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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 41, NO.

1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2005 163

System Impact Study for the Interconnection of Wind


Generation and Utility System
Chai Chompoo-inwai, Student Member, IEEE, Wei-Jen Lee, Senior Member, IEEE,
Pradit Fuangfoo, Student Member, IEEE, Mitch Williams, and James R. Liao, Member, IEEE

Abstract—Following in the steps of the gas industry, the tradi- becomes one of the most competitive sources of renewable
tional paradigm of the vertically integrated electric utility struc- energy. However, wind has some disadvantages. For example,
ture has begun to change. In the United States, the Federal En- wind power is considered as an intermittent power supply
ergy Regulatory Commission has issued several rules and Notices
of Proposed Rulemaking to set the road map for the deregulated because wind does not blow 100% of the time. Besides, the su-
utility industry. The crisis in California has drawn great atten- perior wind sites are usually located in remote areas, therefore,
tion and sparked intense discussion within the utility industry. One it may require substantial infrastructure improvement to deliver
general conclusion is to rejuvenate the idea of integrated resource the wind-generated power to the load center.
planning and promote the distributed generation via traditional Mostly, wind-powered generators are induction genera-
or renewable generation facilities for the deregulated utility sys-
tems. Wind generation is one of the most mature and cost-effec- tors. The induction generator absorbs reactive power during
tive resources among different renewable energy technologies. Re- its normal operating condition. This may create low-voltage
cently, several large-scale wind generation projects have been im- issues in the power system. In addition, power flow pattern
plemented in the U.S. and other parts of the world. Similar to other and system dynamic characteristics will also change when
new generation facilities, the impacts of a large-scale wind gener- a large-scale wind-powered generation is integrated into the
ation on the system operation, voltage profile, and system security
have to be investigated and studied. Remedies for possible opera- utility gird [2]–[4]. In the procedure of system impact study,
tion issues have to be evaluated and implemented. This paper dis- the steady-state power flow both in normal and contingency
cusses the impact study of connecting a 120-MW wind farm into conditions has to be studied to check potential overloading of
the transmission system of a utility company within the Southwest the transmission lines. The short-circuit currents on both before
Power Pool. and after the installation of the new wind generation plant have
Index Terms—Dynamic stability, generation interconnection, in- to be calculated to check the increment of short circuit current
duction generator, system impact study. level and the possible needs of infrastructure improvement
(split-bus or breaker upgrade). In addition, system dynamic
I. INTRODUCTION simulations have to be performed to ensure the stability of the
power system.

U NDER the restructuring phase of the electric power in-


dustry, the traditional vertically integrated utility environ-
ment is inevitably being changed. The power system operation
This paper discusses the impact study of connecting a
120-MW wind farm into the transmission system of a utility
company within the Southwest Power Pool (SPP). Methods to
will become more competitive and many challenges will arise remedy the potential stability problems are also proposed.
[1]. Since it is a clean energy source, has lower impact to the en-
vironment, and never runs out, renewable energy is a hot issue in II. WIND TURBINE CONCEPTS AND MODELING
today competitive market. Solar and fuel cells are among blis-
tering subjects in the last few decades. However, they still re- A. Steady-State Condition of Wind Turbine
quire a large amount capital investment when large generation Normally, a wind turbine creates mechanical torque on a
plants are necessitated. rotating shaft, while an electrical generator on the same rotating
Because wind energy development is consumer and envi- shaft is controlled to produce an opposing electromagnetic
ronmentally friendly, requires shorter construction time, is cost torque. In steady operation, the magnitude of the mechanical
competitive, and its permits are usually obtained quickly, it torque is converted to the real power and is delivered to the grid
[7]. The power and torque equations for the wind turbine are as
Paper ICPSD-04-01, presented at the 2004 IEEE/IAS Industrial and Com- follows [8]:
mercial Power Systems Technical Conference, Clearwater Beach, FL, May
1–6, and approved for publication in the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY
APPLICATIONS by the Energy Systems Committee of the IEEE Industry Appli-
(1)
cations Society. Manuscript submitted for review May 6, 2004 and released for
publication October 15, 2004. (2)
C. Chompoo-inwai, W.-J. Lee, and P. Fuangfoo are with the Energy Systems
Research Center, The University of Texas, Arlington, TX 76019 USA (e-mail:
cchompooinwai@yahoo.com; lee@exchange.uta.edu; pradit_f@hotmail.com). where
M. Williams and J. R. Liao are with the Western Farmers Electric Co- density of air;
operative, Anadarko, OK 73005 USA (e-mail: m_williams@wfec.com;
j_liao@wfec.com). swept area of the blade;
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIA.2004.841032 performance coefficient;
0093-9994/$20.00 © 2005 IEEE
164 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 41, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2005

Fig. 1. Typical performance coefficient versus TSR curve [8].

Fig. 2. Squirrel-cage induction generator [9].


wind speed;
mechanical torque (at low-speed shaft);
output power of the turbine;
rotor speed of the wind turbine—low-speed shaft.
The typical performance coefficient curve is shown in Fig. 1.
The tip-speed ratio (TSR) is illustrated in (3)

(3)

where is the radius of the wind turbine rotor. Fig. 3. Aggregated turbines model (parallel connection) [7].

B. Transient and Dynamic Model of the Studied Wind


Generators
At the present time, there are at least three main wind turbine
technologies among industry. The first one is the squirrel-cage
induction generator which is the simplest one. Based on the
wind speed, this type of wind turbine dynamically adjusts the
pitch of the turbine blades to maintain the turbine in the prox-
imity of a constant speed. Second is the double-fed induction
generator; the stator winding of this generator is coupled with
the system grid, and rotor winding is connected to a back-to-
back voltage-source converter. The converter adjusts the fre-
quency of the rotor feeding current to enable variable-speed op-
eration. The third structure of wind turbine technology is the
direct-drive synchronous generator. The rotor and generator are
coupled directly without gear box.
Since the studied wind farm is still in the planning stage, the
squirrel-cage induction generator type is used in the stability
study. The main reason is that it appears to be the traditional
technology for the turbine. This type of the generator cannot
perform voltage control and it absorbs reactive power from the
grid. From the system analysis point of view, this can be con-
sidered as the worst case scenario.
The squirrel-cage induction generator is normally coupled to
the rotor via a gearbox, as shown in Fig. 2. The purpose of the
gearbox is to provide optimal power output for wider wind speed
ranges.
Fig. 4. Single-line diagram of the new facility. The new wind-powered
generation is connected at bus B, in between buses A and C.
C. Aggregated Model
Multiple wind turbines in the wind farm are required to gen- III. SIMULATION RESULTS
erate 120 MW. From the simulation perspective, an aggregated
model is sufficient to represent the entire wind farm at the sub- A. New Generation Configuration, and Line Flows
station interconnection point. The equivalent system is illus- A single-line diagram of the system near the wind farm is
trated in Fig. 3. shown in Fig. 4. The new facility was integrated into the system
CHOMPOO-INWAI et al.: SYSTEM IMPACT STUDY FOR THE INTERCONNECTION OF WIND GENERATION AND UTILITY SYSTEM 165

TABLE I
SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT LEVEL AT INTERESTED BUSES

Fig. 5. SPP summer 2005 base case (Case 1).


via a 138-kV transmission line at the new switching substation.
To avoid releasing any proprietary information to potential com-
petitors, the exact wind farm location is withheld and the bus
names are altered.

B. Load Flow Study Result

The feasibility study investigates the potential impact of


the new generation on system performance during normal and
contingency conditions. The contingency analysis considers the
impact of the new generation on transmission facility loading
and transmission bus voltage during outages of transmission
line, autotransformers, and generators. The latest version of the
Southwest Power Pool 2005 summer peak base case was used
for this study.
The single contingency analysis was performed for the wind
generation project. The analysis indicated that an addition of
the 120 MW of generation creates a slight overloading on the
Fig. 6. New wind generation is installed at bus G (Case 2).
138/69-kV transformer connected next to bus A (which has a
50-MVA emergency rating) and a high loading on the 138-kV
circuit, line D (with a rating of 150 MVA). To avoid overloading D. Dynamic Stability Study Result
situation at steady state, the output of the wind farm is limited Stability analysis was performed to determine the possible
to 114 MW in further studies. stability problems that can be originated by the new wind gen-
eration. The transmission line model used in this study was the
C. Short-Circuit Current Study Result SPP system model for the 2005 summer peak conditions. Var-
ious system configurations and faults were added to the original
Commercially available software is used to calculate the in- system to determine the possible stability issues from the new
crement of the short-circuit currents when a fault happens at installation.
neighboring buses of the new proposed generator. Table I shows The stability results are shown in Figs. 5–13. Various studied
fault currents at different buses near the wind farm. All current cases are designed to show the dynamic response of the system
flows in the list are expressed in amperes. following critical disturbances in the neighborhood of the pro-
The largest increase in bus fault current occurs at bus C. In- posed new generator. The disturbances were based on a 5-cycle
stallation of the new generator at bus G causes the three-phase three-phase fault on different buses near the new wind generator
fault current at bus C to increase by 18.85%. One more signif- followed by removing the fault through tripping the line.
icant increase of fault current locates at bus A. The 13.2% in- Case Model Descriptions: The operating condition of each
crease of fault current affected by the new generator was ob- individual case is explained below.
served. However, they are still under the rating of the existing Case 1: Base Case
circuit breakers. Therefore, no split-bus or circuit breaker up- • The SPP 2005 summer peak model is employed.
grade is necessary for the new installation. • No new generator is added to the system (Fig. 5).
166 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 41, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2005

Fig. 7. A momentary 5-cycle three-phase fault is applied at Bus A (Case Fig. 10. A three-phase fault is applied at Bus C. Line A is opened at 5 cycles
3). to clear the fault (Case 6).

Fig. 11. A three-phase fault is applied at bus A. Line B is opened at 5 cycles


Fig. 8. A momentary 5-cycle three-phase fault is applied at bus G, the new
to clear the fault (Case 7).
generator bus (Case 4).

Case 2–Case 8: Studied Cases


• The SPP 2005 summer peak model is used.
• A new 114 MW wind generation is added to the
system.
• The various abnormal system conditions were
studied to investigate the potential stability issues
after the installation of the new generation.
Case 9–Case 11: Methods to Remedy the Stability
Problem Caused by New Wind Generator
The simulation results show the output power of five different
plants near the new generation facility. The following generator
buses are monitored:
• bus number XX812: GEN A2;
• bus number XX947: GEN HG;
• bus number XX996: GEN M1;
• bus number XX997: GEN M2;
• bus number XX004 (Bus G): GEN TRG.
Fig. 9. A three-phase fault is applied at bus C. Line B is opened at 5 cycles Among monitored buses, Gen HG is the biggest plant deliv-
to clear the fault (Case 5). ering approximately 450 MW to the grid. Other three plants at
CHOMPOO-INWAI et al.: SYSTEM IMPACT STUDY FOR THE INTERCONNECTION OF WIND GENERATION AND UTILITY SYSTEM 167

Fig. 14. The new wind generation unit is operated at 0.95 lagging PF. A
Fig. 12. A three-phase fault is applied at bus C. The new generator is removed three-phase fault is applied to system at bus A. Line B is opened at 5 cycles to
(Case 8). clear the fault (Case 9).

Fig. 15. The new wind generation unit is operated at 0.95 leading PF. A 5-cycle
Fig. 13. Voltage profile of the new generator at Case 5 and Case 7 analyses. three-phase fault is applied at bus C. Undervoltage relay with 30-cycle delay is
activated to disconnect wind farm (Case 10).

buses XX812, XX996, and XX997 are scheduled to distribute


30, 50, and 140 MW to the network, respectively, while new
wind generation unit will be provide 114 MW at steady-state
condition to the system.
It is clear from the results shown in Figs. 9 and 11 that the new
wind generation unit becomes unstable after a 5-cycle three-
phase fault and line B was opened to clear the fault. Fig. 13
shows the voltage profile of the new generator during the dis-
turbance.

IV. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS FOR DYNAMIC


STABILITY PROBLEMS
Simulations have shown that if the wind generator is oper-
ated at 0.95 leading (worst case scenario), the terminal at bus G
will develop undervoltage problems when line B is taken out of
service after the disturbance. To remedy this problem, the fol-
lowing three improvement strategies are proposed. Figs. 14–16 Fig. 16. The new wind generation unit is operated at 0.95 leading PF. A
three-phase fault is applied at bus C. Use transfer switch to disconnect 10-MW
show the simulation results after applying the proposed solution wind generation output after Line B is opened at 5 cycles to clear a fault,
guidelines. (Case 11).
168 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 41, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2005

• Operate the new generator at 0.95 lagging power factor. Chai Chompoo-inwai (S’01) received the Bachelors
• Install an undervoltage relay at the new generator bus. This and Masters degrees in electrical engineering from
the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of
undervoltage relay will trip the new generator units when Engineering, King Mongkut’s Institute Technology
its terminal voltage drops down to the setting value. An of Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand. He is currently
undervoltage relay with 30-cycle delay is implemented in working toward the Ph.D. degree in the Energy
System Research Center, The University of Texas,
the study to avoid immediate tripping of the unit during Arlington.
temporary voltage sags. His major interests include electric power system
• Perform a transfer trip to drop at least 10 MW from the analysis, deregulated power systems, power system
transients and dynamic stability, and the Congestion
wind farm when the line B is tripped. Management Scheme in power systems.

Wei-Jen Lee (S’85–M’85–SM’97) received the B.S.


V. CONCLUSION and M.S. degrees from National Taiwan University,
Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C., in 1978 and 1980, respec-
tively, and the Ph.D. degree from The University
Wind generation is one of the most mature and cost-effective of Texas, Arlington, in 1985, all in electrical engi-
resources among different renewable energy technologies. Re- neering.
Following receipt of the Ph.D. degree, he joined
cently, several large-scale wind generation projects were imple- The University of Texas, Arlington, where he is
mented in the U.S. and other parts of the world. Similar to other currently a Professor in the Electrical Engineering
Department. He has been involved in research
new generation facilities, the impacts of a large-scale wind gen- on power flow, transient and dynamic stability,
eration on the system operation, voltage profile, and system se- voltage stability, short circuits, relay coordination, power quality analysis, and
curity have to be investigated and studied. Remedies for possible deregulation of utility industries. He is also involved in research on the design
of integrated microcomputer-based monitoring, measurement, control, and
operation issues have to be evaluated and implemented. This protection equipment for electric power systems.
paper has discussed the impact study of connecting a 120-MW Prof. Lee is a Registered Professional Engineer in the State of Texas.
wind farm into the transmission system of a utility company
within the SPP. It also presented several different approaches
to mitigate potential stability issues from the new installation. Pradit Fuangfoo (S’01) received the Bachelors
degree in electrical engineering from the Department
Due to the utility deregulation, more generators from indepen- of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
dent power producers (IPPs) have been proposed in recent years. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand and the
M.S. degree from the Department of Electrical
The procedures for system analysis and potential issues mitiga- Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn
tion approaches described in this paper can be referenced for University, Bangkok, Thailand. He is currently
this type of development. working toward the Ph.D. degree in the Energy
System Research Center, The University of Texas,
Arlington.
His research interests comprise electric power
system analysis, power system reliability, power system distribution, micro
grid systems, and distributed generators.
REFERENCES

[1] K. Methapayoon and W. J. Lee et al., “Neural network-based short term


load forecasting for unit commitment scheduling,” in Proc. IEEE I&CPS Mitch Williams received the B.S.M.E. degree from
Kansas State University, Manhattan.
Tech. Conf., St. Louis, MO, May 4–5, 2003, pp. 138–143.
In 1985, he started working in the Generation De-
[2] W. J. Lee et al., “Dynamic stability analysis of an industrial power
partment of the Western Farmers Electric Coopera-
system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 675–681, Jul./Aug. tive, Anadarko, OK. He later became a Project Engi-
1995. neer 3. In 1997, he transferred to Corporate Planning
[3] J. H. Gim, “Dynamic characteristic analysis and real time monitoring where he became a Senior Planning Engineer.
system for an industrial power system,” Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elect. Mr. Williams participates on many Southwest
Eng., Univ. Texas, Arlington, TX, 1993. Power Pool committees as well as other technical
[4] W. J. Lee, M. S. Chen, and L. B. Williams, “Load model for stability committees.
studies,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA-23, no. 1, pp. 159–165,
Jan./Feb. 1987.
[5] W. J. Lee and C. Chompoo-inwai, “System impact study for wind
project,” Univ. Texas, Arlington, TX, Res. Rep., 2003. James R. Liao (M’89) received the M.S. degree
[6] Manual of PSS/E, Models CIMTR1 and CIMTR3 (Induction Genera- from the University of Missouri, Rolla, in 1980, and
tors), Shaw Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY, 2001. the Ph.D. degree from the University of Oklahoma,
Norman, in 1992, both in electrical engineering.
[7] “Guidelines for submittals to develop ERCOT wind generation models
Since 1980, he has been with the Western Farmers
and model validation,” ERCOT, Austin, TX, Apr. 2, 2002.
Electric Cooperative, Anadarko, OK. He was a Trans-
[8] E. Muljadi and H. E. Mckenna, “Power quality issues in a hybrid power mission/Generation Systems Analyst from 1980 to
system,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 803–809, May/Jun. 1985 and an EMS System Software Engineer from
2002. 1985 to 1999. Since 1999, he has been Principal Op-
[9] J. G. Slootweg, S. W. H. de Haan, H. Polinder, and W. L. Kling, “Mod- erations Engineer.
eling wind turbines in power system dynamics simulations,” in Proc. Dr. Liao is a Registered Professional Engineer in
IEEE-Summer Meeting, vol. 1, Jul. 15–19, 2001, pp. 22–26. the State of Oklahoma.