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Lab Activities ECEN5303

Project

Motion Sensor Security System


)using (PIR

By
Essam.M.Haider

)Dr.Shihab Ghaya(

Spring 2007-2008

Introduction
In general, the project idea consist on a very important and
useful devices in our world, which is security is something we
.always try to improve as long as we live

The project itself is a motion sensor security system capable


.of detecting the presence of body heat in any designated area
State of the art motion detectors use the most modern
techniques to eliminate factors causing interference, which
affect reliability, to guarantee superior long-term performance
.and reduce false alarms

There are many applications for the use of the detector. The
most common is in the alarm system industry. Some of the new
applications are automatic door openers, light switches in
hallways, stairways and areas that increase safety for the
public. Further applications can be seen in automatic production
lines, switching of sanitary facilities, monitors and intercoms.
With the ease of installation and the low susceptibility to
interference from other forms of radiation, such as heaters or
.windows, the IR detectors are ideal devices

We can spend a lot of time talking about the benefits of this


…circuit because we use a common method making such thing
:First of all

It's inexpensive because we use an IC's which is a huge*


.improvement in history of industry

The main device which is the PIR, it is a "heat detector" made*


of two crystals connected with each other in opposite polarity
and with a one millimeter (mm) optical spacing. And it's
..inexpensive also

each peace we use in the circuit is replaceable because we can*


use it's (equivalent) which made in other company as we did
.with the HT2810

Project Objective

The goals of the alarm system are to detect heat *


movements in a specified area triggering a
.siren/buzzer to sound

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This design promotes added control to the crime rate *
of the regulated work environment after hours of work
operation. It also cuts down on expenditure costs on
.human resources

We can discus each block of the circuit diagram as a


.single part and we will shortly

These are the whole general idea in simple diagram


which can be explained easier than words as they said
.""picture is useful than a thousand words

Sections of The Project

.Power Supply.1

.PIR Detector.2

.Filtering operations by op. amp.3

.Tone Generator.4

3
.Circiut Description and circuit diagram.5

.Conclusion.6

.Procedures.7

.Project Schedule .8

.References.9

: Power Supply-
)The voltage of the circuit comes from 9v battery (DC

we can Regulate the voltage by a Circuit called " Voltage


Regulator it's called the LM7805 ", we use it to protect our
.circuit from any external high voltage

LM 7805 +
+
+ 2200 nf
0,1nf -
-
-

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:Power supply description

It's easy to describe the power supply circuit because we can


design it using the voltage regulator "LM7805" and use it as we
.need by adding some more elements to it as the following

We added a "Diode" to protect the opposite way of the


circuit and we included a capacitor with a big value 2200 µf,
.for the smoothing of the signal

A voltage greater than 7V is applied to the input of high


voltage side of the regulator. A fixed reference voltage inside
the regulator will set the low voltage output at 5 volts +5%.
The output voltage is filtered or made smooth (no ripples) by
.)capacitor (2200μF

: PIR Detector-3.1
Infrared light was first discovered back in 1801 by
W.Herschel. Infrared is a form of radiated energy in which
.the wavelength is longer than the wavelength of visible light
.We can describe the infrared radiation by a good method
For people who like big words, we would say “Frequency is
inversely proportional to the wavelength”. In simple words, “If
the wavelength goes up, the frequency goes down and if the
wavelength goes down, the frequency goes up”. The
.mathematics of waves applies also to the radiation of light
It is common practice, therefore, to talk about light as light
waves. The wavelength of infrared light ranges from .78
micrometers (μm) to 100 (μm). A micrometer is one millionth of
.a meter

Infrared can be thought of as heat radiation because the


radiant energy is transformed into heat when it strikes a solid

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surface. All solid bodies at a temperature above absolute zero
emit thermal radiation. As a body’s temperature rises, the
shorter the resulting wavelengths become. The human body’s
maximum thermal radiation is between 9μm and 10μm in the
infrared stage. Motion can be detected by special elements
which are highly sensitive in the infrared range. Such devices
.are called Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors

When certain materials change temperature, they produce


electricity. A Pyroelectric crystal is an example of such a
material. If a Pyroelectric crystal has been at the same
temperature for a period of time, there will be no voltage
across it’s electrodes. When the crystal temperature changes,
a voltage is produced at the electrodes of the crystal element.
This type of crystal is used in this motion detector kit inside
.the infrared (IR) detector

The INTERNAL DESIGN of the IR device-3.2

The IR detector contains two crystals connected with each


other in opposite polarity and with a 1 millimeter (mm) optical
spacing. These two crystals are located behind an optical filter
or lens . The output power of the crystals is very low. A special
device called the Field Effect Transistor (FET) is used to
.increase the power output

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;A description of its work

,When infrared radiation is detected


The crystals produce a voltage at the
gate of the FET. This causes a change in
current from the drain to source. Very little
power is required at the gate to control the
.larger current flow from source to drain
The benefits of this type of detector are
low radio interference, low noise, especially
.suited response
The IR detector is sealed in a metal housing
to prevent electromagnetic interference
.and to keep them clean

: .Filtering operations by op. amp -

The amplifier is a device that uses a small amount of power to


control a larger amount of power, It does not create power,
.but it controls the power from a source

In electronics, amplifiers are composed of devices called


transistors, resistors, and capacitors. The number of these
components used and the way they are assembled determines
the characteristics of the amplifier. An amplifier that can
perform many mathematical operations such as adding,
subtracting, or multiplying voltages is called and Operational
.Amplifier or Op-Amp

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Using it in our circuit by one of its methods called
. ""Comparator

So we agreed about that an Operational


amplifiers can be used to compare
.the amplitude of one voltage with another
As a comparator, its function is to determine
when an input voltage is bigger than a certain level. When used
as a comparator, the op-amp is used without feedback and at
maximum gain. One input is set to a reference voltage and the
.other tied to the input voltage

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION-4.1

The IR Section contains only a few components, tow Resistors


and one capacitor including the PIR sensor. As motion is
detected, the IR detector will produce a voltage at the gate of
the FET allowing current to flow from the drain to source,
causing the voltage at the input of the amplifier at (pin 13) to
change, thus changing the output at pin 14. Resistors limit the
.amount of current flow through the FET

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The op-amp (LM324) IC1D shapes the
frequency response to amplify those
frequencies produced when motion is
,detected and rejects all others
Frequencies above 20Hz and below 1Hz are beyond the
bandwidth of the circuit and thus are rejected. The output at
pin 14 is about 1.6V when no motion is detected. As motion is
detected, the voltage at the output will change and trigger
.either IC1C or IC1B
The op-amps IC1A, IC1B and IC1C are configured as voltage
comparators. In the ready state, the output of IC1A is high
and IC1B and IC1C are low. When IC1D outputs a voltage lower
.than 1.41V, it will force pin 2 of IC1 high
When IC1D outputs a voltage higher than 1.67V, it forces pin 8
and pin 2 of IC1 to go high. A high in with one of these cases
causes the output to go low and allows C9 to discharge through
IC1A. The discharging of C9 will trigger the sound generator
.)(LM555

: Tone Generator-4.2

In the circuit diagram they used an IC called the HT2810


which can produce a ding dong sound to the speaker, but this
kind of IC's are not available in our markets so I replace it
with the "LM555"IC, and I connected the Buzzer to PIN 3 of
the IC so it can give the buzzer a voltage and make it loud out,
and I added a changeable resistor to control the timing of its
tone. And I added some kind of lighting diode to light up when
.a movement is detected
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: Circuit diagram-4.3

The following diagram is the main shape before I change some


of the IC's and move out some of the components away so I
.can make this circuit work correctly

: Circuit description-

In General, in the range of the PIR device when a motion is


detected "Heat or temperature changes" the middle pin charge
the 10 µf capacitor and the circle starts up, the amplifiers
starts comparing and the last capacitor charges the sound
generator "LM555" and that IC itself turn on the Buzzer to
alarm up using a sound which can be controlled by a changeable
.resistor and that’s it

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: Conclusion-4.4

With an unsafe world like the one we live in, the security
systems are more important than the any systems and it's even
bitter if that system has the same benefits as the one we
discus, in small words it's easier to do what we have to do if we
can secure our buildings or job by a cheap and efficient
."machine "if we can call it that

In other hand we can say that in such a circuit we will be able


to understand the Amplifiers and its filters and its work as a
comparator , and how we can use a small amount of power to
control a large one. And we gets the main idea of the PIR and
how we can use it in this circuit as we discus, and we
understand the IR radiation and its Physically idea

: Procedures and problems-

:Problem 1-5.1
After I tried to connect the circuit in the test board I
discovered the first problem in the project, first of all the
"isolation" issue which we can explain it in simple way it's all
about the small weirs we uses to connect to any kind of IC,
because it's impossible to work out, and it cost more money and
.more Time which is very important in such circuit

:Solution-
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It's almost a professional work if we continue doing that in
the previous way, so in electronic markets there is a software
program called itself the eagle, which can draw a weirs diagram
and connect it using some chemical mixing. And connect it
.carefully with copper, no problems at all 100% working circuit

:Problem 2-5.1
Second problem is the PIR device which the only one I found
in our markets, the problem is that when a motion gets in the
PIR range there is no heat detecting but, when someone breath
out directly to the PIR device it produces a voltage to work
correctly and make the buzzer loud out, "so there are two
possibilities for this first it might be one of the resistors
taking all of it or it's the PIR device itself". I tried to use a
.buffer but we have nothing changed at the range

:Solution-

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

.Amplify To enlarge or increase

Amplitude The greatest difference above a reference, usually


.Zero
Analogy Likeness or resemblance in relations of different
.Objects
.Attenuate To weaken or reduce

Bandwidth The group or number of frequencies unaffected by a


.Filter
Battery A device that generates an electric current through

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a chemical reaction
.Capacitors Devices that store electronic charges

Circuit The entire line through which electric current may


.Pass
.Closed Loop Gain Gain after feedback

.Comparator An electronic device to detect voltage differences

Critical Frequency The frequency at which power in a filter falls to


.Half
Crystals An inorganic body with plane surfaces in a
.geometrical form
.Current The flow of electrons

Detector A device that changes signals into useful


.information
Electromagnetic A radiated wave having both electric and magnetic
.properties
.FET Field Effect Transistor

Filter A device used to nullify certain waves without


.altering others
Frequency The repeated occurrence of anything at brief
.intervals
.Gain To increase or make larger

.Gate A device used to allow or restrict passage

Generator A device that transforms energy into electric power


Or signals

Generator A device that transforms energy into electric power


.or signals
Impedance A device’s resistance to the passage of electrical
.current
.Infrared Light Rays past the red end of the visible light spectrum

.IR Detector A device that senses the presence of infrared light

.Kit A collection of equipment or components

.Lambda The eleventh letter of the Greek Alphabet

Low Pass Filter Decreases all signals above a certain frequency and
.passes frequencies below that frequency
Negative Feedback To allow a portion of the output signal to be brought
.back and cancel part of the input
.Noise A random, persistent disturbance of a signal

.Open Loop Gain The maximum gain available without feedback


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Oscillator A device used to vary between alternate extremes
.)varies from high to low(
.Peak The top of a wave or mountain

.Polarity The division of two opposites

.Power Electrical energy; strength, force, or might

Pyroelectric Effect When certain metals change temperature, they


.produce energy
.RC Network An assembly of resistors and capacitors

Reference Voltage Level of electronic element used for providing


.resistance in a circuit
Resistor An electric element used for providing resistance in a
.circuit
.Response Curve The shape of an output produced by a circuit

Solder An alloy (mixture) of tin and lead used in the melted


.state to join or repair metal parts
Transistor A three-terminal semiconductor device used for
.amplification, switching, and detection

,Valve A mechanical device that regulates the flow of gases


liquids, or loose materials by blocking and uncovering
.openings
.Voltage An electromotive force

Wavelength The distance in a periodic wave between 2 points of


.corresponding phases

:References

The Invisible World of the Infrared-


By Jack R. White
New York: Dodd, Mead, © 1984
.p.; ill 124
.By website

Waves and Vibrations-


By Brian Knapp
Danbury, CT: Grolier, © 1994
.p.; ill 48
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.By website

GLOLAB-

http://www.glolab.com
CORPORATION
Pine Ridge Drive 307
Wappinger's Falls, NY 12590
voice - (845) 297-9771
Fax - (845) 297-9772
Email - lab@glolab.com
.Global Corp 2003 ©
.By website

:Other references-

www.datasheetcatalog.com
www.worldofelectronic.com
www.national.com

Index

Description Page

General Idea of the project………………………………………..……2-1


Description of the idea and its benefits……………………………………2 1.1
Projects objective……………………………………………………………..……..3-2
Its goals and a general diagram…………………………………………………..3 2.1
The PIR device…………………………………………………………………….……6-7-3
Historical view and its general work…………………………………………..6 3.1
The PIR internal Design and its work………………………………..………7 3.2
A description of how it work in our circuit………………………………7 3.3

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Circuit diagram and it's description…………………………9-11-4
a small explanation of its work with the FET transistor….…..9 4.1
idea of adding a new Tone Generator……………………………….……..10 4.2
Circuit description and its diagram……………………………………..…..10 4.3
My Conclusion about the project……………………………………………...11 4.4
Problems and solutions………………………………………………………..12-5
Each problem with its solution………………………………………….………12 5.1
Glossary of terms……………………………………………….……………….13-14-6

References………………………………….………………………………………………..15-7

Index………………………………………………………………………..……………………….16-8

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