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Case Study of Landscape Ecology: INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR TOWARDS RURAL AND URBAN SUSTAINABLE COMMUNITIES: RESTRUCTURING HUMAN NATURE INTERACTION
AN OVERVIEW OF LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE BIO-RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN JAKARTA-BOGOR-PUNCAK-CIANJUR (JABOPUNJUR), INDONESIA

Hadi Susilo ARIFIN Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)


6-7 January 2004 Prianger Hotel, Bandung - Indonesia
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hsarifin@indo.net.id
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INTRODUCTION
As a tropical country, Indonesia having wet tropical

FACTORS

FORMS
Climate

climate with high temperature and high humidity high biological productivity. Indonesia has highly diverse in its ecosystem such as that in its waters, beaches, low land areas, and higher up to the mountains in which the watershed area divide into units. Landscape ecology focuses on three characteristics of the landscape, i.e. structure, function and change. Bio-physically, the landscape structure in the upper stream differs significantly from that downstream. Ecologically, the upper stream and down stream areas are closely related in terms of material and energy flow.

Geognostic Climatic
Vegetational

Land
surface

TIME

soil drainage mineral resources

NATURAL LANDSCAPE

Sea and coast Vegetation

Fig. The Natural Landscape

FACTORS

MEDIUM Population
density mobility

FORMS

PROBLEM
Landscape changes are serious matters due to changes in agricultural activities toward industrialization, urbanization, and commercial agricultural land.

Housing Culture TIME Natural Landscape


plan structure CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

Production Communication XX Fig. The Cultural Landscape

The landscape matrix is made more diverse as a consequence of the interaction between physical factors and human efforts to exploit and even overcome them. The form of this exploitation has changed over time to reflect social and technological change and the impact of occasional phenomena.

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The Government Macro Policy

Sector Oriented
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The policy & programs have been centralistic designed & sector oriented

Centralistic Policy

Less people participation Lack of community ownership Minimum Impact to the Rural Development
Migration & Urbanization

Uniform project program Less local specific program

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Metropolitan Cities Problem


Fig. 1. Scheme of Problem Issues
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TO RESOLVE THE PROBLEM


Sustainable Rural Landscape Development
IPB and TU ~ Core University Research Program

DGHE/JSPS (1998 2007): Toward Harmonization between Development and Environmental Conservation in Biological Production ~ four Groups.
Ecological landscape planning among rural, suburban,

Integrated Rural Landscape Planning


Transformation of rural landscape Institutional Development Infrastructure Development People Participation

urban and regional scales should be integrated in the planning of watershed from the upper stream right to the down stream.
In this case, apart from physical and biological aspects,

Landscape Ecological Studies on Sustainable Bio-resources Management, e.g. Empowering Traditional Agroforestry System

those of social, economic, and cultural should also be taken into consideration.

Watershed Based Ecological Development Programs Fig. Research Project Framework

HUMAN SETTLEMENT W F R U I T R E S O U R C E C R O P R E S O U R C E R E S O U R C E Three Small Catchment Areas A N I M A L

Micro-scale

STAGE OF RESEARCH
Stage I (1998-2000): Survey on traditional bio-resources

1. Economic balance

O O D R

and environmental system in Indonesia.

2. Nutritional situation

E S O U R

Three Settlements/ Villages

Stage II (2000-2003): Analysis interrelations among the

component in the bio-resource management system and evaluation. management system, adaptability/ possibility of new technology. management system and the proposal of the reconstruction of the bio-resources management system.

3. Ecological structure, function & change (including C, N Cycle)

C E

Stage III (2003-2005): Reconstruction bio-resources

LAND USE & ITS CHANGE CLIMATE, LANDFORM & SOILS

Stage IV (2005-2007). Adaptation of the new bioTWO CATCHMENT AREAS :


CITARUM CATCHMENT AREA & CILIWUNG/CISADANE CATCHMENT AREA

Macro-scale

Fig. Schematic Structure of the Study

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Product Market

International: Universities, Journals, Intl Foundation, Investors, Developers National: Universities, rural-urba communities, local government, companies, NGOs
Maps Articles Indegenouos AF Models Gaduates LU Models Sustain Agric. Models Eco-Villages-Cities Design

The distribution of elevation classes (leftup), slope classes (right-up)

GIS Remote Sensing Land Evauation Bio-Physic Survey Landscape Reconsruction & Management

Technology

Fish/Aquaculture Prod. Animal Husb. Prod. Plant Prod. Soc-Ec-Cult Survey

Ecological Landscape. Planning Integrated Farming System

Food Security Dessimination

The existing land use (mid-left), soil type (mid-right)

Bio-diversity Analysis

Nutritional Science R and D Human Ecology Agriculture Sciences Bio-Resources Management


Landscape structure, function & dynamic Management

Erosion hazard (leftbottom), and promoted ecological land use (right-bottom)

5
Years

10

11
Fig. Cianjur Watershed Citarum Sub-watershed (Source: Saroinsong, Arifin, Gandasasmita & Takeuchi, 2003).

ROADMAP LANDSCAPE ECOLOGICAL STUDY FOR SUSTAINABLE BIO-RESOURCES

Landuse in Cianjur watershed


(Source: Harashina, Takeuchi, Tsunekawa & Arifin, 2002)

Land evaluation in Cianjur watershed


Five agro-ecological land allocation zones delineated in Cianjur

Mt. Gede

Watershed except forests and settlements: paddy fields zone (34.0%) highland vegetables zone (11.2%) complex agroforests zone ( 9.2%) tea plantations zone ( 6.8%) mixed crops zone ( 3.5%)
Five scenarios:
Cianjur City

Legend
Forest Plantation Forest garden Upland field Paddy field Residential area 10km 0 N

EXIST (Existing Land Use in Suitability Term) INTENSE (Introduction Complement of Main Land Use) TREND (Towards Market and Demand) GREEN (Go with Rural Environment Enhancement) COMBINE (Combine several efforts in the same time)

Down stream
JAKARTA

* Flat area * High density of population * Dense settlements * Water/industrial pollution * Lack of greenery open space * Trading & services area

The Characteristics of Ciliwung Watershed


(Source: Environmental Analysis & Spatial Modeling Laboratory, Faculty of Forestry-IPB, 2002)

Land evaluation of protected area in the upper stream of Ciliwung watershed


Physical factors: elevation, slope, soil, riparian, the main

DEPOK

of catchment area, the high ground movement.


Middle stream
* Flat undulating area * High density of population * Settlements & new settlements * Industrial areas & pollution * Abandon lands * Agricultural farmlands * Land use changing

The results: protected area (84.1 %), and non-protected

BOGOR DISTRICT

area (15.9 %).


Present land cover classification in the upper stream of

BOGOR CITY

Upper Stream
BOGOR DISTRICT

* Hilly mountainous area * Poverty, low of land property right * Agricultural farmlands * Big plantation estates * Mineral water exploration * Forest & greenery open space

Ciliwung watershed, the ratio of forest and non-forest area is 37.4%: 62.6%. This means to cover the protected area which resulted from map of distribution of protected area (84.1%), these should be some efforts and activities such as revegetation, producing land use policies as well as law enforcement by the government.

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ECOLOGICAL & INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGES PROMOTING


People traditionally carried out agriculture and forestry in

which people made symbiotic use of ecological circulation in forest and water, and therefore in harmony with nature. system for bio-resource utilization, which is practiced within settlements. Rural Pekarangan contributes to maintenance of food for subsistence during economic crisis. Agroforestry, Agroforestry Landscapes. These system can conserve the environment. So the possibility of sustainability is warranted.

Homegarden (Pekarangan) is a multistory, circular

RURAL PEKARANGAN SYSTEM

Agroforestry System: Complex Agroforestry, Simple

COMPLEX AGROFORESTRY

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TUMPANG SARI

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SIMPLE AGROFORESTRY

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K. Takeuchi

Local level component for landscape planning, agreements, management Public Information for and monitoring modeling: Analytical
Localization: Participatory land use planning
potential, constraint, interactions, impacts, trade offs, priorities
Policy: overall resource condition & use pattern

Digitized local plan

Sub-basin GIS: provides information, consolidates plans

RS Land Use monitoring: transparency, accaountability

Negotiation: communities, local institution, watershed mgt. Network, government agencies, other stakeholders

Local WS monitoring & assessment

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Environmental Services connected with Forests and Watersheds


Protection of biodiversity Maintenance of water flows and water quality Sequestration of carbon Landscape beauty and amenity

ENVIRONMENTAL SEREVICE ISSUES


Many upland and mountain communities in Asia manage landscapes that provide environmental services to outside beneficiaries. The services they provide include clean and abundant water supplies from watersheds, biodiversity protection, stocks of carbon that may alleviate global warming and landscape beauty for recreation and tourism. However upland communities are not sharing in the benefits that these services provide. Rewarding the poor upland communities for providing environmental services would enhance their livelihoods and reduce poverty.

PROGRAM COMPONENTS
Identification and assessment of environmental service

functions across a range of settings, and where and how these services are currently arranged Development and testing of a variety of reward mechanisms at specific sites across a range of settings Support of a transparent and enabling environment at local, sub-national and national levels that will ensure that rewards are effective, equitable and sensitive to marginalized groups Raise the awareness of the potential for rewards for environmental services among government officials and the producers and consumers of these services Effective partnerships in accomplishing the programs purpose will be developed and managed Identification of appropriate and sustainable institutional approaches to foster transfer payment to the upland poor

THANK YOU