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COURSE PREPARED BY M.

JAYAPRASAD MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND TESTING OF ENGINE

221076 MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND TESTING OF ENGINE L T P C 30 0 3 AIM: To know the engine materials, manufacturing methodology and testing methodology. OBJECTIVE: To provide knowledge on engine materials, manufacturing and testing of engine components. UNIT I MATERIALS 7 Selection types of Materials Ferrous Carbon and Low Alloy steels, High Alloy Steels, Cast Irons Non Ferrous Aluminium, Magnesium, Titanium, Copper and Nickel alloys. UNIT II ENGINE COMPONENTS 15 Cylinder Block, Cylinder Head, Crankcase and Manifolds, Piston Assembly, Connecting Rod, Crankshaft, Camshaft And Valve Train Production methods Casting, Forging, Powder Metallurgy Machining Testing Methods. UNIT III ENGINE AUXILIARIES 7 Carburettors, fuel injection system components, radiators, fans, coolant pumps, ignition System. UNIT IV COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING 7

Integration of CAD, CAM and CIM- Networking, CNC programming for machining of Engine Components. UNIT V QUALITY AND TESTING 9

TS 16949, B I S codes for testing. Instrumentation, computer aided engine testing, metrology for manufacturing Engine Components. TEXT BOOKS : TOTAL: 45 PERIODS

1. Grover, M.P., CAD/CAM, Prentice Hall of India Ltd., 1985. 2. Heldt, P.M., High speed internal combustion engines, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., 1960. 3. Judge, A.W., Testing of high speed internal combustion engines, Chapman & Hall., 1960. REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Richard, W., H e i n e Carl R. Loper Jr. and Philip, C., R o s e n t h a l , Principles of Metal Casting, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980. 2. IS: 1602 1960 Code for testing of variable speed internal Combustion engines for Automobile Purposes, 1966. 3. SAE Handbook, 1994. 4. P.Radhakrishnan and S.Subramaniyan, CAD/CAM/CIM, New Age International (P) Limited, Publishers, 1997. 5 .Mikett P.Groover, Automation, production Systems and Computer Integrated Manufacturing Printice Hall of India Private Limited, 1999.

UNIT I MATERIALS

Low carbon steels .Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.050.15% carbon and mild steel contains 0.160.29% carbon, therefore it is neither brittle nor ductile. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and malleable; surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. The density of mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm 3 and the Young's modulus is 210,000 MPa If low carbon steel is only stressed to some point between the upper and lower yield point then the surface may develop Lder bands. Medium carbon steel Approximately 0.300.59% carbon content. Balances ductility and strength and has good wear resistance; used for large parts, forging and automotive components Higher carbon steels Higher carbon steels Carbon steels which can successfully undergo heat-treatment have carbon content in the range of 0.301.70% by weight. Trace impurities of various other elements can have a significant effect on the quality of the resulting steel. Trace amounts of sulfur in particular make the steel red-short. Low alloy carbon steel, such as A36 grade, contains about 0.05% sulfur and melts around 1,4261,538 C (2,5992,800 F). Manganese is often added to improve the hardenability of low carbon steels.

Ultra-high carbon steel Approximately 1.02.0% carbon content. Steels that can be tempered to great hardness. Used for special purposes like (non-industrial-purpose) knives, axles or punches. Most steels with more than 1.2% carbon content are made using powder metallurgy. Note that steel with carbon content above 2.0% is considered cast iron.

Alloy steel Alloy steel is steel alloyed with a variety of elements in total amounts of between 1.0% and 50% by weight to improve its mechanical properties. Alloy steels are classified into two groups: low alloy steels and high alloy steels. The following are a range of improved properties in alloy steels (as compared to carbon steels): strength, hardness, toughness, wear resistance, hardenability, and hot hardness. In order to achieve some of these improved properties the metal may require heat treating. Common alloyants include manganese (the most-common one), nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, silicon, and boron. Less common alloyants include aluminum, cobalt, copper, cerium, niobium, titanium, tungsten, tin, and zirconium. Some of these find uses in exotic and highly-demanding applications, such as in the turbine blades of jet engines, in spacecraft, and in nuclear reactors. Because of the ferromagnetic properties of iron, some steel alloys find important applications where their responses to magnetism are very important, including in electric motors and in transformers, Cast iron Cast iron usually refers to grey iron, but also identifies a large group of ferrous alloys, which solidify with a eutectic. The colour of a fractured surface can be used to identify an alloy. White cast iron is named after its white surface when fractured, due to its carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight through. Grey cast iron is named after its grey fractured surface, which occurs because the graphitic flakes deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material rupture.

Carbon (C) and silicon (Si) are the main alloying elements, with the amount ranging from 2.1 to 4 wt% and 1 to 3 wt%, respectively. While this technically makes these base alloys ternary Fe-C-Si alloys, the principle of cast iron solidification is understood from the binary iron-carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most cast irons are around the eutectic point of the iron-carbon system, the melting temperatures closely correlate, usually ranging from 1,150 to 1,200 C (2,102 to 2,192 F), which is about 300 C (572 F) lower than the melting point of pure iron. Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its relatively low melting point, good fluidity, castability, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications and are used in pipes, machines and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads (declining usage), cylinder blocks and gearbox cases (declining usage). It is resistant to destruction and weakening by oxidisation (rust). Grey cast iron Grey cast iron is characterized by its graphitic microstructure, which causes fractures of the material to have a grey appearance. It is the most commonly used cast iron and the most widely use cast material based on weight. Most cast irons have a chemical composition of 2.5 to 4.0% carbon, 1 to 3% silicon, and the remainder is iron. Grey cast iron has less tensile strength and shock resistance than steel, however its compressive strength is comparable to low and medium carbon steel. White cast iron With a lower silicon content and faster cooling, the carbon in white cast iron precipitates out of the melt as the metastable phase cementite, Fe3C, rather than graphite. The cementite which precipitates from the melt forms as relatively large particles, usually in a eutectic mixture, where the other phase is austenite (which on cooling might transform to martensite). These eutectic carbides are much too large to provide precipitation hardening (as in some steels, where cementite precipitates might inhibit plastic deformation by impeding the movement of dislocations through the ferrite matrix). Rather, they increase

the bulk hardness of the cast iron simply by virtue of their own very high hardness and their substantial volume fraction, such that the bulk hardness can be approximated by a rule of mixtures. In any case, they offer hardness at the expense of toughness. Since carbide makes up a large fraction of the material, white cast iron could reasonably be classified as a cermet. White iron is too brittle for use in many structural components, but with good hardness and abrasion resistance and relatively low cost, it finds use in such applications as the wear surfaces (impeller and volute) of slurry pumps, shell liners and lifter bars in ball mills and autogenous grinding mills, balls and rings in coal pulverisers, and the teeth of a backhoe's digging bucket (although cast medium-carbon martensitic steel is more common for this application). It is difficult to cool thick castings fast enough to solidify the melt as white cast iron all the way through. However, rapid cooling can be used to solidify a shell of white cast iron, after which the remainder cools more slowly to form a core of grey cast iron. The resulting casting, called a chilled casting, has the benefits of a hard surface and a somewhat tougher interior. High-chromium white iron alloys allow massive castings (for example, a 10-tonne impeller) to be sand cast, i.e., a high cooling rate is not required, as well as providing impressive abrasion resistance.[citation needed] Malleable cast iron Malleable iron starts as a white iron casting that is then heat treated at about 900 C (1,650 F). Graphite separates out much more slowly in this case, so that surface tension has time to form it into spheroidal particles rather than flakes. Due to their lower aspect ratio, spheroids are relatively short and far from one another, and have a lower cross section vis-a-vis a propagating crack or phonon. They also have blunt boundaries, as opposed to flakes, which alleviates the stress concentration problems faced by grey cast iron. In general, the properties of malleable cast iron are more like mild steel. There is a limit to how large a part can be cast in malleable iron, since it is made from white cast iron.

Non Ferrous Aluminium is a soft, durable, lightweight, ductile and malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. Aluminium is nonmagnetic and non sparking. It is also insoluble in alcohol, though it can be soluble in water in certain forms. The yield strength of pure aluminium is 711 MPa, while aluminium alloys have yield strengths ranging from 200 MPa to 600 MPa. Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel. It is easily machined, cast, drawn and extruded. Corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the metal is exposed to air, effectively preventing further oxidation. The strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. This corrosion resistance is also often greatly reduced when many aqueous salts are present, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals. Aluminium atoms are arranged in a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. Aluminium has stacking-fault energy of approximately 200 mJ/m2. Aluminium is one of the few metals that retain full silvery reflectance in finely powdered form, making it an important component of silver paints. Aluminium mirror finish has the highest reflectance of any metal in the 200400 nm (UV) and the 3,00010,000 nm (far IR) regions; in the 400700 nm visible range it is slightly outperformed by tin and silver and in the 7003000 (near IR) by silver, gold, and copper. Applications Transportation (automobiles, aircraft, trucks, railway cars, marine vessels, bicycles etc.) as sheet, tube, castings etc. Packaging (cans, foil, etc.) Construction (windows, doors, siding, building wire, etc.)

A wide range of household items, from cooking utensils to baseball bats, watches. Street lighting poles, sailing ship masts, walking poles etc. Outer shells of consumer electronics, also cases for equipment e.g. photographic equipment. Electrical transmission lines for power distribution MKM steel and Alnico magnets Super purity aluminium (SPA, 99.980% to 99.999% Al), used in electronics and CDs. Heat sinks for electronic appliances such as transistors and CPUs. Substrate material of metal-core copper clad laminates used in high brightness LED lighting. Powdered aluminium is used in paint, and in pyrotechnics such as solid rocket fuels and thermite. Aluminium can be reacted with hydrochloric acid to form hydrogen gas. A variety of countries, including France, Italy, Poland, Finland, Romania, Israel, and the former Yugoslavia, have issued coins struck in aluminium or aluminium-copper alloys. Some guitar models sports aluminium diamond plates on the surface of the instruments, usually either chrome or black. Kramer Guitars and Travis Bean are both known for having produced guitars with necks made of aluminium, which gives the instrument a very distinct sound. Magnesium Physical and chemical properties Elemental magnesium is a fairly strong, silvery-white, light-weight metal (two thirds the density of aluminium). It tarnishes slightly when exposed to air, although unlike the alkali metals, storage in an oxygen-free environment is unnecessary because magnesium is protected by a thin layer of oxide that is fairly impermeable and hard to remove. Like its lower periodic table group neighbor calcium, magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly than calcium. When it is submerged in water, hydrogen bubbles will almost unnoticeably begin to form on the surface of the metal, though if powdered it will react much more rapidly. The reaction will occur faster with higher temperatures (see precautions). Magnesium also reacts exothermically with most acids, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl).

As with aluminium, zinc and many other metals, the reaction with hydrochloric acid produces the chloride of the metal and releases hydrogen gas.

Magnesium compounds are typically white crystals. Most are soluble in water, providing the sour-tasting magnesium ion Mg2+. Small amounts of dissolved magnesium ion contribute to the tartness and taste of natural waters. Magnesium ion in large amounts is an ionic laxative, and magnesium sulfate (common name: Epsom salt) is sometimes used for this purpose. So-called "milk of magnesia" is a water suspension of one of the few insoluble magnesium compounds, magnesium hydroxide. The undissolved particles give rise to its appearance and name. Milk of magnesia is a mild base commonly used as an antacid, which has some laxative side effect Magnesium Applications Niche and illustrative uses of magnesium compounds Magnesium hydroxide is used in milk of magnesia, its chloride, oxide, gluconate, malate, orotate and citrate used as oral magnesium supplements, and its sulfate (Epsom salts) for various purposes in medicine, and elsewhere. Oral magnesium supplements have been claimed to be therapeutic for some individuals who suffer from Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). Magnesium borate, magnesium salicylate and magnesium sulfate are used as antiseptics. Magnesium bromide is used as a mild sedative (this action is due to the bromide, not the magnesium). Magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) powder is also used by athletes, such as gymnasts and weightlifters, to improve the grip on objects the apparatus or lifting bar. Magnesium stearate is a slightly flammable white powder with lubricating properties. In pharmaceutical technology it is used in the manufacturing of tablets, to prevent the tablets from sticking to the equipment during the tablet compression process (i.e., when the tablet's substance is pressed into tablet form). Magnesium sulfite is used in the manufacture of paper (sulfite process). Magnesium phosphate is used to fireproof wood for construction. Magnesium hexafluorosilicate is used in mothproofing of textiles.

Titanium A metallic element, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. It is a strong metal with low density that is quite ductile (especially in an oxygen-free environment), lustrous, and metallic-white in color. The relatively high melting point (more than 1,650 C or 3,000 F) makes it useful as a refractory metal. It is paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity. It is fairly hard (although not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel), non-magnetic and a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Machining requires precautions, as the material will soften and gall if sharp tools and proper cooling methods are not used. Like those made from steel, titanium structures have a fatigue limits which guarantees longevity in some applications. Titanium alloys specific stiffnesses are also usually not as good as other materials such as aluminium alloys and carbon fiber, so it is used less for structures which require high rigidity. The metal is a dimorphic allotrope whose hexagonal alpha form changes into a bodycentered cubic (lattice) form at 882 C (1,620 F). The specific heat of the alpha form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains fairly constant for the form regardless of temperature. Similar to zirconium and hafnium, an additional omega phase exists, which is thermodynamically stable at high pressures, but is metastable at ambient pressures. This phase is usually hexagonal (ideal) or trigonal (distorted) and can be viewed as being due to a soft longitudinal acoustic phonon of the phase causing collapse of (111) planes of atoms. Applications Pigments, additives and coatings Aerospace and marine Industrial Consumer and architectural Medical Orthopedic implants Piercing

Copper Occupies the same family of the periodic table as silver and gold, since they each have one s-orbital electron on top of a filled electron shell which forms metallic bonds. Like silver and gold, copper is easily worked, being both ductile and malleable. The ease with which it can be drawn into wire makes it useful for electrical work as does its excellent electrical conductivity. Copper is normally supplied, as with nearly all metals for industrial and commercial use, in a fine grained polycrystalline form. Polycrystalline metals have greater strength than monocrystalline forms, and the difference is greater for smaller grain (crystal) sizes.

In direct mechanical contact with metals of different electropotential (for example, a copper pipe joined to an iron pipe), especially in the presence of moisture, as the completion of an electrical circuit (for instance through the common ground) will cause the juncture to act as an electrochemical cell (like a single cell of a battery). The weak electrical currents themselves are harmless but the electrochemical reaction will cause the conversion of the iron to other compounds, eventually destroying the functionality of the union. Copper does not react with water, but it slowly reacts with atmospheric oxygen forming a layer of brown-black copper oxide. In contrast to the oxidation of iron by wet air, this oxide layer stops the further, bulk corrosion. A green layer of copper carbonate, called verdigris, can often be seen on old copper constructions, such as the Statue of Liberty. Copper reacts with hydrogen sulfide- and sulfide-containing solutions, forming various copper sulfides on its surface. In sulfide-containing solutions, copper is less noble than hydrogen and will corrode. This is observed in everyday life when copper metal surfaces tarnish after exposure to air containing sulfur compounds.

Copper is slowly dissolved in oxygen-containing ammonia solutions because ammonia forms water-soluble complexes with copper. Copper reacts with a combination of oxygen and hydrochloric acid to form a series of copper chlorides. Copper reacts with an acidified mixture of hydrogen peroxide to form the corresponding copper salt: Uses Electronics and related devices Architecture and industry Biomedical applications Aquaculture applications

Nickel Category: Nickel alloys Alnico (aluminium, cobalt; used in magnets) Alumel (nickel, manganese, aluminium, silicon) Chromel (chromium) Cupronickel (bronze, copper) Ferronickel (nickel) German silver (copper, zinc) Hastelloy (molybdenum, chromium, sometimes tungsten) Inconel (chromium, iron) Monel metal (copper, iron, manganese) Nichrome (chromium) Nicrosil (chromium, silicon, magnesium) Nisil (silicon) Nitinol (titanium, shape memory alloy) Soft magnetic alloys Mu-metal (iron)

Nickel is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge that takes a high polish. It is one of only four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature. Its Curie temperature is 355 C. That is, nickel is non-magnetic above this temperature. The unit cell of nickel is a face centered cube with the lattice parameter of 0.352 nm giving an atomic radius of 0.124 nm. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.

UNIT II ENGINE Cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinder(s) of a reciprocating engine and often some or all of their associated surrounding structures (coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages and ports, and crankcase). The term engine block is often used synonymously with "cylinder block" In the basic terms of machine elements, the various main parts of an engine (such as cylinder(s), cylinder head(s), coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages, and crankcase) are conceptually distinct, and these concepts can all be instantiated as discrete pieces that are bolted together. Such construction was very widespread in the early decades of the commercialization of internal combustion engines (1880s to 1920s), and it is still sometimes used in certain applications where it remains advantageous (especially very large engines, but also some small engines). However, it is no longer the normal way of building most petrol engines and diesel engines, because for any given engine configuration, there are more efficient ways of designing for manufacture (and also for maintenance and repair). These generally involve integrating multiple machine elements into one discrete part, and doing the making (such as casting, stamping, and machining) for multiple elements in one setup with one machine coordinate system (of a machine tool or other piece of manufacturing machinery). This yields lower unit cost of production (and/or maintenance and repair). Today most engines for cars, trucks, buses, tractors, and so on are built with fairly highly integrated design, so the words "monobloc" and "en bloc" are seldom used in describing them; such construction is often implicit. Thus "engine block", "cylinder block", or simply "block" are the terms likely to be heard in the garage or on the street.

Cylinder Crown

In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It consists of a platform containing the poppet valves, spark plugs and usually part of the combustion chamber. In a flathead engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are all contained within the block, and the head is essentially a flat plate of metal bolted to the top of the cylinder bank with a head gasket in between; this simplicity leads to ease of manufacture and repair, and accounts for the flathead engine's early success in production automobiles and continued success in small engines, such as lawnmowers. This design, however, requires the incoming air to flow through a convoluted path, which limits the ability of the engine to perform at higher revolutions per minute (rpm), leading to the adoption of the overhead valve (OHV) head design, and the subsequent overhead camshaft (OHC) design. Cylinder Crankcase In an internal combustion engine of the reciprocating type, the crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft. The enclosure forms the largest cavity in the engine and is located below the cylinder(s), which in a multicylinder engine are usually integrated into one or several cylinder blocks. Crankcases have often been discrete parts, but more often they are integral with the cylinder bank(s), forming an engine block. Nevertheless, the area around the crankshaft is still usually called the crankcase. Crankcases and other basic engine structural components (e.g., cylinders, cylinder blocks, cylinder heads, and integrated combinations thereof) are typically made of cast iron or cast aluminium via sand casting. Today the foundry processes are usually highly automated, with a few skilled workers to manage the casting of thousands of parts.

A crankcase often has an opening in the bottom to which an oil pan is attached with a gasket bolted joint. Some crankcase designs fully surround the crank's main bearing journals, whereas many others form only one half, with a bearing cap forming the other. Some crankcase areas require no structural strength from the oil pan itself (in which case the oil pan is typically stamped from sheet steel), whereas other crankcase designs do (in which case the oil pan is a casting in its own right). Both the crankcase and any rigid cast oil pan often have reinforcing ribs cast into them, as well as bosses which are drilled and tapped to receive mounting screws/bolts for various other engine parts. Besides protecting the crankshaft and connecting rods from foreign objects, the crankcase serves other functions, depending on engine type. These include keeping the motor oil contained, usually hermetically or nearly hermetically (and in the hermetic variety, allowing the oil to be pressurized); providing the rigid structure with which to join the engine to the transmission; and in some cases, even constituting part of the frame of the vehicle (such as in many farm tractors).

Cylinder Manifold

Manifolds are used to connect two or more cylinders of gas together increasing the supply volume available to provide a continuous flow when one cylinder is not sufficient and a tube trailer or other bulk supply is not practical. Manifolds are also used when a single cylinder of gas is not capable of supplying the required flow rate required by a process.

Piston Assembly

The main parts of a piston are: 1 The top, which may also called the Head or Crown . 2 The Ring belt. 3 The Pin bosses. 4 The Skirt. The top is part of the Combustion chamber The top may be flat , or a combustion chamber may be cut into the top of the piston, the top may be raised or have a bowl cut into it. Soot contamination of the lubricating oil in Diesel engines is reduced when the combustion chamber is located in the piston, as opposed to the Cylinder head . The piston skirt, which wraps around the lower part of the piston, distributes the side loads and prevents the piston from rocking in the cylinder . long pistons rock less than short ones and are used in diesel engine to reduce the number of required compression rings . The pin boss supports the piston pin and transmits the force of combustion to the pin. it is one of the most highly loaded areas of the piston .The piston pin is usually

hollow to reduce it's weight. The piston iS fitted with rings which ride in grooves cut in the piston head to seal against gas leakage and control oil flow. Piston Assembly Pressure die casted, gravity die casted, shell moulded piston assembly are made out of aluminium alloys, graded closed grained cast iron. Piston rings are individually centrifugally casted out of high grade cast iron materials. Models available off shelf. Packing/Piston Rings We manufacture Carbon Packing Rings which are used in steam, Turbine, Water Turbine, gas Turbine for different type of industries like Sugar, Cement, Textiles, Power Plant and Electricity Board etc. These packing rings are of various types and size used in turbine of various kind also the piston Rings which are also used in Compressors not only as the Piston Rod Packing but also as the components of Pistons, Piston Rings and Guide Rings. Carbon glands are used in the sealing of liquids and gases, restricting leakage to a minimum. Carbon gland rings are provides an economical simple and effective seal on impulse turbines, water turbines, steam turbines, gas turbines, low pressure fans and blowers. Piston Assemblies In-house Manufacturing, Supplied with Piston Pin Range: Over 1000 types Material: Available in LM13, LM17 and LM21 material. Type: Normal type, Ring Carrier type, Oil cooling gallery type, All types of coatings also available. Size Range: 60 mm to 175 bore size Manufacturing Process: Automatic Die casting, T9 Heat Treated Machining: On CNC and SPM Installed Capacity: 25000 per month Sample Development: 8 weeks, No tooling costs charged for order above 300 Pieces Product Quality: OEM and after market

Connecting rod In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple mechanism that converts linear motion into rotating motion. Connecting rods may also convert rotating motion into linear motion. Historically, before the development of engines, they were first used in this way. As a connecting rod is rigid, it may transmit either a push or a pull and so the rod may rotate the crank through both halves of a revolution, i.e. piston pushing and piston pulling. Earlier mechanisms, such as chains, could only pull. In a few two-stroke engines, the connecting rod is only required to push. Today, connecting rods are best known through their use in internal combustion piston engines, such as car engines. These are of a distinctly different design from earlier forms of connecting rods, used in steam engines and steam locomotives

While the two competing forging processes are similar, there are a number of subtle differences between the two. The forged steel rod is fabricated by starting with a wrought steel billet, heating the billet and forging it in the materials plastic temperature range, fracturing or cutting the rod cap end, and then machining portions of the product to realize the final dimensional characteristics of the component. The powder forged (PF) rod is: fabricated by consolidating metal powders into a perform that is sintered, reheated to forging temperature (or in some cases forged subsequently to sintering), fully densified by forging to final shape, fracturing of the rod cap end, and then machined (minimally) to final dimensions.

A new steel, C-70, has been introduced from Europe as a crackable forging steel. Alloying elements in the material enable hardening of forged connecting rods when they undergo controlled cooling after forging. This material fractures in a fashion similar to powder forged materials.

Crankshaft The crankshaft, sometimes casually abbreviated to crank, is the part of an engine which translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation. To convert the reciprocating motion into rotation, the crankshaft has "crank throws" or "crankpins", additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the "big ends" of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach. It typically connects to a flywheel, to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle, and sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsion vibrations often caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity.

Crankshafts materials should be readily shaped, machined and heat-treated, and have adequate strength, toughness, hardness, and high fatigue strength. The crankshaft are manufactured from steel either by forging or casting. The main bearing and connecting rod bearing liners are made of babbitt, a tin and lead alloy. Forged crankshafts are stronger than the cast crankshafts, but are more expensive. Forged crankshafts are made from SAE 1045 or similar type steel. Forging makes a very dense, tough shaft with a grain running parallel to the principal stress direction. Crankshafts are cast in steel, modular iron or malleable iron. The major advantage of the casting process is that crankshaft material and machining costs are reduced because the crankshaft may be made close to the required shape and size including counterweights. Cast crankshafts can handle loads from all directions as the metal grain structure is uniform and random throughout. Counterweights on cast crankshafts are slightly larger than counterweights on forged crankshafts because the cast metal is less dense and therefore somewhat lighter. Crankshaft Materials Manganese-molybdenum Steel 1%-Chromium-molybdenum Steel 2.5%-Nickel-chromium-molybdenum Steel 3%-Chromium-molybdenum or 1.5%-Chromium-aluminium-modybdenum Steel. Nodular Cast Irons

1. HARDENABLE IRON This is Grade 17 cast iron with an addition of 1% chrome to create 5 to 7% free carbide. After casting, the material is flame/or induction hardened, to give a Rockwell hardness of 52 to 56 on the C Scale. This material was developed in the 1930s in America as a lowcost replacement for steel camshafts and is mainly suited in applications where there is an excess of oil, i.e., camshafts that run in the engine block and that are splash-fed from the sump. (This is the material that the Ford OHC camshafts were manufactured from). It is not the most suitable material for performance camshafts in OHC engines. As a company, we only use this material for performance camshafts if the camshaft is splashfed in the sump.

2. SPHEROIDAL GRAPHITE CAST IRON KNOWN AS SG IRON A material giving similar characteristics to hardenable. Its failing as a camshaft material is hardness in its cast form, i.e., Rockwell 5, which tends to scuff bearings in adverse conditions. The material will heat treat to 52 to 58 RockwellC. This material was used by Fiat in the 1980s. 3. CHILLED CHROME CAST IRON Chilled iron is Grade 17 cast iron with 1% chrome. When the camshaft is cast in the foundry, machined steel moulds the shape of the cam lobe are incorporated in the mould. When the iron is poured, it hardens off very quickly (known as chilling), causing the cam lobe material to form a matrix of carbide (this material will cut glass) on the cam lobe. This material is exceedingly scuff-resistant and is the only material for producing quantity OHC performance camshafts.

Valve train Term used to describe the mechanisms and parts which control the operation of the valves. A traditional reciprocating internal combustion engine uses valves to control air and fuel flow into and out of the cylinders, facilitating combustion.

Production Methods - Castings Anchor Bronze & Metals Continuous Cast bronze is produced in stationary mold continuous casting machines. All of the melting is done via electric induction crucible furnaces. Melting occurs continuously, throughout the course of a production run.

Molten metal is poured into a crucible tundish furnace having a controlled atmosphere (A) The tundish furnace maintains a large reservoir (B) of molten metal at a controlled temperature above a water-cooled graphite die (C). Any dross entering the tundish furnace quickly floats to the top of the metal bath where it is removed.

Metal enters the freezing zone of the die (D) at a temperature in sufficient excess of the liquidus to assure that any shrinkage pores in prior cast material are filled. This is accomplished in a fraction of a second before rapid freezing begins. Severe segregation of alloying elements is thereby avoided. Special patented techniques further reduce segregation and greatly improve casting strength by generating a fine grain structure in the casting.

The newly frozen layer of metal shrinks rapidly away from the graphite die and is withdrawn from the die by a set of electrically driven pinch rolls. As the newly solidified portion of the casting leaves the freezing zone, the die is gravity filled (E) with molten metal from the tundish. The solidification process begins again.

When the casting has attained the desired length, it is cut off with a flying saw positioned below the pinch rolls. This process is used for production of intricate inside diameter and/or outside diameter shapes. The vertical casting process is preferred for the production of precision tubing. Tube concentricity of vertically cast product surpasses that produced by all other metal working processes.

Advantages and disadvantages Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: '"cold," "warm," or "hot" forging. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to 580 metric tons Forged parts usually require further processing to achieve a finished part. Forging can produce a piece that is stronger than an equivalent cast or machined part. As the metal is shaped during the forging process, its internal grain deforms to follow the general shape of the part. As a result, the grain is continuous throughout the part, giving rise to a piece with improved strength characteristics.

Some metals may be forged cold, however iron and steel are almost always hot forged. Hot forging prevents the work hardening that would result from cold forging, which would increase the difficulty of performing secondary machining operations on the piece. Also, while work hardening may be desirable in some circumstances, other methods of

hardening the piece, such as heat treating, are generally more economical and more controllable. Alloys that are amenable to precipitation hardening, such as most aluminium alloys and titanium, can be hot forged, followed by hardening Production forging involves significant capital expenditure for machinery, tooling, facilities and personnel. In the case of hot forging, a high temperature furnace (sometimes referred to as the forge) will be required to heat ingots or billets. Owing to the massiveness of large forging hammers and presses and the parts they can produce, as well as the dangers inherent in working with hot metal, a special building is frequently required to house the operation. In the case of drop forging operations, provisions must be made to absorb the shock and vibration generated by the hammer. Most forging operations will require the use of metal-forming dies, which must be precisely machined and carefully heat treated to correctly shape the workpiece, as well as to withstand the tremendous forces involved. Drop forging Drop forging is a forging process where a hammer is raised up and then "dropped" onto the workpiece to deform it according to the shape of the die. There are two types of drop forging: open-die drop forging and closed-die drop forging. As the names imply, the difference is in the shape of the die, with the former not fully enclosing the workpiece, while the latter does Press forging Press forging works by slowly applying a continuous pressure or force, which differs from the near-instantaneous impact of drop-hammer forging. The amount of time the dies are in contact with the workpiece is measured in seconds (as compared to the milliseconds of drop-hammer forges). The press forging operation can be done either cold or hot.

The main advantage of press forging, as compared to drop-hammer forging, is its ability to deform the complete workpiece. Drop-hammer forging usually only deforms the surfaces of the workpiece in contact with the hammer and anvil; the interior of the workpiece will stay relatively undeformed. Another advantage to the process includes the

knowledge of the new part's strain rate. We specifically know what kind of strain can be put on the part, because the compression rate of the press forging operation is controlled. There are a few disadvantages to this process, most stemming from the workpiece being in contact with the dies for such an extended period of time. The operation is a time consuming process due to the amount of steps and how long each of them take. The workpiece will cool faster because the dies are in contact with workpiece; the dies facilitate drastically more heat transfer than the surrounding atmosphere. As the workpiece cools it becomes stronger and less ductile, which may induce cracking if deformation continues. Therefore heated dies are usually used to reduce heat loss, promote surface flow, and enable the production of finer details and closer tolerances. The workpiece may also need to be reheated. When done in high productivity, press forging is more economical than hammer forging. The operation also creates closer tolerances. In hammer forging a lot of the work is absorbed by the machinery, when in press forging, the greater percentage of work is used in the work piece. Another advantage is that the operation can be used to create any size part because there is no limit to the size of the press forging machine. New press forging techniques have been able to create a higher degree of mechanical and orientation integrity. By the constraint of oxidation to the outer most layers of the part material, reduced levels of micro cracking take place in the finished part.

Press forging can be used to perform all types of forging, including open-die and impression-die forging. Impression-die press forging usually requires less draft than drop forging and has better dimensional accuracy. Also, press forgings can often be done in one closing of the dies, allowing for easy automation

Upset forging Upset forging increases the diameter of the workpiece by compressing its length. Based on number of pieces produced this is the most widely used forging process. A few examples of common parts produced using the upset forging process are engine valves, couplings, bolts, screws, and other fasteners.

Upset forging is usually done in special high speed machines called crank presses, but upsetting can also be done in a vertical crank press or a hydraulic press. The machines are usually set up to work in the horizontal plane, to facilitate the quick exchange of work pieces from one station to the next. The initial workpiece is usually wire or rod, but some machines can accept bars up to 25 cm (9.8 in) in diameter and a capacity of over 1000 tons. The standard upsetting machine employs split dies that contain multiple cavities. The dies open enough to allow the workpiece to move from one cavity to the next; the dies then close and the heading tool, or ram, then moves longitudinally against the bar, upsetting it into the cavity. If all of the cavities are utilized on every cycle then a finished part will be produced with every cycle, which is why this process is ideal for mass production. The following three rules must be followed when designing parts to be upset forged: The length of unsupported metal that can be upset in one blow without injurious buckling should be limited to three times the diameter of the bar. Lengths of stock greater than three times the diameter may be upset successfully provided that the diameter of the upset is not more than 1.5 times the diameter of the stock. In an upset requiring stock length greater than three times the diameter of the stock, and where the diameter of the cavity is not more than 1.5 times the diameter of the stock, the length of unsupported metal beyond the face of the die must not exceed the diameter of the bar.

The process starts by heating up the bar to 1,200 to 1,300 C (2,192 to 2,372 F) in less than 60 seconds using high power induction coils. It is then descaled with rollers, sheared into blanks, and transferred several successive forming stages, during which it is upset, preformed, final forged, and pierced (if necessary). This process can also be couple with high speed cold forming operations. Generally, the cold forming operation will do the finishing stage so that the advantages of cold-working can be obtained, while maintaining the high speed of automatic hot forging. Roll forging Roll forging is a process where round or flat bar stock is reduced in thickness and increased in length. Roll forging is performed using two cylindrical or semi-cylindrical rolls, each containing one or more shaped grooves. A heated bar is inserted into the rolls and when it hits a stop the rolls rotate and the bar is progressively shaped as it is rolled out of the machine. The work piece is then transferred to the next set of grooves or turned around and reinserted into the same grooves. This continues until the desired shape and size is achieved. The advantage of this process is there is no flash and it imparts a favorable grain structure into the workpiece. Powder metallurgy is a forming and fabrication technique consisting of three major processing stages. First, the primary material is physically powdered, divided into many small individual particles. Next, the powder is injected into a mold or passed through a die to produce a weakly cohesive structure (via cold welding) very near the dimensions of the object ultimately to be manufactured. Pressures of 10-50 tons per square inch are commonly used. Also, to attain the same compression ratio across more complex pieces, it is often necessary to use lower punches as well as an upper punch. Finally, the end part is formed by applying pressure, high temperature, long setting times (during which selfwelding occurs), or any combination thereof. Two main techniques used to form and consolidate the powder are sintering and metal injection molding. Recent developments have made it possible to use rapid manufacturing techniques which use the metal powder for the products. Because with this technique the powder is melted and not sintered, better mechanical strength can be accomplished.

Solid state sintering is the process of taking metal in the form of a powder and placing it into a mold or die. Once compacted into the mold the material is placed under a high heat for a long period of time. Under heat, bonding takes place between the porous aggregate particles and once cooled the powder has bonded to form a solid piece.

Sintering can be considered to proceed in three stages. During the first, neck growth proceeds rapidly but powder particles remain discrete. During the second, most densification occurs, the structure recrystallizes and particles diffuse into each other. During the third, isolated pores tend to become spheroidal and densification continues at a much lower rate. The words Solid State in Solid State Sintering simply refer to the state the material is in when it bonds, solid meaning the material was not turned molten to bond together as alloys are formed.

One recently developed technique for high-speed sintering involves passing high electrical current through a powder to preferentially heat the asperities. Most of the energy serves to melt that portion of the compact where migration is desirable for densification; comparatively little energy is absorbed by the bulk materials and forming machinery. Naturally, this technique is not applicable to electrically insulating powders.

To allow efficient stacking of product in the furnace during sintering and prevent parts sticking together, many manufacturers separate ware using Ceramic Powder Separator Sheets. These sheets are available in various materials such as alumina, zirconia and magnesia. They are also available in fine medium and coarse particle sizes. By matching the material and particle size to the ware being sintered, surface damage and contamination can be reduced while maximizing furnace loading

Testing.

Dynamometers Eddy Current (35 hp - 800 hp) AC and DC (400 hp - 800 hp) (Transient / FTP Capable) Engine Mapping Component Level Testing Environmental Condition Capability Product Validation Catalyst Aging (Gasoline and Diesel) RAT-A / ARB approved catalyst aging DPF, DOC, SCR, NAC/LNT Testing HC and Urea Injection Development Trans Shift Tests Cold Start / Thermal Shock / Rapid Cool-down Sensor Aging Full Power train Tests Stationary / Genset emissions and development Hybrid systems testing Fuel Cell Testing Hot Testing / "End of Line" Audit Tests Hundreds of available Analog & Digital Channels per test stand

Customer Specific Data Formats Remote Communications Emissions (Gasoline and Diesel) 18" Horiba 4000 SCFM Full Dilution Tunnels Partial Flow Dilution Tunnels (mini-dilution tunnels) Double or Single Dilution (70mm filter & 47mm filter for 2007 regulations) MKS & Horiba FTIR Analyzers Up to 23 Unregulated Emissions Pre or Post Catalyst Measurement Horiba MEXA Analytical Benches Horiba Micro-Bench Analyzer AVL Micro-Soot 483 and AVL Smoke Meters Class 6 Clean Room / Filter Weighing (2007 CFR compliant) Facilities 23,000 sq ft (Building 1) 25,000 sq ft (Building 2) 45,000-gallon total underground fuel storage 3 gasoline, 2 diesel fuels available Fuel measurement (+/- 0.5%) in all cells

Component Testing Misc Tests Fan Clutch Testing One-Way-Clutch Alternator Pulley Cycle Tests NVH measurement and data analysis "Stretchy" Belt Durability Tests "Stretchy" Belt Temp vs. Tension Studies Component Aging / Durability Power Steering Cold Start Torque Tests Cylinder Head Motoring Tests Idler Durability Tensioner Damping Studies Belt Tracking Studies Vehicle Instrumentation

Dedicated Test Stands Idler Durability Dynamic Belt Friction Belt Misalignment Parasitic Loss Bearing Noise/ Durability Deceleration Testing Environmental Capabilities

Engine Lift Eye Drop Test Hydrothermal Oven Aging (Catalyst Aging)

Electronics Support In-House Data Acquisition & Control Custom Hardware/Software Integration Custom PC Based Software Application Programming Electronic Circuit Board Design & Manufacturing

Alternative Fuel Testing CNG and CNG Conversion Certification Propane and Propane Conversion Certification Ethanol Certification Bi-Fuel (CNG + Gasoline, or Propane + Gasoline) Certification Bio-Diesel Hot Testing Testing took another step in providing full service to our valued customers in the area of high volume production hot testing. Today, we have supported dozens of engine platforms and tested over 250 thousand engines while supplying engine plants around the world. Quality hot testing has become an integral part of our business, both locally and as satellite operations, with the implementation of our portable hot test cells.

UNIT III ENGINE AUXILIARIES

A carburetor basically consists of an open pipe, a "throat" or "barrel" through which the air passes into the inlet manifold of the engine. The pipe is in the form of a venturi it narrows in section and then widens again, causing the airflow to increase in speed in the narrowest part. Below the venturi is a butterfly valve called the throttle valve a rotating disc that can be turned end-on to the airflow, so as to hardly restrict the flow at all, or can be rotated so that it (almost) completely blocks the flow of air. This valve controls the flow of air through the carburetor throat and thus the quantity of air/fuel mixture the system will deliver, thereby regulating engine power and speed. The throttle is connected, usually through a cable or a mechanical linkage of rods and joints or rarely by pneumatic link, to the accelerator pedal on a car or the equivalent control on other vehicles or equipment.

Fuel is introduced into the air stream through small holes at the narrowest part of the venturi. Fuel flow in response to a particular pressure drop in the venturi is adjusted by means of precisely-calibrated orifices, referred to as jets, in the fuel path. Venturi Types VARIABLE VENTURI CARBURETOR FEEDBACK CARBURETOR SYSTEM Electronic Idle-Speed Control

Typical EFI components

Animated cut through diagram of a typical fuel injector. Injectors Fuel Pump Fuel Pressure Regulator ECM - Engine Control Module; includes a digital computer and circuitry to communicate with sensors and control outputs. Wiring Harness Various Sensors (Some of the sensors required are listed here.) Crank/Cam Position: hall Effect sensor Airflow: MAF sensor, sometimes this is inferred with a MAP sensor Exhaust Gas Oxygen: Oxygen sensor, EGO sensor, UEGO sensor

Radiators are heat exchangers used to transfer thermal energy from one medium to another for the purpose of cooling and heating. The majority of radiators are constructed to function in automobiles, buildings, and electronics. The radiator is always a source of heat to its environment, although this may be for either the purpose of heating this environment, or for cooling the fluid or coolant supplied to it, as for engine cooling.

From an engineering perspective, a radiator varies from an ideal black body by a factor, , called the emissivity, which is a spectrum-dependent property of any material. Commonly, a fluid thermal mass, containing the heat to be rejected, is pumped from the heat source to the radiator, where it conducts to the surface and radiates into the surrounding cooler medium. The rate of heat flow depends on the fluid properties, flow rate, conductance to the surface, and the surface area of the radiator. Watts per square metre are the SI units used for radiant emittance. If the system is not limited by the heat capacity of the fluid, or the thermal conductivity to the surface, then emittance, M is found by a fourth-power relation to the absolute temperature at the surface. The StefanBoltzmann constant is used to calculate it, as M = T4. Since heat may be absorbed as well as emitted, a radiator's ability to reject heat will depend on the difference in temperature between the surface and the surrounding environment.

The axial-flow fans have blades that force air to move parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate. Axial fans blow air along the axis of the fan, linearly, hence their name. This type of fan is used in a wide variety of applications, ranging from small cooling fans for electronics to the giant fans used in wind tunnels.

Fans Basic elements of a typical table fan include the fan blade, base, armature and lead wires, motor, blade guard, motor housing, oscillator gearbox, and oscillator shaft. The oscillator is a mechanism that moves the fan from side to side. The axle comes out on both ends of the motor, one end of the axle is attached to the blade and the other is attached to the oscillator gearbox. The motor case joins to the gearbox to contain the rotor and stator. The oscillator shaft combines to the weighted base and the gearbox. A motor housing covers the oscillator mechanism. The blade guard joins to the motor case for safety.

In automobiles, a mechanical fan provides engine cooling and prevents the engine from overheating by blowing or sucking air through a coolant-filled radiator. It can be driven with a belt and pulley off the engine's crankshaft or an electric fan switched on or off by a thermostatic switch.

Coolant pumps Thermosysphon cooling system of 1937, without circulating pump Radiators first used downward vertical flow, driven solely by a thermosyphon effect. Coolant is heated in the engine, becoming less dense and so rising, cooled, denser coolant in the radiator falling in turn. This effect is sufficient for low-power stationary engines, but inadequate for all but the earliest automobiles. A common fallacy is to assume that a greater vertical separation between engine and radiator can increase the thermosyphon effect. Once the hot and cold headers are separated sufficiently to reach their equilibrium temperatures though, any further separation merely increases pipe work length and flow restriction.All automobiles for many years have used centrifugal pumps to circulate their coolant, driven by geared drives or more commonly by a belt drive. IGNITION SYSTEM

PRIMARY IGNITION SYSTEM The primary system consists of the ignition switch, coil primary windings, distributor contact points, condensor, ignition resistor, and starter relay.

Ignition Switch. First, it turns on the car's electrical system so that all accessories can be operated. It does so by providing power to the fuse panel (for those components that are controlled by the switch. Some items are independent of the ignition switch, such as headlights, horn, clock, etc.) When you insert the key and turn the switch to the "accessories" position, you are turning on the other devices in the car, such as the radio, heater, power windows, seats, defroster, etc. Second, in the run position, everything is turned on, plus the engine's electrical components that enable it to run. Most important, it turns on the entire primary ignition system. Wait a minute! We just learned that the starter takes enormous current from the battery through its thick cable. How can the ignition switch carry so much current if there isn't a battery cable connected to it? The ignition switch doesn't carry the necessary current to the starter. It sends a small current to a special device called a Relay that, in turn, allows the starter to crank. We'll discuss that later in this article. Back to the primary ignition system... The next component is the coil's primary winding. Inside the coil are two sets of wound wire, comprising of the primary and secondary windings. The primary windings carry battery voltage through and create a large magnetic field inside the coil (this is discussed thoroughly in the section on secondary windings). Although the coil's primary windings receive voltage from the ignition switch, they are actually turned on and off by the distributor's contact points. The contact points are opened and closed by a cam on the distributor's main shaft. As it spins the cam's lobes move the actuator outward, disengaging the contacts. When the lobe passes, the contacts close, turning on the coil primary windings. The amount of time the points remain closed is referred to as dwell, and is an important factor in engine tuning. Attached to the points is a condensor, an electrical device (capacitor) that limits current flow through the points to increase their life. The condensor is necessary because the points are opening and closing rapidly, and as they do so the voltage/current is interrupted. This causes an arc, or spark, between the contact points. Over time, this

arcing will erode the material on the points and deposit carbon, and eventually the points will not pass current. The condensor acts as a current-absorber to limit the amount of arcing as the points open and close. The next component is the ignition resistor. It is necessary because ignition coils are designed to step up battery voltage high enough - and fast enough - to keep the engine running at high rpm. That means that, as designed, the coil would produce too much high voltage at low rpm and heat up. Automakers long ago realized that there were two solutions to the problem: using two coils (one for low rpm and one for high) or an ignition resistor. Obviously, the resistor approach is the least expensive and most reliable, so that's what they did. The resistor used varies is resistance as a function of temperature, and limits the voltage to the coil accordingly. As the engine revs up the resistance lowers, allowing more voltage to the coil for fast running, and the reverse happens when the engine slows down. At idle, for instance, only about 7 volts is going through the coil primary windings. The only time the resistor is out of the circuit is during startup, when the engine needs all the spark it can get. It's bypassed in the ignition switch's start position so that, during starting, the coil gets full battery voltage. Ignition resistors can take many forms, depending upon the manufacturer of the vehicle. Some builders mounted a big resistor on the firewall and some others utilized a special type of wire (resistance wire) running from the ignition switch to the coil. Still others used coils that were built with an internal resistor. None of these is any better an approach than the others, but it's important to know which type you have, and that you have one!

SECONDARY IGNITION SYSTEM The secondary ignition system consists of the coil secondary windings, distributor cap, rotor, plug wires and spark plugs. Coil Secondary Windings So just how does a coil work? Well, the principle of Inductance is the answer. Physics tells us that if you put a certain voltage through a wire (the primary) that has another wire wrapped around it, the second (hence, secondary) wire will receive an "induced" voltage from the first. Furthermore, the "induced" voltage is a function of the number of turns of wire wrapped around, so if you have two coils wrapped around the wire you'll get twice the voltage, and so on. Voltage can be stepped-up and stepped-down using inductance. Transformers are inductance devices, so a coil is a transformer. Automotive coils generally have secondary-to-primary ratios of 200 to 1. Therefore, a 12volt input to a coil's primary windings will result in a 24,000-volt output from the secondary winding. That's where the spark plugs get their electricity. Inductance isn't perpetual motion, nor is it "free energy." There are many "howevers" and other considerations to worry about. The biggest one is the coil's inability to hold the induced voltage once it's been built up. In a very short time the voltage will "bleed of," leading to weak spark. Also, the coil takes a finite amount of time to build the charge up. That's the dwell time, normally defined as the degrees of rotation of the camshaft during which the points are closed. Too little dwell and the coil doesn't have time to charge up fully. Too much dwell and the coil has bled off some charge, causing a weak spark. Hesitation, low power, misfiring, pinging and a number of other conditions are symptoms of incorrect dwell.

UNIT IV

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING

CAM Management Solutions Integrated Strategic Planning and Performance Management Solution is developed on the following framework as we believe a monitoring system should facilitate: Full integration of strategic, business, service and annual planning Implementation & management of a conceptual framework which links to Sustainability and partnerships Performance management that is linked to planned outcomes Integration of policy and governance into all planning levels Integration of the community into the corporate planning process

CIM NETWORKING

Virtual corporations, enterprise re-engineering, and adaptive/agile manufacturing are all new concepts based on the accomplishments of integrated manufacturing of the past decade. The new manufacturing enterprises are characterized by ability to effect flexible reconfiguration of resources, shorter cycle times and quick response to customer demands. Information is a key factor in transcending physical barriers and imparting the enterprise-oriented agility and adaptiveness to organizations. To this end, a theory-based reference model for information integration is needed in manufacturing enterprises. Employs the paradigm of parallel formulation as the reference model and demonstrates how it is used to guide the planning for information integration. The model provides both a detailed data and task analysis of manufacturing functions and

their interactions, and guidelines for regrouping tasks into parallel processes and thereby achieving a high level of global integration. Describes a case study of the model, conducted on the existing CIM model at Rensselaer to evaluate and reformulate the previous processes. The results show a better design featuring concurrent execution of functions which in turn support agility and adaptiveness.

CNC Machine Programming

The major manufacturing steps involved in making sheet metal enclosures are sheet shearing, hole punching and press brake folding. All these steps are done on computer controlled CNC machines. So CNC programming is a crucial step in making high quality products. The first step is to convert a sheet metal enclosure design into flat patterns as if the part was unfolded.

The next step is to determine bend allowances and offsets for their particular machines. With these numbers, we can program the various pieces of equipment to minimize waste and provide the accuracy you require. For small quantities of parts, the majority of the cost is in programming and setup. The price curve for any quantity over 25 parts flattens out as the programming is spread out over more and more parts.

UNIT V QUALITY AND TESTING

Indian Standards Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Publications

Quality Management Quality Management standards that are not covered in ISO 9001/14001 Standards are given here. S.No. BIS Number Title IS/ISO 10019: Guidelines for the Selection of Quality Management System 1 2005 Consultants and use of their Services (800 Kb) Quality Management Systems - Particular requirements for the IS/ISO/TS 2 application of ISO 9001:2000 for Automotive Production and 16949: 2002 relevant Service part Organisations (2.4 Mb) lS/lSO/lEC Information Technology - Service Management Part-1 3 20000-1: 2005 Specification (1.0 Mb)

Computer aided engine testing

Metrology for manufacturing Engine Components Dimensional Metrology In general, there will be errors of size in any machined work piece. This means that the actual dimension will be different from nominal dimension. These errors should be within certain given limits by tolerances and determined by the dimensional measurement to guarantee the product quality. The dimensional measurement includes:

Post-process Dimensional Measurement Block Gauge Micrometer Profile Projector Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) On-process Dimensional Measurement Mechanical Methods

Optical Methods Pneumatic Methods Ultrasonic Methods Post-process Measurement Traditionally, measurements have been made after the part has been produced. It is called the post-process measurement. The post-process measurement can be used to high production run of smaller parts. The inspection process can be made by traditional methods. If the dimensions are not within the given tolerance zone, a correction can be made to the next part through the machine tool. Block Gauge Gauge blocks are Individual Square, rectangular, or round metal blocks of various sizes. Their surfaces are lapped and are flat and parallel within a range of 1-5 micro inch. Gage blocks are available in sets of various sizes. The blocks can be assembled in many combinations to obtain desired lengths. The gage block assemblies are used as an accurate reference length to measure the part's length.

Micrometer The micrometer is commonly used for measuring the thickness and inside or outside diameters of parts. Micrometers are also available for measuring depths. Micrometers can be equipped with digital readout to reduce errors in reading.

Profile Projector The profile projector is used for measuring two-dimensional contours of precision specimens and other work pieces produced. The part to be measured is magnified by an optical system and projected on a screen. The reading on the screen gives the dimension of the part. The following is the photo of a profile projector.

Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) A coordinate measurement machine (CMM) is an advanced, multi-purpose quality control system used to help inspection keep pace with modern production requirements. It replaces long, complex and inefficient conventional inspection methods with simple procedures. A CMM provides instant measurement results without complicated setup and operating procedures. It combines surface plate, micrometer and vernier type inspection methods into one easy to use machine. CMM can check the dimensional and geometric accuracy of everything from small engine blocks, to sheet metal parts, to circuit boards.

A CMM consists essentially of a probe supported on three mutually perpendicular (X, Y & Z) axes. Each axis has a built-in reference standard.

Procedure for simple measurements on a CMM includes: Calibration of the probe system. Define datum(s) on the work piece. Perform measurement(s). Compute the required dimensions from measurements made in Step 3. Assess conformance to specification. On-process Dimensional Measurement When the manufactured parts are big, with higher material cost and longer cycle times, on-process measurement is required to improve the productivity and reduce the cost. In the on-process measurement, parts are measured while they are on the machine tool. The existing on-process measurement methods can be divided into direct and indirect methods according to the measurement principle. Direct methods. In direct method, the dimension of the work piece is directly measured using an adequate instrument, while the work piece is located on the machine tool. Therefore, the effects of tool wear distortions and machine errors can be taken into account. Indirect methods. The work piece accuracy can also be indirectly evaluated from radius measurements, by monitoring the motions of the carriage, carrying the cutting tool or by noting the position of the tip of the cutting tool. The on-process measurement can be implemented by several methods. Here are several on-process dimensional measurement methods:

Mechanical Methods Caliper Type A typical caliper type contact gauge consists of a simple scissors caliper with non rotating circular contact pads. The instrument can be set to measure over a range of diameters. The contact pads or jaws are in continual rubbing contact with the work piece. It is attached to the machine bed on its own slide so that it can be rapidly withdrawn and returned to the measuring position in a repeatable manner. The rear gap of the scissors is bridged by sensing element, which can be a pneumatic or electrical transducer. The caliper is set with respect to a circular setting master. it is possible to derive an electrical signal with both types of transducer, which can be used to control the machining process such as grinding and turning. The measured work piece diameter range with this method reaches 5-190mm and repeatably is 0.5 um.

Friction Roller Type This method measures the perimeter of the work piece by counting the number of revolutions of the measuring roller for one or more complete revolution of the work piece as illustrated in the following figure. The application of this method is restricted to rigid work piece, due to the high pressure applied by the roller. This technique has been used in turning and grinding.

Probe Type A probe in mechanical contact with the work piece is used to determine the actual size of work piece. For the gauging process, the probe is moved towards the work piece and deflected by the contact. The coordinate value of the point of the touch makes it possible to determine the work piece radius provided the position of the axis of rotation is known. Optical Methods An optical method of on-process measurement is defined as one in which the transmitter module produces and emits a light, which is collected and photo electrically sensed through the object to be measured, by a receiver module. This produces the signals which can be converted into a convenient form and displayed as dimensional information. The principal advantages of optical methods are

Direct mechanical contact between the sensor and the object to be measured is not required. The distance from the object to be measured to the sensor can be large. The response time is limited only to the electronics used in the sensor. The light variations can be directly converted into electrical signals. The main optical on-process measurement methods include:

Scanning Light Beam This technique uses laser beams for the measurement process. It employs transmitted module which emits a high speed scanning laser beam, generally by means of a combination of a mirror and a synchronous motor. The object to be measured interrupts this beam, and produces a time dependent shadow. This shadow is electrically detected by a receiver, and converted into dimensional readings by a control unit.

Machine Vision The method uses a light source and the image of the work piece can be focused on the measuring grid on the face of a television tube or CCD (Charge coupled device). Then the diameter of the work piece is computed in terms of the image parameters, such as the image application factor, focal distance and the image length on CDD.

Some other optical methods exist. For example, Light gauging Light focusing Light-spot detection Light sectioning Pneumatic Methods This method measures a pressure drop in the gap between the air gauge and work piece, and converts it into an electrical signal. A schematic diagram of pneumatic method is shown as the following.

Ultrasonic Methods In this method, ultrasound travels to the work piece, then reflects back to the transducer which also acts as a receiver. The transit time depends on the variation from the specified distance between work surface and transducer. By determining the transit time, the distance can be calculated.