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4-1

PART 4-1 PAGE PART 4-3 PAGE


GENERALAXLE SERVICE . . . . . . . .4-1 SPECIFICATIONS. . . . . . .4-31

PART 4-2
REARAXLES 4-11

GENERAL AXLE SERVICE

Section Page Section Page


1 Diagnosisand Testing 4-1 Pinion Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-8
Diagnosis Guide 4-1 3 Cleaningand Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .4-9
Rear Axle Noise Diagnosis 4-1 InspectionBefore Disassemblyof Carrier. . . .4-9
Limited-Slip Differential 4-2 Inspection After Disassembly . . . .. .4-9
Gear Tooth Contact Pattern Check .4-3 BearingCupsand Coneand Roller
The Ideal Tooth Pattern 4-3 Assemblies 4-10
Hunting Gear Set 4-3 Differential BearingAdjusting Nuts. . . . . . . . . .4-10
Non-Hunting Gear Set 4-4 Drive Pinion Flange 4-10
Partial Non-Hunting Gear Set. . . . . . . . . .. . . .4-5 Pinion Retainer 4-10
Shim and BacklashChanges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-5 Carrier Housing 4-10
2 CommonAdjustmentsand Repairs. . . . . . . . . . .4-7 Differential Case 4-10
Pinion and Drive Gear Tooth Contact Limited-Slip Differential Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10
Adjustments 4-7
Backlashand Differential BearingPreload
Adjustments 4-7

Two t)'pes of axles are covered in gral with the axle housing. The re- ential carrier is bolted to the axle
this group. The integral carrier type movable carrier type axle is used in housing and can be removed from
axle is used only in Mustang and Mustang and Falcon 8-cylinder mod- th,e housing for service. A limited-
Falcon 6-cylinder models. In this type els, and all Comet and Fairlane slip differential is available as op-
axle, the differential carrier is inte- models. In this type axle, the differ- tional equipment in either type axle.

D DIAGNOSIS AN D TESTING
ognized since it produces a cycling
DIAGNOSIS GUIDE noise is in no way a sign of trouble
Certain rear axle and drive line in the axle. pitch and will be very pronounced in
trouble symptoms are also common . ~ere noise is present in an ob- the ~peed range at which it occurs,
to the engine,transmission,tires, and ]ectIonableform, loud and/or at all usually under drive, float, cruise or
other parts of the car. For this rea- speeds,the first efforts should be coast conditions. Gear noise tends to
son, be sure that the cause of the made to isolate the noise. Rear axle peak in a narrow speed range or
trouble is in the rear axle before ad- noiseis quite often confusedwith oth- ranges, while bearing noise will tend
justing,repairing,or replacingany of er. n.oisess';1chas. tire noise~tra.ns- to remain constant in pitch.
the axle parts. mISSIonnoIse, dnveshaft vIbration
Bearing Noise
and universaljoint noise.Isolation of
REAR AXLE NOISE DIAGNOSIS the noise in anyone unit requires Defective bearings will produce a
Noise characteristics in a rear skill and experience.An attempt to whine that is constant in pitch and
axle are more difficult to diagnose eliminate a slight noise may baffle varies with vehicle speed. This fact
and repair than mechanicalfailures. eventhe bestdiagnosticexperts.Axle will help distinguish between bearing
Slight axle noiseheard only at a cer- noisesfall into two basic categories: and/ or gear noise.
tain speedor under remoteconditions gear noise and/or bearing noise. 1. Pinion bearing noise can be
must be considered normal. Axle identified as a constant grinding
noise tendsto peak or be more pro- Gear Noise noise. Pinion bearings are rotating at
nounced at varying speedsand the Abnormal gear noise can be rec- a higher speed than differential side
4-2 GROUP 4 - REARAXLE

bearings or axle shaft bearings. The checked for proper operation with- shaft. Be sure that the transmission
noise is most noticeable at a slight out removing the carrier from the is in neutral gear, one rear wheel is
pull between 18 to 25 miles per hour. axle housing. on the floor, and the other rear
2. Wheel bearing noise may be Jack up one rear wheel and re- wheel is raised off the floor. The
confused with rear axle noise. To move the wheel cover. On a car with torque required to continuously ro-
differentiate between wheel bearings a removable carrier type axle, install tate the shaft should be a specified
and rear axle, drive the car on a tool T59L-4204-A on the axle shaft in Part 4-3. The initial breakaway
smooth road at medium low speed. flange studs as shown in Fig. 1. On torque may be higher than the con-
With traffic permitting, turn the car a car with an integral carrier type tinuous turning torque, but this is
sharply right and left. If noise is axle, use tool T65K-4204-A. normal. The axle shaft should turn
caused by wheel bearings, the noise Using a torque wrench of at least with even pressure throughout the
will increase on the defective bear- 200 ft-ibs capacity, rotate the axle check without slipping or binding.
ing because of side loading.
3. Side bearings will produce a
constant grinding noise of a slower
nature than pinion bearing, (side
bearing noise cannot be determined
by the wheel bearing test), but will
be in the same frequency as axle
shaft bearings.
Also, certain trouble symptoms are
common to both the conventional
and locking differential axles, while
still other symptoms are found only
in the locking differential.
To determine whether the car is
equipped with a conventional or a
locking differential, check the car
warranty plate and the axle ratio tag.
Refer to CAR IDENTIFICATION
at the front of this manual.

LIMITED-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL
The limited-slip differential can be FIG. 1-Checking Limited-Slip Differential

REAR AXLE TROUBLE SYMPTOMS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES

Since gears are in mesh, some rear Noise caused by a worn or dam-
axle noise is normal. However, exces- aged wheel bearing is often loudest
sive noise often indicates the begin- when the car is coasting at low
ning of other troubles in the axle. speeds,and it usually stops when the
A road test can help determine brakes are gently applied. To find the
whether the noise is being caused by noisy bearing, jack up each wheel and
trouble in the rear axle or in other check each bearing for roughness
parts of the car. Before road-testing while the wheel is rotating, provided
the car, make sure that the tire pres- that the car is equipped with a con-
sures and the rear axle lubricant ventional differential.
level are normal. Then drive the car If all possible external sources of
far enough to warm the axle lubri- noise have been checked and elimi-
cant to its normal operating tem- nated, and the noise still exists, road-
EXCESSIVE REAR AXLE perature. test the rear axle under all four driv-
NOIS£ (ALL REAR AXLES) With the car stopped and the trans- ing conditions-drive, cruise, float,
mission in neutral, run the engine at and coast. Any noise produced by the
various speeds.If the noise still exists sidegears and pinions in the differen-
during this test, it probably comes tial case will be most pronounced on
from the engine or the exhaust sys- turns. A continuous whine under a
tem. light load between 20 and 35 miles
To determine if the noise is being per hour indicates rough or brinnelled
caused by the rear axle or the tires,
pinion bearings. If the tone of drive,
drive the car over several different
coast and float noise differs with
types of road surfaces. Smooth as-
phalt or black-top roads minimize speed and if the noise is very rough
tire noises. Tire noises may be elimi- and irregular; worn, rough or loose
nated by cross-switching the tires. differential or pinion shaft bearings
Snow tires often cause noises not are indicated. Remove, disassemble,
heard with conventional tires. and inspect the axle.
PART 4-1 - GENERAL
AXLESERVICE 4-3

REAR AXLE TROUBLE SYMPTOMS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES (Continued)

Excessive backlash in the axle tween the drive pinion and ring gear,
EXCESSIVE REAR AXLE driving parts may be causedby worn excessive backlash in the differential
BACKLASH (ALL REAR axle shaft splines, loose axle shaft gears, or bearings which are worn or
AXLES) flange nuts, loose V-joint flange out of adjustment.
mountings, excessivebacklash be-
Use the procedure given under the specified minimum, the differen-
ONE WHEEL SPINS limited-slip differential for checking tial is not functioning properly. To
EXCESSIVELY (LIMITED-SLIP the locking differentialwhile the unit repair the unit, remove it from the
DIFFERENTIAL ONLY) is in the car. If the torque required axle housing.
to rotate one rear wheel is lessthan
Drive the car in a fairly tight cir- standfor at leasttwo minutes.If the
cle, making five circlesclockwiseand samplenow has a blue tint, the lu-
five counterclockwise.This will per- bricant is approvedFord lubricant. If
mit the lubricant to work in between it has a yellow tint, it is not the cor-
the clutch plates. If the noise does rect lubricant. Drain and refill the
AXLE HAS A not disappearduring this driving test, axle with the approvedlubricant. It
HIGH-PITCHED, CHATTERING it is probablethat the axle doesnot is not necessaryto flush the axle
NOISE ON TURNS have the approvedFord lubricant.
(LIMITED-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL housing.
The lubricant may be checkedby After reffiling the axle drive the
ONLY) draining two tablespoonfulsfrom the car in fairly tight circles clockwise
axle and mixing it with an equal and counterclockwise. The chattering
amount of white alcohol, such as noiseshoulddisappearas soonas the
rubbing alcohol. Mix the lubricant new lubricant works in betweenthe
and alcohol thoroughly and let it clutch plates.

If the torque reading is less than THE mEAL TOOl1l PATTERN types of gear sets as well as differ-
the specified minimum, check the dif- Figs. 2 and 3 show the ideal tooth encesbetweenindividual gear setsof
ferential for improper assembly. pattern. This pattern is not a rigid the sametype will result in patterns
A car equipped with a limited-slip standard but merely a general role. that are acceptableyet different from
differential will always have both In general, desirable tooth pat- those shown in Fig. 3.
wheels driving. If, while the car is terns should have the following char-
being serviced, only one wheel is acteristics: HUNTING GEAR SET
raised off the floor and the rear axle (a) The drive pattern should be In a hunting-type gear set, anyone
is driven by the engine, the wheel on fairly well centered on the tooth. pinion gear tooth comes into contact
the floor will drive the car off the (b) The coast pattern should be with all drive gear teeth. In this type,
stand or jack. centered on the tooth but may be several revolutions of the ring gear
slightly toward the toe. are required to make all possible gear
GEAR TOOTH CONTACT (c) Some clearance between the combinations.
PATTERN CHECK pattern and the top of the tooth is
desirable. Acceptable Pa"ern
Paint the gear teeth and roll a pat- (d) There should be no hard lines
tern as describedin Section3. After where the pressure is high. The drive pattern shown in Fig.
diagnosingthe tooth pattern as ex- The individual gear set need not 4 was rolled on a hunting-type gear
plained here, make the appropriate conform exactly to the ideal pattern set. Since each pinion tooth came into
adjustmentsas outlined in Section2. in order to be acceptable. Character- contact with each ring gear tooth,
m making a final gear tooth con- istic differences between the three the pattern is a result of the com-
tact pattern check, it is necessaryto
recognizethe fact that there are three DRIVE SIDE COAST SIDE
different types of gear set, hunting, EL -- --- HEEL
non-huntingand partial non-hunting. HEEL SHIM CORRECT
BACKLASH CORRECT
Each type is determinedby the ratio
and the numberof teeth in the gears.
The non-hunting and partial non- TOE
hunting typescan be identifiedby the
paint timing markson the pinion and
ring gear teeth (Part 4-2, Fig. 30). E1468.A
SeePart 4-3 for completeidentifica-
tion specifications. FIG. 2-ldeal ToothPattern-IntegralCarrierTypeAxle
4-4

DRIVE SIDE COAST SIDE

HEEL

DESIRABLE PATTERN
CORRECT
SHIM
CORRECTBACKLASH

E1336-A

FIG. 3-ldeal Tooth Pattern-RemovableCarrierType Axle

FIG. 6-Unacceptable
Non-HuntingPattern-
FIG. 5-Unacceptable
Center-Heel-Center
bined tooth contacts. Therefore, the Non-Hunting Pattern-
pattern is uniform from tooth to Center-roe-Center
tooth.
to center. The pattern in Fig. 6 runs
from the tooth center toward the heel
Unacceptable Pattern
and then back to center. These
An erratic tooth pattern on a hunt- patterns are not unusual for non-
ing gear set indicates gear runout hunting gear sets ana are acceptable.
and possible need for gear replace- The pattern on anyone ring gear
ment. tooth was formed by only one pin-
A pattern that is uniform, but off ion tooth coming into contact with
center indicates a change in shim or it. Because of this limited tooth
backlash (Figs. 9 or 10). contact, the non-hunting pattern can
be more erratic than the hunting
NON.HUNTING GEAR SET pattern and still be acceptable. Like-
In a non-hunting type gear set, any wise, the coast pattern on a non-
one pinion gear tooth comes into con- hunting gear set is usually less uni-
tact with only a few ring gear teeth. form tooth to tooth than it would
In this type, only one revolution of be on a hunting gear set (Fig. 7).
the ring gear is required to make all Fig. 8 shows a pattern rolled on
possible tooth contact combinations. another gear set. In this case,the pat-
tern is fairly uniform from tooth to
Acceptable Patterns tooth.
The drive patterns shown in Figs. Unacceptable Patterns
5 and 6 were rolled on two different A non-hunting gear set should be
non-hunting type gear sets. The pat- checked for runout and possible re-
tern in Fig. 5 runs from the tooth placement if the pattern runs from
center toward the toe and then back the tooth center toward the toe and
PART 4-1 - GENERAL
AXLESERVICE 4-5

set, anyone pinion tooth comesinto the tooth, and the coast pattern is
contact with only part of the ring rolled on the concaveside.
gear teeth, but more than one revo- The movement of tooth contact
lution of the ring gear is required to patterns with changes in backlash
make all possiblegear tooth combi- and shimmingcan be summarizedas
nations. follows:
Tooth to tooth pattern uniformity
will usually be in betweenthe hunt- Integral Carrier Type Axle
ing and the non-hunting patterns.
Partial non-huntinggear set patterns 1. Thinner shim with the backlash
will usually be less uniform than constant moves the pinion farther
hunting gear set patterns, but more from the ring gear.
uniform than non-hunting gear set 8. Drive pattern moves toward
patterns. the top of the tooth (face contact)
SHIM AND BACKLASH and toward the heel.
CHANGES b. Coast pattern moves toward
The patternsshownin Figs. 9 and the top of the tooth and slightly to-
E1341-A ward the toe.
10 are typical of gear setsthat have
FIG. 8-Acceptable Non-Hunting 2. Thicker shim with the backlash
either an incorrect backlashor an in- constantmovesthe pinion closer to
Pattern-Uniform correct shim adjustment.Since each
change in shimming or backlash the ring gear.
gear set rolls a characteristicpattern, 8. Drive pattern movesdeeperon
when its pattern tendsto concentrate the patternsin Figs. 9 and 10 should
toward the heel or toe, top or bot- the tooth (flank contact) and slight-
tom of most teeth (Figs. 9 and 10). be consideredas typical only and ly toward the toe.
PARTIAL NON.HUNTING should be used as a guide rather b. Coast pattern movesdeeperon
GEAR SET than a rigid standard.The drive pat- the tooth and toward the heel.
In a partial non-huntingtype gear tern is rolled on the convex side of 3. Decreasingbacklashmovesthe
drive gear closer to the pinion:
DRIVE SIDE COAST SlOE 8. Drive pattern (convex side of
gear) moves slightly lower and to-
ward the toe.
b. Coast pattern (concaveside of
gear) moves lower and toward the
toe.
4. Increasingbacklashmoves the
ring gear away from the pinion:
8. Drive pattern moves slightly
higher and toward the heel.
b. Coastpattern moveshigher and
toward the heel.
If the patterns are not correct,
make the changesas indicated. The
differentialcaseand drive pinion will
have to be removedfrom the carrier
castingto changea shim. When re-
installing the pinion and ring gearof
SHIM CORRECT
DECREASE BACKLASH a non-huntingor partial non-hunting
.004 gear set, be sure that the marked
tooth on the pinion indexesbetween
the marked teeth on the ring gear
(Fig. 30, Part 4-2). Refer to Pin-
ion and Ring Gear Tooth Contact
Adjustment,Section2.
SHIM CORRECT Removable Carrier Type Axle
INCREASE BACKLASH
.004
1. Thicker shim with the backlash
constant moves the pinion farther
from the ring gear:
a. Drive pattern moves toward the
top of the tooth (face contact) and
E1469.A toward the heel.
b. Coast pattern moves toward the
FIG. 9-Typical GearTooth ContactPatternsIndicating Shimor top of the tooth and slightly toward
BacklashChange-IntegralCarrierType the toe.
4-6 GROUP 4 - REARAXLE

DRIVE SIDE COAST SIDE

HEEL

TOE

1. BACKLASHCORRECT
0.004 THICKER
SHIM REQUIRED

2. BACKLASHCORRECT
0.004 THINNER
SHIM REQUIRED

3. SHIM CORRECT
DECREASE
BACKLASH
0.004

4. SHIM CORRECT
INCREASE
BACKLASH
0.004

E1342-A

FIG. 10-Typical Gear Tooth Contact Patterns Indicating Shim or Backlash


Change-Removable Carrier Type
1. Thinner shim with the backlash ring gear closer to the pinion: b. Coast pattern moves higher and
constantmoves the pinion closer to a. Drive pattern moves slightly toward the heel.
the ring gear. lower and toward the toe. If the patterns are not correct,
a. Drive pattern movesdeeperon b. Coastpattern moveslower and make the changes as indicated. The
the tooth (flank contact) and slight- toward the toe.
ly toward the toe. 4. Increasingbacklashmoves the pinion need not be disassembled to
b. Coastpattern movesdeeperon ring gear away from the pinion: change a shim. All that is required is
the tooth and toward the heel. a. Drive pattern moves slightly to remove the pinion, bearing, and
3. Decreasingbacklashmovesthe higher and toward the heel. retainer assembly and install a differ-
PART 4-1 - GENERAL
AXLESERVICE 4-7

ent shim. When reinstalling the pin- set, be sure that the marked tooth 30, Part 4-2). Refer to Pinion and
ion and retainer assembly of a non- on the pinion indexes between the Ring Gear Tooth Contact Adjust-
hunting or partial non-hunting gear marked teeth on the ring gear (Fig. ment, Section2.

COMMON ADJUSTMENTS AND REPAIRS

PINION AND RING GEAR In both types of axle (Fig. 11 and


TOOTH CONTACT 12), the ring gear is moved away
ADJUSTMENT from or toward the pinion as de-
scribed in the following procedure.
Two separate adjustments affect
1. Remove the adjusting nut locks,
pinion and ring gear tooth contact.
loosen the differential bearing cap
They are pinion location and back- SHI
bolts, then torque the bolts to (15
lash (Figs. 11 and 12).
ft-lbs on integral carrier type axles;
Individual differences in matching
t?l ~ 20 ft-lbs on removable carrier type
the differential housing and the gear ~ c:
~
< axles) before making adjustments.
set require the use of shims to locate
2. The left adjusting nut is on the
the pinion for correct contact with ~ ring gear side of the carrier. The

i
I;.;.;;,...
the ring gear. On the integral carrier J.~ right nut is on the pinion side. Loos-
type axle, the pinion locating shim
en the right nut until it is away from
pack is installed between the pinion
~ the cup. Tighten the left nut until the
rear bearing cone and the pinion ~"-:'-"'~

ring gear is just forced into the pin-


gear (Fig. 11), whereas, on the re- J; , -"NuT - ion with no backlash then rotate the
movable carrier type axle, the shims
~--NlJT"'~',,1 BACKLASH pinion several revolutions to be sure
are installed between the pinion re-
~ ADJUSTMENT E1409-A no binding is evident. (Recheck the
tainer and the carrier (Fig. 12). Due
right nut at this time to be sure that
to this difference in shim position, it FIG. 12-Pinion and Ring it is still loose.) Tightening the left
should be noted that adding or re- Gear Tooth Contact Adjustment- nut moves the ring gear into the pin-
moving shims in the integral carrier Removable Carrier Type Axles ion to decrease backlash, and tight-
type (Fig. 11) causes the pinion to
ening the right nut moves the ring
move in a direction exactly opposite shims should be added to or removed
to the pinion movement caused by from the original shim pack only as gear away.
3. Loosen the left adjusting nut 1
adding or removing shims in the re- indicated by the tooth pattern check
to 11/2notches. Tighten the right nut
movable carrier type (Fig. 12). described in the foregoing Section 1.
until it first contacts the bearing cup.
When adjusting either type axle, When adjusting the integral carrier
Rotate the drive gear several revolu-
type axle, add shims to move the pin-
tions in each direction while the bear-
ion toward the ring gear; remove
ings are loaded, to seat the bearings
PINION LOCATIa'i
ADJUSTMENT c

"'"
rt shims to move the pinion away from
the ring .sear (Fig. 11). When adjust-
ing the removable carrier type axle,
remove shims to move the pinion to-
in their cups to be sure no bind is
evident. This step is important.
4. Install a dial indicator as
",SPACER
shown in Fig. 13.
PINla-I ward the ring gear; add shims to
S. Again loosen the right nut to
BACKLASH
"'" \ OCATING
SHIM move the pinion away from the ring
release the pre-load. If there is any
ADJUSTMENt gear (Fig. 12). backlash between the gears as shown
PACK
The tooth pattern check also indi-
by the dial indicator, tighten the left
cates whether the ring gear should
I
I be adjusted away from or toward the
nut just enough to remove this back-
I lash. At this time, make sure that one
pinion to increase or decrease back-
of the slots in the left nut is so lo-
lash between the gears.
cated that the lock can be installed
If the tooth pattern check indicates
without turning the nut. Carefully
a change in backlash only, follow the
tighten the right nut until it just con-
procedure under Backlash and Bear-
tacts the cup. On integral carrier type
ing Preload Adjustments. If the tooth
axles, set a preload of 0.008 inch
pattern indicates a change in shim
case spread for new bearings and
thickness, follow the procedure under
0.003 to 0.005 for the original bear-
Pinion Location.
ings. On removable carrier type
BACKLASH AND DIFFEREN- axles, the preload is 0.012 inch case
oJ,
,..J ~~
If~ DIFFERENTIAL BEARING
ADJUSTING
NUTS TIAL BEARING PREWAD spread for new bearings and 0.005
E1476-A ADJUSTMENTS to 0.008 for the original bearings. As
To secure a u :')re uniform control preload is applied from the right side,
FIG. 11-Pinion and Ring Gear of differential si' ,e bearing preload in the ring gear is forced away from
Tooth Contact Adjustment- service repairs, a dial indicator set- the pinion and usually results in the
Integral Carrier Type Axles up such as shown in Fig. 13 is used. correct backlash.
4-8 GROUP 4 REAR AXLE

3. Replacethe pinion retainer 0-


ring (Fig. 47, Part 4-2). Coat the
O-ring with axle lubricant before in-
stalling. Do not roD the O-ring into
the groove.Snapit into position.
4. Being careful not to pinch the
O-ring, install the pinion and bearing
retainer assemblyin the carrier with
the correctedshim pack.
Before installing the pinion and
bearingretainer assembly,determine
which type of gear set is being used.
The non-hunting and partial non-
hunting typescan be identifiedby the
paint timing marks on the gear teeth
FIG. 13-Adjusting Side Bearing Preload (Fig. 30, Part 4-2).
rier casting, and then remove the pin-
If the gear set is of the non-hunt-
6. Torque the differential cap bolts
ion bearings as described under Re- ing or partial non-huntingtype, clean
to specification (15ft-Ibs).
moval of Differential Case and Drive the teeth on both the pinion and ring
7. Measure the backlash on sev-
eral teeth around the ring gear. If Pinion in Section 4.
gear so that the timing marks are
visible. Rotate the differential case
the measurements vary more than 2. Measure the original shim
and drive gear assemblyin the car-
(0.002 inch-integral carrier type; thickness with a micrometer. Increase
rier until the marked teeth on the
0.003 inch-removable carrier type) or decreasethe shim thickness as in-
ring gear are oppositethe pinion en-
there is excessiverunout in the gears dicated by the tooth pattern check
try hole. Place the pinion retainer
or their mountings, which must be described in the foregoing Section 1
assemblyin the carrier so that the
corrected to obtain a satisfactory and shown in Fig. 9.
marked tooth on the pinion indexes
unit. If the backlash is out of speci- 3. Install the corrected shim pack
betweenthe markedteethon the ring
fication, loosen one adjusting nut and and the bearings on the pinion, and
gear (Fig. 30, Part 4-2).
tighten the opposite nut an equal then install the pinion and the differ-
amount, to move the ring gear away
In almost every caseof improper
ential case in the carrier casting as
from or toward the pinion. When assembly (gear assembledout of
outlined under Installation of Drive
moving the adjusting nuts, the final
time), the noiselevel and probability
Pinion and Differential Case in Sec-
movement should always be made in of failure wiD be higher than they
tion 4 of Part 4-2.
a tightening direction. For example,
would be with properly assembled
4. Adjust the backlash between the
if the left nut had to be loosened one ring gear and pinion as outlined in
gears.
notch, loosen the nut two notches, When installing the hunting type
the foregoing procedure.
then tighten it one. This insures that gear set (no timing marks), assem-
5. Make a tooth pattern check. If
the nut is contacting the bearing cup, ble the pinion and retainer assembly
the pattern is still unsatisfactory, re-
and that the cup cannot shift after into the carrier without regardto the
peat this procedure changing the
being put in service. After all such matching of any particular gear
shim thickness each time until a sat-
adjustments, check to be sure that the teeth.
isfactory tooth pattern is obtained.
case spread remains as specified for 5. Install the retainer-to-carrier
the new or original bearings used. Removable Carrier Type mounting bolts and torque to speci-
8. Again check the tooth contact Axle fications.
pattern. If the pattern is still incor- 1. Removethe attachingbolts and 6. Adjust the backlashbetweenthe
rect, a change in pinion location the pinion and bearing retainer as- ring gear and pinion as outlined in
(shim thickness) is indicated. semblyfrom the carrier. the foregoing procedure.
2. Measure the original shim 7. Make a tooth pattern check. If
PINION LOCATION the pattern is still unsatisfactory,re-
thicknesswith a micrometer.Increase
Integral Carrier Type Axle or decreasethe shim thicknessas in- peat this procedure changing the
1. Remove the differential case dicated by the tooth pattern check shim thicknesseach time until a sat-
and the drive pinion from the car- describedin Section1. isfactory tooth pattern is obtained.
PART 4-1 - GENERAL
AXLESERVICE 4-9

INSPECTION BEFORE
DISASSEMBLY OF CARRIER
The differential case assembly and
the drive pinion should be inspected
before they are removed from the
housing. These inspections can help
to find the cause of the trouble and
to determine the correction needed.
On removable carrier type axles,
mount the carrier in the holding fix-
ture shown in Fig. 14.

FIG. 17-Checking Drive Gear


Runout-Removable Carrier Type
Axle

ways use new solvent when cleaning


bearings. Do not spin bearings with
- - ~ E1309-A
compressed air. Oil the bearings im-
FIG. 1S-Checking Backlash mediately to prevent rusting. Inspect
FIG. 14-Bench Fixture for -Removable CarrierType Axle
the parts for any major defects.
Carrier Overhaul-Removable Clean the inside of the housing be-
be detectedby an erratic pattern on fore rebuilding and installing the
Carrier Type Axle
the teeth. However, a dial indicator parts.
Wipe the lubricant from the in- should be used to measurethe run- When a scored gear set is re-
ternal working parts, and visually in- out of the back face of the ring gear, placed, the axle housing should be
spectthe parts for wear or damage. as shownin Fig. 16 or 17. Refer to washed thoroughly and steam
Rotate the gearsto seeif there is SpecificationsSection for maximum cleaned. This can only be done effec-
any roughnesswhich would indicate allowablerunout. tively if the axle shafts and shaft seals
defective bearingsor chipped gears. Loosenthe differential bearingcap are removed from the housing. In-
Check the gear teeth for scoring or bolts, and then torque to specifica- spect individual parts as outlined be-
signsof abnormal wear. tion. Removethe adjustingnut locks. low.
Check the differential case and the Carefully loosenone of the adjusting
nuts to determineif any differential GEARS
drive pinion for end play.
Set up a dial indicator (Fig. 15 or bearing preload remains. If at least Examine the pinion and ring gear
16) and check the backlash at sev- one notch of preload remains, the teeth for scoring or excessive wear.
eral points around the ring gear. differential bearingsmay be re-used, Extreme care must be taken not to
Backlashshould be within specifi- providedthey are not pitted or dam-I damage the pilot bearing surface of
cationsas outlined in the Specifica- the pinion.
aged.
tions Section,Part 4-3. The pattern taken during disas-
INSPECTION AFTER sembly should be helpful in judging
To check the gear tooth contact,
DISASSEMBLY if gears can be re-used. Worn gears
paint the gear teeth with the special
compoundfurnished with each serv- Thoroughly clean all parts. AI- cannot be rebuilt to correct a noisy
ice ring gear and pinion. Wrap a
cloth around the drive pinion flange
to act as a brake. Rotate the ring
gear back and forth (use a box
wrench on the ring gear attaching
bolts for a lever) until a clear tooth
contact pattern is obtained.
Certaintypesof geartooth contact
patternson the ring gear indicate in-
correct adjustment.Noise causedby
incorrect adjustment can often be
corrected by readjusting the gears.
Typical patterns and the necessary
correctionsare explainedunder Gear
BACKLASH CHECK
Tooth ContactPattern Checkin Sec-
tion 1.
Gear tooth runout can sometimes FIG. 16-Checking Backlashand Runout-lnte~ralCarrierType Axle
4-10 GROUP 4 REAR AXLE

condition. Gear scoring is the result (removable carrier type). The faces threads are not damaged.
of excessiveshock loading or the use of the nuts that contact the bearing Remove any nicks or burrs from
of an incorrect lubricant. Scored cups must be smooth and square. Pol- the mounting surfaces of the carrier
gears cannot be re-used. ish these with a fine abrasive on a housing.
Examine the teeth and thrust sur- flat surface. Replace the nuts or ex-
faces of the differential gears. Wear amine the threads in the carrier, if DIFFERENTIAL CASE
on the hub of the differential side their fit is not proper. Be sure that Make sure that the hubs where the
gear can cause a chucking noise the bearing caps and adjusting nuts bearings mount are smooth. Care-
known as chuckle when the car is are on the side which they were ma- fully examine the differential case
driven at low speeds.Wear on splines, chined to fit by observing the punch bearing shoulders, which may have
thrust surfaces, or thrust washers can marks and scribe marks made dur- been damaged when the beatings
contribute to excessive drive line ing disassembly operations. were removed. The bearing assem-
backlash. blies will fail if they do not seat firm-
DRIVE PINION FLANGE ly against the shoulders. Check the
BEARING CUPS Be sure that the ears of the flange fit (free rotation) of the differential
Check bearing cups for rings, have not been damaged in removing side gears in their counterbores. Be
scores, galling, or erratic wear pat- the drive shaft or in removing the sure that the mating surfaces of the
terns. Pinion bearing cups must be flangt: from the pinion. The end of two parts of the case are smooth and
solidly seated. Check by attempting the flange that contacts the bearing free from nicks or burrs.
to insert a O.OOI5-inchfeeler between cone (integral carrier type) or the oil
these cups and the bottoms of their slinger (removable carrier type) as LIMITEO-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL
bores. well as the flat surface of the pinion PARTS
nut counterbore must be smooth. Inspect the clutch plates for un-
CONE AND ROLLER Polish these surfaces if necessary. even or extreme wear. The dog-eared
ASSEMBLIES Roughness aggravates backlash clutch plates must be free from burrs,
When operated in the cups, bear- noises, and causeswear of the flange nicks, or scratches which could cause
ing rollers must turn without rough- with a resultant loss in pinion bear- excessiveor erratic wear to the bond-
ness. Examine the roller ends for ing preload. ing material of the internally splined
wear. Step-wear on the roller ends in- clutch plates. The internally splined
dicates that the bearings were not PINION RETAINER- clutch plates should be inspected for
preloaded properly or that the rollers REMOVABLE CARRIER condition of the bond, bonding ma-
were slightly misaligned. TYPE AXLE ONLY terial, and wear. Replace the bonded
If inspection reveals either a de- Be sure that the pinion bearing plates if their thickness is less than
fective cup or a defective cone and cups are seated. Remove any chips 0.085 inch or if the bonded material
roller assembly, both parts should be or burrs from the mounting flange. is scored or badly worn. Inspect the
replaced to avoid early failure. Clean the groove for the O-ring seal bonded plate internal teeth for wear.
and all lubricant passages.If the cups Replace them, if excessive wear is
DIFFERENTIAL BEARING were removed, examine the bores evident. Bonded plates should be re-
ADJUSTING NUTS carefully. Any nicks or burrs in these placed as a set only.
Temporarily install the bearing bores must be removed to permit Examine all thrust surfaces and
caps and test the fit of the adjusting proper seating of the cups. hubs for wear. Abnormal wear on
nuts in their threads. these surfaces can contribute to a
The nuts should turn easily when CARRIER HOUSING noisy axle.
the caps are tightened to 15 ft-lbs Make sure that the differential Inspect the Belleville spring for
(integral carrier type) or 20 ft-lbs beariniZ bores are smooth and the nroner free hei2ht of 1/4 inch.
4-11

REAR AXLES

Section Page Section Page


1 Description and Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-11 Differential Case, Bearings and Drive Gear
Pinion Bearing Cups .4-19
Conventional Axles-Description. .. . .. . . . . .4-11 .4-22
Operation 4-12 Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-22
Limited-Slip Differential Axle-Description. . .4-12 Installation of Drive Pinion and Differential
Operation 4-12 Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 In-Car Adjustments and Repairs. ... .. .. . .. .4-13 5 Major Repair Operations-Removable
Rear Axle Shaft, Wheel Bearing and Oil Seal Disassembly.
Carrier Type ........................
Axles .4-24
Replacement 4-13 .4-24
Drive Pinion Oil Seal Replacement. . . . . . . . . .4-14 Removal and Disassembly of Conventional
Universal Joint Flange Replacement. .. .4-16 Removal and Disassembly of Limited-Slip
Differential Case , 4-24
3 Removal and Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-17
Rear Axle Housing-Integral Carrier Type. . .4-17 Removal and Disassembly of Drive Pinion
Differential Case 4-25
Differential Carrier-Removable Carrier
Type 4-18 Parts Repair or Replacement.
and Bearing
.4-25 Retainer . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Rear Axle Housing-Removable Carrier ... .4-26
Type 4-18 Drive Pinion and Gear Set. . . . . . . . . . . . . ., .4-26
Pilot
Pinion Bearing Bearing Cups ...,

4 Major Repair Operations-Integral Carrier .. . .4-26


Type Axle 4-19 .. . .4-27
Disassembly 4-19 Assembly and Installation of Drive Pinion
Removal of Differential Case and Drive Assembly and Installation
and Bearing Retainer of Conventional ,4-27
Pinion 4-19
Disassembly of Conventional Differential Case 4-19 Differential Case ..,..""",.,...,.
Disassembly of Limited-Slip Differential Case. 4-19 Assembly and Installation of Limited-Slip
Parts Repair or Replacement. .. . ., . . . . . . . . .4-19 Differential Case. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-30

D DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION


below the centerlineof the ring gear
The semi-floating axle shafts are
IDENTIFICATION
A metal tag stamped with the retained in the housing by ball bear- (Fig. 2).
model designation and gear ratio is ings and a bearing retainer at the The integral pinion gear and shaft
secured to all Ford-produced axles axle housing outer ends. and the pinion bearingsare assem-
The differential assembly is bled in a pinion retainer, which is
under one of the rear cover-to-hous-
ing bolts (integral carrier type) or the mounted on two opposed tapered bolted to the carrier. In this axle, the
roller bearings. The bearings are re- pinion is straddle mounted; that is,
carrier-to-housing bolts (removable
carrier type). The first five spaceson tained in the housing by removable the pinion is supportedby bearings
caps. Differential bearing preload and both in front of and to the rear of
the top line are reserved for the
model designation letters such as drive gear backlash is adjusted by the pinion gear.Two opposedtapered
WCY-E, WDJ-C, or WEA-B. These nuts located behind each differential roller bearings support the pinion
letters indicate a specific combination bearing cup. shaft in front of the pinion gear. A
The drive pinion assembly is straight roller (pilot) bearing sup-
of the following factors: convention-
al or limited-slip axle; diameter of mounted on two opposed tapered ports the pinion shaft at the rear of
ring gear; small or large wheel bear- roller bearings. Pinion bearing pre- the pinion gear. Pinion and ring gear
ings; and the gear ratio. It is impor- load is adjusted by a collapsible spac- tooth contactis adjustedby shimsbe-
tant, therefore, to use the model des- er on the pinion shaft. Pinion and tweenthe pinion retainerand the car-
ignation for obtaining the correct re- ring gear tooth contact is adjusted rier housing.
by shims between the rear bearing The differential assembly is
placement parts. cone and pinion gear. mounted on two opposed tapered
CONVENTIONAL AXLES j\ cover on the rear of the differ- roller bearings,which are retainedin
ential housing provides accessfor in- the carrier by removablecaps. The
DESCRIPTION spection and the removal and instal- entire carrier assemblyis bolted to
Integral Carrier Type Axle lation of the differential assembly the axle housing.
and drive pinion. Ball bearing assemblies (rear
The rear axle assembly is an inte-
Removable Carrier Type Axle wheel bearings)are pressedonto the
gral-type housing, hypoid design,
with the centerline of the pinion set The rear axle is of the banjo-hous- outer endsof the axle shaftsand set
below the centerline of the ring gear ing, hypoid gear type, in which the in the outer endsof the axle housing.
(Fig. 1). centerline of the pinion is mounted Thesebearingssupportthe semi-float-
4-12 GROUP 4 - REARAXLE

PINIONGEAR
4215

LEFT-HAND
AXLE SHAFT

DIFFERENTIAL
CASE / (" ::
4735
I

X j
"",
f ~
/ ;" "
~
RIGHT
~'!i&i'!i&
AXLE SHAFT ~

.
4234

~ PINION
4209 SEAL
4859

FLANGE
4851

DRIVE PINION

,
BEARINGS
4630.
SEAL
4621.
'177
BEARING
1225
E1212.D

FIG. 1-Typical RearAxle Assembly-IntegralCarrierType Axle

ing axle shafts at the outer ends. The side gear to allow differential action ferential action to take place. Under
inner ends of the shafts spline to the between the two axle shafts. adverse weather conditions, where
differential side gears. Bearing re- LIMITED-SLIP DIFFERENTIAL one or both wheelsmay be on a low-
tainer plates hold the shafts in the AXLE traction surfacesuch as snow,ice or
housing. The left and right axle shafts The locking differential is provided mud, the friction betweenthe clutch
are not interchangeable, because the as optional equipment in both the in- plates will transfer a portion of the
left axle shaft is shorter than the tegral and the removable carrier type
axle. usabletorque to the wheel with the
right. most traction. Thus, the wheel that
DESCRIPTION is on ice or snow will not spin, but
OPERATION The axle assembly, except for the will have a tendencyto operatewith
differential case and its internal com-
The rear axle drive pinion receives the opposite wheel in a combined
ponents, is identical to the conven-
its power from the engine through tional axle. driving effort.
the transmission and drive shaft. The A constant-friction locking differ- When performing the following
pinion gear rotates the differential ential, which employs automatic procedures,refer to Part 4-1, Section
case through engagement with the transmission-type clutch plates to 3 for cleaningand inspectionproce-
ring gear, which is bolted to the case control differential action, is avail- dures.
able as optional equipment (Fig. 3).
outer flange. Inside the case, there CARE OF AXLE
Four steel clutch plates are locked
are two differential pinion gears The lubricant level should be
into the differential cover. Three
mounted on the differential pinion checkedevery 6000 miles, with ve-
bronze, bonded clutch plates are
shaft which is pinned to the case. splined to the left-hand axle shaft. A hicle in normal curb attitude.The lu-
These pinion gears are engaged with Belleville spring washer maintains a bricant level should be at the lower
the side gears, to which the axle constant pressure between the steel edgeof the filler plug hole. It is un-
shafts are splined. Therefore, as the and bonded clutch plates so that the necessaryto periodically drain the
differential case turns, it rotates the clutch is always engaged. axle lubricant. The factory fill should
axle shafts and rear wheels. When it
OPERATION remain in the housingfor the life of
is necessary for one wheel and axle
The pressure between clutch plates the vehicle, exceptwhen repairs are
shaft to rotate faster than the other,
opposes differential action at all made.The specifiedlubricant should
the faster turning side gear causesthe times. When the car turns a corner be installed when the axle is over-
pinions to roll on the slower turning the clutch slips allowin2 normal dif- h""lplj
~
PART 4-2 - REARAXLES 4-13

LEFT-HANDAXLESHAFT

"
.),
,:

,,1
RING GEAR

DRIVEPINION

RIGHT-HANDAXLESHAFT
I[J
TAPEREDROLLER
11
BEARINGS

.:

PINION PILOTBEARING

PINION BEARINGRETAINER
E1304-B

FIG. 2-Rear Axle Assembly-Removable


CarrierType Axle

FIG. 3-Typical Limited-Slip Differential

REAR AXLE SHAFT, WHEEL semblyfrom the axle housing. the drum from the flange.
BEARING AND OIL SEAL 1. Remove the wneeI and tire 3. Working through the hole pro-
REPLACEMENT from the brake drum. vided in each axle shaft flange, re-
The rear axle shafts, wheel bear- 2. Remove the Tinnerman nuts move the nuts that securethe wheel
ings, and oil seal can be replaced that secure the brake drum to the bearingretainer plate. Then pull the
without removing the differential as- axle housingflange,and then remove axle shaft assemblyout of the axle
~
4-14 GROUP 4 REAR AXLE

FIG. 4-Removing Axle


Shaft-Integral Carrier
Type Axle

Tnn/_A?~,,_r /~

-'---"" E1O32-D removed, the oil seal must be re- side of the brake carrier plate, and
FIG. 5-Removing Axle Shaft placed. Remove the seal with the then carefully slide the axle shaft in-
tools shown in Fig. 9. Soak new oil to the housing so that the rough
-Removable Carrier seals in SAE 10 oil for 1/2 hour be- forging of the shaft will not damage
Type Axle fore installing. the oil seal. Start the axle splines into
housiQg (Fig. 4 or 5). The brake car- 7. Inspect the machined surface of the side gear, and push the shaft in
rier plate must not be dislodged. In- the axle shaft and the axle housing until the bearing bottoms in the hous-
stall one nut to hold the plate in place for rough spots or other irregularities ing.
after the axle shaft is removed. which would affect the sealing action 15. Install the bearing retainer
4. If the rear wheel bearing is to of the oil seal. Check the axle shaft plate on the mounting bolts at the
be replaced, loosen the inner retainer splines for burrs, wear or damage. axle housing, and install the attach-
nick by nicking it deeply with a cold Carefully remove any burrs or rough ing nuts. Torque the nuts to specifi-
chisel in several places (Fig. 6). It spots. Replace worn or damaged cations.
will then slide off easily. parts. 16. Install the brake drum and the
8. Lightly coat wheel bearing drum attaching nuts.
bores with ball joint grease (C3VY- 17. Install the wheel and tire on
19586-B). ~hedrum.
9. Place the retainer plate on the
REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT
axle shaft, and press the new wheel
OF DRIVE PINION OIL SEAL
bearing on the. shaft with the tool
shown in Fig. 7 or 8. The bearing Replacement of the pinion oil seal
should seat firmly against the shaft on either type axle involves removal
shoulder. Do not attempt to press on and installation of only the pinion
.)Qi' 1 both the bearing and the inner re-
tainer ring at the same time.
shaft nut and the universal joint
flange. However, this operation dis-
~!, 10. Using the bearing installation turbs the pinion bearing preload, and
tool, press the bearing inner retain- this preload must be carefuUy reset
er ring on the shaft until the retainer when assembling.
seats firmly against the bearing. 1. Raise the car and install safety
-_c -
':.: E1420-A
11. Wipe all lubricant from the in-
stands. Remove the rear wheels and
brake drums.
FIG. 6-Removing Rear Wheel side of the axle housing in the area
2. Make scribe marks on the drive
of the oil seal before installing the
Bearing Retainer Ring new seal.
shaft end yoke and the axle V-joint
flange to insure proper position of the
5. Remove the bearing from the 12. Wipe a small amount of oil drive shaft at assembly (Fig. 14).
axle shaft with the tool shown in Fig. resistant sealer on the outer edge of Disconnect the drive shaft from the
7 or 8. If the push-puller operation the seal before it is installed. Do not axle V-joint flange. Be careful to
shown in Fig. 8 is used, be sure that put sealer on the sealing lip. avoid dropping the loose universal
the puller arms contact the flat sur- 13. Install the new oil seal with joint bearing cups. Hold the cups on
fate of the axle shaft flange rather the tools shown in Fig. 9. Installation the spider with tape. Mark the cups
than the bolt heads. Also with this without use of the proper tool will so that they will be in their original
method, be careful not to damage or distort the seal and cause leakage. position in relation to the flange when
burr the oil seal journal as the bear- Be sure the new seal has been soaked they are assembled.Remove the drive
ing breaks loose. in SAE 10 oil for 1/1;hour. shaft from the transmission exten-
6. Whenever a rear axle shaft is 14. Place a new gasket on each sion housing. Install an oil seal re-
~
4-16 GROUP4 REAR AXLE

shaft to be surethey arefree of burrs.


If burrs are evident, remove them
by using a fine crocuscloth, working
in a rotational motion. Wipe the pin-
ion shaft clean.
11. Apply a small amountof lubri-
cant to the V-joint splines.
12. Align the punch mark on the
V-joint flange with the mark on the
end of the pinion shaft, and install
Tool-60K-1177-B the flange. With removable carrier
orl177-BorC
REMOVAL type axles,it will be necessaryto use
INSTALLATION E1214.D the tool shown in Fig. 50 to install
FIG. 9-Removing and Installing Axle Shaft Seal the flange.
13. Install a new integral nut and
placer tool in the transmissionexten- washer on the pinion shaft. (Apply
sion housingto prevent transmission a small amount of lubricant on the
leakage. Refer to the transmission washer side of the nut.)
group for the appropriatetool. 14. Hold the flange with the tool
3. Install an in-ib torque wrench shownin Fig. 36 while tighteningthe
on the pinion nut. Record the nut.
torque required to maintain rota- 15. Tighten the pinion shaft nut,
tion of the pinion shaft through sev- rotating the pinion occasionallyto in-
eral revolutions. sureproper bearingseating,and take
4. While holding the flange with frequent preload readings until the
the tool shownin Fig. 10, removethe preload is at the original recorded
integral pinion nut and washer. reading establishedin step 3.
16. After original preload has
beenreached,tighten the pinion nut
slowly, until an additional preload
has been placed on the bearings,as
shownbelow:
RemovableCarrier: 8 to 14 in-ibs.
Too/-T53T.485!.A
Integral Carrier: 6 to 12 in-ibs.
or 4851.A The preloadshouldnot exceedthe
amount indicated above, or bearing
,
failure may result. Under no circum-
stances should the pinion nut be
f,.~ backed-offto lessenpreload. If this
c'~
L is done, a new pinion bearingspacer
E1223-8 must be installed. In addition, the
V-joint flange must never be ham-
FIG. ll-Typical Drive Pinion meredon, or power tools used.
FIG. 10-Typical Drive Pinion FlangeRemoval 17. Remove the oil seal replacer
Shaft Nut Removal tool from the transmissionextension
housing.Install the front end of the
drive shaft on the transmissionout-
5. Cleanthe pinion bearingretain- put shaft.
er around the oil seal.Place a drain 18. Connect the rear end of the
pan under the seal,or raise the front drive shaft to the axle V-joint flange,
of the car higher than the rear. aligning the punch marks made on
6. Using the tool shown in Fig. the drive shaft end yoke and the axle
11, removethe pinion U-joint flange.
7. Using the tool shown in Fig. V-joint flange (Fig. 14).
19. Check the lubricant level.
37, removethe drive pinion oil seal. Make sure the axle is in running po-
8. Clean the oil seal seat.
9. Coat the outer edgeof the new sition. Add whateveramountof spec-
sealwith a small amountof oil resis- ified lubricant is required to reach
tant sealer.Do not put any of the the lower edgeof the filler plug hole.
sealeron the sealinglip. Install the mSTALLATION OF A NEW
E1227-B
seal in the retainer, using the tool UNIVERSAL JOINT FLANGE
shown in Fig. 12 on integral carrier FIG. 12-Typical Drive Pinion 1. Raisethe car and install safety
type axles. With removable carrier Flange Seal Installation stands. Remove both rear wheels
type axles,use tool T62F-4676-Aor and brake drums.
4676-H on all exceptcars equipped anceengines,usetool 58L-4676-Aor 2. Disconnect the drive shaft
with high performanceengines.On 4676-F. from the axle V-joint flange. Be
cars equipped with high perform- 10. Check splines on the pinion careful to avoid dropping the loose
PART 4-2 REAR AXLES 4.17

universal joint bearing cups. Hold 7. Check splines on the pinion is reached. (The preload should not
the cups on the spider with tape. shaft to be sure they are free of burrs. exceed 8 to 14 in-lb over the original
Mark the cups so that they will be If burrs are evident, remove them by reading, or bearing failure may re-
in their original position in relation using a fine crocus cloth, working sult.)
to the flange when they are assem- in rotational motion, then wipe clean. Under no circumstances should the
bled. Remove the drive shaft from Apply a small amount of lubricant pinion nut be backed off to lessen
the transmission extension housing. to V-joint splines. preload. If this is done, a new pinion
Install an oil seal replacer tool in the 8. Install the V-joint flange using bearing spacer must be installed. (In
transmission extension housing to the tool shown in Fig. 50. addition, the V-joint flange must nev-
prevent transmission fluid leakage. 9. Install a new integral nut and er be hammered on, or pneumatic
Refer to the transmission group for washer on the pinion shaft. (Apply a tools used.)
the appropriate tool. small amount of lubricant on the 13. Remove the oil seal replacer
3. Install an ip-lb torque wrench washer side of the nut.) tool from the transmission extension
on the pinion nut. Record the torque 10. Hold the flange with the tool housing. Install the front end of the
required to maintain rotation of the shown in Fig. 35 while the nut is be- drive shaft on the transmission out-
pinion shaft through several revolu- ing tightened. put shaft.
tions. 11. Tighten the pinion shaft nut, 14. Connect the rear end of the
4. While holding the flange with rotating the pinion occasionally to in- drive shaft to the axle V-joint flange,
the tool shown in Fig. 36, remove sure proper bearing seating, and aligning the scribe marks made on
the integral pinion nut and washer. take frequent preload readings until the drive shaft end yoke and the axle
S. Clean the pinion bearing retain- the preload is at the original recorded V-joint flange (Fig. 14).
er around the oil seal. Place a drain reading established in step 3. 14. Check the lubricant level.
pan under the seal, or raise the front 12. After original preload has Make sure the axle is in running posi-
of the car higher than the rear. been reached, tighten the pinion nut tion. Add whatever amount of spec-
6. Using the tool shown in Fig. slowly, until an additional preload of ified lubricant is required to reach
36, remove the V-joint flange. 8 to 14 in-ib over the original reading the lower edge of the filler plug hole.

REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION


REAR AXLE HOU5ING- 10. Support the rear axle housing can be installed. On a Comet or Fair-
INTEGRAL CARRIER TYPE AXLE on a jack, and then remove the spring lane position the spring upper insu-
clip nuts. Remove the spring clip lators and retainers between the axle
REMOVAL plates (Fig. 13). housing and springs and install the
1. Raise the car and support it 11. Lower the axle housing and lower insulators. Torque the spring
with safety stands under the rear remove it from under the car. clip nuts to specification.
frame member. 11. If the axle housing is being 2. Place the brake carrier plates
2. Drain the lubricant from the replaced, transfer all the differential in their normal position on the axle
axle. and pinion parts to the new housing. housing. Use new gaskets on each
3. Disconnect the drive shaft at See Section 4, Major Repair Opera- side of the brake carrier plates.
the drive pinion flange. tions. 3. Install new axle shaft oil seals
4. Disconnectthe lower end of the with the tool shown in Fig. 9. Soak
INSTALLATION the new seals in light weight engine
shockabsorbers.
5. Remove the wheels, brake 1. Raise the axle housing into po- oil (SAE 10) for 1/2 hour before in-
drums and both axle shafts as out- sition so that the spring clip plates stalling them. Installation without use
lined in the foregoing Section2.
6. Remove vent hose front vent
tube (Corbin clamp) and remove
vent tube from brake tube junction
and axle housing.
7. Removethe hydraulic brake T-
fitting from the axle housing.Do not
open the hydraulic brake system
lines. Remove the hydraulic brake
line from its retaining clip on the
axle housing.
8. Removeboth axle shaft oil seals
with the tools shownin Fig. 9.
9. Remove both brake carrier
plates from the; axle housing and sus-
pend them above the housing with
mechanic's wire. The hydraulic brake
lines and the parking brake cables E1231-A
are still attached to the brake car-
rier plates. FIG. 13-Rear Axle Installation-IntegralCarrierType
4-18 GROUP4 REAR AXLE

of the proper tool will distort the axle. Remove the carrier assembly 7. Install the bearing retainers on
sealand causeleakage.Coat the out- from the axle housing. the attaching bolts on the axle hous-
side edgesof the new oil sealwith a ing flanges. Install the nuts on the
hardeningtype of sealersuch as Per- INSTALLATION bolts and torque to specifications.
matex No.2 or its equivalent. 1. Clean the axle housing and 8. Install the two rear brake
4. Install the axle shafts, brake shaftsusing keroseneand swabs.To drums and the drum retaining (Tin-
drums and wheelsas outlined in the avoid contaminationof the greasein nerman) nuts.
foregoingSection2. the sealedball bearings,do not allow 9. Install the rear wheel and tire
5. Attach the hydraulic brake line any quantity of solvent directly on assemblies.
T fitting to the axle housing,and se- the wheelbearings.Cleanthe mating 10. If the rear brake shoes were
cure the hydraulic brake line in its surfaces of the axle housing and backed off, adjust the brakes as out-
retainer on the axle housing. carrier. lined in Part 2-1.
6. Install vent tube to brake tube 2. Position the differential carrier 11. Fill the rear axle with speci-
junction and install vent hoseto vent on the studsin the axle housingusing fied lubricant.
tube. a new gasket between carrier and
7. Raisethe axle housingand con- housing. Install the copper washers AXLE HOUSING-REMOVABLE
nect the shock absorbers. and the carrier-to-housingretaining CARRIER TYPE AXLE
8. Connect the drive shaft at the nuts, and torque to specifications.
drive pinion shaft. 3. Remove the oil seal replacer REMOVAL
9. Fill the axle with the proper tool from the transmissionextension 1. Remove the carrier assembly
gradeand amountof lubricant. housing. Position the drive shaft so from the axle housingas outlined in
10. Road test the car. that the front U-joint slip yoke splines the foregoing procedure.
to the transmissionoutput shaft. 2. Positionsafetystandsunder the
4. Connect the drive shaft to the rear frame members.
axle U-joint flange, aligning the 3. Disengagethe brake line from
DIFFERENTIAL CARRIER- scribemarksmadeon the drive shaft
REMOV ABLE (:ARRIER TYPE the clips that retain the line to the
end yoke and the axle U-joint flange axle housing.
AXLE
during the removal procedure (Fig. 4. Disconnectthe vent tube from
14). Install the U-bolts and nuts and the rear axle housing.
REMOVAL torque to specifications. 5. Removethe brake carrier plate
1. Raise the car on a hoist and assembliesfrom the axle housing,
remove the two rear wheel and tire ,
DRIVE SHAFT END YOKE
and support them with wire. Do not
assemblies. AXLE FLANGE disconnectthe brake line.
2. Remove the two brake drums 6. Disconnecteachrear shockab-
(3 Tinnerman nuts at each drum) sorberfrom the spring clip plate and
from the axle shaft flange studs. If position out of the way.
difficulty is experiencedin removing
the drums, back off the brake shoes .
U-BOLT
7. Lower the rear axle slightly to
reducesomeof the springtension.At
each rear spring, remove the spring
as explainedIn Part 2-2. ..
SCRIBE MARKS E 13 51 -A
3. Working through the hole pro- clip (V-bolt) nuts, spring clips, and
vided in each axle shaft flange, re- spring clip plate. Removethe spring
FIG. 14-Drive Shaft-to-Axle lower insulator and retainer. See
move the nuts that securethe rear
wheel bearing retainer plate~ Pull U-Joint Connection Part 3-2.
each axle shaft assemblyout of the 8. Removethe rear axle housing
5. Soak two new rear wheel bear-
axle housing(Fig. 5). Install a nut on ing oil seals in SAE 10 oil for Ih from under the car.
one of the brake carrier plate retain- hour before installation. Wipe a
ing bolts to hold the plate to the axle small amountof an oil resistantseal- INSTALLATION
housingafter the shaft has been re- er on the outer edgeof eachsealbe- 1. Position the rear axle housing
moved. Whenevera rear axle shaft fore it is installed.Do not put any of on the rear springs.On a Comet or
is removed, the wheel bearing oil the sealeron the sealinglip. Install Fairlane, position the spring upper
seal must be replaced.Removeboth the oil sealsin the ends of the rear insulatorsand retainersbetweenthe
sealswith the tools shown in Fig. 9. axle housingwith the tool shown in axle housingand springs,and install
4. Make scribemarkson the drive Fig. 9. the lower insulators.
shaft end yoke and the axle V-joint 6. Install the two axle shaft assem- 2. Install the spring clips (U-
flangeto insureproper position at as- blies in the axle housing.The shorter bolts), spring clip plate, and nuts.
sembly.Disconnectthe drive shaft at shaft goes into the left side of the Torque the spring clip nuts evenlyto
the rear axle V-joint, remove the housing. specifications.
drive shaft from the transmissionex- When installing an axle shaft, 3. If a new axle housingis being
tensionhousing.Install an oil sealre- place a new gasketon each side of installed,removethe bolts that retain
placer tool in the housingto prevent the brake carrier plate and carefully the carrier plate and bearingretainer
transmissionleakage. Refer to the slidethe axle shaft into the housingso from the old housing flanges.Posi-
transmission group for the appro- that the rough forging of the shaft tion the bolts in the new housing
priate tool. will not damagethe oil seal. Start flanges to hold the brake carrier
5. Place a drain pan under the the axle splinesinto the differential plates in position. Install the carrier
carrier and housing,removethe car- side gear,and push the shaft in until plates with new gasketsto the axle
rier retaininv; nuts. and drain the the bearin2 bottoms in the housin2. housinl! flanl!es.
PART 4-2 - REARAXLES 4-19

4. Connect the vent tube to the the rear shock absorbers to the spring 7. Install the carrier assembly and
axlehousing. clip plates. Connect the lower stud of the two axle shaft assemblies in the
5. Position the brake line to the each shock absorber to its spring axle housing as outlined in the In-
axle housing, and secure with the clip plate, and install the bushing,
washer, and nut on the stud. Be sure stallation procedure under Differen-
retaining ciips.
6. Raise the rear axle housing and the spring clip plate is free of burrs. tial Carrier-Removable Carrier
springs enough to allow connecting Tighten the nut to specified torque. Type Axle.

CARRIER TYPE AXLE


DISASSEMBLY adjusting nut locks (Fig. 15). attaching bolts. This procedure will
All service operations on the dif- 10. Mark one differential bearing contain the spring pressure between
ferential case assembly and the drive cap and the case (Fig. 16) to help the differential case and cover until
pinion assembly can be performed position the parts properly during as- after the bolts are removed, and
with the housing in the car. sembly. thereby prevent stripping of the
11. Remove the differential bear- threads.
REMOVAL OF DIFFERENTIAL ing cap bolts and bearing caps. Hold 2. Release the hydraulic press
CASE AND DRIVE PINION the differential case assembly in the ram, and remove the differential
1. Raise the car and support it on housing after the caps are removed. case cover.
the underbody, so that the rear axle 12. Remove the differential case 3. Remove the Belleville spring
drops down as far as the springs and and bearing cups (Fig. 17). (Fig. 21).
shock absorbers permit. 13. Hold the drive pinion flange 4. Remove the steel and the
2. Remove the cover from the car- and remove the pinion nut (Fig. 10). bonded clutch plates.
rier casting rear face, and drain the 14. Remove the pinion flange 5. Remove the differential clutch
lubricant. On a Mustang, the muffler (Fig. 11). hub, outer side gear, and thrust
assembly must be removed to provide 15. With a soft-faced hammer, washer.
clearance for removing the cover. drive the pinion out of the front bear- 6. Remove the ring gear from the
3. Perform the Inspection Before ing cone and remove it through the differential case.
Disassembly of Carrier in Part 4-1, rear of the carrier casting. 7. Drive out the differential pin-
Section3. 16. Drive against the pinion front ion shaft lock pin.
4. Remove both rear wheels. bearing cone, and drive the pinion 8. With a brass drift, drive out
5. Remove the brake drums. flange seal and the bearing cone out the differential pinion shaft. Then re-
6. Working through the hole pro- of the front of the carrier casting. move the pinion gears, inner side
vided in the axle shaft flange, remove 17. To remove and install the pin- gear and thrust washers.
the nuts that attach the wheel bear- ion rear bearing cone use the tools
ing retainers to the axle housing. in Fig. 18. PARTS REPAIR OR
7. Pull the axle shafts with the 18. Measure the shim which is REPLACEMENT
tool shown in Fig. 4. Install a nut on found under the bearing cone with Clean and inspect all the parts as
one of the brake carrier plate attach- a micrometer. Record the thickness outlined in Part 4-1, Section 3. Be-
ing bolts to hold the plate to the axle of the shim. fore assembling the carrier, repair or
housing after the shaft has been re-
DISASSEMBLY OF replace all parts as indicated by the
moved. Whenever a rear axle shaft
is removed the wheel bearing on seal CONVENTIONAL inspection.
DIFFERENTIAL CASE The principal replacement opera-
must be replaced. Remove both seals
1. If the differential bearings are tions are covered in the following
with the tool shown in Fig. 9.
to be removed, use the tools shown procedures. All other repair or re-
8. Make scribe marks on the drive
in Fig. 19. placement operations are performed
shaft end yoke and the axle V-joint during Cleaning and Inspection Part
flange to insure proper position of the 2. Remove the bolts that attach
4-1, Section 3, or during the Assem-
drive shaft at assembly (Fig. 14). the ring gear to the differential case.
Press the ring gear from the case or bly in this section.
Disconnect the drive shaft from the
axle V-joint flange. Be careful to tap it off with a soft-faced hammer.
avoid dropping the loose universal 3. With a drift, drive out the dif- PINION BEARING CUPS
joint bearing cups. Hold the cups on ferential pinion shaft lock pin (Fig. Do not remove the pinion bear-
the spider with tape. Mark the cups 20. ing cups from the carrier casting un-
so that they will be in their original 4. Drive out the pinion shaft with less the. cups are worn or damaged.
position in relation to the flange when a brass drift. Remove the gears and If the pinion bearing cups are to
they are assembled.Remove the drive thrust washers. be replaced, drive them out of the
shaft from the transmission extension carrier casting with a drift. Install
housing. Install an oil seal replacer DISASSEMBLY OF LIMITED- the new cups with the tool shown in
tool in the transmission extension SLIP DIFFERENTIAL CASE Fig. 22. Make sure the cups are
housing to prevent transmission leak- 1. Place the differential case in a properly seated in their bores. If a
age. Refer to the transmission group hydraulic press, and apply about one O.OO15-inchfeeler gauge can be in-
for the appropriate tool. ton pressure across the case bearing serted between a cup and the bottom
9. Remove the differential bearing hubs while removing the drive gear of its bore at any point around the
4-20 GROUP 4 REAR AXLE

DiffERENTIAL PINION SHAfT


DiffERENTIAL
PINIONGEAR--.61181. ~
~ N\0
a

;
AND THRUSTWASHER~V

COVER AND GASKET


rg 0SHAfT RETAINER
@(9 DiffERENTIAL SIDE GEAR
AND THRUSTWASHER

~-- E1216-E
FIG. 1 5-DisassembledRear Axle

m"""",~v"" ---"'" E1257-A

FIG. 16-Typical Differential


Bearing Cap Marking

FIG. 1 a-Pinion Rear Bearing (one Removal and Installation


cup, the cup is not properly seated. set, eachpinion gear is marked with
Whenever the cups are replaced, an adjustment number such as the
the cone and roller assemblies
should + 2 marking in Fig. 23.
also be replaced. When replacing a ring gear and
pinion it should be noted that the
DRIVE PINION AND GEAR SET original factory installed shim is of
Individual differencesin machin- the correct thickness to adjust for
ing the carrier casting and the gear individual variations in both the
set require a shim betweenthe pin- carrier castingdimensionand in the
ion rear bearingcone and the pinion original gear set dimension; there-
E1258-A gear to locate the pinion for correct fore, to selectthe correct shim thick-
tooth contact with the ring gear. In nessfor the new gear set to be m-
FIG. 1 7 -Differential Case order to adjust the shim pack to the stalled, follow thesesteps:
Removal or Installation correct thickness for a given gear 1. Measure the thickness of the
~
PART 4-2 - REARAXLES 4-21

FIG. 21-Locking DifferentialAssembly

FIG. 19-Differential Bearing


Removal

FIG. 22-Pinion Bearing Cup Removal or Installation

MATCHED GEAR-SET
IDENTifiCATION

MARKING FOR
SHIM SELECTION

E 1226-8

FIG. 20-Differential Pinion FIG. 23-Gear Set Markings


Shaft Lock Pin Removal
the correct amountof shim thickness oriwnal shim thickness.
original shim with a micrometer. change.The amount shownin Table If the old pinion is marked +4,
2. Note the shim adjustmentnum- 1 under the old pinion shim adjust- for example. and the new pinion is
ber on both the old pinion and the ment number and in line with the marked - 2, the table indicates that
new pinion. new pinion number is the amountof 0.006 inch of shim stock should be
3. Refer to Table 1 to determine changethat should be made to the added to the original shim pack.
4-22 GROUP 4 REAR AXLE

TABLE 1 .Drive Pinion Adjusting Shim ThicknessChanges (Inch)


New PinionMarking
Old Pinion
Marking -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0
+3 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 i
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003
0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004
-1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 - 0.003 - 0.004 -0.005
-2 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 - 0.004 -0.005 -0.006
-3 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007
-4 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008 I
If the original shim pack was lost 5. Again loosen the right nut to gears align with the pinion shaft
or if a new carrier casting is being release the preload. Check to see holes in the case.
installed, substitutea nominal 0.018 that the left nut contacts the bearing 5. Start the pinion shaft into the
inch shim for the original, and fol- cup. Using the dial indicator set-up differential case. Carefully align the
low the foregoing procedure for a shown in Fig. 13, Part 4-1, adjust shaft lock pin hole with the pin hole
trial build-up. If any further shim the preload to 0.012 case spread in the case. Drive the shaft into place
changeis necessary,it will be indi- for new bearings or 0.005 to 0.008 and install the lock pin (Fig. 20).
cated in the tooth pattern check. for the original bearings, if re-used. 6. Place the ring gear on the dif-
A new ring gearand pinion should 6. Check the runout of the dif- ferential case and install the bolts.
always be installed in an axle as a ferential case flange with a dial indi- Torque the bolts to specification.
matched set (never separately).Be cator. If the runout does not now 7. If the differential bearings have
sure that the samematchingnumber exceed specifications, install a new been removed, press them 01) as
appearson both the drive pinion and ring gear. If the runout still exceeds shown in Fig. 24.
the ring gear. Note the number 818 specifications, the ring gear is true
in Fig. 23. and the trouble is due to either a
4. After determining the correct defective case or worn bearings.
shim thickness as explained in the 7. Remove the differential case
foregoing steps,install the new pin- from the carrier and remove the side
ion and ring gear as outlined under bearings from the case.
Assembly. 8. Install new bearings on the case
DIFFERENTIAL CASE, hubs, and again install the differential
BEARINGS, AND DRIVE GEAR assembly in the carrier without the
If the ring gear runout check (be- ring gear.
fore disassembly)exceededspecifi- 9. Check the case runout again
cations,the condition may be caused with the new bearings. If the runout
by a warped gear, a defective case, is now within limits, the old bearings
or excessivelyworn differential bear- were excessivelyI worn. Use the new
bearings for assembly. If the runout
ings. is still excessive,the case is defective
To determine the cause of exces-
sive runout proceed as follows: and should be replaced.
1. Assemblethe two halvesof the
differential casetogetherwithout the ASSEMBLY FIG. 24-Differential
ring gear, and pressthe two differen- Refer to Part 4-]l for Cleaning and Bearing Installation
tial sidebearingson the casehubs. Inspection before starting assembly
2. Place the cups on the bearings operations. ASSEMBLYOFLIMITEO-8LIP
and set the differential case in the DIFFERENTIAL CASE
carrier. ASSEMBLY OF 1. Place the side gear and thrust
3. Install the bearingcapsand ad- CONVENTIONAL washer in the differential case(Fig.
justing nuts as outlined in steps 11 DIFFERENTIAL CASE 24). Lubricate all parts liberally with
thru 14 under Installation of Drive 1. Lubricate all the differential axle lubricant during assembly.
Pinion and Differential Casein this parts with axle lubricant, before they 2. With a soft-faced hammer,
section. are installedin the case. drive the pinion shaft into the case
4. Tighten the right nut two 2. Place the side gearsand thrust only far enough to retain a pinion
notches beyond the position where washersin the case. thrust washerand pinion gear.
it first contactsthe bearingcup. Ro- 3. Place the two pinion gearsand 3. Place the second pinion and
tate the differential case several thrust washersexactly oppositeeach thrust washer in position, and drive
revolutions in each direction while other in the case openings and in the pinion shaft into place.Carefully
the bearingsare loaded to seat the meshwith the side gears. line up the pinion shaft lock pin
bearingsin their cups. This step is 4. Turn the pinions and thrust holes.
important. washersuntil the holesin the pinion 4. Install the pinion shaft lock
PART 4-2 - REARAXLES 4-23

pin. The lock pin must not extend BELLEVILLE SPRING


beyond the surface of the case.
5. Insert two 2-inch 7/16(N. F.)
bolts through the differential case
flange,and threadthem three or four
turns into the ring gear as a guide
in aligning the ring gear bolt holes.
Pressor tap the drive gear into posi-
tion.
6. Clamp the differential case in
a soft-jawed vise. Install the other
differential side gear on the differ-
ential pinion gears.Place the clutch
hub on the sidegear.Placethe thrust FIG. 26-Belleville Spring
washeron the hub (Fig. 25). Installation

FIG. 28-Differential
Torque Check

5. Coat the outsideedgeof a new


oil seal with an oil resistantsealer
and install it in the carrier casting
(Fig. 12).
6. Insert the drive pinion shaft
flangeinto the sealand hold it firmly
against the pinion front bearing
cone. From the rear of the carrier
FIG. 25-Clutch Plate casting, insert the pinion shaft into
Installation the flange.
7. Place the flat washer on the
pinion shaft and start the nut. Use a
7. To align the clutch plates dur- 13. Torque the case to ring gear new nut. Hold the flange with the
ing assembly,insert two 3/16X 2 bolts to specifications. tool shownin Fig. 10 and tighten the
dowel pins into the differential case. 14. Check the torque required to pinion shaft nut. As the pinion shaft
Placea steelplate on the differential rotate one side gear while the other nut is tightened,the pinion shaft is
case so that the slots in the ears side gear is held (Fig. 28). Ignore pulled into the front bearing cone
straddle the dowel pin (Fig. 25). the torque required to start the side and into the flange.
Lubricate all the limited-slip differ- gear turning. The torque required to As the pinion shaft is pulled into
ential parts with axle lubricant so keep it moving steadily should be the front bearing cone, pinion shaft
that an accuratetorque checkcan be between100 and 125 ft-lbs, if new end play is reduced.While there is
made. clutch plates were installed. The still end play in the pinion shaft, the
8. Place a bonded plate on the torque should be at least 50 ft-lbs, flange and cone will be felt to bot-
steel plate. Make sure the bonded if the original clutch plateswere in- tom. This indicatesthat the bearing
plate inner spline teeth properly en- stalled. If the required torque is not cone and flange have bottomed on
gage the hub spline. Assemblethe within these limits, check for im- the collapsible spacer.
remaining plates: a steel plate, a proper assembly. From this point, a much greater
bondedplate, a steelplate, a bonded 15. If the differential bearings torque must be applied to turn the
plate, and lastly a steelplate. havebeenremovedpressthem on as pinion shaft nut, since the spacer
9. Place the Belleville spring on shownin Fig. 24. must be collapsed.From this point,
the top steel plate. The Belleville also, the nut should be tightened
spring is assembledwith the concave INSTALLATION OF DRIVE very slowly and the pinion shaft end
side down (Fig. 26). Carefully cen- PINION AND DIFFERENTIAL play checkedoften, so that the pin-
ter the Belleville spring so that it CASE ion bearing preload doesnot exceed
will fit into the cover. 1. Placethe shim and pinion rear the limits.
10. Place the differential case bearing cone on the pinion shaft. If the. pinion shaft nut is tight-
cover on the case (Fig. 27). Start Press the bearing and shim firmly ened to the point that pinion bear-
the ring gear bolts. against the pinion shaft shoulder ing preload exceedsthe limits, the
11. Tighten the bolts evenly and (Fig. 18). pinion shaft must be removedand a
alternatelyacrossthe diameterof the 2. Placea new pinion bearingpre- new collapsiblespacerinstalled. Do
drive gear.As the bolts are tightened load spaceron the pinion shaft. not decreasethe preload by loosen-
the Belleville spring is compressed 3. Lubricate the pinion rear bear- ing the pinion shaft nut. This will re-
and the differential case and cover ing with axle lubricant. move the compressionbetween the
are pulled together. 4. Lubricate the pinion front bear- pinion front and rear bearing cones
12. Removethe dowel pins. ing coneand place it in the housing. and the collapsible spacerand may
4-24 GROUP 4 - REARAXLE

permit the front bearingconeto turn


on the pinion shaft.
8. As soon as there is preload on
the bearings, turn the pinion shaft
in both directions several times to
set the bearing rollers.
9. Adjust the bearing preload to
specification. Measure the preload
with the tool shown in Fig. 29.

,
_c ~",. ...~""..,~ ., ~.~- . ~,. IN WHICH GEARS WERE LAPPED E1335-A
FIG. 30-Typical Gear Set Timing Marks

FIG. 29-Checking Pinion gear set (no timing marks), assemble


Bearing Pre-load the differential case and ring gear
assembly in the carrier without re-
gard to the matching of any partic-
10. Wipe a thin coating of lubri- ular gear teeth.
cant on the bearing bores so that the 12. Slide the case assembly along
differential bearing cups will move the bores until a slight amount of
easily. backlash is felt between the gear
11. Place the cups on the bearings teeth. Hold the differential case in
and set the differential case assembly place.
in the carrier casting (Fig. 17). 13. Set the adjusting nuts in the
If the gear set is of the non-hunt- Too/-T60K-4067-A or4067-f E1262-C
bores so that they just contact the
ing or partial non-hunting type, as- bearing cups.
semble the differential case and ring 14. Carefully position the bearing FIG. 31-Backlash and
gear assembly in the carrier so that caps on the carrier casting. Match BearingPre-loadAdjustment
the marked tooth on the pinion in- the marks made when the caps were
dexes between the marked teeth on removed. threads or incorrectly positioned
the ring gear as shown in Fig. 30. 15. Install the bearing cap bolts caps. Tightening the bolts to the
In almost every case of improper and lockwashers. As the bolts are specified torque is done to be sure
assembly (gears assembled out of tightened, turn the 'adjusting nut with that the cups and adjusting nuts are
time), the noise level and probability the tool shown in Fig. 31. seated. Loosen the cap bolts, and
of failure wiD be higher than they 16. If the adjusting nuts do not torque them to only 5 ft-ibs before
would be with properly assembled turn freely as the cap bolts are making adjustments. Refer to part
gears. tightened, remove the bearing caps 4-1 for backlash and bearing pre-
When installing the hunting type and again inspect for damaged load adjustment procedures.

DISASSEMBLY REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY location during assembly (Fig. 45).


After removing the carrier from OF CONVENTIONAL 2. Remove the adjusting nut
the axle housmg as described in DIFFERENTIAL CASE locks, bearing caps, and adjusting
section 3, mount the carrier in a 1. Mark one differential bearing nuts. Then lift the differential assem-
holding fixture and perform the In- cap and the mating bearing support bly out of the carrier.
spection Before Diassembly of with punch marks to help position 3. If the differential bearings are
Carrier as explained in Part 4-1, the parts properly during assembly to be removed, use the tool shown in
Section 3. Then disassemblethe car- of the carrier. Also, mark one of the Fig. 19. On cars equipped with high
rier as outlined in the following bearing adjusting nuts and the car- performance engines, use tool T57L-
procedures. rier with scribe marks for proper 4220-A.
PART 4-2 - REAR AXLES 4-25

4. Mark the differential case, cov-


er, and ring gear for assembly in
the original position.
s. Remove the bolts that attach
the ring gear to the differential case.
Pressthe gear from the caseor tap
it off with a soft-facedhammer.
6. With a drift, drive out the
differential pinion shaft lock pin
(Fig. 32) and separatethe 2-piece
differential case.

DIFFERENTIAL
CASE

PINIONSHAFT --
FIG. 34-Assembly of DifferentialCase
DIFFERENTIAL
E1174-A

FIG. 32-Removing bearings from the differential as out- REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY
lined in steps 1 through 4 in the OF DRIVE PINION AND
Differential Pinion Shaft
foregoing procedure. BEARING RETAINER
Lock Pin 2. Place the differential case in a 1. Turn the carrier case upright,
hydraulic press, and apply about one and remove the pinion shaft nut
7. Drive out the pinion shaft with ton pressure across the case bearing
a brassdrift (Fig. 33). (Fig. 35). Then remove the V-joint
hubs while removing the ring gear flange (Fig. 36).
attaching bolts. This procedure will
contain the spring pressure between
the differential case and cover until
after the bolts are moved, and there-
by prevent stripping of the threads.
Loosen alternate bolts an equal
amount so that the spring pressure
will release evenly.
3. Release the hydraulic press
ram, and remove the differential
case cover.
4. Remove the Belleville spring
(Fig. 21).
5. Remove the steel and the
bonded clutch plates.
FIG. 33-Driving Out
6. Remove the differential clutch
Differential Pinion Shaft hub, outer side gear, and thrust
washer.
8. Remove the gears and thrust
7. Remove the ring gear from the
washers.(Fig. 34). differential case. Tool- T57l.4851.Aor 4851.K -.
8. Drive out the differential pin-
REMOVAL AND DISASSEMBLY ion shaft lock pin. FIG. 35-Removing Pinion
OFLIMITED-8LIP 9. With a brass drift, drive out Shaft Nut
DIFFERENTIAL CASE the differential pinion shaft. Then
1. Remove the differential case remove the pinion gears, inner side 2. Removethe seal (Fig. 37) and
from the carrier and remove the gear, and thrust washers. the slin2er.
4-26 GROUP 4 - REAR AXLE

E1307-B

FIG. 36-Removing
U-Joint Flange

FIG. 38-Removing Pinion


Front Bearing (one

Too/-T62F-4625-A
or 4625-AC- J and 2

FIG. 37-Removing
Pinion Seal
3. Remove the pinion, bearing,
and retainer assemblyfrom the car-
rier housing (Fig. 48). Measurethe
shim thickness with a micrometer.
Record this original shim thickness.
If a new gear set is installed during FIG. 39-Removing Pinion
assembly,a new shim will have to be
installed.The original shim thickness Rear Bearing (one -R

is one of the factors necessaryin cal-


culating the new shim thickness. The principal replacementopera- FIG. 41-lnstalling
Extreme care must be taken not to tions are covered in the following Pilot Bearing
damagethe mounting surfacesof the procedures.All other repair or re-
placementoperationsare performed usehandleadapter753L-200-Awith
retainerand carrier. tool 757L-4625-A, or 4625-K, or
4. Place a protective sleeve(hose) during Cleaningand InspectionPart
4-1, Section 3, or during the As- 4625-KA.
on the pinion pilot bearing surface. 3. Using the same tool, install a
Pressthe pinion shaft out of the pin- semblyin this section.
new pilot bearing retainer with the
ion front bearing cone (Fig. 38). concaveside up.
5. Press the pinion shaft out of PILOT BEARING
the pinion rear bearing cone (Fig. 1. Remove the pilot bearing as PINION BEARING CUPS
39). shown in Fig. 40. Drive out the pilot Do not removethe pinion bearing
bearing and the bearing retainer to- cups from the retainer unless the
PARTS REPAIR OR gether. On cars with high perform- cups are worn or damaged. The
REPLACEMENT ance engines, use handle adapter flange and pilot of the retainer are
Clean and inspect all the parts as T53L-200A with tool 757L-4625-A machined during manufacture by
outlined in Part 4-1, Section 3. Be- or 4625-K. locating on thesecups after they are
fore assembling the carrier, repair 2. Drive the new bearing in until installed in their bores. If the cups
or replace all parts as indicated by it bottoms as shown in Fig. 41. On are worn or damaged,they should
the inspection. cars with hiv.h performance env.ines. be removed and replacedas shown
PART 4-2 REAR AXLES 4-27

in Fig. 42. On cars equipped with the correct shim thickness for the by a warped gear, a defectivecase,
high performance engines, use the new gear set to be installed,follow or excessivelyworn differential bear-
following tools: T57L-46l4-A with thesesteps: ings.
T57L-46l6-A for front cup removal 1. Measure the thickness of the To determinethe causeof exces-
except Comet; tool 46l5-D for original shim with a micrometer. sive runout proceed as follows:
Comet front cup removal; T57L- 2. Note the shim adjustmentnum- 1. Assemblethe two halvesof the
46l4-A with T57L-46l6-A2 for front ber on both the old pinion and the differential casetogetherwithout the
cup installation and T57L-46l4-A new pinion. Each pinion gear is ring gear, and pressthe two differ-
with T55P-46l6-A2 for rear cup in- marked with an adjustmentnumber ential side bearingson the casehubs.
stallation. such as the + 1 marking in Fig. 44. 2. Place the cups on the bearings
and set the differential case in the
carrier.
3. Install the bearingcapsand ad-
justing nuts as outlined in step 11
thru 14 under Assembly and In-
stallation of Conventional Differen-
tial Casein this section.
4. Tighten the right nut fwo
notches beyond the position where
it first contacts the bearing cup.
Rotate the differential case several
~

MATCHED GEAR SET revolutions in each direction while


IDENTIFICATION E1178-A the bearingsare loaded to seat the
bearingsin their cups. This step is
FIG. 44-Pinion and Ring important.
Gear Markings 5. Again loosen the right nut to
release the preload. Check to see
FIG. 42-Removing Pinion 3. Referto Table2 to determine that the left nut contactsthe bear-
the correct amount of shim thick- ing cup. Using the dial indicator set-
BearingCup ness change. The amount shown in up shownin Fig. 13, Part 4-1, adjust
After the new cups are installed, the table under the old pinion shim the preload to 0.012 casespreadfor
make sure they are seatedin the re- adjustment number and in line with new bearingsor 0.005 to 0.008 for
tainer by trying to insert a 0.0015- the new pinion number is the the original bearings,if re-used.
inch feeler gauge betweenthe cup amount of change that should be 6. Check the runout of the dif-
and the bottom of the bore. made to the original shim thickness. ferential caseflangewith a dial indi-
Whenever the cups are replaced, If the old pinion is marked + 4, cator. If the runout does not now
the cone and roller assemblies for example, and the new pinion is exceed specifications,install a new
marked - 2, the table indicates that
should also be replaced. drive gear.If the runout still exceeds
0.006 inch of shim stock should be specifications,the ring gear is true
removed from the original shim and the trouble is due to either a
Toof- pack. defectivecaseor worn bearings.
Press Ram
T60K-4616-A""" If the original shim pack was lost 7. Remove the differential case
Defoi/3
""-.
or 46 J5-HF or if a new carrier housing is being from the carrier and remove the
/.. installed, substitute a nominal 0.020- side,bearingsfrom the case.
inch shim for the original, and fol- 8. Install new bearingson the case
~ low the foregoing procedure for a
trial build-up. If any further shim
hubs, and again install the differ-
TooI- ential assemblyin the carrier with-
T57L.4614-A change is necessary, it will be indi- out the ring gear.
cated in the tooth pattern check. 9. Check the case runout again
~

- "-
A new ring gear and pinion with the new bearings.If the runout
should always be installed in an axle is now within limits, the old bear-
as a matched set (never separately). ings were excessivelyworn. Use the
Be sure that the same matching num- new bearings for assembly.If the
-,~.~vu-~ ber appears on both the drive pin- runout is still excessive,the caseis
ion and the ring gear. Note the num- defectiveand shouldbe replaced.
FIG. 43-lnstalling Pinion ber 170 in Fig. 44.
Bearing Cup 4. After determining the correct ASSEMBLY
shim thickness as explained in the Refer to Part 4-1 for Cleaning
DRIVE PINION AND foregoing steps, install the new pin- and InslJection before starting as-
GEAR SET ion and ring gear as outlined under semblyoperations.Fig. 45 showsthe
When replacing a ring gear and Assembly. disassembledparts.
pinion, note that the original fac-
tory installed shim is of the correct DIFFERENTIAL CASE, ASSEMBLYAND
thickness to adjust for individual BEARINGS AND RING GEAR INSTALLATION OF DRIVE
variations in both the carrier hous- If the ring gear runout check (be- PINION AND BEARING
ing dimensionand in the original gear fore disassembly) exceeded specifi- RETAINER
set dimension. Therefore. to select cations, the condition may be caused 1. Install the drive pinion rear
4-28 GROUP 4 - REAR AXLE

TABLE 2 - DRIVE PINION ADJUSTING SHIM THICKNESS CHANGES (Inches)

New Old Pinion Marking


Pinion
Marking -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0
+3 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 + 0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 + 0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003

0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004

-1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005


-2 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006
-3 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007
-4 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008

FIG. 45-Rear Axle-Disassembled


bearing cone and roller on the pinion T57L-462l-B along with tool T57L- 7. Coat the outside edge of a new
shaft (Fig. 46). On cars equipped 46l4-A. oil seal with a small amount of a new
with high performance engines use 3. Lubricate the a-ring with axle oil resistant sealer. Do not put any
tool T57L-4621-B along with tool lubricant and install it in its groove of the sealer on the sealing lip. In-
757L-4614-A as shown in Fig. 46. in the pinion retainer. Be careful not stall the seal in the bearing retainer
Place a new spacer on the pinion to twist it. Snap the a-ring into po- (Fig. 49). On cars with high per-
shaft (Fig. 47). sition. formance engines, use tool T58L-
2. Place the bearing retainer on 4. Place the proper shim on the 4676-A or tool 4676-F.
the pinion shaft, and install the front carrier housing and install the pinion New seals should be soaked in
bearing cone and roller in the re- and retainer assembly being careful SAE 10 oil for V2 hour before use.
tainer. Press the front bearing cone not to pinch the a-ring (Fig. 48). 8. Install the V-joint flange (Fig.
and roller into position with the 5. Install the pinion retainer bolts. 50).
same tools as used in Fig. 46 for Torque bolts to specifications. 9. Start a new integral nut and
front bearing installation. On cars 6. Place the slinger on the pinion washer on the pinion shaft.
with high performance' engines, use shaft. 10. Hold the flange (Fig. 35) and
PART 4-2 REAR AXLES 4.29

pound torque wrench is not available line up the pinion shaft lock pin
tool 4209-C may be used in combi- holes.
nation with tool 4209-CI2. Correct 4. Place the second side gear and
preload will be obtained when the thrust washer in position (Fig. 34),
torque required to rotate the pinion and install the cover on the differ-
in the retainer is as specified in Part ential case. Install the pinion shaft
4-3. If the torque required to rotate lock pin. A pinion or axle shaft
the pinion is less then specified, spline can be inserted in the side
tighten the pinion shaft nut a little gear spline to check for free rotation
at a time until the proper preload is of the differential gears.
established. Do not overtighten the 5. Insert two 7/16(N. F.) bolts two
nut. If excessive preload is obtained inches long through the differential
as a result of overtightening, replace case flange, and thread them three
the collapsible bearing spacer. or four turns into the ring gear as a
Do not back off the pinion shaft guide in aligning the ring gear bolt
nut to establish pinion bearing pre- holes. Press or tap the ring gear into
load. If the torque on the pinion
shaft nut is less than 175 ft-lbs. after position.
bearing preload is established, a new 6. Install and tighten the ring gear
collapsible spacer must be used. bolts and washers evenly, and torque
them alternately across the gear to
ASSEMBLY AND
INSTALLATION OF specification.
CONVENTIONAL 7. If the differential bearings have
FIG. 46-lnstalling Pinion DIFFERENTIAL CASE been removed, press them on as
Rear Bearing (one 1. Place a side gear and thrust shown in Fig. 52.

LOCK NUT

'1'
I~', "c

i
, ,j

SEAL

FIG. 47-Pinion and Bearing Retainer

I n

FIG. 50-Installing
U-Joint Flange
E1474-A
8. Wipe a thin coating of lubri-
FIG. 49-lnstalling Oil Seal cant on the bearingboresso that the
washer in the differential case bore differential bearing cups will move
FIG. 48-lnstalling Fig. 34). Lubricate all differential easily.
Pinion and Retainer parts liberally with axle lubricant 9. Place the cups on the bearings.
tighten the pinion shaft nut to 175 during assembly. If the gear set is of the non-hunting
ft-lbs. Do not exceed 175 ft-lbs at 2. With a soft-faced hammer, or partial non-huntingtype, assemble
this time. As the pinion shaft nut is drive the pinion shaft into the case the differential case and ring gear
tightened, rotate the pinion shaft only far enough to retain a pinion assemblyin the carrier so that the
frequently to allow the bearing to thrust washer and pinion gear. marked tooth on the pinion indexes
seat. 3. Place the second pinion and between the marked teeth on the
11. Check the pinion bearing pre- thrust washer in position, and drive ring gear as shownin Fig. 30.
In:lrl :I~ ~hnwn in Fill. 51. If an inch- the pinion shaft into place. Carefully In almost every caseof improper
4-30 GROUP 4 REAR AXLE

engagedabout the same number of pinion gears.Placethe clutch hub on


~ threadson each side. the sidegear.Placethe thrust washer
~, 12. Carefully position the bearing
capson the carrier. Match the marks
on the hub (Fig. 25).
7. To align the clutch platesduring
made when the caps were removed. assembly,insert two 3/16X 2 dowel
Inch.Pound 13. Install the bearing cap bolts pins into the differential case.Place
Torque Wrench
and alternatelytorque them to 70-80 a steelplate on the differential case
ft-ibs. so that the slots in the ears straddle
14. If the adjusting nuts do not the dowel pin (Fig. 25). Lubricate
turn freely as the cap bolts are tight- all the locking differential parts with
ened, remove the bearing caps and axle lubricant so that an accurate
E1330-B again inspect for damagedthreads torque check can be made.
or incorrectly positionedcaps.Tight- 8. Place a bonded plate on the
FIG. 51-Checking Pinion ening the bolts to the specified steel plate. Make sure the bonded
Bearing Pre-load torque is done to be sure that the plate inner spline teeth properly en-
cups and adjusting nuts are seated. gage the hub spline. Assemblethe
Loosen the cap bolts, and torque remaining plates: a steel plate, a
them to only 25 ft-ibs. before mak- bondedplate, a steelplate, a bonded
ing adjustments. plate, and lastly a steelplate.
15. Adjust the backlash between 9. Place the Belleville spring on
the ring gear and pinion as outlined the top steel plate. The Belleville
in Part 4-1, Section2. spring is assembledwith the concave
16. Be sure to make a final tooth side down (Fig. 26). Carefully center
pattern check before installing the the Bellevillespring so that it will fit
carrier assembly in the axle housing. into the cover.
10. Placethe differentialcasecov-
ASSEMBLY AND er on the case (Fig. 27). Start the
INSTALLATION OF LIMITED- ring gear bolts.
SLIP DIFFERENTIAL CASE 11. Tighten the bolts evenly and
alternatelyacrossthe diameterof the
1. Place the side gear and thrust ring gear.As the bolts are tightened
washerin the differential case (Fig. the Belleville spring is compressed
21). Lubricate all parts liberally with and the differential case and cover
axle lubricant during assembly. are pulled together.
2. With a soft-faced hammer, 12. Remove the dowel pins.
FIG. 52-Installing drive the pinion shaft into the case 13. Torque the case to ring gear
Differential Bearing only far enough to retain a pinion bolts to specifications.
thrust washerand pinion gear. 14. Check the torque required to
assembly (gears assembled out of 3. Place the second pinion and rotate one side gear while the other
time), the noise level and probability thrust washerin position, and drive side gear is held (Fig. 28). Ignore
of failure will be higher than they the pinion shaft into place. Carefully the torque required to start the side
would be with properly assembled line up the pinion shaft lock pin gear turning. The torque required to
gears.
holes. keep it moving steadily should be
4. Install the pinion shaft lock pin. between155 and 195 ft-Ibs, if new
When installing the hunting type
The lock pin must not extendbeyond clutch plates were installed. The
gear set (no timing marks) assem-
the surfaceof the case. torque should be a least 75 ft-Ibs, if
ble the differential case and ring gear
S. Insert two 2-inch 7/16(N. F.) the original clutch plates were in-
assembly in the carrier without re-
gard to the matching of any particu-
bolts through the differential case stalled. If the required torque is not
lar gear teeth.
flange,and threadthem three or four within these limits, check for im-
turns into the ring gear as a guide proper assembly.
10. Slide the assembly along the in aligning the ring gear bolt holes. 15. Install the sidebearingson the
bores until a slight amount of back- Pressor tap the ring gear into po- differential case,and install the case
lash is felt between the gear teeth. sition. in the carrier as describedin steps7
11. Set the adjusting nuts in the 6. Clamp the differential casein a through 16 under Assemblyand In-
bores so that they just contact the soft-jawedvise. Install the other dif- stallation of Conventional Differen-
bearing cups. The nuts should be ferential side gear On the differential tial Case.
4-31

SPECIFICATIONS

REAR AXLE LUBRICATION

For temperaturesabove-25°F use SAE90 Gradelubricant.


For temperaturesbelow -25°F use SAE80 Gradelubricant.

REAR AXLE-INTEGRAL CARRIER TYPE


DRIVE PINION ADJUSTING SHIM THICKNESS CHANGES-INCH
NewPinionMarking
Old Pinion
Marking 0 +3 +4
-4 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0
+3 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003
0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004
-1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005
-2 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006
-3 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007
-4 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008

REAR AXLE RATIOS, GEAR AND CODE


IDENTIFICATION
RingGear Type
IdentificationTag Diameter of Axle Ratio
Unches) Differential

~
, WCY.R
WCY-AA
WCY-E N
71/4

71/4
Conventional
Limited-Slip
Conventional
2.88:1

WCY-AJ -r1/i Conventional 3.20:1


WCY-L N Limited-Slip

CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE


4-32 GROUP 4 REAR AXLE

REAR AXLE-INTEGRAL CARRIER TYPE (Continued)


ADJUSTMENTS TORQUE LIMITS

CDlnch-pounds

REAR AXLE-REMOVABLE CARRIER TYPE


REAR AXLE RATIOS, GEAR AND CODE IDENTIFICATION
Identification Ring Gear Typeof Axle Ratio IdentificationTaR Ring Gear Typeof Axle Ratio
Tag Diameter Differential Diameter Differential
(Inches) (Inches)

WCZ-E 73/4 Conventional 2.80:1 WDE-B 9 Conventional 3.00:1


WDJ-B 73/4 Limited-Slip 2.80:1 WEB-C 9 Conventional 3.25:1
WCZ-F 8 Conventional 3.00:1 WED-C 9 limited-Slip 3.00:1
WDJ-C 8 Limited-Slip 3.00:1 WED.A 9 limited-Slip 3.25:1
WCZ-S 83/4 Conventional 3.50:1 WDY-B 8 Conventional 3.25:1
WCZ-R 83/4 Conventional 3.89:1 WDY.C 8 Conventional 3.50:1
WDZ-A 73/4 Limited-Slip 2.80:1 WEA-B 8 limited-Slip 3.50:1
WDW-C 8 Conventional 3.25:1 WDY.A 8 Conventional 3.00:1
WDW-E 73/4 Conventional 2.80:1 WEA-F 8 limited-Slip 3.25:1
WDW-A 73/4 Conventional 2.80:1 WEA-A 8 limited-Slip 3.00:1
WDW-D 8 Conventional 3.50:1 WEC-A 9 Conventional 3.00:1
WDZ-C 8 Limited-Slip 3.25:1 WEC-B 9 Conventional 3.25:1
WDW-B 8 Conventional 3.00:1 WEE-A 9 limited-Slip 3.25:1
WDC-B 8 Limited-Slip 3.00:1 WEE-C 9 limited-Slip 3.00:1

ADJUSTMENTS(Continued)

ADJUSTMENTS
-
Inch

I BacklashBetweenRingGearand Pinion 0.008-0.012 I


MaximumBacklashVariationBetweenTeeth 0.003 1
-Maximum Runout of Backface of Ring Gear as
Assembled 0.003

CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE


PART 4-3 SPECIFICATIONS 4-33

REAR AXLE-REMOVABLE CARRIER TYPE (Continued)

TORQUE LIMITS SPECIAL TOOLS


FordTool No. FormerNo. Description
T50T-IOO-A B-166 ImpactHammer
T58L-IOI-A Puller Attachment
T62L-201-A - HandleAdapter
T56L-400-A 4851-A Puller
T57L-500-A BenchMountedHoldingFixture
TOOL-1175.AB 1175-AB GreaseSealRemover(HeadOnly)
T50T.IOO.Aand 1175-AE Seal Remover
TOOL-1175-AB
T60K-1177-B 1177-B RearWheelBearingOil Seal
T60K-1225-A Axle Shaft BearingRemover
or and Replacer.
TOOL-1225-C AxleShaft BearingRemover
TOOL-1225.B Axle Shaft Bearil1gReplacer
T60K-4067-A 4067-E Differential BearingAdjuster Nut
Wrench
TOOL-4209-C 4209.C PinionTensionScalewith
TOOl-4209-C12 Socket
TOOL-4221-AL 4221.AL Differential BearingConeRemover
Pilot (Usewith TOOl-4221-C
or TOOl-4851-A)
T57L-4221-A 4222-K Differential BearingConeReplacer
TOOL.4222-H 4222-H Differential BearingConeReplacer
T60K.4234-A 4235.0 RearAxle Shaft AssemblyRemover
Adapter
T57L-4614-A 4614 DrivePinionand DrivePinion
RetainerAssemblySupport
TOOL-4615-j 4615-J Drive Pinion Front BearingCup
Remover
T60K-4616-A 4615-HF PinionBearingCupReplacer
4625-HR
T57L-4616-A 4615-0 PinionFront BearingCupRemover
CDlfthis torque can not be obtained with a used spacer, install a T57L-4616-A2 Pinion Front BearingCup Replace
new spacer. T55P.4616-A2 Pinion Rear BearingCup Replace
TOOL-4621-K 4621-K Drive Pinion RearBearingCone
Remover
REAR AXLES WITH LOCKING DIFFERENTIAL T62F-4621-A PinionBearingConeReplacer
T62F-4625-A 4625-AC-1& 2 DrivePinion Pilot Bearing
Removerand Replacer
T55P-4676-A 4676-G Drive Pinion Oil SealReplacer
T62F-4676-A 4676-H Drive PinionOil Seal Replacer
T53T-4851-A 4851-A Flange(UniversalJoint)Axle End
4858-0 Remover
T57L-4851-A 4851-K UniversalJoint FlangeHolder
TOOL-4858-E 4858-E CompanionFlangeand Pinion
BearingReplacer
T59L-4204-A 44211 and locking Differential
4421I-A TorqueCheck
T65K-4204-A locking Differential
TorqueCheckAdapter

DRIVE PINION ADJUSTING SHIM THICKNESS CHANGES (inch)

Old Pinion Marking


New Pinion
Marking -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
+4 +0.008 +0.007 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +.001 0
+3 +0.007 + 0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001
+2 +0.006 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002
+1 +0.005 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003
0 +0.004 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004
-1 +0.003 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005
-2 +0.002 +0.001 0 -0.001 - 0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 - 0.006
-3 +0.001 0 -0.001 - 0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 - 0.006 -0.007
-4 0 -0.001 -0.002 -0.003 -0.004 -0.005 -0.006 -0.007 -0.008