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FIRST AID The first assistance or treatment given for a sick or injured person (called casualty) before the

arrival of an ambulance or qualified expert. TIPS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

If unconscious keep the airway clear Make sure the casualty is breathing Stop any bleeding Treat other injuries in the right order Never move the casualty unless there is danger, to avoid further injury Comfort and reassure the casualty Give protection from the cold, exercise heat or wet conditions Dial 999 if unconscious and perform CPR (refer HOW TO PERFORM CPR)

........................................................................ SEVERE ALLERGIC REACTION Common causes are insect bites, foods and medicines. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

9. 10. 11. 12.

Swelling of the affected area, throat, mouth or face Redness of the skin or an itchy rash Breathing difficulty similar to an asthma attack Dizziness, weakness or collapse

1ST AID STEPS

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Dial 999 for an ambulance if they have difficulty breathing or if they are very unwell Assist the patient to take any medicine they have been prescribed for severe allergy Put the patient in recovery position if they are unwell or unconscious If they stop breathing, place them on their back and start CPR If the allergy follows exposure to a chemical, wash the contact area thoroughly with water

........................................................................ ASTHMA ATTACK Cause by breathing passages narrow, causing difficulty in breathing. This narrowing can be triggered by pollens, dust, fur, smoke, cold air or exercise. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

18. Breathlessness or difficulty speaking 19. A wheezy noise when breathing 20. Persistent cough

1ST AID STEPS

21. Help the patient to rest in a comfortable position (usually sitting) 22. Assist the patient to take their asthma relieving medicine 23. Call 999 for an ambulance if they are not improving

........................................................................ BURNS Commonly caused by heat. Can also be caused by chemicals, extreme cold and electricity. Burns cause skin loss and tissue damage. 1ST AID STEPS

24. Gently flood the burnt area with any cool clean fluid (e.g. juice, soft drink etc) for 20 minutes. Do not use ice. 25. Call 999 for an ambulance if the patient is badly injured, or the burn is: causing significant pain, or involves the face, hands, joints or genitals, eyes, or is larger than half the patients arm. 26. Remove clothing and jewellery from the burnt area, but do not remove clothing stuck to the skin. 27. Lightly cover the burn with a clean dressing.

........................................................................ DIABETIC EMERGENCIES The most common emergency affecting a patient with diabetes is "low blood sugar". SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

28. 29. 30. 31.

Confusion, slurring of words Falling level of consciousness Sweating Tremor or shakiness

1ST AID STEPS

32. If unconscious put the patient in recovery position 33. Call 999 for an ambulance if they are unconscious

........................................................................ FRACTURED BONES Fractures, particularly of large bones (e.g. thigh bone) are an emergency. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

34. Deformity, swelling and pain 35. Altered sensation (e.g. pins and needles) 36. Inability to move the limb normally

1ST AID STEPS

37. Control any external bleeding using direct pressure over the wound 38. Dial 999 for an ambulance if the patient is in severe pain, or if the bone is sticking through the skin, or if they cannot walk 39. Assist the patient into a comfortable position 40. Support the limb e.g. with a pillow, but do not move the limb unnecessarily

........................................................................ HEAD INJURIES Head injuries involve injury to the brains, skull or face. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

41. 42. 43. 44.

Loss of consciousness or altered state of awareness (groggy) Confusion and memory loss Nausea and vomiting Any bleeding from the head that is more than minor

1ST AID STEPS

45. Dial 999 for an ambulance if they are unconscious or bleeding heavily 46. Assist them to rest in a comfortable position. Place them on their side if they are unconscious. 47. Control external bleeding with direct pressure.

........................................................................ NOSE BLEEDING A nosebleed is usually due to bleeding from inside the front of the nostrils.More serious bleeding may result in considerable blood loss and, if the patient swallows blood, vomiting may result 1ST AID STEPS

48. 49. 50. 51. 52.

Sit the person down. Get them to breathe through their mouth, with their head tilted forward. Firmly pinch the entire soft part of the nose for 10 - 20 minutes. Repeat this if the bleeding does not stop. Dial 999 for an ambulance if the bleeding is very heavy. When the bleeding stops, inform the person not to blow their nose for a few hours, this may restart the bleeding.

........................................................................ POISONING A poison is any substance that can cause damage to the body. Common examples of poisons include medicines (if taken in large amounts), industrial products, household cleaning products and sprays. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

53. Altered level of consciousness (not fully awake) 54. Burns around or in the mouth 55. Stomach or abdominal pain

56. Vomiting

1ST AID STEPS

57. 58. 59. 60. 61.

DO NOT induce vomiting Do not give the patient anything to drink If they are unconscious, place them in the recovery position Call 999 for an ambulance if they are unconscious or if they are very unwell Keep the container of the poison

........................................................................ ELECTRIC SHOCK SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS The patient may:

62. 63. 64. 65.

Still be connected to an electrical cable or appliance Be unconscious Have stopped breathing Have burns where the electrical current entered and exited their body

1st AID STEPS

66. 67. 68. 69. 70.

Ensure safety turn the electricity off. DO NOT approach a patient if they may still be connected to electricity Dial 999 for an ambulance if they are unconscious, injured or unwell If they are unconscious and not breathing, place them on their back and start CPR If they are unconscious and breathing place them in the recovery position If conscious, check for injuries or burns

........................................................................ DROWNING When a patient drowns your safety is paramount. 1ST AID STEPS

71. Remove the patient from the water safely 72. If not breathing, commence CPR 73. Dial 999 and ask for ambulance

........................................................................ EYE INJURY Usually caused by flying particles. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

74. 75. 76. 77.

Pain Watering and redness Bleeding Altered vision

1ST AID STEPS

78. 79. 80. 81.

If you can see the particle, gently try to remove it with water or a clean cloth. Do not persist if it is hard to remove. Prevent the patient from rubbing the eye as this may result in scratching. If symptoms persist or you cannot remove the particle, see a Doctor. Dial 999 for an ambulance if there is severe pain or bleeding.

........................................................................ CARDIAC ARREST People in cardiac arrest need CPR and an ambulance. CPR saves lives by causing blood to flow to the heart and brain while waiting for an ambulance. CPR is needed when the patient is not responding and not breathing normally. 1st AID STEPS

82. Perform CPR

........................................................................ HEAT EXHAUSTION Usually caused by exposure to extreme temperature or not replacing fluid being lost by sweating. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88.

Weakness Loss of appetite Fainting Dizziness Sweating Nausea/vomiting

1ST AID STEPS

89. Rest patient in a cool place 90. Give patient fluid to drink. Most patients will respond well with water, fruit juice, or their soft drink of choice 91. Arrange medical attention, or dial 999 for an ambulance, if the patients condition gets worse or if they are unable to drink fluids

........................................................................ HYPOTHERMIA Results from excessive cooling of the body core. Prevention is the best cure for hypothermia. For outdoor activities, adequate clothing, frequent rests for drinks/snacks are important.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

92. Patient feels cold to touch and may be shivering violently 93. Cold environment 94. Patient feels cold to touch and may be shivering violently 95. Cold environment 96. Tiredness patient may fall behind others in outdoor activities 97. Clumsy, uncoordinated, may fall over and appear drunk 98. Changes in mood with irritability, irrational behaviour 99. Patient may resist help 100. Slow to respond to questions 101. Shivering may decrease and stop 102. Loss of consciousness 103. Pale or blueish skin colour

1st AID STEPS

104. Provide immediate shelter out of the wind, and dry clothing 105. If fully conscious, give warm drinks, sweets, chocolates etc 106. Use body contact to reduce heat loss and slowly warm patient e.g. huddle around the patient in a sleeping bag 107. If hypothermia is mild, and rest, warmth, drinks etc. allow recovery, there is no need for further medical assistance. But monitor the patient and any others in the group 108. If hypothermia has reached the stage where the patient is becoming drowsy, urgent medical assistance is required.

........................................................................ FOOD POISONING Inflammation of the stomach and intestine due to infection from a variety of organisms such as viruses and bacteria. Most often, it is caused by poorly prepared, cooked or preserved food.Prevention is the best philosophy for food poisoning and the following key points provide guidance on how best to prevent suffering from food poisoning: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

109. In the majority of cases, symptoms first appear within 24 hours of eating contaminated food 110. The patient has abdominal cramps with diarrhoea 111. There may be vomiting and nausea 112. There is usually a loss of appetite 113. There may be fever

1st AID STEPS

114. Ensure the patient rests 115. The patient can suck ice to provide a small amount of cooling fluid 116. Give fluids such as flat lemonade to replace body fluids 117. Medical assistance should be obtained if any of the following occurs: 1. Severe vomiting in a child under 1 year 2. Considerable and constant diarrhoea 3. Persistent vomiting

4.

Signs of dehydration dry mouth, skin and thirst

........................................................................ HOW TO PERFORM CPR

118. Dial 999 for an ambulance 119. Lie the person on their back 120. Push on the chest hard and fast 30 times at a rate of approximately twice a second. Keep your arms straight and push in the middle of the chest. 121. Tilt the head back, pinch the nose and blow twice in the mouth 122. Continue to alternate 30 pushes on the chest with 2 blows in the mouth until an ambulance arrives 123. Any CPR is better than no CPR. If you do not want to do the breaths, just continue with the chest pushes

*Extracted from various sources. Should there be any disagreement, feel free to edit it.