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Define motivation. Critically evaluate contribution of Mc Gregor to motivation.

Motivation has been taken from the Latin word movere which means to move. Motivation is an important function performed by manager for actuating the peopl e to work for the accomplishment of organisational objectives. Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course o f action, to push the right button to get the desired result.- Albert Maslow Mc Gregors contribution to Motivation is immense, though his assumptions of theor y X and Y are not based on any research; they are intuitive and give an excellen t illustration for the motivational theories. These assumptions demonstrate the potential in an employee and which organisatio ns should recognize in order to become more effective. Theory X believes that autocratic managers often make the following assumptions ab out their subordinates. Accordingly, the subordinate in general: . Has an inherent dislike for work and will avoid it, if he can; . Is lazy and avoids responsibility; . Is indifferent to organisational goals; and . Prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition and wants security above all. Theory Y: Managers with theory Y orientation make the following assumptions about their subordinates. Accordingly, the subordinate in general: . Does not inherently dislike work. Depending upon controllable conditions, work may be a source of satisfaction or a source of punishment. . Will exercise self-direction and self control in the service of objectives to which he is committed. . Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their ac hievement. . Learns under proper conditions, not only to accept, but also to seek responsib ility, and . Has the capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuit y, and creativity in the solution of organisational problems; it is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population. Mc Gregor sees these two theories as two quite separate attitudes. Theory Y is d ifficult to put into practice on the shop floor in large mass production operati ons, but it can be used initially in the managing of managers and professionals. In his book The Human Side of Enterprise Mc Gregor shows how Theory Y affects the management of promotions and salaries and the development of effective managers. Mc Gregor also sees Theory Y as conducive to participative problem solving. It is part of the managers job to exercise authority, and there are cases in whic h this is the only method of achieving the desired results because subordinates do not agree that the ends are desirable, therefore Theory X completely fits in for these types of situations. However, in situations where it is possible to obtain commitment to objectives, it is better to explain the matter fully so that employees grasp the purpose of action. They will then exert self direction and control to do better work quite p ossibly by better methods, than if they had simply been carrying out an order wh ich they do not fully understand. The situation in which employees can be consulted is one where the individuals a re emotionally mature, and positively motivated towards their work; where the wo rk is sufficiently responsible to allow for flexibility and where the employee c an see her or his own position in the management hierarchy. If these conditions are present, managers will find that the participative approach to problem solvi ng leads to much improved results as compared with the alternative approach of h anding out authoritarian orders. Mc Gregor smartly outlines the distinction between Theory X and Theory Y by maki ng it clear through the Maslows Theory. For employees whos physiological and safet y needs have been satisfied.

Mc Gregors theory has some of the content which is unrealizable in practice but m anagers can assume through his theories that: Staff will contribute more to the organization if they are treated as responsibl e and valued employees.