -11.39 -14.23 -13.55 2.84 F -13.15 -12.89 -13.13 0.27 Temp. -9.92 -12.10 -17.14 7.22 P -11.91 -12.02 -15.23 3.32

Table 5(c). An analysis of flank wear with and without ultrasonic aid cutting Mean Improvement Factors Flank wear (mm2) Experiment rate (%) value No. (mm2) T D S F Temp P R1 R2 R3 3 3-1 17 17-1 1 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 2 1 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 1 1 2 3 45.26 15.33 23.85 23.91 60.59 30.43 1.42 2.71 1.36 2.27 1.74 3.45 28.15 38.31 1.51 2.81 46.26 26.52

Factor

Table 6 Results of the ANOVA for the roundness and the flank wear Roundness Factor Flank wear SS DOF Var F ratio (%) SS DOF Var F ratio (%)
5.56 88.98 1.87 32.89 19.37 34.05 87.26 269.98 2 2 2 2 2 2 41 53 2.78 44.49 0.93 16.45 9.69 17.03 2.13 1.31 20.90 0.44 7.73 4.65 8.00 2.06 32.96 0.7 12.18 7.17 12.6 32.32 100 T D S F Temp. P Error Total 879.62 279.18 54.02 51.72 472.29 321.67 752.24 2810.75 2 2 2 2 2 2 41 53 439.81 139.59 27.01 25.86 236.14 160.83 18.35 23.97 7.61 1.47 1.41 12.87 8.77 31.29 9.93 1.92 1.84 16.8 11.44 26.76 100

T D S F Temp. P Error Total

Note 1: T= Cutter; D= Depth of cut; S= Cutting speed; F= Feed rate; Temp. =Working temperature; P= Ultrasonic power; = Contribution Note 2: The F ratios according to the F distribution table for roundness is F(0.05, 2, 41)=3.2 The F ratios according to the F distribution table for flank wear is F(0.01, 2, 41)=5.2

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations

Table 7 Results of the confirmation experiment for the surface roughness and the cutting force
Control factors S/N (dB) Confirmation experiments prediction T D S F Temp. P Measuring data Mean S/N value (dB)

Roundness CT3000 flank wear


NX2525

0.3 mm 0.1 mm

43

0.054

190

180 Watt -5.04 1.75 1.90 1.40 1.68 -4.59

m/min mm/rev 22 0.103 25

140 Watt -1.70 1.24 1.08 1.47 1.26 -2.10

m/min mm/rev

-6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18

S/N ratio of roundness (db)

Cutter
TN35 CT3000 NX2525

Depth
0.1mm 0.2mm 0.3mm

Speed
22m/min 43m/min 73m/min

Feed
0.054mm/tooth 0.103mm/tooth 0.147mm/tooth

Temp.
25 105 190

Power
140 Watt 160 Watt 180 Watt

Figure 1. S/N graph for roundness

,2006.09

-7 -9 S/N ratio of flank wear (db) -11 -13 -15 -17 -19 -21

Cutter
TN35 CT3000 NX2525

Depth
0.1mm 0.2mm 0.3mm

Speed
22m/min 43m/min 73m/min

Feed
0.054mm/tooth 0.103mm/tooth 0.147mm/tooth

Temp.
25 105 190

Power
140 Watt 160 Watt 180 Watt

Figure 2. S/N graph for flank wear

Application of Taguchi method in the optimization of cutting parameters for turning operations

Flank wear

BUE

Flank wear

BUE

100m 100m

(a). Cutting with ultrasonic aid Cutting tool: TN35, Depth of cut: 0.3mm Cutting speed: 73m/min, Feed: 0.147mm/rev. Working temp.: 190 Ultra. Power: 180 Watt, Frequency: 20KHz Flank wear area: 15.33mm2 Flank wear zone No BUE 0.3mm

(b). Cutting without ultrasonic aid Cutting tool:TN35, Depth of cut: Cuttingspeed:73m/min,Feed: 0.147mm/rev. Working temp.: 190 Ultra. Power: 0, Frequency: 0 Flank wear area: 23.91mm2 Flank wear zone No BUE

100m

100m

(c). Cutting with ultrasonic aid Cutting tool: NX2525, Depth of cut: 0.2mm Cutting speed: 22m/min, Feed: 0.147mm/rev. Working temp.: 25 Ultra. Power: 160 Watt, Frequency: 20KHz Flank wear area: 1.36 mm
2

(d). Cutting without ultrasonic aid Cutting toolNX2525Depth of cut: 0.2mm Cutting speed: 22m/min, Feed: 0.147mm/rev. Working temp.: 25 Ultra. Power: 0, Frequency: 0 Flank wear area: 3.45 mm2

Figure 3. Comparisons of flank wear with and without ultrasonic aid cutting

,2006.09

1*
1

2 1
2

Inconel 718 (Ni-Base Superalloy)-250700 Inconel 718 (Nb) (Ni3Nb) Inconel 718 Inconel 718