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Physics
HSC Course Stage 6

Motors and generators

r be S c to N T g O ME n a ti N D r po M E r co A n

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PHYHSC43196

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Acknowledgments
This publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used. Extracts from Physics Stage 6 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, amended November 2002. The most up-to-date version can be found on the Board's website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/syllabus2000_listp.html#p

All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in good faith. Writer: Editor: Illustrator: Consultants: Richard Morante Julie Haeusler Thomas Brown Malcolm Mors (General Manager, Sithe Energies Australia Pty Ltd) Graeme Gurr (Manager Operations, Sithe Energies Australia Pty Ltd) Garry Smith (Business Development Manager/Network, TransGrid)

Copyright in this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales. Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, 2001. Revised January 2003, 51 Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW 2135.

Contents

Module overview ...................................................................... iii


Indicative time ..................................................................................... iv Resources ........................................................................................... iv Icons ................................................................................................... vi Glossary ............................................................................................. vii

Part 1: The incredible moving charge .................................149 Part 2: Induction ..................................................................131 Part 3: Powering up ............................................................138 Part 4: Transmission ..........................................................118 Part 5: Transformers ..........................................................132 Part 6: Motors and other electrical applications ..................128 Student evaluation of the module

Introduction

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Module overview

Michael Faraday was a giant of science. His achievements in chemistry and physics set him apart from any of his peers. His refusal to patent any of his inventions or concepts marks him as a true giant seeking the progress of all humankind. Faraday showed the world the generator and hinted at the possibility of a useful electric motor. Faradays gentleness and generosity of thought was not shared by the popularisers of the new, useful energy source, electricity. These scientists were also businessmen mostly from the New World like Thomas Alva Edison and George Westinghouse. They saw the practical possibilities of bringing electricity to all and proceeded to do just that. Remember as you work through this module that electricity is a relatively new technology yet it probably is the energy source that most influences your way of life.

Introduction

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Indicative time
This module is designed to cover the activities and learning required in the syllabus module Motors and generators. These materials, including readings, activities, tape and exercises should take the average student around 30 hours to complete. There are six separate parts in the module. Each part should take around five hours to complete although some parts may take a little longer whereas other parts may require less time for some students.

Resources
Some of the syllabus practical activities required in this module will require attendance at a practical session with your teacher. This is due to the specialised nature of some of the equipment. To enhance the learning in this module it is recommended that you have access to a computer and the Internet. For Part 1 you will need: a 40 cm length of single strand insulated copper wire a toilet roll centre an AA cell, a A cell and a D cell battery a bar magnet electrical insulating tape two large silver metal paperclips a small electric motor a multimeter.

For Part 2 you will need: a 10 m length of insulated copper wire a multimeter a 1 m length of single strand copper wire a bar magnet insulating tape a broom handle an aluminium soft drink can

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a pair of scissors a pair of bar magnets or a single large strong horseshoe magnet three silver metal paper clips Blutak or sticky tape a ballpoint pen.

For Part 3 you will need: a multimeter a computer with a digital oscilloscope program an old set of bud earphones you can dismantle and use as input leads in the computer. Note these will be destroyed so dont use good ones. access to the Internet a small DC electric motor from a toy two small electric leads and alligator clips a multimeter or a galvanometer and a millivoltmeter.

For Part 4 you will need: access to a cassette tape recorder or alternatively a computer with the Internet.

For Part 5 you will need: no special equipment is needed for this part.

For Part 6 you will need: a new sharpened lead pencil a small test tube able to fit the pencil or the body of a syringe a bar magnet sticky tape Blutak an empty aluminium soft drink can a pair of scissors around 20 cm of light cotton thread.

Introduction

Icons
The following icons are used within this module. The meaning of each icon is written beside it. The hand icon means there is an activity for you to do. It may be an experiment or you may make something.

You need to use a computer for this activity. Discuss ideas with someone else. You could speak with family or friends or anyone else who is available. Perhaps you could telephone someone? Listen to an audio file.

There is a safety issue that you need to consider. There are suggested answers for the following questions at the end of the part. There is an exercise at the end of the part for you to complete.

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Glossary
The following words, listed here with their meanings, are found in the learning material in this module. They appear bolded the first time they occur in the learning material. alternating current The commonly available electric power supplied by an AC generator. This is mains current and is distributed in single or threephase forms. AC current changes its direction of flow 50 times per second for singlephase power. A motor operating on AC current. There are two general types: induction and synchronous. The portion of the magnetic structure of a DC or universal motor that rotates. Capacitors have the purpose of storage of electric charge, combined with the ability to release this charge quickly. Unlike a battery, a capacitor does not create electricity. A device that, when connected in an alternatingcurrent circuit, causes the current to lead the voltage in time phase. The peak of the current wave is reached ahead of the peak of the voltage wave. This is the result of the successive storage and discharge of electric energy. Capacitors are used in singlephase motors to start the rotor turning, or in threephase motors for power factor correction. capacitor motor A singlephase induction motor with a main winding arranged for direct connection to the power source, and an auxiliary winding connected in series with a capacitor. The electrical conductors wound into the core slot. They are electrically insulated from the iron core. Coils are connected into circuits or windings, that carry independent current. It is the coils that carry and produce the magnetic field when the current passes through them. A cylindrical ring mounted on the armature shaft consisting of a number of copper segments arranged around the shaft that are insulated from it and each other. The motor brushes ride on the periphery of the commutator and electrically connect the armature coils to the power source in sequences as the commutator rotates.

AC motor armature capacitor

coil (stator or armature)

commutator

Introduction

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constant speed motor

A DC motor that changes speed only slightly from a noload to a fullload condition. These are synchronous type motors for AC motors. The iron portion of the stator and rotor. This is usually made up of cylindrical laminated steel or iron plates. The stator and rotor cores are to enable the rotor to turn within the stator. A current that flows only in one direction in an electric circuit. It may be continuous or discontinuous and it may be constant or varying. A motor using either generated or rectified DC electricity. A DC motor is often used when controlled variablespeed operation is required. Localised currents induced in an iron or steel core by alternating magnetic flux. These currents translate into energy losses in the form of heat. Their minimisation is an important factor in lamination design in both motors and generators. The efficiency of a motor is the ratio of electrical input to mechanical output. A synonym for voltage that is usually restricted to generated voltage. The magnetic field established around a current carrying conductor or permanent magnet. The density of the flux lines is a measure of the strength of the magnetic field. That torque of a motor necessary to produce its rated horsepower at fullload speed. The feature shown by an electric circuit by which varying current produces a varying magnetic field that causes voltages in the same circuit or in a nearby circuit. An induction motor is an alternating current motor where the primary winding on one member (usually the stator) is connected to the power source. A secondary winding or a squirrel cage secondary winding on the other member (usually the rotor) carries the induced current. There is no physical connection to the secondary winding; its current is induced. The characteristic of an electric circuit by which a varying current in it produces a varying magnetic field which causes voltages in the same circuit or in a nearby circuit.

core

DC (direct current)

DC motor

eddy current

efficiency electromotive force (emf) flux

fullload torque inductance

induction motor

inductance

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insulator

A material that tends to resist the flow of electric current. In a motor the insulation serves two basic functions: it separates the various electrical components from one another; and it protects itself and the electrical components from attack by contaminants such as dust and oil.

inverter

An electronic device that converts fixed frequency and fixed voltages to variable frequency and voltage. An inverter enables the user to adjust the speed of an AC motor.

laminations

The steel or iron portion of the rotor and stator cores made up of a series of thin laminations (sheets) stacked and fastened together by cleats, rivets or welds. Laminations are used instead of a solid piece to reduce eddy current losses. North or south poles. Indicates the space relationships of windings and changing values of the recurring cycles of AC voltages and currents. Due to the positioning (or the phase relationship) of the windings, the various voltages and currents will not be similar in all aspects at any given instant. The most common power supplies are either single or threephase (with 120 electrical degrees between the threephases).

magnetic polarity phase

poles

In an AC motor, poles refers to the number of magnetic poles in the stator winding. The number of poles determines the motor's revolution per minute capacity. In a DC motor, poles refers to the number of magnetic poles in the motor. Poles create the magnetic field in which the armature operates (speed is not determined by the number of poles).

polyphase motor

Two or threephase induction motors that have their windings, one for each phase, evenly divided by the same number of degrees. Reversal of the twophase motor is accomplished by reversing the current through either winding. Reversal of a threephase motor is accomplished by interchanging any two of its connections to the line. Polyphase motors are used where a threephase power supply is available.

Introduction

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polyphase motor (cont.)

These motors are limited primarily to industrial applications although they may be used in airconditioning units around the home. The starting and reversing torque characteristics of these motors are exceptionally good. This is due to the different windings being identical and, unlike other motors, the currents are balanced. They have an ideal phase relation, which results in a true rotating magnetic field over the full range of operation.

resistor

a material that restricts the flow of electricity is packaged in an insulating material. Resistors do not stop electrical flow, they reduce it to a determined value. The magnetic force created by the stator once power is applied to it that causes the rotor to turn. The rotating member of an induction motor. This is usually made up of stacked iron or steel laminations. The rotor of an induction motor. A shaft runs through the center and a squirrel cage made in most cases of aluminum, holds the laminations together, and act as a conductor for the induced magnetic field. The squirrel cage is made by casting molten aluminum into the slots cut into each lamination.

rotating magnetic field rotor

squirrel cage

starting current

Amount of current drawn at the instant a motor is switched on. In most cases this current is much higher than the current required for running the motor at speed. The torque or twisting force delivered by a motor at the instant it is switched on. That part of an AC induction motor's magnetic structure that does not rotate. It usually contains the primary winding. The stator is made up of laminations with a large hole in the center in which the rotor can turn. There are slots in the stator in which the windings for the coils are inserted.

starting torque stator

transformer

A series of windings (coiled wire) for transforming source electricity to the type or voltage that is required for an appliance or to a suitable state for transmission. Transformers are used to increase or decrease the voltage in a conductor.

Motors and generators

Transformer (cont.)

Transformers either step up or step down the voltage being transmitted. Most transformers are two coils of wire wound around a common iron core. One is the primary (input) coil and the other is the secondary (output) coil. The ratio of windings in the primary coil to the windings in the secondary coil determines the ratio of the input to the output voltage.

torque

Turning force delivered by a motor.

Introduction

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Physics
HSC Course Stage 6

Motors and generators


Part 1: The incredible moving charge

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Contents

Introduction ............................................................................... 2 Charges..................................................................................... 4


Electric current and magnetism ...........................................................4 The force between conducting wires...................................................8 The motor effect .................................................................................13

The electric motor.................................................................... 19


The Thomas Davenport motor...........................................................19 The turning power of a motor.............................................................25 Is a loudspeaker really a motor? .......................................................37

Summary................................................................................. 40 Suggested answers................................................................. 43 ExercisesPart 1 ..................................................................... 47

Part 1: The incredible moving charge

Introduction

When Hans Christian Oerstead first demonstrated that a current can produce a magnetic field the world was changed forever. An entire new technology was made available because of this phenomenon. That technology spawned the new electrical age. It enabled the development of the electric generator and the electric motor. Today you would not be able to describe your daily activities without mentioning the use of electrical devices. These devices are credited with having revolutionised work in industry and on the home front. Electric motors are the drivers of the modern home. This part looks at the principles that describe the operation of the electric motor. In Part 1 you will be given opportunities to learn to: discuss the effect, on the magnitude of the force on a currentcarrying conductor, of variations in: the strength of the magnetic field in which it is located the magnitude of the current in the conductor the length of the conductor in the external magnetic field the angle between the direction of the external magnetic field and the direction of the length of the conductor

describe qualitatively and quantitatively the force between long F II parallel currentcarrying conductors: = k 1 2 l d define torque as the turning moment of a force using: t = Fd identify that the motor effect is due to the force acting on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic field describe the forces experienced by a currentcarrying loop in a magnetic field and describe the net result of the forces describe the main features of a DC electric motor and the role of each feature identify that the required magnetic field in DC motors can be produced either by currentcarrying coils or permanent magnets.

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In Part 1 you will be given opportunities to: solve problems using:


F II =k 1 2 l d

perform a firsthand investigation to demonstrate the motor effect solve problems and analyse information about the force on currentcarrying conductors in magnetic fields using: F = BIl sin q solve problems and analyse information about simple motors using:

t = nBIAcosq identify data sources, gather and process information to qualitatively describe the application of the motor effect in:
the galvanometer the loudspeaker.

Extract from Physics Stage 6 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, amended November 2002. The most up-to-date version can be found on the Board's website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/syllabus2000_listp.html#p

Part 1: The incredible moving charge

Charges

Electric current and magnetism


You should recall from the module Electrical energy in the home that Hans Christian Oersted demonstrated in 1820 that a current in a conducting wire produces a magnetic field. The magnetic field forms a circular pattern as shown in the figure following.

Flux produced by a DC current flowing in a conductor. This pattern can be produced by sprinkling iron filings on a sheet of card through which a conducting wire passes. Note if the current flowing in the conductor is an AC current, the flux direction will change with the frequency of the AC current. The pattern will therefore not emerge when iron filings are sprinkled on the card.

The magnetic flux direction is easily determined by the right hand conductor rule as shown in the figure below.

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flux convential current

The right hand conductor rule. The finger tips point in the direction of the flux around the coil. Remember that conventional current suggests the charge flow is from the positive terminal to the negative terminal.

To show the direction of a current in the cross section of a conductor a dot is used to symbolise the current flowing toward the reader or coming out of the page while a cross is used to symbolise the current flowing along the conductor away from the observer, or into the page. This convention comes from the concept of the arrow flying towards you or away from you. This convention is demonstrated in the figures below.

A cross in a circle shows the current moving away from you.

A dot in the circle shows the current moving toward you.

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The magnitude of the flux density (B) at a point around a single long current carrying wire is dependent on the medium surrounding the wire and is proportional to the current in the wire (I). It is inversely proportional to the perpendicular distance of the point from the wire (d).

I d where k is a constant = 2 10 -7 Tm A -1 . B= k
Do return exercise 1.1 now. In the module Electrical energy in the home you learned that if two current carrying wires are parallel and the current in both is in the same direction that attraction occurs between the two wires due to the magnetic fields produced by the current flow in the wires. If the direction of the current flow in the two wires is opposite then the conducting wires will be pushed apart by the magnetic fields produced by the wires.

X repulsion repulsion

attraction

X attraction

Flux around DC current carrying wires next to one another.

.
X

attraction

attraction

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Why do the wires attract or repel?


Look at the figure below showing two wires with current travelling in the same direction. The crosses and dots on the diagram represent the direction of magnetic flux surrounding each wire. Note that the flux directions are opposite. This is equivalent to the flux from a north pole and a south pole. The wires will therefore attract.

X X X X X X

X X X X X X

Flux surrounding current carrying wires (arrows) where the current is flowing in the same direction.

Confirm that if the two current carrying wires shown in plan below are carrying electric current in opposite directions that the flux between the wires is in the same direction and will therefore result in repulsion of the two wires from each other.

Part 1: The incredible moving charge

Check your answer.

The force between conducting wires


If two long parallel wires of length l, separated by a distance d are conducting currents I1 and I2 the magnetic fields produced by each respective conductor affect the other conductor. The direction of that force (attraction or repulsion) depends on whether the current is flowing in the same direction or in opposite directions. This is shown in the figures following.

Force

point where no field exists

two conductors with current travelling in the same direction

Force
The attractive force that occurs when the current carrying wires carry currents travelling in the one direction. Note the point where no field exists.

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Force

two conductors with current travelling in opposite directions

all field lines have the same direction

Force

The force that is produced when current carrying wires have currents operating in the opposite directions.

The magnitude of the force F, is dependent on the separation distance of the two wires, d. The greater the separation distance the weaker the force. The size of the force is dependent on the size of the respective currents in the current carrying wires I1 and I2. This is because the strength of the magnetic fields (B) surrounding each wire due to the current flow is proportional to the number of charges flowing in the conductor (I = q/t). The force is also proportional to the length of the conductor in the magnetic field. The longer the conductor, the more charges flowing within it at a specific current. Therefore, there are more lines of force. The magnitude of the force is also dependent upon the ability of the magnetic field to permeate the material between the wires. That ability is different for different materials. To overcome that unknown factor a constant (k = 2 107 TmA1) is introduced to signify the magnetic field is in air or a vacuum. If the wires are in any other medium then a different k would apply. The force between the current carrying wires is therefore:
F= kI1I 2 l d

Part 1: The incredible moving charge

But, B = k

I d

Therefore, F = BIl . You should recall this equation was referred to in the preliminary module Electrical energy in the home. The force (F) on a current carrying conductor at an angle q to a magnetic field (B) is F = BIl sinq . The angle q is shown in the figure below. The directions of F, B and I can be determined using the right hand palm rule. These operate at 90 to one another. If the current carrying conductor is at some angle other that 90 to the magnetic flux lines then the resulting force is reduced by a factor of sinq from its maximum value.

F is perpendicular to B F flux lines leave the N-pole and enter the S-pole

current direction

is the angle between the conductor and the magnetic field lines Note: F is a maximum when F, B and are all perpendicular

When the current carrying wire is at an angle other than 90 to the magnetic field direction you need to find the component of its length that is equivalent to a wire at 90 to the magnetic field direction. That is the sin q component of the wire length hence the equation becomes F = BIl sinq .

Sample problem
1 Find the magnitude and direction of the magnetic force between two long parallel conducting wires of length 2 m that are 0.1 m apart if both carry a current of 5 A when:

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a) the currents are in the same direction _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ b) the currents are in opposite directions. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Solution
1 a) Since the currents are in opposite directions the force is an attractive one.
F= kI1I 2 l d 2 10 -7 5 5 2 = 0.1 = 0.0001 N

b) Since the current is in the opposite direction the force is a repulsive one. The magnitude of the force is determined from the equation below. It has the same magnitude as above but this time is repulsive.
F= kI1I 2 l d 2 10 -7 5 5 2 = 0.1 = 0.0001 N

Problem
2 A DC power line 250 m long is oriented NESW in the Earths -5 magnetic field that has a strength of 1.5 10 T in the northsouth direction (Hint: The North Pole is a south pole and the South Pole is a north pole). If the current carried by the powerline is 150 A flowing from the NE calculate the magnitude and direction of the force exerted on the powerline due to the interaction of the current carrying wire and the magnetic field.

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Solution
F = BIl sin q where B = 1.5 10 -5 T l = 250 m I = 150 A q = 45 (from reference to the points of the compass) F = BIl sin q F = 1.5 10 -5 150 250 sin45 F = 0.4 N
From Flemings left hand rule where the direction of the current is indicated by the tall finger (current component at 90 to B is to the west) , the direction of the magnetic field by the index finger (from South to North) and the direction of the force by the thumb when the two fingers and thumb are arranged at 90 to each other the force is directed downwards. Calculate the magnetic force between two long parallel conducting wires of length 100 m that are 1 m apart if both carry a current of 200 A when: a) the currents are in the same direction ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ b) the currents are in opposite directions. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Check your answer.

Do return exercise 1.2 now.

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The motor effect


When a conductor carries a current, a magnetic field exists about the conductor. If a magnet is brought near the current carrying conductor then a repulsive or attractive force will occur. If a conductor not carrying a current is placed within a magnetic field (between a pair of bar magnets) as shown in the figure opposite there is no effect on the conductor.

conducting wire carrying no current no deflection occurs

Conductor carrying no current in a magnetic field.

If the conductor has a current flowing out of the page as shown in the figure below then the resultant magnetic field produced by that current in the conductor will interact with the field from the permanent magnet and repulsion will occur in the direction as indicated.

current carrying wire F

Repulsion of a current carrying wire in a magnetic field when the current is coming out of the page.

If the direction of the current in the conductor is reversed then the direction of repulsion will be reversed.

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conductor carrying current into the page F

Repulsion of a conductor carrying a current into the page when the conductor is in a magnetic field. The direction of the force on the conductor is determined by the direction of the external magnetic field compared to the direction of the magnetic field produced by the current flowing in the wire.

If the current is coming towards you out of the page the magnetic field surrounding the conductor is anticlockwise (from the right hand conductor rule). The interactions of the fields from the conductor and the permanent magnets is such that the field is strengthened on one side of the conductor and weakened on the other. This should come as no surprise as you should recall that magnetic flux is a vector quantity and vectors can be added.

Draw a diagram to show the forces on the conducting wire that occur when the direction of the magnetic field from the permanent magnets is moved through 90 clockwise as shown in the figure below.

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Draw a diagram to show the forces on the conducting wire that would occur when the magnetic field from the permanent magnets are moved through 180 clockwise as shown in the figure below.

Draw a diagram to show the forces on the conducting wire that would occur when the magnetic field from the permanent magnets are moved through 270 clockwise as shown in the figure below.

How would you describe the effect of variations in the direction of the external magnetic field and the direction of the length of the conductor? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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If the magnets were rotated through a full 360 rapidly what would be the effect on a free moving length of the conducting wire? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Check your answers.

Applications of the motor effect


The uses for the motor effect other than using it for a motor were developed early in the exploration of the technology of electricity. Among these uses was the development of a meter to measure how much electric current was being carried by a conductor. That device was called a galvanometer. In 1820, Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger, a German physicist, constructed the first simple galvanometer. William Sturgeon invented the first suspended coil galvanometer in 1836. In a typical galvanometer such as you would find in a science lab for students studying physics, a current is passed through a coil in a magnetic field as shown in the figure below. As a consequence of the magnetic field generated in the coil interacting with the permanent magnets, the coil experiences a turning force or torque. To enhance the effect of the magnetic field generated in the coil a soft iron core cylinder is placed in the centre of the coil. That greatly enhances the effect of the magnetic field in the coil. The torque in the coil is proportional to the current flowing though the coil. The coil's movement is opposed by a coil restoring spring hence the amount of deflection of a needle pointer attached to the coil is proportional to the size of the current passing through the coil. The magnets in the meter are curved so as to ensure that the field is perpendicular to the coil no matter what the orientation of the coil as it rotates. That provides a constant force as the coil spins.

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soft iron core

Magnet surface is curved. This ensures the force is constant.

Magnetic force for the curved magnet is perpendicular to the magnet surface reversing the current reverses the direction of the pointer current I Restoring spring returns the spring loaded pointer to 0 when no current flows

In most galvanometers the current can be set to flow in either direction through the meter. This means the pointer is set to show the deflection to the left or right of a zero mark. This also shows the direction of current flow.

A galvanometer of the type used in school laboratories.

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Explain why a galvanometer is suited to measuring a DC current but is not useful for measuring a high frequency AC current. Consider the makeup of the galvanometer and its mode of operation in your answer. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer.

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The electric motor

The origin of the first electric motor is controversial. The development of the device has been credited to many of the workers in electricity including the great pioneer of electromagnetic experiments, Michael Faraday. Although many of the electric motors cited as the first could be deemed as utilising the motor effect they were not able to be used to do any real work. The first motor with the potential to do work was probably that of Thomas Davenport. Use the internet or any other reference source such as an encyclopedia to research the first electric motor. Write down the names of the people you find are credited with the invention of the first electric motor and the year of their invention. Note also any description of their device and how it works. Decide for yourself who you believe invented the first true electric motor. Your opinion following your research will probably be as valid as the one that follows.

The Thomas Davenport motor


Thomas Davenport invented the electric motor and the commutator and brushes in 1833. A model of his motor is in the Smithsonian Institute in Washington. Davenports motor used the force generated by two electromagnets interacting to do work. This was an unusually early application of the electromagnet which was a device only recently discovered at the time. The electricity source for the electromagnets Davenport used in his motor was a galvanic battery of the type developed by Volta. You learned about galvanic cells in the preliminary module Electrical energy in the home. The battery Davenport used to provide the DC current to his electromagnets consisted of a bucket of weak acid for an electrolyte with concentric cylinders of different metals for electrodes. These electrodes were wired so they could provide the electric current to the electromagnets used in the motor.

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Davenport mounted one electromagnet on a wheel that was free to turn. This was his motors rotor or moving part. The other electromagnet was fixed to a stationary wooden frame. This was his motors stationary part or stator. The force generated by the interaction of the two magnetic fields between the fixed and stationary electromagnets caused the magnet attached to the free moving wheel to turn half a revolution. By reversing the wires to one of the magnets, hence reversing its polarity (making north south and south north) Davenport found that he could get the rotor to complete another halfturn. Davenport then devised a brush and commutator set up to enable the motor to continue to rotate without the need to switch the wires and reverse the polarity of the rotating magnet constantly. The commutator was made by attaching fixed current carrying wires from the frame to a segmented conductor that supplied current to the rotormounted electromagnet. This provided an automatic reversal of the polarity of the rotormounted magnet twice per rotation, resulting in continuous rotation. Davenport actually tried to patent his motor but was refused a patent because he was the first person to have ever attempted to patent an electrical device. The patent office didnt know how to handle his application. To see a site that describes the work of Thomas Davenport and the story behind his invention of the first electric motor see a site on the physics website page at: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science. An electric motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. When an electric current is passed through a wire loop that is in a magnetic field whether that field is produced by a permanent magnet or by an electromagnet, the loop will rotate because of a force created between the magnetic field in the current carrying coil and that of the magnet. That rotating motion is transmitted to a shaft, providing useful mechanical work. The trick is to make the motor continuously rotate to make it useful. Without the commutator in a DC motor that doesnt happen because the turning force or torque on the coil would be opposite after the coil had rotated 180. This would stop the motor after rotating a half turn. A simple electric motor is shown in the figure following. Note the commutator (in this case the commutator is a ring that is cut in two called a split ring) that rotates against the brushes so the direction of the current feed into the coil changes as the coil and commutator rotate. Note the polarity of the brushes on the figure is fixed.

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Motors and generators

Gill Sans Bold

armature force B ~

N S
brush (fixed) axis of rotation split ring commutator brush

force

Commercial commutators are made of more that one pair of plates because normally motors have more than one pair of magnetic poles (a north and a south) on the rotor. Each pair of magnetic poles requires a pair of conducting plates on the commutator. The diagram below shows a sketch of a commercially available split ring commutator in a motor.
multiple poles on the motor brushes bearing to allow free rotation of the motor

soft iron core split ring commutator a cutaway of the external coil

insulated copper coil windings

A universal AC/DC motor. This type of motor can operate using either AC or DC electric currents. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

The partners of the commutator in a DC motor are the brushes. The brushes literally brush against the commutator and deliver electric current to the commutator conducting plates. Most brushes in larger motors are made of compressed carbon.

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The term brush is a hangover from when the brushes were literally brushes made from metal similar to a wire brush. The idea of using carbon blocks as brushes was first proposed by a Mr Van Depoele, who was working at the Thompson Houston Electric Company in the 1880s. Metal brushes made from brass touching rotating commutators wore out themselves or the commutators very rapidly. Van Depoele suggested carbon blocks with a large surface area instead of the brushes. It was ridiculed but when tried was found to work. Carbon brushes are now the most common way to get the current to the commutator. They wear well and actually tend to polish the commutator improving the contact as they run because the brushes remove any oxide build up on the commutator surface. The carbon brush was patented in the 1890s. The first motor was a DC motor and required the invention of a commutator before it could work. Why is it necessary to have a commutator to have a DC motor? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer. To see a website that outlines the story of the invention of the carbon brush see a page on the physics website page at: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science

Making a DC motor
To do this activity you will need: around 40 cm of single strand insulated copper wire a toilet roll centre a Dcell battery a bar magnet electrical insulating tape two large silver metal paperclips.

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Motors and generators

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Procedure: 1 Leaving 34 cm of wire loose at each end, wrap the wire around a toilet roll centre several times to make a tight coil, then pull the toilet roll centre out from the coil.

Wrap the wire tightly around the toilet roll centre.

Loop the loose ends of the wire around the coil to hold it together. When doing this leave around 23 cm of wire sticking out. This wire sticking out will form the axle of your motor. Remove 12 cm of the insulation from half of the circumference of the wire sticking out and arrange your coil as shown in the figure below.
remove plastic insulation from top half of the wire Note: the arms must be evenly balanced with the arms positioned directly across from each other.

Loop the remaining wire around the middle to keep the coil tight. Remove the plastic insulation from the ends of the wire.

4 5

Place the plastic cup upside down on the table Position the D cell battery on top it horizontally and tape it to the cup with insulation tape.

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Bend two metal paper clips as shown in the figure below and tape one to each of the battery's terminals so they will form a cradle for your coil.

tape over the end of battery

Lay the battery on the cup, tape it down, and tape the two paper clips into place on the ends of the battery.

7 8

Tape a bar magnet to the top of the battery perpendicularly to it, lying flat. Carefully lay the coil across the paper clip supports, making sure the stripped ends of the coil are touching the clips.
the coil should be 510 mm from the magnet adjust the paper clips if necessary

Place the magnet on the top of the battery, and give the coil a spin.

If all is well and you have a well balanced coil, the coil should start to oscillate. Give it a little push to start it rotating. It should then rotate on its own.

10 After you have made the observations below try changing the shape of your coil by squashing it into a square or rectangle. Check whether it changes the power of the motor by changing its speed of revolution when operating.

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Motors and generators

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Observations: 1 What happens to the coil when you put it on the cradle? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 2 How long can you get the coil to turn before it stops? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 3 Look closely at the contact points of the turning coil. What do you see? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 4 Stop the coil after you have had it working. Turn the coil slowly by hand while it is in contact with the cradle. Can you feel a difference in the level of magnetic attraction and repulsion of the coil? What is the angle between the coil and the magnet when the attraction is a maximum and a minimum. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 5 When you change the shape of the coil you are changing the area of the coil. When you bend your coil into a shape other than a circle that shape has a smaller area. Does a change in the area of the coil make a difference to the turning power of the motor. _____________________________________________________ Check your answers. Draw a labelled diagram of your motor on your paper. Label on your diagram the following bits: an armature or rotor a split ring commutator and brushes

Return your labelled diagram with the exercises for this part. Do return exercise 1.3 now.

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The turning power of a motor


The turning power of a motor is generally how the torque (t) of a motor is described. The torque of a motor is defined as the turning moment of the force (F) supplied by the coil. The torque is therefore defined as:
t = Fd

where d is the distance at which the force is supplied acting in a clockwise or anticlockwise direction about a centre of rotation. This relationship tells you that the effect of a force applied at a distance to the turning axis is greater than the effect of a force applied close to a turning axis. To put this in an everyday perspective, try to push open a door using the handle. You should find it easy. Now try to push open the same door by pushing on the hinge. You should find it considerably more difficult. To open the door you need to apply a much greater force. This is because the torque required to open the door is fixed but you have changed the distance from the turning axis or hinge. Electric motors are exactly the same. The torque the motor supplies is dependent upon the distance of the coils from the turning axis and the size of the force applied to the coil. Consider the following situation where a single rectangular current carrying coil is positioned horizontally within a horizontal magnetic field. The coil is free to rotate about its centre.

axis of rotation

When the current is flowing in the coil the sides of the square coil that are parallel with the magnetic flux lines have no force acting on them. This is because the angle between the magnetic field and the current flow is 0. From F = BIl sinq if q is zero then F = 0 N. For the sides of the

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Motors and generators

coil at 90 to the magnetic flux lines, from the equation F = BIl sinq , if q is 90 then F = BIl. The direction of the force on each side of the coil is opposite because of the opposite direction of the current flow. This can be confirmed using the right hand palm rule. The direction of both forces acting on the arms of the coil though, will be up or down giving the coil a turning force or torque. The torque due to the force on each side of the coil is t = F d where d is the distance of the side perpendicular to the magnetic field and parallel to the axis of rotation. The torque on each side of the square coil is therefore:
t = BIld but since l 2d is really the area (A) of the rectangular coil therefore the total torque on the coil due to both sides is t = BIA

Motors are rarely (if ever) constructed with rectangular or square coils but the relationship t = BIA still applies. The torque of the coil is related to the area of the coil. Also motors are never a single turn of a coil. That means the coil of an electric motor coil has many turns. The effect of this is that the torque of the motor is multiplied by the number of turns in the coil. The torque of a motor is therefore t = nBIA . The torque at any point in the rotation of the coil can be determined from the relationship t = nBIAcos q . When the coils are at 0 to the magnetic field as shown in the figure below the torque is at a maximum because cos 0 = 1. When the coil has rotated a quarter turn it is at 90 to the magnetic field the torque is a minimum because cos 90 = 0. To overcome this problem the pole surface of magnets in real motors are curved and almost meet. Since the magnetic flux lines are perpendicular to the magnets surface this has the effect of maximising the rotation interval over which the coils are at 0 to the magnetic field.

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armature

B ~

N S
brush (fixed) axis of rotation split ring commutator rotates brush

A DC motor.

Sample problems
1 What is the size of the torque for a rectangular coil of 50 loops each of dimension 0.1 m by 0.5 m where the current flow in the coil is 5 A and the coil is horizontal in a magnetic field of 1 T? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 2 Determine the direction of rotation of the coil in the DC motor shown in the figure below.

A C

B D

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Motors and generators

Solutions
1
t = nBIAcos q
= 50 1 T 5 A (0.1 m 0.5 m ) cos 0 = 12.5 Nm

The torque on the coil is 12.5 Nm. Note that the units Nm are derived directly from the relationship t = F d where F is in newtons and d is in m. 2 Use the right hand palm rule to determine the direction of the force applied to coil side AB and to coil side CD. This shows that the force resulting from the interaction of the magnetic field from the current in the coil with the permanent magnets field will result in a force upward acting on side AB and a force downward acting on side CD. The result will be a clockwise rotation of the coil.

Do return exercise 1.4 now.

Examining a DC motor
In an electric motor the stationary parts are called the stator. The moving part of the motor assembly that carries the coil is called the rotor, or armature. It is easy to control the speed of DC motors by varying the magnetic field from the current carrying coil. A higher current makes the motor spin faster. This is important because these motors are used where motor speed control is necessary. Applications include portable cordless power tools and toys such as slot cars. To do this activity you will need: a small electric motor a bar magnet or a compass a D cell battery an AA cell battery a AAA cell battery two connecting wires. a multimeter.

Locate a simple DC electric motor such as you would find in a small battery powered toy. A can type one is best. You will need to disassemble the motor. This means you will need to take the cover off. That may result in the motor becoming no longer serviceable.

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A simple electric motor has the following parts: an armature or rotor a split ring commutator brushes a centre of rotation. This is an axle. a magnet to supply the magnetic field a DC power supply such as a battery.

You will need to try to identify the mechanical arrangement on your simple motor that correspond to each of these parts. When you take apart a small electric motor you will find that it contains: two small permanent magnets a commutator two brushes an armature made of three electromagnets made by winding wire around a piece of laminated iron metal. To increase the field of the electromagnet the axle of the motor is generally made of soft iron. You should recall from your work on electromagnets in the preliminary module Electrical energy in the home that the soft iron core increases the strength of the magnetic field in an electromagnet when a current flows in a surrounding coil.

forward switch reverse switch

A small motor from a remote controlled toy. Note the control that switches the motors rotation direction. The switches enabling the motor to go forward and reverse simply change the direction of the DC current through the motor. (Photo: Thomas Brown)

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Motors and generators

Procedure These instructions assume your motor is a can motor like the one shown in the photo on the previous page. 1 Observe your motor from the outside. You should be able to identify the steel chassis of the motor, the plastic or nylon cap held in place by screws or metal tabs and two electrical leads. Measure the current supplied by your AAA cell battery with the multimeter by touching the contact probes to both ends of the battery. Record the current. Hook your motor up to the AAA cell battery. It should run but notice the maximum revolution speed and direction of revolution of the axle. You may be able to note the sound (pitch) the motor makes while running or you may connect a paper disc to the end of the motor to enable you to estimate the motor revolution speed. 3 Reverse the connections of the leads to the battery and observe what happens to the axle rotation direction. Record your observations below. Measure the current supplied by your AAcell battery with the multimeter. Record the current. Hook the motor up to the AAcell battery. Does the speed of revolution of the motor change? Record your observations below. Measure the current supplied by your Dcell battery with the multimeter. Record the current. Hook up the motor to the Dcell battery. Does the speed of revolution of the motor change? Record your observations below. Bend back the metal tabs or remove the screws that hold the plastic end cap in place and remove the end cap. Note that once this is done the motor may not be able to be reassembled to work properly again!

tabs to hold the nylon casing to the metal case


Small motor of the type found in toys. (Photo: Thomas Brown)

Look inside the end cap. Locate the motors pair of brushes. They are connected to the exterior terminals and are designed to touch the motors commutator as it spins. Their purpose is to complete the electric circuit to the coil on the armature.

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The brushes cant be solidly connected to the armature that must be allowed to spin freely. Instead the circuit is completed by the brushes literally brushing on the commutator.

Inside the cap of the small motor showing the two brushes hanging down. (Photo: Thomas Brown)

Locate the commutator. This is the end of the axle that is the centre of the armature. Pull the armature out of the steel chassis after first removing the small gear from the end of the gear shaft. You may need pliers to get the small nylon gear off the shaft.

small gear

gear shaft

(Photo: Thomas Brown.)

The commutator should be recognisable as a set of curved copper plates fixed to the axle. Careful examination should reveal it has at least two and probably three splits. This is called the split ring commutator.

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Motors and generators

rotor

coil contact is connected to one segment of the splitring commutator

stator

The rotor removed from the stator of the small motor. Note the insulated copper wire making up the coil. This wire although it appears to be bare copper wire is actually insulated with either a clear plastic lacquer such as polyurethane or a thin coating of transparent plastic. If the insulation fails the effectiveness of the motor is diminished because there are effectively less coils. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

insulated copper coil pole 2 wear lines from the brushes contacting the commutator

pole 1

split ring commutator

coil contacts laminated iron electromagnet pole 3

The armature of the motor. Note this is a three pole motor. The motor has three poles to increase its efficiency. The armature components are shown. (Photo: Thomas Brown)

Look at the armature. This consists of a set of electromagnets (3) made from soft iron plates with a coil of thin copper wire wrapped around them. The ends of the wire coils are soldered to terminals. Each terminal is then connected to one of the separate split plates that make up the commutator.

10 Inside the metal motor chassis is usually two semicircular permanent magnets. They are usually held in place in the chassis by crimped impressions or pressed slits so they cannot move when the motor is working.

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semicircular permanent magnets

Small motor metal case with two semicircular magnets. The crimping on the outside of the motor holds the magnets in place. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

Use a marker to mark your magnets with an arrow up toward the opening so you can tell their orientation after you remove them from the chassis. Carefully pull the magnets out of the motor chassis without breaking them. Check the polarity of the magnets. That is whether a north pole was opposite a south or north pole by seeing whether the magnets attempt to repel or attract when held in their original relative positions. Record your observations. Optional activity: Try to reassemble your small motor. After reassembly try to get the motor to work! Observations 1 The current from the AAAcell battery made the motor spin _____________________________________________________ 2 The current from the AAcell battery made the motor spin _____________________________________________________ 3 The current from the Dcell battery made the motor spin _____________________________________________________ 4 The battery that caused the motor to spin the fastest was the _____________________________________________________ 5 The polarity of the permanent magnets was with the (opposite/same) poles facing each other.

Check your answers. To see a site that describes the components of a simple electric motor see: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science

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Motors and generators

In a simple direct current (DC) motor, a device known as a split ring commutator switches the direction of the current each half rotation to maintain the same direction of motion of the shaft. How does the split ring in the commutator ensure that the direction of the current in the coils is always such that it can ensure one way rotation of the armature. (Hint: Look at the direction of the current in the coil if the ring wasnt split.) _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Look at the motor you have disassembled. Identify the passage of the electric current through the motor when it is operating. Follow this and describe that pathway with a flow chart as it passes through the different components of the motor. If the permanent magnets in your motor were replaced with more powerful ceramic magnets what effect do you think that would have on the speed of revolution of your motor? Explain your answer. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Check your answers.

Solving problems and analysing information about simple motors


1 What do each of the symbols mean in the equation F =
kI1I 2 l ? d

_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 2 What does the equation F =


kI1I 2 l describe? d

_____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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Could you use F =

kI1I 2 l to determine something about the d

operation of a simple motor? If so what could you use it for? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 4 What do each of the symbols mean in the equation t = nBIAcos q ? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 5 What does the equation t = nBIAcos q describe? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 6 Could you use t = nBIAcos q to determine something about the operation of a simple motor? If so what could you use it for? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 7 The simple motor with a square coil as figured below has ten coil turns and a cross sectional area of 0.01 m2. The strength of the magnetic field is 0.3 T. The current flowing in the motor is 2 A. The limbs AB and CD are each 0.1 m long.

C B D axis of rotation A

a) Calculate the force on limb AB. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

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Motors and generators

b) Calculate the maximum torque on the coil. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ c) What is the torque on the coil when the plane of the coil makes an angle of 30 to the magnetic field? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ d) What is the torque on the coil when the coil is at 90 to the magnetic field? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Check your answers. Do return exercise 1.5 now.

Is a loudspeaker really a motor?


Most loud speakers consist of a circular permanent magnet surrounding a freely moving coil slipped over the end of a cylindrical south pole of a magnet. The outside cylinder is the circular north pole of the magnet. The coil is attached to a cone shaped diaphragm.

Looking at a speaker
You may have an old set of bud earphones laying around that are no longer working. If that is the case you may be able to carefully pull the speaker apart to view the parts. Do not do this with a good set of earphones. You will not be able to repair the speaker after disassembly. The photograph below shows the parts that make up a bud earphone speaker. The parts are arranged from left to right as they would appear if you disassembled a bud earphone speaker. This type of speaker is very simple in its construction yet extremely effective.

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The speakers are very cheap because of mass production. Even these speakers work on exactly the same principles as larger loudspeakers. Their components are simply miniaturised.
bud earphone case magnet copper washer

backing for the speaker where an AC current flows into to combine with the coil to make an electromagnet

copper coil clear diaphragm that vibrates to convert the electrical signal into sound

The components of a bud earphone speaker. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

The clear diaphragm is the part of the speaker that is caused to vibrate by the coil and ring magnet to produce the sound from the electrical input. In the diagram of a loudspeaker following the circular magnet is partially cut away so you can see how it operates. Alternating electric current, generated by a microphone, radio, or another source, flows through the coil of the speaker. The current, alternating at the same frequency as the sound waves that generated it, induces an alternating magnetic polarity field in the coil. As the polarity of the magnetic field of the coil switches direction so does the polarity of the magnetic field it generates. It is therefore alternatively attracted to and repelled by the permanent magnet that has a constant polarity. Because the coil is attached to the cone this causes the cone shaped diaphragm to vibrate. This compresses or decompresses the air in front of the cone to reproduce the sounds of the original source. To see a site that demonstrates how a speaker works using a Java applet see sites on the physics websites page at: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science

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Motors and generators

cylindical permanent magnet

coil attached to a fibre cone

The fluctuating magnetic field in the coil produced due to the fluctuating current causes the coil and cone to vibrate in and out in response to current fluctuations producing sound.

N
coil

S N

circuit supplying a fluctuating AC current sound signal


A loud speaker.

Consider how the loudspeaker works. How is the loudspeaker utilising the motor effect? Describe the action of the motor effect in operation in the loudspeaker. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer.

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Summary

Complete these statements to prepare a summary of this part of the module. What affect does each of the following have on the magnitude of the force on a current carrying conductor of variations in: the strength of the magnetic field in which it is located __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ the magnitude of the current in the conductor __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ the length of the conductor in the external magnetic field __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ the angle between the direction of the external magnetic field and the conductor. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Describe what all the symbols mean in the equation F = k
I1 I2 l . d

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Motors and generators

What would you use the equation F = k

I1 I2 l for? d

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ What is the rule that enables you to determine the force direction that results as a result of the interaction of a positive charged particle moving in a fixed magnetic field? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ What is meant by the term torque? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ What is a commutator and what does it do? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Explain how a DC electric motor works. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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Motors and generators

Suggested answers

Why do the wires attract or repel?


1 Using the right hand coil conductor rule for each wire shows you that the flux directions for each wire where they are close together is the same. Repulsion will therefore result.

X X X X X X

The force between conducting wires


a) The magnitude of the force whether attractive or repulsive is the same. Because the currents are in the same direction the force will be an attractive one.
F= kI1I 2 l d 2 10 -7 200 200 100 = 1 = 0.8 N

Note that these large currents produce very small repulsive or attractive forces. b) The magnitude of the force will be 0.8 N and because the current are in opposite directions the force will be repulsive.

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X X X X X X
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The motor effect


1

The effect of the magnetic field is a maximum when the direction of the current carrying conductor is perpendicular to the magnetic field. As the angle shifts from perpendicular toward parallel with the magnetic field the effect reduces to zero. At intermediate angles, q, the effect is reduced by cosq. The wire would be pushed in a circular motion by the interaction of the magnetic fields.

Applications of the motor effect


The galvanometer is able to measure the current flowing in both directions. It is an example of the motor effect in operation where a current flowing in one direction in a coil produces a magnetic field which interacts with a permanent magnetic field to produce attraction or repulsion of the free moving coil and hence movement of an attached pointer.

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Motors and generators

As a result an AC current would cause the indicating needle of the galvanometer to fluctuate back and forth 50 times a second if measuring a 50 Hz AC current as the direction of current flow changed. Accurate readings would therefore not be possible with a galvanometer.

The Thomas Davenport motor


Without the commutator the most the motor can turn is through a half turn. The direction of current would then need to be switched to enable the motor to complete its rotation.

Making a DC motor
1 2 3 4 The coil should rock back and forth or may even begin to rotate. The better the balance of the coil the longer it should spin. A minute or two is good. You should see small sparks. The magnetic attraction should be at a maximum when the coil is at 90 to the magnetic field. It should be at a minimum when the coil is parallel to the magnetic field. The greater the area of the coil, the greater its turning power should be.

Examining a DC motor
AAA battery is around 250 mA. AA battery is around 300 mA D cell is about 500 mA. The battery that caused the motor to spin the fastest was the D cell battery. The polarity of the permanent magnets is with the opposite poles facing each other. 1 The current flowing in the coil is flowing in one direction only. The commutator ensures that the contact between the brushes and the commutator plates is such to make sure the rotor appears to have a current flowing only in one direction. positive battery terminal > positive contact on the motor > brush > commutator > coil >commutator > negative brush > contact on the motor > negative terminal of the battery. Since F = BIL the increased strength of the magnetic field would result in a larger force that should result in a greater torque on the motor that should result in a more rapid rotation.

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Solving problems and analysing information about simple motors


1 F is force, k is a constant, I1 is a current flowing in a wire, I2 is a current flowing in a wire, l is the length of the wires, d is the distance of separation of the wires. The force set up between two long DC current carrying wires. Nothing could be determined about the operation of simple motors directly. F = BIl can be derived from this equation. That equation can be used to determine the torque of a simple motor. t is the turning force on the motor coil, n is the number of turns in the coil, B is the magnetic field from the stator, I is the current flowing in the coil, A is the area of the coil, cos q is the angle between the coil and the magnetic field. The torque or turning force of the rotor in relation to the stator. It is the turning force supplied by the motor. You could use it to determine the torque of the motor. a)
F = BIl = 0.3 2 0.1 = 0.06 N

2 3

5 6 7

(b

Total
t = nBIAcos q = 10 0.3 2 0.01 cos 0 = 0.06 Nm

(c

t = nBIAcos q = 10 0.3 2 0.01 cos 30 = 0.052 Nm t = nBIAcos q = 10 0.3 2 0.01 cos 90 = 0 Nm

d)

Is a loud speaker really a motor?


The magnetic field generated by the coil in the speaker carrying a current is attracted and repelled by the permanent magnet in an example of the motor effect in action. Because the current in the coil is constantly reversing the coil in the speaker is switching magnetic polarity in tune with the current direction switching.

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Motors and generators

Exercises Part 1

Exercises 1.1 to 1.6

Name: _________________________________

Exercise 1.1
What is the strength of a magnetic field surrounding a wire carrying a current of 2 A at a distance of 0.1 m? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 1.2
Determine the force on two 10 m long parallel current carrying wires separated by 0.2 m if each has a current of 5 A flowing in them. Assume the currents flowing in the wires are flowing in opposite directions. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 1.3
If two 10 m long parallel current carrying wires separated by a distance of 0.1 m are experiencing a repulsive force of 1.7 N determine the size of the currents flowing in the wires if I1 is equal to I2. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 1.4
Describe the function of the commutator and brushes in the DC electric motor. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 1.5
What is the size of the torque for a rectangular coil of 1000 loops each of dimension 0.05 m by 0.1 m where the DC current flow in the coil is 10 A and the coil is horizontal in a magnetic field of 10 T? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Motors and generators

Exercise 1.6
Determine the torque of a DC motor where the crosssectional area of the coil is 0.1 m2. The coil has 100 turns. The current flowing through the coil is 2 A. The magnetic field is 0.2 T. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Physics
HSC Course Stage 6

Motors and generators


Part 2: Induction

In

2 er to b T S Oc EN g ti n D M o ra E N o rp A M c

02 0

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Contents

Introduction ............................................................................... 2 Michael Faraday........................................................................ 4 Generating electricity................................................................. 5


Magnetic field strength.......................................................................10 Lenzs law ...........................................................................................12

Eddy currents .......................................................................... 15


Eddy current and motors....................................................................17 Electromagnetic braking ....................................................................20

Using induction for heating...................................................... 22 Summary................................................................................. 24 Suggested answers................................................................. 27 ExercisesPart 2 ..................................................................... 29

Part 2: Induction

Introduction

My theory of electrolysis; my ideas on electromagnetism and fields of force I shall leave to others to ponder and refine. I give forth the bold idea of antimaterialism; breaking the unanimous hold of millennia on matter that says its consideration must be either material or spiritual; giving freedom to thought.

Michael Faraday (17911867) was perhaps the greatest experimental scientist of his time. In this part you will have opportunities to learn to: outline Michael Faradays discovery of the generation of an electric current by a moving magnet define magnetic field strength B as magnetic flux density describe the concept of magnetic flux in terms of magnetic flux density and surface area describe generated potential difference as the rate of change of magnetic flux through a circuit account for Lenzs Law in terms of conservation of energy and relate it to the production of back emf in motors explain that, in electric motors, back emf opposes the supply emf explain the production of eddy currents in terms of Lenzs law

At the end of Part 1, you will have had an opportunity to: perform an investigation to model the generation of an electric current by moving a magnet in a coil or a coil near a magnet plan, chose equipment or resources for, and perform a firsthand investigation to predict and verify the effect on a generated electric current when: the distance between the coil and magnet is varied the strength of the magnet is varied the relative motion between the coil and the magnet is varied

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gather, analyse and present information to explain how the principle of induction is used in cooktops in electric ranges gather secondary information to identify how eddy currents have been utilised in electromagnetic braking.

Extract from Physics Stage 6 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, amended November 2002. The most up-to-date version can be found on the Board's website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/syllabus2000_listp.html#p

Part 2: Induction

Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday (17911867) is the claimed father of the electric generator and the developer of the theory that resulted in the invention of the electric motor. In September 1831 Faraday discovered magnetoelectric induction; that is the production of an electric current by purely magnetic means. To do this, Faraday attached two wires through a sliding contact to a copper disc. Faraday then rotated the disc between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. This had the effect of moving an electric circuit in a magnetic field. This generated a continuous direct current. Faraday had invented the first electric generator. The mechanism by which the generator worked was embodied in Faradays Laws: When the magnetic flux threading a circuit is changing an emf is induced in the circuit. The magnitude of the induced emf in a coil is directly proportional to the time rate of change of the magnetic flux.

In 1832 Faraday did a series of experiments that proved that the electricity induced from a magnet and copper disc, voltaic electricity produced by a battery and static electricity were all related phenomena. Do Exercise 2.1 to 2.2 now.

To see sites that discuss the life and amazing works of Michael Faraday see pages on the physics websites page at: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science.

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Generating electricity

You are probably familiar with the bike generator. This device uses the rotation of the cycle wheel to turn the coil of a small generator fixed between two magnets to generate enough electricity to run the lamp on a bicycle. If you are not familiar with such a device you can probably find someone who is familiar with the way a bike generator operates. One reason they are rarer today than they were in the past is that you must be pedaling at a certain rate to get the lights on the bike to have good illumination. Discuss how a bike generator works with someone who is familiar with one. Ask about how the speed of the bike affected the illumination of the bike lamps powered by the generator. They will tell you that the faster the bike travelled the brighter were the lights. This was because the faster you turned the coil in the magnetic field the greater the current the generator produced. A similar device to a bike generator works to produce the electricity to recharge the battery and operate the electrical system in the family car as you drive along. That device is called an alternator.
An alternator from a car. Note the fan blades attached just behind the pulley wheel. These force cooling air into the alternator to stop it from getting too hot while running. This helps to keep the solid state circuitry in the alternator functioning and prevents the stator coils burning out. Note also the laminated steel plates making up the central part of the case. The coils where the AC current is generated are wrapped around these plates as an efficiency measure because it cuts down on eddy or back currents that would otherwise be a problem and reduce efficiency of the alternator if the steel core of the winding was solid.

Part 2: Induction

The photo above shows an alternator. Notice the pulley wheel on the front of the alternator. A belt attached to this wheel and to another turned by the engine enables the rotor containing a series of electromagnets to turn so that the alternator can induce an AC current in the windings in the case (stator) of the alternator. That current is then fed through a voltage regulator and rectifier to produce electricity that is DC within the allowable voltage range to run the electrical systems and recharge the battery of the car. It was only after the invention of a solid state voltage regulator and rectifier that alternators became popular in cars. That happened in the 1960s. Prior to that time the generation of electricity to supply the electrical power needs of cars was from a generator.
The holes in the case are where the coils are wrapped around the laminations in the stator (case). It is in this internal coil that forms part of the case where the AC current is generated. AIr flow through the holes cools the coils.

laminated plates at the centre of the stator coil windings fan

pulley

output terminal

An alternator from a car showing a different view where the steel plate laminations forming part of the stator core windings are more easily seen. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

Find a local autoelectrician or someone who knows about how alternators work. Discuss with them how the alternator works. They may be able to show you the internal structure and components of an alternator they may be repairing.

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Generating an electric current


Perhaps the simplest method of generating an electric current is to use a length of wire connected to your multimeter and the Earths magnetic field to generate an electric current. Find a friend to assist you with this activity. To do this activity you will need: a length of insulated thin copper wire around 10 m long a friend to help you a multimeter insulating tape.

Procedure 1 2 Go outside away from all metal objects with around 10 m of copper wire and a multimeter. Connect the wire ends to the terminals of your multimeter. You may need to tape the wire in place in contact with the terminals of the multimeter probes. Set the multimeter to read mA. The 200 mA setting (or the lowest current setting available) is best. Determine which way is north with a compass or from the direction of sunset and sunrise being eastwest. Stand facing eastwest and swing the wire up and down while looking at the reading on the multimeter. You should see the reading rise and fall.

3 4 5

The multimeter is able to detect an electric current flowing in the circuit you have made because you are generating an electric current in the circuit by the action of your wire cutting across the Earths magnetic field. The current alternates because the wire moves up and down in the Earths magnetic field. If you stood with your wire facing northsouth and swung it up and down do you think you would get the same sized current generated in the circuit? Explain your answer. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer.

Part 2: Induction

In the previous activity the electric current was generated by moving the conductor in a magnetic field. The reverse situation of moving a magnetic field with respect to a conductor that is stationary will also generate an electric current.

Making an electric generator


To do this activity you will need the following equipment. a digital multimeter or a galvanometer a 1 m length of single strand copper wire a broom handle insulating tape a bar magnet.

Procedure 1 2 Make the wire into a coil by wrapping the wire around the broom handle to make a tight coil but do not overlap the turns of the coil. Connect the ends of your coil to the probes of the digital multimeter. You may have to attach the wire ends with either alligator clips or with insulating tape. Set the multimeter to read 200mA or the lowest reading possible on your meter. If using a galvanometer try to use one that measures mA. Stand the bar magnet on its end with the Npole end facing up. This means the magnetic flux from the magnet is fixed but the coil is free to move. Move the coil over the top of the magnet rapidly in one direction. Note the reading that you get on your meter and whether the reading is negative or positive. (The negative or positive reading on the meter just gives you the sense of direction of the current generated in the coil.) Move the coil more slowly over the magnet and note what happens to the reading on the meter. Move the coil in the opposite direction rapidly. Note the reading that you get on your meter and whether the reading is negative or positive. Turn your magnet around so that the Spole end is facing up and repeat steps 5 and 6. Record your observations. Keep the coil still and move the Npole of the bar magnet into the coil in a single direction. Look at the meter and note what happens as you do this.

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Move the magnet out of the coil in the opposite direction. Note what happens on the meter when you do this.

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10 Move the magnet back and forth over your coil with different speeds. Note whether moving the magnet rapidly or slowly causes the higher reading on the meter. 11 Move the magnet rapidly along your coil at a distance of 1 cm (approximately) from the coil and record the size of the current generated in your coils circuit. Then move the magnet further away from the coil to a distance of around 5 cm and repeat the activity noting the size of the current generated in the coil. Note any difference in the size and polarity of the current generated. Observations An electric current is generated in a coil when: The direction of the current is (dependent/independent) on the direction of the movement of the coil with respect to a fixed magnetic flux. The direction of the electric current is (dependent/independent) of the polarity of the magnetic field. The faster the lines of magnetic flux cut the coil the (greater/smaller) the size of the current generated in the coil. The size of the current generated in a coil is (dependent/independent) on the strength of the magnetic field (closeness of the magnet) cutting across it.

Check your answers.

Part 2: Induction

Magnetic field strength


You know that some magnets are stronger than others. That is they have a stronger magnetic field. Identifying how strong a magnet really is involves a little imagination. The idea is to imagine the magnetic field to consist of a large number of lines that connect the north and south poles of the magnet. These imaginary lines can be thought of as travelling out of the north pole and into the south pole of the magnet. These lines are called lines of magnetic flux. The stronger the magnetic field surrounding an object the more magnetic flux ( F ) lines per unit area (A) or the greater the flux density (B). That is the flux = flux density area, or F = B A . Consider the situation below where a conductor is moving in the magnetic field between two bar magnets. In all the cases shown the conductor is moving at the same speed. The magnetic field is represented as lines of force leaving the north pole and entering the south pole. If that conductor is a straight wire of length (l) then the conductor will have a potential difference generated in it as it moves with some velocity (v) through the magnetic field (B). The potential difference is called the emf (e) and is measured in volts. The emf developed in such a case is e = Blv . A casual observation should reveal to you that the conductor will pass through the greatest number of lines of flux in a set time if its motion is at right angles to the flux lines. This is shown in the figure below.
flux lines distance conductor moves in time t

conducting wire

maximum number of flux lines cut in a a fixed time

In the diagram following the conductor is moving so that in the same time (remember all conductors are moving at the same velocity) it will only pass through about 70% of the flux of the conductor above.

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distance conductor moves in time t

less flux lines cut in the same time conducting wire

In the case of the conductor below the wire is travelling parallel to the field. It therefore passes through no flux lines.
distance conductor moves in time t

conductor moving parallel to the lines of flux cut no flux lines therefore no current is generated

According to Faradays Law of electromagnetic induction, the emf (e) induced in a conductor is the amount of flux cut (F) the time taken (t). In other words e =
DF . Where the circuit involves a coil, hence Dt

resulting in multiple loops of the circuit cutting the flux, the emf generated is in proportion to the number of coil turns (N) that cut the flux. That is the emf generated is e = N
DF . It is therefore easy to see Dt

why the coil in real generators must have many turns. Consider the three situations described in the diagrams above. a) Which of the three situations above would produce the maximum emf in the conductor? Explain your reasoning. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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b) Which of the three situations above would produce zero emf? Explain your reasoning. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ c) How would the magnitude of the emf generated in the situation shown in the middle situation compare to the emf generated in the situation shown in the figure on the bottom of the page? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Check your answers. Do Exercise 2.3 now.

Lenzs law
Lenzs law was first proposed by Heinrich Lenz (18041864). This law says:
If an induced current flows, its direction is always such that it will oppose the change in flux that produced it.

Consider the example below where a current is produced by inserting a magnet into a coil. The coil is attached in a circuit containing a galvanometer that can detect small current flows and their direction. If the north pole of a bar magnet is inserted into the coil as shown in the figure following, the current induced in the coil will be such that it produces a north pole opposing the insertion of the bar magnet.

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The magnetic field associated with the current generated in the coil by the movement of the bar magnet is in the opposite direction to the magnetic field that generated the current. Pushing the bar magnet against that field does work and provided the energy that drives the induced current.

The north pole produced by the current induced to flow in the coil opposing the entry of the bar magnet into the coil can be confirmed using the right hand solenoid rule you learned about in Part 5 of the preliminary module Electrical energy in the home. That rule says:
If a solenoid (coil) is grasped in the right hand, with the fingers pointing in the direction of the current, the thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field produced by the current flow in the solenoid.

The right hand rule.

In this case the current is flowing from right to left across the page from the coil so the magnetic field produced by that current is as shown on the figure. If the magnet is pulled out of the coil as shown in the diagram following, the current induced in the coil will be such that it produces a south pole on the left hand side of the coil. That south pole attracts the north pole of the bar magnet that is being withdrawn from the coil and pulls on the north pole of the bar magnet opposing its motion out of the coil.

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The magnetic field due to the current generated in the coil is in the opposite direction to the magnetic field from the bar magnet. This attraction means work must be done to pull the magnet out of the coil.

Lenzs law follows from the Law of conservation of energy. That law says energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can simply change form. Energy must therefore be transferred to the coil to produce the induced current flow (electrical energy). It is therefore necessary that work must be done against the north pole being inserted into the coil and against the north pole being withdrawn from the coil to generate the emf in the coil. The movement of a magnetic flux with respect to a coil generates the electric current you use everyday in appliances and to produce light. That generated electrical energy can obviously do work and be converted into other forms of energy. The induced emf and the size of the current produced in a generator is increased when: the magnet is moved faster there are more turns on the coil a stronger magnet is used.
DF explain why each these factors affect the Dt

Consider each of these three factors listed immediately above and by referring to the equation e = N size of the induced emf in a coil. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer. Do Exercise 2.4 now.

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Eddy currents

Observing the production of eddy currents


To do this activity you will need the following equipment: an aluminium soft drink can a pair of scissors a pair of bar magnets or a single horseshoe magnet three paper clips some Blutak or some sticky tape.

Procedure Take care when doing this activity not to cut yourself with any sharp edges you produce. Throw all scrap metal into the garbage or recycling to avoid risk to yourself or others. 1 Use the scissors to cut a triangle of aluminium metal with approximate dimensions 10 cm high by 8 cm wide from the side of the aluminium can. Flatten out the triangle. Unfold one of the paper clips so that the paper clip is straight. Then place a bend in the middle. Bend both the ends down slightly. Punch a hole in the sharpest angle of your aluminium triangle that is big enough to pass your unfolded paper clip through and assemble the gear as shown in the figure below with the triangle free to swing like a pendulum. Swing the triangle and time how long it takes to come to rest.

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Blutak

aluminium can triangle that is able to swing freely

The aluminium triangle and paperclip set up. The Blutak insulates the system. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

Start the triangle swinging again with a similar swing to you used in Step 4 but this time place two bar magnets with opposite poles adjacent the swinging aluminium triangle. Time how long it takes for the triangle to come to rest. Repeat Step 5 a number of times.

Triangle swinging freely within a magnetic field. (Photo: Thomas Brown. Hands: Ric Morante)

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Observations Did you notice that the triangle stops swinging a lot faster when the magnets are adjacent the metal triangle? _________________________________________________________ The aluminium triangle stops faster when in the magnetic field (when the opposite poles of the magnet are adjacent it.) This is because the movement of the aluminium triangle (conductor) in the magnetic field produces an electric current in the aluminium triangle. The direction of that current is such that the magnetic field it produces is in the opposite direction to the magnetic field from the permanent magnets that produced the current. Because the magnetic fields are opposite they attract. That attraction causes the aluminium triangle to stop swinging a lot faster.

Eddy current and motors


When an electric motor is turning the coil of the armature is turning with respect to a magnetic field in the stator. The relative movement means that an emf is generated in the coil of the armature because it is cutting a flux. By Lenzs law the direction of that induced emf is opposing the emf causing the motion of the armature. The current produced by the generated emf in the motor is called the eddy current. The direction of the motor generated emf must therefore be such that it opposes the supply emf that produces the motion in the motor. This emf is called the back emf. Any electrical conductor when present in a varying magnetic field, will have a current induced in it. The electric motor demonstrates a wanted effect of this in the form of the rotational energy that is produced in the rotor, and unwanted effects that manifest themselves as eddy currents or a back emf that reduces the efficiency of the motor. When a DC electric motor is first started the coil is stationary so the current flowing through the armature coil is high. Once the armature begins to spin, eddy currents operating in the opposite direction to the supply current are initiated. The faster the motor spins the larger these currents become. Since these eddy currents are in the opposite direction to the supply current they effectively reduce the effective supply potential difference. The supply current flow through the motor is therefore reduced once the motor is in motion. To protect a motor at start up from the risk of burnout due to it drawing too much current a resistor is placed into the circuit. This reduces current flowing through the coils. The resistor is often designed as part of a centrifugal device so that as the motor achieves a rate of revolution the resistor is removed from the

Part 2: Induction

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circuit. That is because it is not longer required because the back emf at higher revolutions of the motor is sufficient to protect the motor coils from burnout.

Improving motor efficiency


In an electric motor with a solid iron armature, the eddy current produced in the armature damps the efficiency of the motor. This is because the opposing eddy current causes the resistance in core of the armature that is usually made from soft iron. The armature heats up wasting energy that might otherwise go into producing a rotational force. One strategy to minimise this problem is to make the motor armature from a laminated stack of thin soft iron sheets. Each sheet is insulated from the adjacent sheets by a thin oxide film on the surface of each lamination. By having the laminations the build up of eddy currents is severely disrupted and cannot occur along the full length of the armature. This means the back emf induced in the motor is lowered to a much less significant effect.
rotation direction induced back emf

solid armature

laminated armature (prevents build-up of back emf)

A solid and a laminated armature. Note the windings of copper wire around the armatures are not shown. The laminated armature is far more efficient because of the disrupted eddy currents not forming a sizeable back emf. Each plate in the laminated armature is insulated from the plates adjacent.

Do Exercise 2.5 now.

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Stopping the eddy currents


Use the same set up as for the activity Observing the production of eddy currents but this time cut the aluminium triangle so that the base of the triangle is now shaped similarly to the photograph below. Repeat the activity using the serrated triangle shape.

Aluminium triangle with serrations cut into it. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

Observations Does the magnetic field cause the serrated aluminium triangle to stop swinging more quickly? _________________________________________________________ You should have found the serrated triangle shape doesnt stop swinging noticeably more quickly when the triangle is swinging through the magnetic field. Why didnt the serrated triangle slow down more rapidly in the magnetic field? (Hint: Think about the laminated armature in the motor.) _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer.

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Electromagnetic braking
Eddy currents are often used for electromagnetic braking. The idea is simple and follows on from the activities you have done above. Passing a conducting plate or wheel through a magnetic field will produce eddy currents in the conductor. These eddy currents induced in the conductor produce a magnetic field that is of the opposite polarity to that of the magnetic field causing the eddy current. The attraction between the induced magnetism from the eddy currents and the magnetism causing the eddy currents slows the moving object. Examples of using eddy currents for electromagnetic braking include: Eddy currents are used for magnetic braking in some freefall amusement park rides. A copper plate is attached to the ride capsule. As the capsule falls it passes between strong magnets near the bottom of the ride. The magnetic field produced by the eddy currents induced in the copper plate produce a magnetic field that is of opposite polarity and therefore attracted to the original magnetic field. This is able to slow the ride down. Eddy currents can be used as a braking force in rapid transit train cars. Electromagnets on the train near the metal conductive rails are turned on. This creates eddy currents in the rails that produce an induced magnetic field that is of opposite polarity to the magnetic field from the train. These opposing polarity magnetic fields slow the train. Because the magnitude of the induced eddy currents is a function of the speed of the train the strength of the induced current in the rails and its accompanying magnetic flux is reduced as the train slows. That is as the train slows, the braking force is proportionally reduced. This produces a smooth stop. Maintenance costs in such a system are reduced because there are no brake pads or discs to wear out.

Modelling electromagnetic braking


To do this activity you will need : three paper clips some Blutak an empty aluminium soft drink can two bar magnets a pair of scissors the plastic inner ink reservoir tube from a ball point pen.

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Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 Cut the bottom from the soft drink can and stamp on it to make a flat disc. Punch a hole in the centre of the disc big enough to fit the plastic pen tube through as shown in the photograph following. Set up your equipment as shown in the photograph. Spin your pen and disc and time how long it takes to come to a stop. Place two bar magnets with opposite poles facing on either side of the disc and spin it again as shown in the figure below. Time how long it takes the disc to come to a stop while it is spinning in the magnetic field. While spinning in the magnetic field an eddy current is being generated in the disc.

The experimental set up. (Photo: Thomas Brown)

Observations 1 Did you notice the disc stopped spinning more rapidly when the disc was in the magnetic field compared to when it was not in the magnetic field? _____________________________________________________ 2 Explain your observations in terms of what you know of eddy currents generated when a conductor moves relative to a magnetic field. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Check your answers. Do Exercise 2.6 now.

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Using induction for heating

One of the most novel uses for induction is the induction cook top. Each cooking area on the cook top has one or more coils made of ferromagnetic material under it. When an alternating current is passed through these coils, a magnetic field fluctuating with the same frequency is produced. A ferromagneticbased pan placed over the coils has an electric current induced in it that is rapidly oscillating. The internal resistance of the pan to this induced AC current results in heat being produced in the pan. That heat is dissipated to the food in the pan and does the cooking. Essentially the element of this type of cook top is the pan. The induction cook top only works when used with magneticbased pans, made from materials such as iron and steel that will allow an induced current to flow within them. A simple way to find out if a pan is induction cook top compatible is to use the magnet test. If a magnet will stick to the surface of the pan, that pan is suitable for use with an induction cook top.
iron based (ferromagnetic pot/pan) resistance to the induced AC current causes heating oscillating electric current is produced in the pot

ceramic top (cold) oscillating magnetic field

induction coil carrying an AC current to AC power supply

The principle of induction cooking. Note that as the AC current flows in the induction coil it waxes and wanes between a maximum value and minimum value of zero as well as in direction. The size of the current determines the strength of the magnetic field so the magnetic field strength waxes and wanes also.

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Induction cook tops are ceramic. Because the only heat produced is generated due to resistance of the induced current in the metal in the pan or cooking utensil, the surface of the cook top is cool when nothing is placed on it. This eliminates the possibility of accidental burns and the risk of accidental fire. Because the cooking utensil itself is the device that does the heating, less heat is dissipated to the surroundings than would be the case with other methods of cooking. This typically makes induction heating the most efficient way to heat and cook food. Claimed efficiencies of the energy conversion from electrical energy to heat energy useful for cooking are of the order of 90%. To see pages that describe induction cook tops see pages on the Physics website page at: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science Do Exercise 2.7 now.

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Summary

Complete the following statements to prepare a summary of this part. Michael Faraday discovered that an electric current can be generated by: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ An experiment, example or activity that demonstrates each of Faradays Laws of electromagnetism is: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ A definition for electromagnetic flux is: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Lenzs law says: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Back emf makes a motor less efficient in its operation because: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Eddy currents can be used to produce electromagnetic braking by: _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

A motor may require a resistor in the circuit to its coils to prevent burnout at start up but not once the motor is running because: _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Induction cook tops are cool to the touch but are able to cause a heating effect in cookware because: _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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Suggested answers

Generating electricity
No the current would be much less because you would be cutting less flux as the Earths magnetic field runs northsouth.

Making a generator
The direction of the current is dependent on the direction of the movement of the coil with respect to a fixed magnetic flux. The direction of the current is dependent on the direction of the polarity of the magnetic field. The faster the lines of magnetic flux cut the coil the greater the size of the current generated in the coil. The size of the current generated in a coil is dependent on the strength of the magnetic field cutting across it.

Magnetic field strength


a) The highest value of emf should occur where the conductor passed through the flux lines at right angles. This conductor passes through the maximum number of flux lines in the minimum time. This situation is the one shown on the left side diagram.

b) The right hand side diagram conductor would have no emf generated in it because there is no flux cut by this conductor. c) In this case the emf must be less in the middle diagram conductor than in the left side diagram conductor. This is because in the same time only 70% of the flux lines are cut by the middle diagram conductor. From this it is apparent that since e =
DF that the emf Dt

in the middle conductor will be 70 % as large as that in the left side diagram conductor.

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Lenzs law
If the magnetic is moved faster more flux is cut by the coil in the same amount of time. More turns on the coil means that a greater area amount of flux is involved in the generation of the emf as F = BA . Similarly a larger B means a bigger flux because F = BA .

Stopping the eddy currents


The serrations break up the current therefore instead of the eddy current establishing itself throughout the entire triangle it is only established in a small portion. A smaller current means a smaller magnetic field is established by that current.

Modelling electromagnetic braking


The disc does stop more rapidly when it is in the magnetic field. The eddy currents are produced as the magnetic field is cut by the spinning disc. The eddy currents are such that they produce a magnetic field of opposite polarity to that of the magnets. That means they attract the disc effectively producing a slowing force.

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Exercises Part 2

Exercises 2.1 to 2.7

Name: _________________________________

Exercise 2.1
What was Michael Faradays experiment that demonstrated that an electric current could be generated by a moving magnet? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 2.2
Use a diagram to aid you to explain what magnetic flux is. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2.3
Explain how you could increase the current output of a simple experiment with a fixed size coil and a fixed size magnet when the coil is in a set circuit. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 2.4
Explain how Lenzs law accounts for the production of back emf in an electric motor. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 2.5
How can Lenzs law be applied to the production of an eddy current? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 2.6
How does electromagnetic braking work? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2.7
Explain why copper bottom cookware would not work on an induction cook top yet is among the most efficient means of cooking on a normal gas or electric range? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Dont forget to submit a labelled diagram of the electric motor you built in the activity from Part 1 with this set of exercises.

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Physics
HSC Course Stage 6

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Part 3: Powering up

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2 er to b T S Oc EN g ti n D M o ra E N o rp A M c

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Contents

Introduction ............................................................................... 2 Generators ................................................................................ 4 The DC generator...................................................................... 5


DC CRO traces ..................................................................................10 Comparing a motor to a generator ....................................................11

The AC generator.................................................................... 17
Producing an AC current....................................................................19 Why is the electricity supply AC? ......................................................20 Generating electricity commercially ..................................................23

Summary................................................................................. 31 Suggested answers................................................................. 33 ExercisesPart 3 ..................................................................... 35

Part 3: Powering up

Introduction

Electricity runs modern life. The use of electricity in all communication devices such as radios, television, phones and computers is an indication of the ubiquitous nature of electricity. There is rarely an aspect of daily life that excludes the use of electricity. The household labour saving devices such as the washing machine and the vacuum cleaner require electricity. A day without electricity because of power generation breakdown or undercapacity is the stuff of headlines. Governments are held to account when the power fails. The extensive use of electricity means that the generation of electricity is a big business operation. Locations such as California and the Silicon Valley in particular have massive requirements for uninterrupted electricity supply. The humble AC generator is the device used for the supply of most if not all of this requirement. For all the talk of photovoltaic (solar) cells, the reality is commercial quantities of electricity come from the generator. The energy to turn the generator comes from a variety of sources but it is still the generator that makes the electrical supply you know and depend on possible. During the course of your learning in this part you will have opportunities to learn to: describe the main components of a generator compare the structure and function of a generator to an electric motor describe the differences AC and DC generators discuss the energy losses that occur as energy is fed through transmission lines from the generator to the consumer assess the effects of the development of AC and DC generators on society and the environment.

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At the end of Part 3, you will have had an opportunity to: plan, chose equipment or resources for, and perform a firsthand investigation to demonstrate the production of an alternating current gather secondary information to discuss advantages / disadvantages of AC and DC generators and relate these to their use.

Extract from Physics Stage 6 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, amended November 2002. The most uptodate version can be found on the Board's website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/syllabus2000_listp.html#p

Part 3: Powering up

Generators

The generator is based on the principle of electromagnetic induction that was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831. Faraday discovered that if an electric conductor is moved through a magnetic field an electric current will be induced in the conductor. The mechanical energy of the moving conductor is converted into the electric energy of the current that flows in the conductor. In Australia almost all electricity supply to homes and industry comes from generators. The generators used in industry are almost all designed to produce AC current to meet the demands of home and industry. Special applications such as large motors require the generation of DC current. The configuration of the current collection devices, either slip rings and brushes for the AC generator or split ring commutator and brushes for the DC generator will determine the type of current generated.

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The DC generator

The figure following and on the next page shows the arrangement for a simple single coil DC generator. The coil turning in the fixed magnetic field has a current induced in it. The direction of the induced electric current is a constant and is determined by the direction of rotation of the coil. The graph in the diagram shows the changing magnitude of the induced current in the coil as it rotates through the magnetic field.
loop possessing potential energy

B A in sequence
0

galvanometer clockwise rotation of loop B B in sequence


0

B C in sequence
0

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B D in sequence
0

B E in sequence
0

Induced current

B 0 A C Time

D E

Notice how the induced current is at a maximum when the moving coil is parallel to the magnetic field and at a minimum when the moving coil is at 90 to the magnetic field. Most schools and science education institutions have a hand generator similar to the one shown in the photograph below. Often these hand generators can be set to generate either AC or DC current.

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bar magnets S S small lightglobe N N pulley connected to the coil

S S

insulated copper wire coil


A hand generator. (Photos: Thomas Brown. Hands: Ric Morante)

bar magnets

split ring commutator

slip rings

coil

The hand generator showing the slip rings enabling generation of AC current and the split ring commutator enabling generation of DC current. Note the split in the commutator is just visible on the edge behind the contact. This split is opposite another split on the commutator ring that divides the commutator ring in two segments. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

The figure on the next page shows a CRO trace that was produced from a simple hand cranked generator switched to produce DC current.

Part 3: Powering up

0.2 V/Div

5 ms/ Div

A CRO trace from a simple DC generator. Note how the trace is dominated by an upward signal in one direction only and is somewhat like an AC generator trace with the bottom half of the waveform chopped off (see the next page for this). The noise in the signal is due to the irregular current generation in the simple coil.

0.2 V/Div

5 ms/ Div

A DC trace produced with a simple hand generator with the coil rotated slightly faster in the opposite direction.

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The CRO trace below was made when the hand generator was switched to produce AC current and cranked slowly.

An AC current trace on the CRO produced with a hand generator. The wave form is symmetrical about its baseline in this case and forms a square wave.

A CRO trace of an AC current generated by rotating the coil a little more slowly.

Do return exercise 3.1 now.

Part 3: Powering up

DC CRO traces
The image of the CRO output current of the DC generator has some significant differences from the DC current output of batteries. The DC output from a battery is a constant current (at least while the chemical reaction producing the current in the galvanic cell or battery can be sustained). The CRO output signal from a battery is shown in the figure following.

voltage

baseline

13:35:04

0.25 V/Div

0.106 ms/Div

DC current trace from a battery or galvanic cell. The trace from the galvanic cell is the upper horizontal line. The lower horizontal line is the zero base against which to measure the voltage produced. Note the voltage output does not fluctuate at all and is a constant 0.26 V. Note if the leads are reversed in their connection to the battery terminals the same sized voltage is produced but this time it is below the base line indicating that the current is flowing in the opposite direction.

Look at the CRO output from the galvanic cell and those from the DC generator shown previously in this part. You will see significant differences. Propose a reason why the DC output from the generator is not a constant current as with the DC current from the battery but rather fluctuates between a maximum positive value and zero. (Hint: Consider the equation f = BA cosq .)

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_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer.

Comparing a motor to a generator


Look at the figures below that show a DC generator and a DC motor.

armature

B ~

N S
brush (fixed) axis of rotation split ring commutator brush

A DC motor.

A DC generator.

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Identify the main (labeled) components of the motor and the components generator by listing them in the table below. Describe the function of each of the components along side their name.
Function Generator part Function

Motor part

Does the generator have any bits that the motor does not or vice versa? ______________________________________________________

Check your answers. It probably doesnt surprise you to learn that the DC motor and generator are in fact the same thing. The motor can act as a generator and a generator can be adapted fairly simply to act as a motor.

Do return exercise 3.2 now.

Making a simple DC generator from a motor


To do this activity you will need: a simple DC electric motor from a toy two leads and alligator clips a multimeter set to read current or a galvanometer and millivoltmeter.

The emf (e) produced by a conductor in a magnetic field is determined by the strength of the magnetic field (B), the speed of the conductor moving in the magnetic field (v) and the length of conductor in the magnetic field (L). This relationship is described in the equation e = BLv . Note that the emf is not really a force but is rather a voltage.

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Procedure 1 2 Connect the leads of the meter to the input terminals of the electric motor. Turn the armature of the DC electric motor at a reasonably slow pace in one direction only and observe the meter. Record the maximum reading. Reverse the direction in which you turned the armature of the motor and observe the reading on the meter. Record the maximum reading. Now turn the armature shaft a little faster and observe the maximum reading you can obtain on the meter. Switch multimeter to read millivolts or connect the motor to a millivoltmeter and repeat steps 2 to 4.

3 4 5

Small motor connected to the multimeter. The experiment is done by rotating the shaft on the small motor. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

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Observations 1 Was the motor acting as a generator? How did you know? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 2 What difference did the speed with which the armature was turned make to the size of the current generated? ______________________________________________________ 3 What difference does turning the armature faster make to the emf (or voltage) produced by the generator? ______________________________________________________ 4 Explain why the current is increased as the rate of turning the motor armature changes. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 5 Explain why the potential difference or emf of the motor is greater when the input of kinetic energy to the motor is greater. (Hint: Think about the Law of conservation of energy.) ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 6 Describe the operation of a DC generator as it produces electricity of a varied sized voltage and current. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Check your answers.

Using a motor as a generator


To do this activity you will need: access to a CRO or a CRO simulation (digital oscilloscope) program an old set of bud earphones appropriately prepared to enable input of any signal to the CRO a small electric motor from a toy.

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Procedure
wiring from cut off bud earphone acts as input device into the CRO or digital oscilloscope program

input jack

remaining bud earphone can act as a microphone for digital oscilloscope program input
The connections required to the small motor. The input jack can be connected to the microphone input of the computer if using a digital oscilloscope computer program. Note that the two wires required to complete the input circuit come from only one of the bud earphone leads. (Photo: Thomas Brown.)

1 2

Connect the separate leads from one bud earphone to the electric motor and the CRO input. Turn the motor over and look for an output signal on the screen of the CRO.

Observations You should see an output that is similar to the one shown below. This output is not a particularly clean signal. This is because the signal is produced by three separate coils wrapped around the poles of the motor. This means that in the process of generating the electricity contributions are made from three separate tiny generators in the motor. The result is that the signal although representing a DC current tends to have a flat bottom and peaks of generation. This is probably because although the motor can act as a generator its primary purpose and design is to act as a motor.

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9:29:26

0.1 V/Div

100 ms/Div

The CRO output signal from a small toy motor used as a generator. The straight line represents the baseline signal of the CRO.

In the motor electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy. When the same motor is used as a generator the mechanical energy inputted to turn the shaft of the motor is converted into electrical energy.

Train motors are used as generators


The fact that electric motors can be used as generators was not lost on the designers of the interurban rail network in NSW. Trains on the interurban electric network in NSW are powered by DC electric motors. The supply from the overhead electric cables is 1500 V DC. The system persists with the use of DC motors even though significant cost savings in terms of energy use could occur if the system switched to AC motors. The reason for this is the cost of infrastructure replacement prohibits the changeover. One advantage that the DC system does have though is the ability of a DC motor to act like a generator. Trains climbing hills (gaining potential energy) draw power from the grid while trains coming down the same hills (losing potential energy) can use their motors as generators. The electric power generated is fed back into the grid to provide power to the other trains climbing the hills. This energy saving partly offsets the relative inefficiency of the DC motors compared to their AC equivalents.

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The AC generator

Most commercial generators are AC generators. These generators use slip rings as a mechanism of collecting the electric current rather than the split ring commutator and brushes arrangement used in the DC generator. The operation of the AC generator is otherwise essentially the same as that for the DC generator. AC generators have a number of advantages over DC generators. They are: cheaper and simpler in construction with less parts to wear more reliable than equivalently power rated DC generators partly because the DC current is generated in the rotor. That current is then drawn from the windings through a commutator and a brush pair. The many segments of the commutator (required to give DC output) are more likely to suffer wear and short out. By contrast, the alternator generates an AC current in the stator (the nonrotating windings) and is rectified using diodes if DC is required. It is much easier to draw the current through a fixed connection in the stator rather than through a commutator. the rotor is used to create the 'field magnetisation' that causes the generation of AC current in the stator when the rotor is spun. To do this the rotor only needs to have two continuous conductive bands or 'slip rings' to conduct the electric field current from the brushes to the rotor. The slip rings are continuous. They do not wear the brushes as fast as the commutators in a generator. there is no possibility of creating a short between segments in an alternator because the slip rings are already continuous. There is with a commutator in a generator because for the commutator to work it must be divided into segments. alternators are more compact than generators of equivalent output because their design is more efficient and there is less likelihood of overheating occurring.

In addition to all the above factors, most electrical equipment is designed to use AC because AC motors are cheaper, simpler in design and more reliable than their DC counterparts and hence require less maintenance.

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The figure below shows the mechanism of generation of an AC current from a single coil generator. The figure below shows the position of the coil at each point AE in a single cycle of AC. The turning of the coil in a magnetic field produces a current in both sides of the coil which add.
clockwise rotation of loop A in sequence B
0
B B

= max =0

t
galvanometer

B in sequence B
0
B B

=0 = max

C in sequence B
0
B B

= max =0

D in sequence B
0
B B

=0 = max

E in sequence B
0
B B

= max =0

t
B A 0 E C D Time

An AC generator in operation. The full cycle of rotation of the coil is required to produce one cycle of AC current. Since the component of the velocity perpendicular to the magnetic filed changes sinusoidally with the rotation, the generated voltage is AC.

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Induced current

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Take a highlighter or coloured pencil and draw over one side of the square coil that is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Trace that side in its passage through a full AC cycle. You should see that the full AC cycle (sinusoidal curve) requires the coloured side of the coil to turn through 360. Do Exercise 3.3 now.

Producing an AC current
You are required to plan and perform an experiment to demonstrate the production of an alternating current. An alternating current has the following characteristics. The current is cyclic fluctuating between zero and a maximum value with a regular change in direction. The current flowing through a galvanometer will cause the needle fluctuate back and forth as the current direction changes. The CRO trace of an AC wave is a sine wave shape like the one shown in the figure below.

An AC output trace on the CRO. This output trace was produced using a transformer to dramatically step down the voltage.

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Do not under any circumstances attempt to record an AC signal from mains power with a CRO or CRO simulator program. Electricity can kill. An alternating current can be produced by a magnet rotating in a coil or the regular insertion and retraction of a bar magnet into a coil. The principle of how this works is shown in the figure of a simple experiment to generate an AC current shown below.
Simple alternator the turning magnet generates a AC current in the alternators stationary winding Alternating current as the armature, or rotor, rotates the current is continually reversed

simple coil galvanometer bar magnet on a pencil stationary windings in which current is generated

You need to plan and perform an experiment that demonstrates the production of an alternating current. You will need to submit your experimental procedure, equipment list and observations to confirm the production of an AC current with your return exercises for Part 6 of this module.

Why is the electricity supply AC?


It is not possible to store electrical energy in the quantities demanded by society. Transmission of electricity is therefore essential since the resources to generate electricity (hydro power, coal, gas, wind and solar energy) are fixed. They cant move easily or economically, so the electrical energy moves to the consumer. In addition even if a power plant could be built in a particular place there needs to be sufficient customers demanding that electricity to make the running of the power plant worthwhile. Because this is rarely the case immediately adjacent to a power generation plant the transmission of excess power is the only viable option. In 1991, about 7% of electricity generated in the US was lost between generation facilities and end use.

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Reliable estimates in Australia suggest that with our sparse population the losses in Australia may be even higher. If these transmission and distribution system losses are reduced, less electricity needs to be generated to meet consumer demand. This could reduce greenhouse gas emissions since the majority of electricity is generated in Australia by thermal power stations that burn coal for their energy source. The preferred type of electricity to be transmitted over significant distances is AC. This is in large part because of the capacity of AC electricity to be transmitted at high voltages and low currents. It can then be easily converted into a more usable form by a transformer. DC current cannot be easily transformed. Power losses are very significant over longer distances. The relationship that describes power consumption is P = I 2 R (or P = VI). The ability of a network to be able to transmit power at high voltages and relatively low currents is therefore critical (because the I is squared). This is increasingly important when the generators producing the power are long distances from the consumers of the power. The best way to understand the reason for the significant advantages of high voltage AC transmission is to look at a comparison of power losses that occur per kilometre during AC transmission at a variety of voltages. To do this consider the example below of an imaginary transmission of electricity from a power station generating 1000 W of power through a transmission line with a resistance of 1 km1. The table considers three transmission voltages, 50 V, 100 V and 1000 V. The effective power delivery in each of these cases is calculated.
Transmission voltage Generator power Current in conductor (from I = P/V) Transmission power loss km1 (from P = I2R) Power available after losses 50 V 100 V 1000 V

1000 W 1000 W / 50 V =20 A (20 A)2 1 W = 400 W

1000 W 1000 W / 100 V = 10 A (10 A)2 1 W = 100 W

1000 W 1000 W / 1000 V = 1A (1 A)2 1 W =1 W

(1000400) W =600 W

(1000100) W = 900 W

(10001) W = 999 W

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Which of the transmission modes is the least effective in the delivery of the electrical energy generated to the consumer? Explain your answer. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer. Do Exercise 3.4 now. All conductors operating at the normal temperatures transmission lines operate at are resistive to some degree to the passage of an electric current. The standard copper wire used in electrical transmission is resistive to a level of around 8 km1. As you can imagine the transmission of electrical energy over many hundreds of kilometres is therefore a huge drain on the electrical transmission system. Minimising that drain is vital. The easiest way to do that when using conventional transmission equipment is therefore to transmit the power at low current / high voltage values. The only current that can be transformed efficiently to that state is AC. As an additional way to save energy and reduce power losses it is possible to build the power stations near to where demand occurs.

The Sithe Energies Australia Pty Ltd Smithfield Energy Facility gas thermal power station and steam turbine generation facility at Smithfield in Western Sydney. The three high stacks are from the gas turbine generators. The four large tank like structures on the left of the photo are the condenser towers. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Motors and generators

This approach has been taken at Smithfield NSW where a power station has been built to supply nearby houses and industry with electrical energy. This power station burns natural gas so has clean emissions. It is located within 1km of domestic dwellings. Alternatively to reduce energy losses in transmission industry may be built near the power station. This has occurred with electricity hungry industries such as aluminium smelting in the Hunter Valley and in Tasmania. Make a list of five of the possible strategies that could be employed to reduce the energy losses that occur when electrical energy is fed through the transmission lines. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answers.

Generating electricity commercially


Electricity is generated commercially at large power stations throughout NSW. Most of these facilities are thermal power stations that use as their energy source the burning of coal. These electricity generation plants supply around 90% of the 11 000 MW or so of power required by NSW. Supplementary power is supplied by the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme power plants and small alternative energy generators such as wind turbines, solar energy and the state of the art Sithe Energies Australia Smithfield Energy Facility. The figure below shows an overview diagram of the entire Sithe Energies Australia Smithfield Energy Facility power station.

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natural gas high pressure steam combustor low pressure steam

Gas turbine generator 1


generator 36 MW

intermediate pressure electricity to utility

air compressor to supply oxygen

turbine

heat recovery steam generator natural gas

steam turbine

generator 60 MW

Steam turbine generator

combustor

Gas turbine generator 2


generator 36 MW

low pressure steam to customer

raw water

demineraliser air compressor to supply oxygen turbine

heat recovery steam generator natural gas condenser

cooling pump

combustor

Gas turbine generator 3


generator 36 MW

low pressure steam to customer feed water

air compressor to supply oxygen

turbine

heat recovery steam generator natural gas supply

boiler feed pump

Sithe Energies Australia Smithfield Energy Facility.

gas turbine stacks boiler units transformers

Gas turbine stacks at the Sithe Energies Smithfield Energy Facility. Note the proximity of the transformers to the stacks and the 38 MW generators located immediately to the rear of the stacks. These are 33 kV transformers that feed electricity directly In to the supply at the Guildford Substation via three transmission lines. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine generators is used to make steam for use in the steam turbine generator. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Motors and generators

Transmission line between the Smithfield Energy Facility and the Guildford substation. (Photo: Ric Morante)

The generator for each gas turbine is entirely enclosed in a steel case with access doors for maintenance. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

The Smithfield energy facility is located in western Sydney within only hundreds of metres from residential dwellings and industry. The generating plant generates 160 MW of electricity that is fed into the electricity grid through the Guildford Substation located around 500 m from the plant. The substation is protected from lightning strikes by a network of lightning rods on purpose built towers around and through the substation.

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lightning rods Guildford substation

transformers
Guildford substation. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

The Smithfield Energy Facility sells steam produced as a result of burning gas in its three gas turbine generators to the nearby Visy industries paper recycling plant as one of its products. The remainder of the heat energy produced and steam generated is used to provide high pressure steam to run a high pressure steam turbine that drives a 65 MW water/air cooled steam generator. The electricity from that generator is also fed into the Guildford Substation via an underground electrical cable.

steam turbine generator

transformer

The steam turbine generator and its accompanying transformer used to step up the voltage of the output electricity to 33 kV before the electricity is fed into the electricity grid. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Motors and generators

Back of the steam turbine generator. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

insulating jacket around the steam turbine to reduce heat loss

Steam turbine showing the insulating jacket. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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The steam pressure in the steam turbine drops from 9.8 MPa to under vacuum at95 kPa to ensure the maximum energy utilisation. After passing through the steam turbine the steam is condensed and passed through air /water cooling towers by a circulatory system driven by large pumps. The water used in the boilers and steam turbine is demineralised and recirculated in a closed pipe system to prevent scale build up in the boilers which could cause a safety hazard. Water and fans are used in the cooling towers to cool the steam turbine water down before it is recirculated through the boiler system attached to the gas turbine generators where it is heated to make high pressure steam again. The water that can be seen passing out of the cooling tower structure as steam is water drawn from the mains water system and is used for cooling only. The cooling towers are made from wood to enhance efficient cooling. Air is drawn from the opening at the base of the cooling tower structure by huge fans and circulates up through the tower. At the same time a rain of water runs over the hot steam pipes to cool the steam down and continually condense the demineralised water for the boilers.

generator

demineralised water tank

Boiler water tank containing demineralised water for use in the closed circuit steam turbine generator system. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Motors and generators

boiler units

Boiler units over the gas turbines heat the demineralised water with exhaust heat from the burning of the gas in the turbines. The high pressure steam from the boilers is then circulated to the steam turbine generator system. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

steam emission

inlet pipes

wooden frame structure


Cooling towers showing steam inlet pipes. The base of the structure is open to allow cooling air to be drawn up the cooling tower structure. Although there are 4 towers the use of one tower would be sufficient to cool down the steam from the plant. As an efficiency measure two cooling towers are generally operated at any one time. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

None of the steam seen coming from the cooling towers has been directly involved in the production of the electricity. This steam is produced cooling the high pressure steam that has been involved in the turning of turbines.

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The water is pumped around the system using large motors and pumps. These motors are of the order of 450 kW.
450 kW pump motor

pump

A 450 kW motor drives the pumps at the Sithe Energy Facility. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Complete Exercises 3.5.to 3.8.

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Motors and generators

Summary

The main components of a generator are: _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

What is the difference between a DC motor and a DC generator? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Why are there energy losses that occur as energy is fed through transmission lines from the generator to the consumer? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

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Motors and generators

Suggested answers

Making a galvanic cell


1 The observational evidence for the unidirectional current produced by a galvanic cell is that the readout on the meter will either be positive only or negative only. The readout on the meter is steady. (The current is therefore steady.)

Comparing the DC CRO traces


As the coil rotates through 360 the value of cosq fluctuates between 0 and 1. This means the current out put also fluctuates between a maximum and a minimum value.

Comparing a motor to a generator


Motor part split ring commutator Function ensures the torque on the coil is in one direction connects the exterior circuit to the coil where current induces a magnetic field oppose the magnetic field induced into the coil to produce motion Generator part split ring commutator Function ensures the current from the coil is in one direction only connects the coil to the exterior circuit

brushes

brushes

coil

coil

where a current is induced by cutting a magnetic field induces the electric current in the moving coil

permanent magnet

permanent magnet

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Making a simple DC generator from a motor


1 Yes it was acting as a generator. As the armature (rotor) was turned a current was observed to cause the meter needle to move or a reading to be observed. A larger current was observed when the armature was turned faster. A faster rate of turning the armature caused a greater voltage or emf. A greater turning force is required to turn the armature faster. N, B and A are constant therefore rearranging t = nBIA to make I the subject results in I =
t . Therefore as the torque is increased the nBA

2 3 4

current must also become greater. 5 6


emf = BLv therefore as the velocity of rotation is increased the emf

will be greater. The speed of armature rotation is increased to increase the current and voltage and decreased to reduce the current and voltage.

Why is the electricity supply AC


Transmission at 1000 V is the most efficient. Transmit at high voltages, use highly conductive metals as transmission wire, build power stations close to where demand is or conversely build high demand industry near to power stations.

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Motors and generators

Exercises Part 3

Exercises 3.1 to 3.8

Name: _________________________________

Exercise 3.1
What are the main components of a DC generator and what is the function of each of these components? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 3.2
It has been stated that a generator is essentially an electric motor operating in reverse. Comment on the validity of that statement making sure you explain fully all points you make. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 3.3
Look at the figure of the simple generator shown below. Would this generator produce AC or DC electricity? Explain your reason for your choice.
brushes split ring commutator

coil

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 3.4
Show through calculations why an electric current from a 1 MW power station can be more efficiently transmitted as a 100 000 V transmission than as a 240 V transmission. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Motors and generators

Exercise 3.5
Assess how the development of the AC and DC generator impacted on society? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 3.6
Outline how the development of the AC generator and large scale thermal power plants has impacted on the environment? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 3.7
Discuss the relative impact of the following types of power station on the environment: thermal coal burning power station, hydroelectric power station, wind generated power. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 3.8
Identify the relative advantages of the AC generator over the DC generator for general use? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Physics
HSC Course Stage 6

Motors and generators


Part 4: Transmission

In

2 er to b T S Oc EN g ti n D M o ra E N o rp A M c

02 0

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Contents

Introduction ............................................................................... 2 Edison versus Westinghouse .................................................... 3 Transmission............................................................................. 5


History of transmission.........................................................................6 Transmission in NSW...........................................................................7 Transmission lines................................................................................8

Summary................................................................................. 14 Suggested answers................................................................. 15 ExercisesPart 4 ..................................................................... 17

Part 4: Transmission

Introduction

Electricity is generated at specific locations in NSW. The transmission of that electricity to where it is consumed is an enterprise that requires huge infrastructure investment. The energy losses from transmission are significant and must be kept to a minimum. The monitoring of the grid to ensure regular and reliable energy supply is essential. You are probably familiar with the sight of high voltage transmission lines stretching across the country side. These arteries carry the energy that powers modern society. They appear so common these days that they hardly rate a mention and blend into the natural landscape yet they are an example of the high technology modern society demands to supply its thirst for energy in the useable form you know as electricity. At the end of Part 4, you will have had an opportunity to: analyse secondary information on the competition between Westinghouse and Edison to supply electricity to cities gather and analyse information to identify how transmission lines are: insulated from supporting structures protected from lightning strikes.

Extract from Physics Stage 6 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, amended November 2002. The most uptodate version can be found on the Board's website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/syllabus2000_listp.html#p

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Edison versus Westinghouse

In the early days of the electricity industry the competition to supply electricity to cities was intense. It was really a battle of DC versus AC. Thomas Edison proposed that DC was the superior system for the transmission and generation of electricity. George Westinghouse and his partners proposed that electricity should be generated as AC and transmitted as AC. The industry was split. Both the opponents in this battle had the respective advantages to tout for their system. Edison claimed DC was better because DC was safer for the consumer. If you received a shock from the domestic supply of DC by gripping the wire you could simply open the hand and remove it. The same cannot be said of an equivalent voltage AC shock that would tend to paralyse the hand and force you too continue to hold the wire. Edison was said to have made the following statement about AC electricity;
"Just as certain as death, [George] Westinghouse will kill a customer within six months after he puts in a system of any size." Quote from Blow, Michael. Men of Science and Invention. New York, American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1961. p. 95.

Edison had a vision of the establishment of DC generators all over cities transmitting the electricity short distances to where it was required in small local networks. In many instances the idea was that each building would have its own electricity generator. Under these conditions the transmission energy loss problem due to electrical resistance when using a DC system was not such a problem. DC when used under these conditions was at an advantage in the efficiency of generation at the time. If you didnt have to transmit the electricity too far it was a good system. Edison had some other advantages over Westinghouse in the early competition for domination of the electricity industry. These were largely due to his head start. His Pearl Street power station near Wall Street New York was up and running in 1882, and the bankers backing was more easily obtained for small local stations initially. Power stations cost money to build. Large power station as such as those preferred by

Part 4: Transmission

the generators of AC such as Westinghouse required a large capital investment on which it took a number of years to provide a return. The small DC generators used locally were cheaper per unit, represented less risk to the banks and financiers and had their product market guaranteed. They didnt need to look for customers at a distance. The truth of the matter in the end was that AC won out over DC because it was a better system. Its use was able to drive down the cost of electricity supply. Part of the problem with the small DC generation systems was that you needed to have the capacity to run the generator all day but demand was only peaking at certain times. Your capacity had to match the peak demand. The location of customers able to use the electrical generating capacity outside of peak demand periods was easier for large power generating systems with broad distribution networks. More efficient use of expensive generating capacity by AC generators meant that costs for electricity could be reduced. Cheaper electricity meant more access to consumers as they switched on to the cleaner alternative electrical energy from alternatives such as gas lighting. The whole thing then became selfperpetuating. Today electrical hot water is often offpeak. The electrical supply companies sell cheap electricity to heat water in periods of low electricity demand. That way their load capacity is more evenly utilised and they do not have vastly excessive capacity underutilised for much of the day. History now tells us now that the AC system of George Westinghouse won the day. In many respects AC wasnt as safe as the DC system but it did have the advantage that it could be transmitted long distances efficiently. The power plant could also be established close to the energy source and the electricity moved into the city along transmission wires. This was pivotal to the success of the Niagara Falls hydroelectric power plant built by Westinghouse in 1895. This decentralisation meant that the power plant could be built on relatively cheap ground and that the generation and accompanying pollution (if not a hydro electric station) was on the outskirts of the cities or in the surrounding countryside. To sum it up, the battle for domination of the electricity industry and control of the lucrative city market was lost by Edison in the short term but won by both Westinghouse and Edisons General Electric Corporation. The two companies started by these men still dominate the generator industry today. It was an economic and political battle. The winner was a technological society! To see sites that describe some of the battle between Edison and Westinghouse to provide electricity to cities see links on the physics websites page at: http://www/lpmc.edu.au/science.

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Transmission

A high voltage transmission tower. (Photo: Ric Morante. )

Part 4: Transmission

History of transmission
In 1876, the California Electric Company of San Francisco opened. Its purpose was the selling of electricity. The companys market was small in terms of the number of customers served but it was still the first electrical transmission system. In 1881, Lucien Gualard and John Gibbs patented an AC transmission system in England. In 1882, Thomas Edison opened the Pearl Street Station in New York. This system provided DC electricity to around one half of a square kilometre. In 1885, George Westinghouse and William Stanley developed the transformer to a high level of efficiency. In 1886, Stanley demonstrated the advantages of AC transmission. In this demonstration he used a transformer to step up a generated voltage to 3000 V for transmission. Then, after transmitting it around 1200 m he used a second transformer to step down the voltage to 500 V. This was a much more highly efficient means of transmitting electricity than with the competing DC system where the energy lost during transmission was much greater. In 1887, Nicola Tesla patented the polyphase (threephase) AC system of electricity generation and the motors that could use AC electricity. In 1890, the first commercial AC transmission power line was in use between Willamette Falls and Portland, Oregon. This was a distance of 21 km. From this time on, AC transmission began to dominate the electricity transmission business. The acceptance of the use of the AC electricity system as the dominant means of transmitting electrical energy was not smooth. The battle has been termed the transmission wars. The proponents of the DC system were the Edison Electric Company. The proponents of the AC system were Tesla and his business partner George Westinghouse. The battle for dominance was not clean. It had all the intrigue of an adventure story. To access information that give insights into this battle of the currents go to links on the physics websites page at: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science.

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A power plant produces power that has to be transmitted to a city 12 km away. If they transmit the electricity at 100 000 V, and the transmission wire has a resistance of 1 km1, how much power is lost in transmitting 20 MW (megawatts) of electricity to the city? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer. Do Exercises 4.1 and 4.2 now.

Transmission in NSW
The population base in NSW and hence the greatest demand for electric power is in the eastern coastal part of the state. The transmission system in NSW links the main power stations and those of the Snowy Mountains hydroelectric scheme through more than 15000 km of network. This network also extends into the power stations that feed into Victoria and form part of the national grid. The transmission system has developed as the demand for electricity has increased. In 1950 the only high voltage transmission line in operation in NSW was a 132 kV line linking power stations at Port Kembla near Wollongong and Burrinjuck Dam near Yass. The 132 kV network was expanded as demand increased for power and large decentralised power stations were built closer to energy supplies of coal in NSW. In 1959 a 330 kV line was built from the new Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme to Yass. This network of 330 kV lines has expanded to provide electricity from power stations scattered around NSW to the major centres of demand. In 1979 far western NSW towns such as Broken Hill were connected into the 220 kV power grid of Victoria. In 1984 a 500 kV line was established between Eraring Power Station on Lake Macquarie and Kemps Creek substation in southwestern Sydney. A second 500 kV line was commissioned in 1986 between Bayswater and Mount Piper power stations. The longer the distances travelled by the electricity between generation and use, and the greater the demand for electricity the higher the voltages required for efficient transmission become.

Part 4: Transmission

A 330 kV line can carry ten times the electrical energy of a 132 kV line. As demand for electricity rises in the urban centres higher voltage lines must be constructed. Listen to the tape called Substations and transformers or alternatively download and listen to the tape on steaming audio from the physics website page at: http://www.lmpc.edu.au/science.

Transmission lines
You are familiar with transmission lines. Most neighbourhoods still have transmission lines above ground though there is a tendency in newer suburbs to place the electrical power lines below the ground. The electricity lines you are probably most familiar with are not really transmission lines at allthey are distribution lines. These distribution lines carry electricity from a substation to your home. A distribution line attached to a power pole is shown in the photograph below. These lines often carry electricity at around 22 000 to 35 000 V. Electricity is transformed to domestic supply voltage at 240 V.

shield conductor

earth from the shield conductor leading to the ground

A power distribution pole. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Transmission lines are the giant towers carrying high voltages (of the order of 300 000 to 500 000 V) across country from power stations to the substations that supply electricity to consumers. A set of transmission lines on a pole is shown in the figure following.

A high voltage transmission pole. This particular pole is carrying 33 kV. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Look at the photo above. What is the transmission tower made from? _____________________________________________________

Like most transmission towers the tower shown in the photograph above is made from steel. This material is conductive. As a consequence, this presents a problem for the transmission tower during electrical storms. Notice that the transmission tower is the highest thing in the area. In fact, the area around high voltage transmission lines is a buffer zone where construction is not allowed. The higher the voltage carried by the transmission lines the larger the buffer zone. The tower is therefore a high conductor exposed to lightning strike. 2 Look again at the photo of the transmission tower. Is there any evidence of active lightning protection such as the installation of a lightning rod system around the tower? _____________________________________________________ Most transmission towers have a similar arrangement to that shown in the photograph on the previous page.

Part 4: Transmission

Each of the three separate bundled wires shown on each side of the tower in the photo above carry a single phase of the three phase AC transmission. Commercial generators produce threephase current because that is the most efficient generator design. Each of these wire pairings that carries a single phase of the electric current is separated from the tower by a set of insulators bundled together known as an insulator chain. The insulator chain looks like a set of plates stacked on top of each other. These plates are usually a rubber or ceramic material.

ceramic insulators that can be connected to form an insulator chain

note the metal hooks are not in contact with other metal parts to ensure insulation

A variety of ceramic transmission line insulators. There is no direct contact between the metal parts of the insulators. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Chain insulators for high voltage transmission lines. These insulators are rubber with a fibre glass core running through them. These particular insulator chains are around 2 m in length. The insulator chains are shaped like stacked saucers to ensure that dust build up on the insulator doesnt occur and increase the conductivity and to ensure a long pathway for the electricity in case of spark discharge or arcing. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

An electricity substation. Note the extensive use of insulator chains where the transmission lines come into contact near metal supports. Their plate like shapes are designed to prevent electricity arcing over them. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

The photograph below shows a high voltage transmission tower with the lightning protection features labelled. The top pair of wires on the transmission tower are called the shield conductors. Notice that they are

Part 4: Transmission

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the highest pair of wires and that they do not have an insulator chain. The shield conductors are connected directly to the metal transmission tower. They act like lightning conductors to prevent the current transmitting layers from being struck by lightning. The shield conductors protect the transmission wires beneath them from lightning strike.

shield conductor

pair of electrical conductors

phase 1 conductor

insulation chain

phase 2 conductor

phase 3 conductor

High voltage transmission tower. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Identify any structures you can see on the photo that may be designed to protect the transmission lines in event of a lightning strike hitting the tower? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

How do you think the structures you identified might work? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Lightning strikes occur most frequently on objects that are relatively high above the ground compared to their surroundings. One strategy to protect transmission lines from lightning strike is to place the transmission lines underground. Why do you think this form of protection isnt used more often? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Check your answers. Transmission lines have a certain amount of passive protection from lightning strikes. The towers themselves can act as conductors to take any excess charge to the ground. To facilitate the discharge of the excess current from the lightning strike, the towers are well earthed with a large surface area of metal buried to enable the rapid dissipation of the charge into the ground. In other words, the base of the tower has low resistance. In addition, the tower is isolated from the adjoining towers by a minimum distance of around 150 to 200 m. This means that should one tower be struck any adjacent tower should suffer no effects of the lightning strike due to the significant distance between towers allowing the current to dissipate before reaching the adjacent towers. The top wires (shield conductors) are connected to the transmission towers directly. Should the shield conductors be struck by lightning, the lightning will be conducted through the towers and earth wires attached to the tower to earth.

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Summary

The following questions are designed to make you think about the learning in this part. Complete your answers to form a summary of the learning you should have done in this part. Why are there energy losses that occur as energy is fed through transmission lines from the generator to the consumer? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ What are some of the claimed physiological effects on humans living near high voltage power lines? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Transmission lines are protected from lightning strikes by: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Suggested answers

History of transmission
If the power plant is to deliver 20 x 106 W of power at 100,000 V, then the current required is: I = Pdelivered/V = 20000000 W 100000 V = 200 A. With a resistance of 2 ohms, this means that the power lost is: Plost = I2R d = (200 A)2(1 km1) 12 km = 480 000 W.

Transmission lines
1 2 3 4 The transmission tower is made from some metal. It is probably steel. None that is visible. The two shield conductors and the insulator chains. The shield conductors are the highest wires on the towers and span the gap between the towers. Since lightning tends to strike the higher points first, then that point will be struck first and will carry the charge through the tower to earth. This protects the wires below from lightning strike. The insulator chain isolates the conducting transmission cable from the tower. The plate like insulators are designed to stop any flashing of the charge when the lightning strikes occurring from the tower to the transmission lines. 5 The cost of making an underground system for the transmission of electricity is much higher initially. After construction the maintenance of an underground system is also much more expensive.

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Exercises Part 4

Exercises 4.1 to 4.3

Name: _________________________________

Exercise 4.1
Explain why AC electricity eventually became the preferred mechanism to produce and distribute electricity on a commercial scale. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 4.2
In terms of the history of the development of the electricity industry, identify the developments in technology that led to electricity eventually being transmitted as AC current. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 4.3
Look at the power pole shown in the photograph below. Label clearly on the photograph in the indicated areas 14 the names of the features that insulate the transmission lines from the pole and protect the transmission lines from lightning strike. Explain how all of these features work.

2 1 3

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Physics
HSC Course Stage 6

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Part 5: Transformers

In

2 er to b T S Oc EN g ti n D M o ra E N o rp A M c

02 0

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Contents

Introduction ............................................................................... 2 Transformers............................................................................. 4


Voltage transformations and energy ...................................................7 Transformers in power stations ...........................................................9

Electricity transmission............................................................ 11 Transformers at substations.................................................... 15 Transformers in the home ...................................................... 17 Types of transformers ............................................................. 24 Summary................................................................................. 26 Suggested answers................................................................. 27 ExercisesPart 5 ..................................................................... 29

Part 5: Transformers

Introduction

The decision to use AC current as the supply current was based largely on the more efficient transmission of high voltage, low amperage current. The transformer allowed the conversion of the electricity to be transmitted at the power station to the most efficient current and voltage for transmission and then at the substation to the most efficient state for distribution. Without the transformer the electrical age would never have taken off. Electricity to every home would have remained an elusive goal of powerful industrialists and not the reality that most of us enjoy now. During the course of your learning in Part 5 you will have opportunities to learn to: describe the purpose of transformers in electrical circuits compare stepup and stepdown transformers identify the relationship between the ratio of the number of turns in the primary and secondary coils and the ratio of primary to secondary voltage explain why voltage transformations are related to conservation of energy explain the role of transformers in electricity substations discuss why some electrical appliances in the home that are connected to the mains domestic power supply use a transformer discuss the impact of the development of transformers on society.

In Part 5 you will be given opportunities to: perform an investigation to model the structure of a transformer to demonstrate how secondary voltage is produced solve problems and analyse information about transformers using:
v n = v n
p s p

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gather, analyse and use available evidence to discuss how difficulties of heating caused by eddy currents in transformers may be overcome gather and analyse information and use available evidence to assess the need for transformers in the transfer of electrical energy from a power station to its point of use.

Extract from Physics Stage 6 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, amended November 2002. The most uptodate version can be found on the Board's website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/syllabus2000_listp.html#p

Part 5: Transformers

Transformers

Transformers are used to alter the voltage in AC circuits. A transformer usually consists of two coils of wire wound on the same iron core. The primary coil is the input coil of the transformer; the secondary coil is the output coil. The operation of transformers is based on the principal of mutual inductance. An alternating current in the primary coil induces an alternating current to flow in the secondary coil. That AC current induced in the secondary coil is out of phase with the AC current in the primary coil but has the same frequency as the current in the primary coil.
primary coil secondary coil

input voltage V1 n1 = V2 n2

V1

V2

output voltage

iron core
A transformer showing the main components.

Mutual induction causes voltage to be induced in the secondary coil. If the output voltage of a transformer is greater than the input voltage, it is called a stepup transformer. If the output voltage of a transformer is less than the input voltage it is called a stepdown transformer. If the voltage induced in the secondary coil is lower than the voltage induced in the primary coil then the secondary coil winding has less turns than the primary coil winding.

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primary winding

secondary winding

Vp

Np

Ns

Vs

A stepdown transformer

If the voltage induced in the secondary coil is higher than the voltage induced in the primary coil then the secondary coil has more turns than the primary coil.
primary winding secondary winding

Vp

Np

Ns

Vs

A step up transformer.

The emf induced in the secondary coil is related to the emf in the primary coil by the relationship:
emf across primary coil number of turns in the primary coil = emf across secondary coil number of turns in the secondary coil

This relationship is expressed as

Vp Vs

np ns

where Vp is the voltage in the primary coil, Vs is the voltage in the secondary coil, np is the number of turns in the primary coil and ns is the number of turns in the secondary coil. From this relationship it becomes apparent that the voltage output from a transformer can be controlled very precisely by determining the ratio of turns in the primary to secondary coils required to produce the desired output voltage from a known input voltage. This voltage control is critical in many of the applications of transformers. The applications of transformers include many AC domestic electrical appliances such as computer monitors, televisions, radios and battery chargers.

Part 5: Transformers

The transformer is used wherever the alternating voltages required to operate a device are different from the voltage supply. In the case of a television the voltages required to accelerate the electron beam toward the screen is much higher than the 240 V supply. This higher voltage is produced by a step up transformer. In the case of a motor vehicle battery charger the required voltage is of the order of 12 V to 15 V for effective charging. This is much lower than the 240 V supply. 1 Explain the purpose of a transformer in an electrical circuit such as a television. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 2 How does the transformer cause voltages to be stepped up or down? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 3 A transformer is required to step up the primary voltage of 240 V to 1920 V in an appliance. If the primary coil in the transformer has 100 turns how many turns does the secondary coil need to have to supply the required output voltage? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Check your answers.

Modelling a transformer
To do this you will need access to the following equipment: a length of iron rod or a large bolt 2 lengths around 2 m of enamelled copper wire two light globes and holders a connecting leads with an alligator clip a low voltage AC source such as a laboratory power pack. A setting of 6 V should be used as a maximum. This may represent C on the transformer dial. a roll of electrical insulation tape.

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Procedure: 1 2 Cover the bolt in insulation tape. Wind one length of wire onto the bolt to form your primary coil. Take care not to overloop any of the windings of your coil. Leave around 20 cm of wire at both end of your coil. Cover your primary coil with insulation tape. Wind on a second coil over the tape but make the second coil have less loops or windings than the first. This is your secondary coil. Leave around 30 cm of wire hanging out at both ends of your coil. Connect your secondary coil to your light globes using the holder. Connect your primary coil to the other light globe with one end of your coil wire and then to the AC power source with a connecting lead. Connect the other end of your coil lead to the AC source to complete the circuit to the coil and light globe. Make sure the wires from the primary and secondary coils are not in contact. Switch on the AC source for about a second. You should see the light globe in the primary coil circuit light up. You should also see the secondary coil light globe not connected to the power source light up (though not as brightly as the first).

3 4

5 6

7 8 9

Make sure that you do not leave the power switched on at the transformer for more than one or two seconds as this will cause the circuit breaker in the power source to trip out. The fact that the light globe in the secondary coil illuminates shows that a secondary voltage is induced on the secondary coil. Do Exercises 5.1 and 5.2 now.

Voltage transformations and energy


The electrical power entering a circuit can never exceed the electrical power output from the circuit. Transformers satisfy the Law of conservation of energy because the power entering equals the power leaving. Power is measured in watts (W) or Js1. The amount of energy entering a transformer equals the amount of energy leaving a transformer in the same period of time.

Part 5: Transformers

From the module Electricity energy in the home you should recall that P = VI . For a transformer, I1 V1= I2 V2. An increase in voltage output from a secondary coil in a transformer is therefore accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the output current. Similarly, a decrease in the output voltage from a secondary coil in a transformer is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the output current. This is yet another statement amounting to the Law of conservation of energy.

Transformer efficiency
A transformer has no moving parts. Because of this, it is an exceptionally efficient machine. In real terms, this means that means an efficiency of around 99% is not uncommon. The efficiency of a machine is determined from the equation:
Efficiency = energy output 100 % energy input

The loss of energy that does occur in the transformer is eventually converted into heat. The big problem with this is that transformers often have large energy throughputs. The heat energy produced is thus an extremely large amount. The increased heat that builds up in a transformer presents another problem to the efficiency of the transformer. If the transformer gets hot the resistance of the wiring in the coils increases. If the electrical resistance of the coils increases then the passage of electricity produces more heat and the transformer gets even hotter. The emphasis then must be to keep the transformer cool. The strategies that have been developed to keep the transformers cool include: adding heat sink blades to the transformer to increase the rate of heat dissipation to the environment through a larger surface area making the transformer case out of a black material so that the heat produced internally is efficiently absorbed by the case and reradiated to the environment efficiently. Most small transformer rectifier units found around the home are black concrete pad mounted transformers at ground level have ventilated cases. They may also have an internal fan designed to cool the transformer.

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filling the transformer with a nonconducting liquid that transports the heat produced in coils away from the coils efficiently. The liquids used in the transformer transfer heat to the transformer case and cooling slats to be dissipated to the environment. To improve the circulation of cooling oil, the transformer may have pumps fitted rather than rely solely on convection large transformer units are always kept in the open or in well ventilated areas to maximise air flow around them. Large transformers have the air flow over heat radiators increased with the use of fans. These fans are often thermostatically controlled and cut in at a specified temperature that is usually around 50C.

Do Exercise 5.3 to 5.5 now.

Transformers in power stations


The greatest contribution of the transformer to modern society has been the ease and efficiency with which the transformer has enabled the transmission of electrical energy from the power station to the consumer. This has come about because it is more efficient to transmit electricity at high voltages and low currents. As such, it is important that the electric current generated at relatively low voltage at the power station be stepped up to higher voltages for transmission. Voltages from Wallerawang (1000 MW of power produced) and Mt Piper (1320 MW of power produced) power stations are stepped up to 330 kV for transmission to domestic and commercial consumers at efficient levels. The electricity must be stepped up to that voltage in order to enable efficient distribution across Transgrids extensive electricity network. 1 Determine the current carried by Transgrids transmission lines leaving Wallerawang power station assuming transmission at 300 kV and an output from the power station of 1000 MW. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

Part 5: Transformers

The generation of electricity at the Mt Piper power station occurs with two 660 MW generators. Each of these generators produces an output of 23000 V. What current is produced by each of these generators? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

If the transmission of electricity from the power station at Mt Piper is through 330 kV transmission lines what sort of transformer is required at the power station? ______________________________________________________

If the primary coil in the situation from the question above had 100 turns of extremely thick copper bar how many turns would you expect the secondary coil to have? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Check your answer.

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Electricity transmission

In NSW, most of the electricity consumed is generated by a network of coalfired power stations. Electricity cannot be effectively stored in the quantities required by modern society, so the power stations operate 24 hours a day. The generators in NSW are mostly 660 MW generators that produce electricity at 23 000 V. These generators operate at speeds of 3000 revolutions per minute (rpm). Like all AC generators these large generators have a rotor and a stator. The rotor is really an electromagnet supplied with direct current from a device known as a static exciter. The AC current is generated in the windings in the stator as the rotor rotates. After generation, the transmission of power begins with the electricity being stepped up in terms of voltage and stepped down in terms of current by transformers at transformer stations close to the point of electricity generation. When transmitting electricity over longer distances or in greater quantities high voltage transmission is required. Most of the transmission lines in NSW carry electricity from a power station at 330 kV. However, it is possible to transmit at 500 kV on selected transmission lines in NSW such as the transmission line operating between Eraring Power Station on Lake Macquarie and Kemps Creek substation (140 km). At Kemps Creek substation the voltage is stepped down to 330 kV for retransmission to other substations around Sydney. After transmission, electricity is stepped down at substations for distribution to consumers. Initially, these step downs in voltage are usually to 132 kV for distribution to regional electricity suppliers. Distribution networks usually transmit electricity in smaller quantities or over shorter distances often around tens of kilometres.

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explosion vent cooling fins

cooling fan

oil pumps

A 330 kV to 132 kV transformer at the Transgrid Sydney West Substation. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

heavy insulation to prevent flashover

high input voltage at low current

low output voltage at high current

laminated iron core to cut down on eddy currents

primary coil

secondary coil

Inside the transformer case the structure is often similar to the figure above. The heavily insulated input terminals are designed to prevent arcing of the electric current from one terminal to another. The iron core is laminated to reduce eddy currents with each lamination insulated from the others. The case is filled with insulating oil.

At distribution substations, the electricity from the 132 kV transmission lines are stepped down by transformers to 33 kV and further stepped down to 11 kV for distribution to pad mounted or pole mounted transformers. At the pad or pole mounted transformer, the voltage is stepped down to 415 V for distribution to homes and factories.

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132-16 kV transformer

cooling fins

A small transformer at the Sydney West substation. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

cutaway of a pole transformer explosion vent oil tank

phase 1, 2, 3 primary coils

secondary coils

A cutaway of a pole mounted transformer from the Transgrid training facility at Sydney West substation. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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vents to enable heat dissipation


A pad mounted transformer unit at Strathfield. (Artwork: Anon. Photo: Ric Morante.)

transformer

plates to radiate heat

A pole mounted 11k V 415 V transformer. Note the three separate inputs for each phase of the three phases of electricity and the three outputs. The input terminals are heavily insulated to prevent arcing across the terminals. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Transformers at substations

The transformer has been described as the heart of the electricity substation. The role of the transformer is to ensure that, no matter what the incoming voltage and current, the outgoing voltage and current are suitable for feeding into the consumer electricity distribution network. This invariably means that the transformer at the substation is involved in the stepping down of an incoming voltage. Substation transformers are rated according to their primary voltage input compared to their secondary voltage output and their power carrying capacity. A typical substation transformer might be rated 13233 kV and 18 MVA. This means the primary or high voltage is 132 kV; the secondary or low voltage is 33 kV; and the transformer has a power rating of 18 MVA or 18 MW. Substation transformers consist of a core and coils. The whole assembly is generally immersed in oil in a steel tank. The oil is nonconductive and acts as an electrical insulator and a coolant. This assists with keeping the core at reliable operating temperatures. To assist with cooling, large transformers have fins for the oil to circulate to dissipate heat. Some transformers have fans to force air across the cooling fins; other transformers have pumps added to circulate the oil to improve the transfer of heat away from the transformer coils. In some situations, a utility may add water spray systems to spray the transformer case with water on hot days and in cases where high load conditions occur. However, no facility to do this is found at the Sydney West substation.

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cooling fins

fans to circulate cooling air

pumps to circulate oil

The cooling system for a 330k V to 132k V transformer. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

How are the difficulties of heating overcome in large transformers such as those found at substations? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer. Do Exercises 5.6 and 5.7 now.

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Transformers in the home

Many small electrical appliances used in the home have transformers or transformer/rectifier units between them and the mains power supply. You are probably familiar with many of these devices as the small black boxes you plug into the power point as part of a large plug. The purpose of these transformer units is to make sure the voltage supply to the appliance is appropriate for it to work. For example, electric doorbells connected into the mains power and other devices with transformers, use power to stepdown your homes 240 V to the nine or so volts they need. Often small transformers are relatively inefficient. The energy they dissipate as heat energy contributes to the wasted electrical energy in the home. Because these devices are often attached to devices on standby, power usage in the average household can add up to about 50 Wh1, or about 450 kilowatt hours a year. At about 13 cents per kilowatt hour that means the cost of keeping these standby devices connected to small transformers and on standby is $60 per year of the electricity bill. Look around your home and identify as many transformers as you can in your home. Identify the uses of the power supply. In many cases, the transformer devices have their output voltage listed as DC rather than AC. But, this is only because the transformer box contains a separate circuit that converts AC current into DC current. The table following lists the transformers found in a typical home today. Circle any found in your home. List any additional transformers that may be in your home in the empty spaces in the table.

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Device Computer cordless telephone

Stepup or stepdown transformer multiple transformers with both types in the one device stepdown

arc welder stepdown video camera charger stepdown mobile phone stepdown nicad battery charger stepdown computer printer stepdown electric razor stepdown electric drill stepdown electric sander stepdown rechargeable torch stepdown digital clock in the stove stepdown digital clock in the microwave stepdown microwave oven stepdown electric screwdriver stepdown smoke alarm stepdown computer speaker system stepdown slot car set stepdown television stepup and stepdown amplifier stepdown microwave stepup inverter for converting DC to AC from battery storage in isolated areas stepup

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Part 5: Transformers

transformer

A computer monitor showing one of the transformers. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Most transformers in the home are stepdown transformers. That is, they supply electricity to appliances that require low voltages such as small electric motors and electronic devices.

heat sinks transformers

The inside box of a personal computer with some of the transformers identified. Note the thick aluminium bars acting as heat sinks to transfer heat generated in the transformers. (Photo: James Stamell.)

Many of these transformers also act as rectifier units. That is, they convert the AC current input into DC current. That conversion is done with a separate circuit usually close to the transformer or within the same black box.

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Often the current output from stepdown transformers is limited to ensure that the current supplied to small motors or sensitive electronics does not exceed the load limit for the electronics or small electric motor. The stepup transformers in use in the home are generally those found in televisions or computer monitors where the voltage needs to be stepped up to around 25 kV to accelerate electrons toward the screen.

Looking at a transformer cube


The photographs following show a transformer cube similar to those you would expect to find around your home powering electrical equipment. Look at the photographs and answer the following questions based on your knowledge of transformers.
vents

Transformer case cover after removal. (Photo: Ric Morante)

Are there any vents in the case of the transformer? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________

What do you think the vents are for? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Part 5: Transformers

A transformer rectifier cube with the cover removed. The output side of the transformer is facing the front in this photo. The electrical circuit assembly visible at the front is the rectifier unit and the heat sink. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Identify any bits of the transformer that are immediately visible and label them on the photograph. (Hint : You could identify: the laminated iron core, the primary and secondary coils in their insulating cover; the aluminium heat sink; some capacitors; a diode; the input and output leads from the primary and secondary coils.)

A transformer rectifier cube with the cover removed. Note the laminated iron core around which the input and output coils are wound. The input side of the transformer is on the right. This is because the voltage is stepped down prior to being rectified. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Look at the photo below of the primary and secondary coil. This transformer is a stepdown transformer.

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primary coil

secondary coil

Transformer coils exposed after the insulation has been cut away. This shows the input side with the input wiring connected to the primary coil. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Can you see a difference between the thickness of the wire in the primary (input) and secondary (output) coil? ______________________________________________________

Thicker wires are used to carry larger currents. Does this explain the nature of the primary and secondary coils in this transformer? Give a reason for your answer. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Check your answers. The circuit following the transformer part of the transformer rectifier unit consists of diodes and capacitors. The diode converts the AC into a DC current. The capacitors act to even out the current output so that the CRO trace appears more like that from a battery or galvanic cell rather than the output from a DC generator.

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Part 5: Transformers

capacitor

diodes

The rectifier circuit inside the transformer used to convert the output from AC to DC current. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

Do Exercises 5.8 now.

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Types of transformers

dismantled current transformer

primary coil is a single loop of thick copper

insulation tower

secondary coil case

A current transformer as used in electricity substations. The large thick copper coil shows the single primary coil loop capable of carrying currents on the order of 2000 A. The secondary coil is probably on the order of 2000 turns. Such a transformer would stepdown a current of 2000 A in the primary to 1 A in the secondary coil. When installed in the transformer this loop is inverted from its present position. The insulation tower and secondary coil case is filled with oil when this transformer is in service. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Part 5: Transformers

Because transformers have many applications there are many different types of transformers. These different designs enable them to do different jobs although they all step up or stepdown voltage. In substations, the transformers such as the one shown previously are called autotransformers. Autotransformers have one connection on the primary and secondary coils in common. The idea is that both the primary and secondary coils share a common iron core. These transformers use less wire than those with two coils and so are cheaper to make. Both stepup and stepdown transformers are possible with an autotransformer setup. Transformers can be classified as parallel transformers if their windings are as shown in the figure below. Parallel transformers are compact. If an iron core is used, they are able to transform very high voltages. These transformers are used in electronics.
soft iron core

Input (AC)

output

A parallel transformer.

Serial wound transformers such as the one shown in the figure below have the secondary coil completely insulated from the mains power. These transformers are used in situations such as television picture tubes where output voltages on the order of 25000 V may be required.

Input (AC)

output

A serial transformer

Do exercises 5.9 and 5.10 now.

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Summary

In a circuit you would include a transformer if you needed to: ______________________________________________________

A stepdown transformer cause the voltage output to: A stepdown transformer causes the current output to: The relationship
Vp Vs = np ns

means:

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The typical transformers involved in getting power from the power station to the consumer are: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Heating as a problem is overcome in transformers by: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Small transformer rectifier units are common in most homes because they: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Part 5: Transformers

Suggested answers

Transformers
1 A transformer is used where a voltage significantly different to the supply voltage is required to operate an appliance or perform a function within a circuit. By a process of mutual induction. The oscillating current operating in the primary coil induced a current with the same frequency in the secondary coil. The voltage across the coil is determined by the relative number of turns in the primary and secondary coils.
Vp Vs = np ns

240 100 = 1920 n s 1920 100 240 n s = 800 ns =

Transformers in power stations


1
P = VI 1000 MW = 300 kV I 1000 000 000 W I= 300 000 V I = 3333.3 A P = VI 660 MW = 23000 V I 660 000 000 W I= 23000 V I = 28695.7 A

A stepup transformer.

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Vp Vs

np ns

23000 V 100 A = 300000 V ns n s = 100 n s = 1304 300 000 23 000

Transformers at substations
The transformers are oil filled with pumps to circulate the hot oil to radiator fins and have cooling fans to circulate the air past the cooling fins to overcome the difficulties in heating. The cooling fins may be hosed with water in times of extreme demand or, in some cases, may be inserted into a cooling pond of water.

Looking at a transformer cube


1 2 3 Yes, there are air vents on the top and bottom of the transformer cube. To allow air to circulate through the transformer and dissipate heat.
laminated iron core capacitor heat sink

diode secondary coil


The bits inside a small transformer. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

capacitor

4 5

Yes, the input coil has many turns of fine wire. The output coil has less turns of thicker wire. Yes. As the voltage falls in the secondary coil the current must rise because of the Law of conservation of energy.

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Part 5: Transformers

Exercises Part 5

Exercises 5.1 to 5.10

Name: _________________________________

Exercise 5.1
Draw and label a stepup and a stepdown transformer in the space below.

Exercise 5.2
A large transformer has a single loop primary coil made from thick copper bar with a secondary coil of 2000 turns. If the input voltage is 2000 V what is the output voltage from the transformer? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 5.3
A small transformer used to power a laptop computer has the following characteristics printed on it: Input AC 220 V, 50 Hz, 15 VA. Output DC 5.0 V, 1.0 A.

Is this transformer efficient ? Support your answer with calculations. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 5.4
The transformer used to stepdown the voltage from 11 000 V to 415 V suitable for use in the home has 1100 turns in the secondary coil. How many turns does it have in the primary coil? Assume the transformer is perfectly efficient. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Part 5: Transformers

Exercise 5.5
In a ideal transformer there is no heat produced. And if the input and output currents is known, the output voltage for a particular input voltage can be determined easily. Explain this by referring to the Law of conservation of energy. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 5.6
It has been said that the transmission of electricity from power stations to consumers would not be possible without the use of substations. What happens at the substations and why are they needed? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 5.7
Transformers at substations become hot. Why does that occur and how is the problem of heat build up in transformers at the substation overcome? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 5.8
Explain why the output coil of a stepup transformer is generally made from thinner wire than the input coil. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 5.9
The early days of electricity saw many arguments between the Edison group and the Westinghouse group over whether supply should be generated as AC or DC. The invention of the transformer by Tesla virtually settled the argument. Explain why that was so. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 5.10
List the impacts the development of the transformer has had society. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Part 5: Transformers

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Physics
HSC Course Stage 6

Motors and generators


Part 6: Motors and other electrical applications

In

2 er to b T S Oc EN g ti n D M o ra E N o rp A M c

02 0

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Contents

Introduction ............................................................................... 2 The induction motor................................................................... 3


The squirrel cage induction motor .......................................................4 The singlephase inductor motor ........................................................6 Split phase induction motor .................................................................7 Using AC motors ................................................................................13

Applications of electricity ......................................................... 16


The electric light globe .......................................................................16 The toaster..........................................................................................18 The vacuum cleaner...........................................................................19

Summary................................................................................. 22 Suggested answers................................................................. 23 ExercisesPart 6 ..................................................................... 25

Part 6: Motors and other electrical applications

Introduction

The induction motor dominates the conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy in industry and the home. The motor in your washing machine and refrigerator is almost certainly an induction motor. The vacuum cleaner used to clean the house probably contains an induction motor. In industry, the large motors used for pumps and to drive heavy machinery are almost certainly induction motors. The electrical train industry and huge vehicles to transport material mined from the Earth are driven by AC induction motors in most cases. The DC motor still has its uses. These are mostly in small and battery powered equipment but the less maintenance hungry AC induction motor is beginning to dominate the larger scale electromechanical world. This part explores the principle of the AC induction motor, another gift to humankind largely developed by the genius of Nichola Tesla. During the course of your learning in this part you will have opportunities to learn to: describe the main features of an AC electric motor

At the end of Part 1, you will have had an opportunity to: perform an investigation to demonstrate the principle of an AC induction motor gather, process and analyse information to identify some of the energy transfers and transformations involving the conversion of electrical energy into more useful forms in the home and industry.

Extract from Physics Stage 6 Syllabus Board of Studies NSW, amended November 2002. The most uptodate version can be found on the Board's website at http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/syllabus2000_listp.html#p

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The induction motor

The most common use of induction is the AC induction motor. Over 90% of all electric motors are AC induction motors. They are found around the home in air conditioners, washers, dryers, fans, garden leaf litter blowers, vacuum cleaners and most motorised kitchen appliances that run on an AC supply. The principle of the AC induction motor was invented in 1888 by Nichola Tesla. Prior to then, only DC motors were known to exist. The invention of the AC induction motor rapidly followed Teslas discovery that a magnetic field could be made to rotate if two coils at right angles are supplied with AC current 90 out of phase. That is the current supplied to the motor was a two phase current. It was this rotation feature that made possible the invention of the AC induction motor. The idea of the induction motor is based on Faradays laws. In the AC induction motor, the current supply to the armature is by induction from the magnetic field produced by a field current in a coil winding wrapped around a soft iron core in the stator. The coil windings in the motor are there to provide a path for the AC current to flow. It is this current flow that in turn produces the magnetic field that will cause the rotor to rotate. It is a fundamental principle of a winding that adjacent poles must be wound to give opposite magnetic polarity. The principle of an induction motor is best demonstrated with the threephase induction motor. A diagram of this type of motor is shown in the figure of a threephase induction motor shown following. Each phase of electric current is 120 away from the other two. This means that the magnetic field generated in the stator is effectively rotating. That rotating magnetic field induces an electric current in the rotor that is out of phase. Hence, with an opposite associated polarity magnetic field that causes the rotor to be literally dragged around after the rotating magnetic field in the stator.

Part 6: Motors and other electrical applications

three wires each deliver one phase of AC

rotor 1 3 2 3 1 2

magnetic flux appears to rotate

A schematic of a threephase motor.

The coils in the motor dont actually have to be wound in different directions before being placed into the stator. It does mean though, that the winding must be connected so that when the current travels through one pole in a clockwise direction, it must proceed through the next pole in a counterclockwise direction to keep the motor turning.

The squirrel cage induction motor


Most electric motors are AC induction motors. Perhaps the simplest and most reliable are the socalled threephase squirrel cage motors. In squirrel cage motors, the rotor winding consists of solid bars that are joined at either end by a shorting ring. The term squirrel cage has come about because the cage of the rotor resembles the rotating cylinder that squirrels play with when in captivity. The bars that make up the cage are generally aluminium but they can be copper or any other highly conductive material. The use of aluminium is a trade off between conductivity and lightness. Squirrel cage motors are often used in heavy industrial applications such as trains, cranes and large air conditioning units.

The rotor cage of a squirrel cage motor.

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In the squirrel cage induction motor, the rotor turns because of rotation of the magnetic field. The field coils are wound around soft iron cores to produce a strong magnetic field on three sides of the stator in a triangular relationship as shown in the figure below.

solid bars on rotor

A schematic of a squirrel cage motor. Note how the poles of opposite magnets in the stator are different. Although presented here in this schematic figure as bar magnets, the magnets are in reality electromagnets with an AC current passing through them. Opposite stator poles are connected in the one circuit receiving one phase of the threephase current. That AC current constantly changes the polarity of the electromagnets but maintains the opposing polarity of opposite magnets in the stator. This creates an apparent rotating magnetic field in the stator. That rotating magnetic field induces a current with opposing magnetic polarity in the bars of the squirrel cage rotor. The rotor is then literally dragged along chasing the rotating magnetic field in the stator.

Because the direction of the current in the each of the three field coils is constantly changing, and the current on each phase is sequenced to follow on from the previous coil, the polarity of the electric current induced in the rotor is constantly changing. That constantly changing magnetic field induces a current in the rotor that produces an opposing polarity magnetic field. The effect is that the magnetic field from the stator field coils and the rotor are rotating constantly. The different current phases function in tandem in a manner that is similar to pedalling on a bicycle with your feet strapped so you get the pull and the push on opposite sides of the rotor. The time lag between delivery of the different phases of the AC current act to create rotating magnetic fields that interact with the induced currents in the armature to cause rotation. The direction of three phase squirrel motors can be reversed. Changing the sequence of delivery of the electricity phases to the three field coils with a switching device does this.

Part 6: Motors and other electrical applications

The singlephase induction motor


Most AC motors around the home are onephase induction motors. They are called onephase induction motors because the electricity that powers them is one phase AC current. There are a number of types of singlephase induction motors. All have specific features designed to overcome the major flaw of the singlephase induction motor, that is low or no starting torque. There are several types of singlephase induction motors in use today. Their modes of operation, once started, are identical. The difference is the means of starting the motor. Once they are up to operating speed, all singlephase induction motors operate in the same manner. Unlike two or threephase induction motors, the stator field in the singlephase motor does not rotate. It simply alternates polarity between poles as the AC current changes direction. Voltage is induced in the rotor as a result of induction, and a magnetic field is therefore produced around the rotor. The magnetic field will always be in opposition to the stator magnetic field according to Lenz's law. Because the force between the magnetic fields in the stator and the rotor is across the rotor and through the pole pieces of the stator, there is no rotary motion, just a push and/or pull along this line. The interaction between the rotor and stator fields will therefore not produce rotation and produces the situation shown in the figure below.
NStator, SStator = Stator field NRotor, SRotor = Rotor field

NStator

NRotor

SRotor

SStator

L2

Stationary

L1

A singlephase motor showing the interaction of the fields in the rotor and the stator before the motor starts but when a current is applied.

When there is some other interaction, to produce an initial rotation of the rotor with respect to the stator, rotation begins. Once started, the interaction of the rotor and stator fields will cause the rotor to continue to rotate.

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This situation is shown in the figure below. Note, the current direction in the stator windings constantly changing means that as long as the rotor rotation is able to keep up with the frequency of current polarity changes from the AC current, the rotor will continue to rotate. Although the magnetic field in the stator isnt rotating in a true sense, its effect is the same as the rotating field in a threephase or two phase induction motor.

SRotor NStator NRotor Rotating SStator

L2

L1

A singlephase motor showing the interaction of the fields in the rotor and the stator after the motor starts when a current is applied.

Split phase induction motors


In a split phase singlephase induction motor an inductance and a resistance are used to displace the voltage so as to get an arrangement similar to that obtainable with a twophase motor for starting. The starting torque is still low, but if the load requirement at start for the motor is low, then the motor can start. Once going, a split phase induction motor behaves similarly to a squirrel cage motor. The capacitor motor is an example of a split phase induction motor. The figure below shows a simplified capacitor motor.
main winding

AC single phase supply

starting winding

rotor

capacitor

A capacitor motor .

Part 6: Motors and other electrical applications

The starting winding is connected in parallel with the main winding and is placed at right angles. An electrical phase difference between the starting and main windings is created by connecting the starting winding in series with a capacitor and starting switch. When the motor is first switched on, the starting switch is closed. This places the capacitor in series with the starting winding. The capacitor causes the current to lag the line voltage by about 45 so the currents in the primary and starting windings are 90 out of phase. So are the magnetic fields that are generated by the currents in the primary and starter windings. The effect is that the two windings act like a twophase stator and produce a rotating magnetic field to start the motor. When enough speed is obtained by the rotor, a centrifugal switch cuts out the starting winding from the circuit. The motor then runs as a plain singlephase induction motor with the rotor chasing the magnetic field in the stator. Since the starter winding in the capacitor motor is generally only a light wire winding that does not carry a large current, the motor does not develop sufficient torque to start when under a heavy load. Once stated the motor will carry a reasonable load until its speed of rotation falls below about 70% of its maximum.

Resistance start motors


Another type of splitphase induction motor is the resistance start motor. This motor also has a starting winding as shown in the figure below as well as a main winding. The starting winding is switched in and out of the circuit just as it was in the capacitor start motor generally using a centrifugal switch that cuts out the motor when it reaches a certain rate of revolutions. The starting winding is again located at right angles to the main winding as shown in the figure below.
main winding

AC single phase supply

starting winding

rotor

resistor

A resistance motor circuit.

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An electrical phase shift between the currents in the starter and main windings is obtained by making the impedance of the current in the two windings unequal by use of the resistor. The main winding has a high inductance and a low resistance. Therefore, the current lags the voltage. The starting winding is designed to have a low inductance and a high resistance. The current therefore lags the voltage by a smaller amount than in the main winding. The magnetic fields in the two windings are therefore out of phase by the same amount as the lag in voltages. The ideal phase difference between the currents in the starter and main windings and magnetic fields is 90 for the starting torque to be a maximum but even a 30 phase difference will generate a rotating magnetic field sufficient to start the motor when under light load. When the motor comes up to speed, a speed controlled centrifugal switch disconnects the starting winding from the circuit and the motor works as an ordinary single phase induction motor. This type of motor is commonly used in washing machines and light applications such as refrigerators.

The shaded pole induction motor


The design of the shaded pole induction motor allows for the production of a rotating magnetic field using pure induction. For this motor to work, the field magnets have a special arrangement. Only one of the field magnets is attached to the AC power supply. That is the primary coil. The current and consequent switching magnetic field produced by that AC current in the primary coil induces a current in the second field magnet (secondary coil). That current is out of phase with the current in the in the primary coil hence the polarity of the magnetic fields produced by these two field magnets are always opposite. Since the current is oscillating in each field coil with the frequency of the mains current, this creates a situation whereby the magnetic field in the stator appears to rotate.

Part 6: Motors and other electrical applications

Both the primary coil and secondary coil act to induce currents that produce magnetic fields in the rotor in opposition to the polarity of the magnetic field produced by the current that produced them. The result is the rotor turns. The diagram below shows a simplified circuit for a shaded pole induction motor.
second field magnet (not connected to an AC supply)

rotor current induced by the current in the primary field coil is out of phase with the supply current

first field magnet called the primary coil (connected to an AC supply)


A shaded pole induction motor. This type of motor works using a single phase AC electric current.

The repulsion induction AC motor


The singlephase induction motor can act like a squirrel cage induction motor if the rotor can be brought up to a speed where the rotor is rotating at a speed approximately equal to the rotation of the magnetic field in the stator. The main problem with the singlephase induction motor is that the motor has no starting torque so this necessitates novel solutions to supply that starting torque. One solution is the repulsion induction motor. This set up is used where the starting torque is relatively heavy. In this motor, the starting torque is supplied by repulsion that shifts over to induction once the rotor is up to speed. The repulsion induction AC motor has a commutator and brushes.

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When the motor is required to start the brushes are resting on the commutator and they are, in turn, short circuited by a winding from the stator. This short circuit provides a high current in the armature that is sufficient to get the rotor turning because of repulsion. Once moving, the brushes are lifted from the commutator by a centrifugal switch that moves the brushes to a ring on the armature effectively short circuiting the commutator segments together. The motor is then able to act as a straight induction type motor until its speed drops. The operation of this type of motor relies on the speed of rotation of the rotor not dropping below a certain percentage of the speed of the stator field. If the rotor speed drops below that critical level because of the load on the motor, the motor stops. What features do all induction motors have in common? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Check your answer.

Modelling an induction motor

The equipment you will need to make your model induction motor. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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To do this activity you will need: a new sharpened lead pencil a small test tube able to fit the pencil or the body of a syringe a bar magnet sticky tape some Blutak an empty aluminium soft drink can a pair of scissors around 20 cm of light cotton thread.

Procedure 1 Cut the bottom of the soft drink can taking care not to cut yourself on any sharp edges so that you end up with a round disc as shown in the photograph following.

The setup for the induction motor. Shaking the syringe case will cause the magnet to rotate. The rotating magnetic field will cause the aluminium soft drink can bottom to begin to rotate in the same direction as the magnetic field. (Photo: Ric Morante. Hand: Tim Reid.)

Stick the thread to the centre of the disc using Blutak so that the disc can hang from the thread horizontally. Stick the free end of the thread to a table using some sticky tape so that the disc is hanging freely.

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You may need to balance your disc using small blobs of the Blutak placed to even out the centre of gravity of the disc so that it will hang horizontally. 3 4 5 6 Sticky tape your bar magnet to the end of your pencil so that it forms a T with the pencil. Place your pencil in the test tube or syringe body then hold it under the suspended aluminium disc as shown in the photograph below. Shake the test tube to make the pencil and magnet spin in one direction. Observe what happens to the aluminium disc. Shake the test tube to make the pencil and magnet spin in the opposite direction. Observe what happens to the aluminium disc.

Observations 1 2 The rotating magnet caused the disc to rotate in the (same/opposite) direction. Explain what you have observed in terms of the mechanism by which the induction motor works. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Check your answers.

Using AC motors
One of the most common uses for AC motors is in small household appliances and power tools. These devices run on 240 V electrical supply and usually have small loads applied and hence require small starting torques. Where the load increases beyond some specific limit the appliance motor usually labours and actually stops running and may burn out. Where motors have higher output requirements they usually draw on threephase electrical supply at 415 V. There are two types of 240 V electrical motors used in these small appliances.

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Universal motors can run on either AC or DC current. These motors have brushes and commutators and are used for portable tools like routers, jigsaws and electric drills. Singlephase induction motors run only on AC. These motors have no brushes, and are usually found on stationary tools such as table saws, drill presses, planers and jointers. Both universal and induction motors only produce usable power when slowed down by applied mechanical load. For induction motors, this slowdown is called slip and represents the difference between the unloaded motor spin rate (3000 revolutions per minute for a two pole motor or 1500 revolutions per minute for a four pole motor) and the loaded spin rate. The greater the slip experienced by a motor, the greater the power output. Induction motors are typically rated at 2850 revolutions per minute (two pole motor) or 1450 revolutions per minute (four pole motor). Universal motors do not have a synchronous speed, but have a maximum no load speed. That speed depends upon the voltage applied to the motor.

Why is the power output of 240 V AC induction motors limited?


Most electric motors can put out a lot more maximum horsepower than they can sustain continuously. There is a sound reason for that based on the Law of conservation of energy. By forcing more mechanical load on the motor, slowdown from the synchronous speed is increased and so therefore is the motors output horsepower. Electrically, the power input into the motor is volts amps. By the Law of conservation of energy, mechanical output horsepower must be balanced by the electrical input power. Line voltage from mains supply is relatively constant at about 240 V usually. This means that as a motor is placed under load the input current must be increased to provide the increased power output. The windings of electrical motors have some resistance so the higher current demand as load and output power increases means more current and hence electrical energy is dissipated in the motor windings producing heat. The motor windings heat up in proportion to the square of the motor current. Too high a current for too long can thus burn out the motor windings if the motor is too overloaded.

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AC induction motor advantages


AC induction motors are by far the most common AC electric motor. This is because they have a number of advantages over the alternative motor types such as DC motors. Some of these are outlined below. They are simpler to construct. They require no mechanical contacts to work (such as brushes or commutators). This greatly reduces the maintenance required to ensure a long working life for the motor. They are lighter than DC motors of equivalent power output. Modern electronic switching devices allow AC motors to be controlled effectively. AC motors can be microprocessor controlled to a fine degree. They are more robust and easier to maintain than DC motors. The electricity supply is AC.

Complete Exercises 6.1 to 6.4 now.

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Applications of electricity

Electrical energy is surely the energy of our times. The versatility of this energy source is outstanding as the energy of choice. Modern technologies such as the development of green power concentrate on better, more environmentally friendly ways to generate electricity. The history of the development of electrical appliances has forced society to depend upon electricity as the most versatile energy source known. That versatility as an energy comes from the way electrical energy is easily converted by appliances to forms required for a modern lifestyle. The case studies below give insights into the early development of the electrical energy industry. The inventions highlighted were really not that long ago.

The electric light globe


The electric globe converts electrical energy to light. On October 21, 1879 Thomas Edison crossed a threshold that made electric light with the flick of a switch light an integral part of human life all over the world. Thomas Alva Edison found the answer to the most desired invention of his time, the incandescent light. He started work on the problem of the light globe after viewing an arc lamp. Edison believed the key to the incandescent electric light lay in the wire filament that the electricity travels through. Edison believed he could solve the problem of the best filament quickly and so launched into a series of structured experiments. His experiments with filament materials lead him to the discovery of the elusive secret of the successful manufacture of the incandescent light.

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The invention of the incandescent light globe was the product of around twelve thousand experiments. More than six thousand plant materials were tied as filament material! The first experiments dealt with carbon. But, because carbon is easily destroyed, these experiments with carbon were initially postponed. After a year and two months of continuous experiment Edison found the best filament for his light globe. He discovered the best and cheapest filament material was cotton sewing thread carbonised by being burnt to an ash and then sealed in a glass globe. The tube was evacuated of air that could support further burning so when an electric current was passed through the filament, the electrical energy was converted into light. The first globe glowed for over two days. Today, the incandescent light is a sealed glass bulb filled with the inert gas argon. Argon does not support burning at all and the filament is tungsten.
The incandescent light globe changed life forever by giving society light at the flick of a switch in a safe non polluting (at least on site) and non burning form. When used for lighting, the filament wire is sealed in a vacuum or surrounded by an inert gas. This prevents the filament from oxidising or burning.

filament

The electric light invention changed forever the way that society viewed the use of electricity. Now the fluorescent globe is becoming more popular as the energy efficient way to convert electrical energy into light energy. Take a look around your home and others around you. Identify some of the devices used to provide light. List these devices in the space below. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Light changed industry forever. Factories worked 24 hours per day. Shift work became possible. Life in a changing society was accelerated by the invention of electric light.

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The toaster
The toaster converts electrical energy to heat. In the eighteenth century English people made toast in their fireplaces with a rack called the hanging griller. Sometimes, people simply used long handled forks to toast their bread. People love the smell and taste of toast. It is therefore obvious an appliance that would make toast more quickly and easily was very desirable. Electricity, and in particular, the electric heating element provided the answer. The basic principle for most toasters is cooking the bread by radiant heat. Heat is created by passing an electric current through a wire, known as an element. Before heating could be accomplished, a wire had to be developed that would not burn out or oxidise in air. In 1905 an engineer called Albert Marsh applied for a patent on an alloy of nickel and chromium, which came to be known as nichrome. The alloy can be described as being: very low in electrical conductivity very fusible nonoxidising to a very high degree tough and sufficiently ductile to permit drawing into wire.

The toaster element and many other devices such as the electric bar radiator have to perform the heating task in open air. The invention of nichrome led to the extensive use of heating devices now almost universally preferred as the clean alternative for heating. In 1909 General Electric made the first successful electric toaster called D12. It was made from a wire rack and heating element attached to a porcelain base that toasted one side of a slice of bread at a time. Take a look around your home and others around you. Identify some of the electrical devices which provide heating. List these devices below. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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The use of electricity for heating is not confined to the home. Industry uses electrical resistive heating extensively. There would be a much reduced ceramics industry without the use of the electric kiln. Electric arc furnaces or welders would not exist. Ask people around you about how electricity is used for heating in their workplace. List the ways that electricity is used for heating in the space below. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

The vacuum cleaner


The vacuum cleaner converts electrical energy to movement. Hubert Cecil Booth, an Englishman, designed and patented the first practicable vacuum cleaner in 1901. Prior to its design cleaning was done by sweeping or blowing. Like so many other electrical appliances commonly found in the home, the vacuum cleaner runs on electricity. The electrical energy supplied to the vacuum cleaner converts electrical energy into mechanical energy in an electric motor. The earliest vacuum cleaners had huge motors.

An early electric vacuum cleaner.

Often the motor had to be wheeled separately to the device or the vacuum cleaner was of the ducted type in large buildings with a central motor providing the power to the vacuum pump component of the machine that did the sucking.

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There are many devices around the home that use an electric motor to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy to perform tasks that require movement. Do a survey of your home to identify those devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. List those devices in the space below. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ The use of the electrical motor is widespread in industry for everything from public transport to cranes and pumps. The conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is clean, non polluting and considered extremely desirable. In many cities around the world where air quality is becoming a big issue the use of electrical or hybrid electrical cars is being encouraged and subsidised by government. In factories where regular lifting is required in confined spaces the use of the electrical forklift or lifting device is almost universal.

A Tangara train from the Sydney electric train network. This and other trains like it move hundreds of thousands of commuters around the city of Sydney everyday as well as moving passengers between the urban centres of Newcastle and Wollongong. (Photo: Ric Morante.)

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Identify the uses of as many electrical motors as you can in the local industries around you. List the industrial use of those motors that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy in the space below. Where possible ask why the use of electrical energy is preferred to the use of the internal combustion engine to provide the mechanical energy required. Write that reason given down next to the device that utilises the electrical energy. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Complete Exercises 6.5 to 6.9 now.

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Summary

Complete the statements below to prepare your summary of this part. The function of the rotor in an electric motor is to: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The function of the stator in the electric motor is to: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ The main features of an AC electric motor are: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Single phase AC motors are usually used in situations where the required starting torque is low because: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Induction electric motors are the more common electric motors because: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Electrical energy is converted into forms more useful such as light, mechanical and heat energy. Examples of where this occurs in the home and in industry are: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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Suggested answers

Repulsion induction electric motors


A rotor and a stator.

Induction motors
1 2 The spinning magnet caused the disc to spin in the same direction. A rotating magnetic field induced a current in the rotor that in turn produces a magnetic field of opposing polarity to the magnetic field that caused it. The attraction between these opposing polarity magnetic fields enables the rotating magnetic field to drag around the rotor (spinning aluminium can bottom).

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Exercises Part 6

Exercises 6.1 to 6.9

Name: _________________________________

Exercise 6.1
Discuss the reason why induction based electric motors are the most common motors in use today. Make sure you list the advantages of induction motors over commutator and brush type motors. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.2
Describe why a singlephase AC motor cannot start without the aid of a device to offset the magnetic fields produced by the primary and the secondary windings. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 6.3
AC motors connected to the mains supply voltage are usually 415 V threephase when they are under heavy loads such as in large air conditioning units. Explain why 415 V would be preferred over the use of 240 V for the same motor. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.4
Induction motors have a number of advantages over the use of other types of motors such as universal AC/DC motors particularly in small load applications such as their use in appliances like refrigerators and washing machines. What are these advantages that AC induction motors have over their other AC/DC counterparts? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 6.5
Discuss why the majority of motors in use in the home and industry are AC induction motors. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.6
Discuss why some of the electrical appliances and tools used in the home are connected to the mains supply via a transformer. Consider fixed appliances as well as portable cordless appliances in your answer. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.7
Televisions require large voltages on the order of 25000 V to accelerate electrons toward the phosphor screen. How are these large voltages created in the television set? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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Exercise 6.8
The iron plates in a laminated iron core transformer are always insulated from each other. Why would this be done? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Exercise 6.9
Identify the energy transfers and transformations that would occur in the following electrical appliances. a) c) An AC electric drill. A fluorescent light globe. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ b) An incandescent light globe. d) A bar radiator heater.

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Student evaluation of the module

Name: _______________________

Location: ______________________

We need your input! Can you please complete this short evaluation to provide us with information about this module. This information will help us to improve the design of these materials for future publications. 1 Did you find the information in the module clear easy to understand? _____________________________________________________ 2 What did you most like learning about? Why? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 3 Which sort of learning activity did you enjoy the most? Why? _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 4 Did you complete the module within 30 hours? (Please indicate the approximate length of time spent on the module.) _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 5 Do you have access to the appropriate resources? eg a computer, the internet, scientific equipment, chemicals, people that can provide information and help with understanding science. _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Please return this information to your teacher, who will pass it along to the materials developers at OTENDE.

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