You are on page 1of 21

TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO

TITLE

  • 1. INTRODUCTION

PAGE NO.

  • 2. WATER SCARCITY IN INDIA

  • 3. SURVEY DETAILS

  • 4. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

  • 5. WATER PURIFICATION

  • 6. LEAKAGE DETECTORS

  • 7. RAIN WATER HARVESTING

  • 8. IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

  • 9. CONCLUSION

ABSTRACT

Our design proposal was formulated, after conducting statistical analysis of water usage patterns at fifteen apartments at Chrompet (Chennai). The forthcoming design aims at providing a complete Water Optimization system for Radisson apartments, Chennai (consisting of five separate blocks with ten apartments each). We have tried to provide simple, sensible and innovative solutions utilizing technology for judicious use of the scarce water resources, along with systems to provide for recycling and reusing water. We achieve optimization of water usage, by setting up cost-effective automation systems. The design primarily consists of automatic replenishment five-single master tanks, installed one at each block. The water level in these tanks is monitored by two level switches placed at 15% and 90% of maximum capacity and a single master relay control system (for all the single tanks) suitably triggers the motor to prevent the tank from getting empty as well as overflow of water. Each single tank is partitioned into two-one for drinking water (purified), the other for bathroom supply (softened). Additionally, the system includes a sump (partitioned into two parts-bathrooms and drinking water) that acts as reserve of softened (for bathroom) and purified (drinking) water whose level is continuously monitored. The source for the drinking water tank is either the underground bore-well or the supplied water purified and let into the sump. Whilst the black water from the toilets is collected in the septic tanks, the grey water from service areas and bathrooms of each block is accumulated separately and is subjected to sedimentation and softening to fill into the recycled water part of the sump. The water for kitchen use is purified by Reverse Osmosis (RO) to remove unwanted ions and mineral salts. The mild sludge water that is produced is directed into softener and then to the bathroom sump; water is then purified by UV rays that kill all microbial growth present. To facilitate rain water harvesting, building is constructed with sloped roofs and run-off collection schemes. In addition to this main scheme, we employ innovative refrigeration technique optimized to condense water from air in an electrostatic filter, by deploying humidity to water converter. The high humidity of coastal cities of India (like Chennai, Kolkata) makes the process provide a good cost- benefit ratio. Our solution also includes a universal control valve-coupled-solenoid valve which is automated to cut off the water supply once the house is locked. In addition, we use controlled faucets employing cost-effective infra-red sensors which will open only when required. Detectors are used to sense the leakage of water from the flush tanks in western toilets on the account of mechanical wear and tear. Gardening system is controlled by a mobile trigger and is auto timed and sprinkle- irrigation based. We propose to demonstrate the automation stated hence through simulation. Additionally, a nutating disc type positive displacement meter will be added to monitor the water usage statistics of each home and the acquired data will be transmitted to the concerned as an SMS (utilizing a GSM module with microcontroller).

INTRODUCTION

Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s “Water water everywhere but not a drop to drink” may

turn into a reality in a few years owing to the increasing population and over-

exploitation of the available fresh water resources. It is estimated that m

ore than two
ore than two

billion people worldwide live in regions facing acute water scarcity. India currently

has the world’s second largest population, which is expected to overtake China’s by

2050 when it reaches

a staggering 1.6 billion, putting increase strain on water

resources as a consequence of the increasing population. A rapidly growing economy

and a large agricultural sector stretch India’s supply of water even thinner.
and
a
large
agricultural
sector
stretch
India’s
supply
of
water
even
thinner.

Meanwhile, India’s water supply is rapidly dwindling due to mismanagement of water

resources, although over-pumping and pollution are also significant contributors.

Climate change is expected

to exacerbate the problem by causing erratic

and

unpredictable weather, which could drastically diminish the supply of water coming

from rainfall and glaciers. It is to be noted that millions of Indians already lack access

to clean drinking water, and the situation is expected to worsen in the coming years if

proper measures are not taken.

WATER SCARCITY IN INDIA India’s demand for water is growing at an alarming rate and as

WATER SCARCITY IN INDIA

India’s demand for water is growing at an alarming rate and as demand for

potable water starts to outstrip supply by increasing amounts in coming years, India

will face a slew of subsequent problems, such as food shortages, intrastate, and

international conflict. India’s water crisis is predominantly a manmade problem.

India’s climate is not particularly dry, nor is it lacking in rivers and groundwater.

Extremely poor management, unclear laws, government corruption, and industrial and

Fresh water availability in India No substance is more valuable than water, but none is likely

Fresh water availability in India

Fresh water availability in India No substance is more valuable than water, but none is likely

No substance is more valuable than water, but none is likely to be free anymore.

In Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith has referred to this phenomenon as "Diamond-

water paradox”. The existing situation demands the design and incorporation of

innovative and cost-effective water conservation techniques in the domestic sector.

Our project hence aims at designing a building with state of the art technologies for

optimized use of water coupled with water recycling and reuse.

Water usage in India

Water usage in India

Water usage in India
Water consumption in domestic sector SURVEY DETAILS We surveyed at about 15 apartments in and around

Water consumption in domestic sector

SURVEY DETAILS

We surveyed at about 15 apartments in and around Chennai. The results of these are summarized as follows

Chromepet area is surrounded by many leather tanneries. This had polluted the ground water in that area. Water was colored at some places (brownish) and sometimes smelled bad.

In Sanatorium hills, the water was plentifully available and was pure. It was

also devoid of bacterial infections On the eastern side of Chrompet, the residents faced acute water shortage.

They had to buy water from tanks during peak summer In areas of Tambaram, Avadi ground water level has considerably decreased

in the past decade. Being residential areas, water is quite pure. The Thiruneermalai lake was polluted by the drainage of the nearby areas and the ground water near the lake areas, though abundant was polluted

Most of the houses depend on either Palar (a river) water supplied biweekly by

the municipality and during summers they opt for water from tanker lorries Asking on how water was mostly used, gardening, bathroom use and kitchen

use occupied major priorities Water leakage was mostly due to mechanical wear and tear in western toilets

human negligence. The average cost spent for water was nearly Rs.1 lakh/year

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

Automatically replenishing five-single master tanks, installed one at each apartment building is proposed. The water level in these tanks is monitored by two level switches placed approximately fifteen percent and ninety percent of maximum capacity and a single master relay control system (for all the single tanks) suitably triggers the motor to prevent the tank from getting empty as well as overflow of water. This is done to ensure air blockages in the piping and water meters as well to avoid overflow wastage.

The single tank is divided into two sub tanks-one for drinking water (purified), the other for bathroom supply (softened). Additionally, the system includes a sump (partitioned into two parts-bathrooms and drinking water) that acts as reserve of softened (for bathroom) and purified (drinking) water whose level is continuously monitored. This is from where the pump acts to ensure water flow to the tank.

The source for the Drinking water tank is either the underground bore-well or the supplied water purified or the water from Water-maker and let into the sump. Whilst the black water from the toilets is collected in the septic tanks, the grey water from service areas and bathrooms of each block is accumulated separately and is subjected to sedimentation and softening to fill into the recycled water part of the sump. The water for kitchen use is purified by Reverse Osmosis (RO) to remove unwanted ions and mineral salts. The UV system may replace the RO system depending on the water quality. The waste water from RO is directed into softener and then to the bathroom sump; water is then purified by UV rays that kill all microbial growth present. We propose to use nutating water meter to record water

usage. Each house will have 2 meters rated at different costs (Kitchen and Bathroom). This add on cost to the initial investment is aimed optimize the use of pure kitchen water. This becomes inevitable due to different techniques employed for purification in both the cases to meet different levels of purity.

AUTOMATED VALVE CLOSING:

Most hotels employ automatic cut-off of electricity once the room is locked. In addition to this, an electromagnet based solenoid value is fitted and is controlled by a microcontroller which counts the number of person inside the house. This ensures that the water supply to the house is cut off if there is no person in the house. This facility can be manually disabled. This facility is cheap and ensures inadvertent wastage of water. This can also be used to stop water inflow for any tap replacement or water meter checking.

TAPS:

Simple infra-red sensors are used to control faucets to optimize water use. Though this may add up a little to the initial cost, considering the anticipated water price, this technology will be cost efficient.

usage. Each house will have 2 meters rated at different costs (Kitchen and Bathroom). This add

WATER PURIFICATION

WATER PURIFICATION

LEAKAGE DETECTORS

The twenty first century ushers Indians a feasible technology emulated from western countries i.e. western toilet. Nowadays we prefer to use this system ahead of the conventional Indian ones considering the practical comforts. As mentioned in the survey that was conducted at the enumerable apartments around the city, it was surmised that a major water futility arises due to water percolation from the flush tank and valve leakage which we humans fail to pay heed to.

This system meets various hardships such as unresourceful use of water at the flush system. In addition the flush valve (refer fig below) is subjected to mechanical wear and tear. This water dribbling into bowl is usually overlooked. To meet the demands of common men we propose a radical yet innovative technology plausible for day-to-day usage. The flush system in a western toilet is depicted as flows

WORKING PRINCIPLE:

A chain attached to the handle on the side of the tank. When we push on the handle, it pulls the chain, which is connected to the flush valve. The chain lifts the flush valve, which then floats out of the way, revealing a 2- to 3-inch (5.08- to 7.62- cm) diameter drain hole. Uncovering this hole allows the water to enter the bowl.

INVENTION:

As represented below the point where the flush valve is placed is usually subjected to mechanical constraints.

The flush valve might be an open-close type or a circular-airlock type.

Thus we propose to use place a strain gauge that is bridge balanced at the point where the flush valve is at the reclined position (fully compressed ). This point is the null balance point(as depicted below

A buzzer alarm or an LED is connected to this setup is triggered once the strain gauge loses its bridge balance condition.

One has to note that the alarm or the LED might be trigger every time the flush is used. Hence we have to recognize the water leakage for higher persistence of a buzzer

∑ One has to note that the alarm or the LED might be trigger every time

STRAIN GAUGE:

Strain is the amount of deformation of a body due to an applied force. More specifically, strain (e) is defined as the fractional change in length.

STRAIN GAUGE: Strain is the amount of deformation of a body due to an applied force.

Strain can be positive (tensile) or negative (compressive). Although dimensionless, strain is sometimes expressed in units such as in./in. or mm/mm. In practice, the magnitude of measured strain is very small. While there are several methods of measuring strain, the most common is with a strain gage, a device whose electrical resistance varies in proportion to the amount of strain in the device. HERE WE USE A BONDED STRAIN GAGE.

STRAIN GAUGE: Strain is the amount of deformation of a body due to an applied force.

The strain gage is properly mounted onto the bed of the flush valve so that the strain is accurately transferred from the test specimen, through the adhesive and strain gage backing, to the foil itself. The metallic strain gage consists of a very fine wire or, more commonly, metallic foil arranged in a grid pattern. The grid pattern maximizes the amount of metallic wire or foil subject to strain in the parallel direction (latter figure). The cross-sectional area of the grid is minimized to reduce the effect of shear strain and Poisson Strain. The grid is bonded to a thin backing, called the carrier,

which is attached directly to the test specimen. Therefore, the strain experienced by the test specimen is transferred directly to the strain gage, which responds with a linear change in electrical resistance. Strain gages are available commercially with nominal resistance values from 30 to 3,000 Ω, with 120, 350, and 1,000 Ω being the most common values.

A suitable resistance value is considered to be the null position, any deviation in resistance is considered to erroneous and thus triggering the alarm.

Gage factor is defined as the ratio of fractional change in electrical resistance to the fractional change in length (strain):

which is attached directly to the test specimen. Therefore, the strain experienced by the test specimen

A MAJOR ADVANTAGE OF IMPLEMENTING A STRAIN GAGE IS THAT THE TEMPERATURE OF WATER REMAINS CONSTANT.THUS THE SENSITIVITY OF THE STRAIN GAGE REMAINS UNAFECTED.

BRIDGE BALANCE CIRCUIT:

Wheatstone’s bridge

which is attached directly to the test specimen. Therefore, the strain experienced by the test specimen

The output voltage of the bridge, V O , is equal to:

which is attached directly to the test specimen. Therefore, the strain experienced by the test specimen

the output voltage is zero normally

If the nominal resistance of the strain gage is designated as R G , then the strain-induced change in resistance, DR, can be expressed as DR = R G ·GF·e, from the previously defined Gage Factor equation. Assuming

that R 1 = R 2
that R 1 = R 2
and R 3 = R G ,
and R 3 = R G ,

SIGNAL CONDITIONING:

Shunt Calibration

– The normal procedure to verify the output of a strain gage

measurement system relative to some predetermined mechanical input or strain is called shunt calibration. Shunt calibration involves simulating the input of strain by changing the resistance of an arm in the bridge by some known amount. This is accomplished by shunting, or connecting, a large resistor of known value (Rs) across one arm of the bridge, creating a known DR as seen in Fig below. The output of the bridge can then be measured and compared to the expected voltage value. The results are used to correct span errors in the entire measurement path, or to simply verify general operation to gain confidence in the setup.

∑ If the nominal resistance of the strain gage is designated as R , then the

Offset-Null Circuit – The second balancing method uses an adjustable resistance, a potentiometer, to physically adjust the output of the bridge to zero. By varying the resistance of potentiometer, you can control the level of the bridge output and set the initial output to zero volts.

Amplification

– The output of strain gages and bridges is relatively small. In practice,

most strain gage bridges and strain-based transducers output less than 10 mV/V (10 mV of output per volt of excitation voltage). With 10 V excitation, the output signal is 100 mV. Therefore, strain gage signal conditioners usually include amplifiers to boost the signal level to increase measurement resolution and improve signal-to-noise

ratios.

RAIN WATER HARVESTING

Rain water harvesting is the process of accumulating and storing of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the ground. Our Rain water harvesting system comprises components of various stages – transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and storage in tanks for reuse and recharge. The common components of rainwater harvesting system involved in these stages are illustrated here.

  • 1. Catchments:

The catchment here is nothing but the roof top of the apartment as well gardens which directly receive the rainfall and provide water to the system. The roof is made up of reinforced cement concrete (RCC).

  • 2. Coarse Mesh:

It is kept at the roof and garden gutters to prevent the passage of debris.

  • 3. Conduits:

Conduits are pipelines or drains that carry rainwater from the catchment (rooftop) area to the harvesting system. Conduits are made up of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC).

RAIN WATER HARVESTING Rain water harvesting is the process of accumulating and storing of rainwater for

A first flush device is a valve that ensures that runoff from the first spell of rain is flushed out and does not enter the system. This needs to be done since the first spell of rain carries a relatively larger amount of pollutants from the air and catchment surface.

5.

Filtration:

The filtration system is designed with three concentric circular chambers in which the outer chamber is filled with sand, the middle one with coarse aggregate and the inner-most layer with pebbles. Rainwater reaches the centre of the core and is left into the ground. Filtration systems are kept near the bore wells so that this increases the ground water level.

IRRIGATION SYSTEM

IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Traditional method of watering the plants takes a significant amount of time. Not only do gardeners have to be present at the correct time to water the garden, they may also have to walk from plant to plant with a hose or watering can. By our proposal of Automatic Plant watering system we save man power as well judiciously water the plants.

PLAN:

Traditional method of watering the plants takes a significant amount of time. Not only do gardeners

The irrigation system designed has the following advantages:

  • 1. Electronic timers can be operated by plugging into the normal switch board with an adapter

  • 2. Connected to the grey water source

  • 3. Can cover the entire apartment complex area

  • 4. One-time programming and the ability to program differently based on seasons

  • 5. Control each outlet to garden separately

  • 6. May have a battery back up to save the programs if it loses power.

  • 7. Sprinkle irrigation based to avoid water stagnating and wastage

A trained professional can install the Irrigation system so that it operates without any problem for a long period.

OPTIONAL:

We give the option of either detecting the rain or manually use a GSM system to indicate the rain. Automatic rain sensors may be installed so that it adjusts the irrigation amounts during heavy rain. Rain sensors are also recommended by National Gardening Association to save water and avoid over watering. A simpler system based on GSM (cheaper and redundant) can also be used.

RAIN COLLECTION:

The excess run-off during the rain is directed into the rain water harvesting system by constructing gutters etc.

ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM:

Wastage of water is avoided. Rain water harvesting is enhanced by constructing the garden area properly. Further, flooding of gardens and stagnation are avoided.

CONCLUSION