You are on page 1of 20

Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Some Definitions
Somatic

Cells body cells

Produced through mitosis Has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)


Homolog

each member of a chromosome pair Diploid (2n) total of 46 chromosomes in people zygote and somatic cells Haploid (n) total of 23 chromosomes in people, gametes (sperm and egg)

The Cell Cycle


The

sequence of growth and division of a cell. 95% of cell cycle in interphase 5% of cell cycle in mitosis

The Cell Cycle


The cell cycle describes the behaviour of cells as they grow and divide. In most cases, the cell produces two cells that are genetically identical to the original.

These are called daughter cells.

The Cell Cycle

Interphase
Growth

Stage 1 (G1) metabolic activity of the cell Synthesis Stage (S) metabolic activity of the cell, replication of DNA Growth Stage 2 (G2) metabolic activity of the cell, prepare for division

Mitosis
Happens

in all cells Cell division process 4 stages


prophase; metaphase; anaphase; telophase.

Prophase

The chromatin fibres become more tightly coiled to form chromosomes. The nuclear envelope disintegrates and nucleoli disappear. The mitotic spindle begins to form and is complete at the end of prophase. The centromere of each chromosome has a region called the kinetochore that attaches to the spindle. The centrosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell due to lengthening microtubules. centromere chromatid

Prophase

Metaphase

The chromosomes are moved to the middle or equator of the cell. This is referred to as the metaphase plate. The chromosome's centromeres lie on the plate. The movement of chromosomes is due to the action of the spindle which is made of microtubules. The centrosomes are now at the opposite poles

Metaphase

Anaphase

This is usually the shortest phase of mitosis. It begins when the two sister chromatids of each chromosome are split. These chromatids, now chromosomes, move toward the opposite poles of the cell. The chromatid movement is due to shortening of the microtubules of the spindle. Because the centromeres are attached to the microtubules, they move towards the poles first. At the end of this phase, each pole of the cell has a complete, identical set of chromosomes.

Anaphase

Telophase

The chromosomes are at each pole. A nuclear membrane (envelope) begins to reform around each set of chromosomes. The chromosomes start to elongate to form chromatin. Nucleoli reappear. The spindle apparatus disappears. The cell is elongated and ready for cytokinesis.

Telophase

Cytokinesis
Cytoplasm

divides Two new daughter cells are now separate

Cytokinesis in animals

Cytokinesis in plant cell

Cytokinesis
Animal

- cell membrane pinches inward forming cleavage furrows that ultimately separate the two cells - cell plate forms from the inside producing the rigid cell walls that separate the two cells

Plant

References

Damon A. et. al. Biology Standard Level Developed Specifically for the IB Diploma. Heinemann 2007 Allot A., Mindorff D., Biology Course Companion IB Diploma Programme. Oxford University Press 2007 Duszyski J. et. al., ,,Biologia tom 1 zakres rozszerzony 2008 WS PWN Kkol P.T. Biologia Kompendium., 2010, wiat Ksiki. http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm http://mail.watertown.k12.ma.us:81/~kboudreau/Study%20Guides/wmssg/Gr7H P/Gr7SCI/SG/mitosis.htm http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/C/cell_cycle.html http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellreproduction/mitosis/section2.rhtml http://www.tutorvista.com/biology/cytokinesis-pictures