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ARTHROPODA

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ARTHROPODA

Group 1 (X-2): Anak Agung Ngurah W.K Fildzah Imas Maulidina Frida Setia Hidayah Harimas Samodra Fat Isna Nowra Khairinie Rizqi Maulana I. A

ARTHROPODA

An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods are members of the phylum Arthropoda (from Greek rthron, "joint", and pods "foot", which together mean "jointed feet"), and include the insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and others. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticles, which are mainly made of -chitin; the cuticles of crustaceans are also biomineralized with calcium carbonate. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by molting. The arthropod body plan consists of repeated segments, each with a pair of appendages.

(Artropoda

adalah

suatu

hewan

invertebrata

memiliki

exoskeleton

(kerangka

eksternal), badan tersegmentasi, dan pelengkap bersendi. Arthropoda adalah anggota filum Arthropoda (dari rthron Yunani, "bersama", dan pods "kaki", yang bersama-sama berarti "kaki jointed"), dan mencakup serangga, arakhnida, krustasea, dan lain-lain. Arthropoda adalah ditandai dengan tungkai bersendi dan kutikula, yang sebagian besar terbuat dari -kitin, sedangkan kutikula krustasea juga biomineralized dengan karbonat kalsium. Kutikula kaku menghambat pertumbuhan, sehingga Arthropoda menggantinya secara berkala oleh molting.)

Description

Arthropods are invertebrates with segmented bodies and jointed limbs.The limbs form part of an exoskeleton, which is mainly made of -chitin, a derivative of glucose.One other group of animals, the tetrapods, has jointed limbs, but tetrapods are vertebrates and therefore have endoskeletons. (Arthropoda adalah invertebrata dengan tubuh tersegmentasi dan anggota badan disambung. Bentuk anggota badan bagian dari exoskeleton, yang terutama terbuat dari -kitin, suatu turunan dari glukosa. Satu kelompok lain dari hewan, tetrapoda, telah tungkai jointed , tetapi tetrapoda adalah vertebrata dan karena itu memiliki endoskeletons.) Body characteristics Arthropod body characteristics include size, shape, structure, and function of the body. The size and shape of the body Arthropod body size is very diverse, some of which has a length of more than 60 cm., but most kecil. So similarly sized arthropods form also varied. Body structure Arthropod body bersegmen with varying number of segments. In each of these body segments have a pair of segmented legs. Segment joined to form part of the body, namely the head (head), thorax (chest) and abdominal (stomach). Another feature of arthropods is the presence of hard cuticle that forms the framework of the outside (exoskeleton). Exoskeleton made of chitin that in sekresikan by skin cells. Exoskeleton attached to the skin to form a strong body protection. Exoskeleton consists of plates which are connected by flexible ligaments and soft. Exoskeleton can not be enlarged following the growth of the body. Therefore, the growth stage Arthropoda always followed by sloughing the old exoskeleton and forming a new exoskeleton. Phase release exoskeleton called molting or ekdisis. Animals who normally do ekdisis eg crab, shrimp, and spiders. Arthropods nervous system in the form of a rope ladder nervous system amounted to a pair that are along the ventral side of his body. At various places in the body segments, there is enlargement of nerves, called ganglia rope ladder. Ganglia function as central reflexes and control of various activities. Ganglia of the anterior part of a larger function as the brain. Arthropods digestive system consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestine, and anus. Completed by mouth with a diverse variety of additional tools, such as the mandible and maxilla in the grasshopper. Arthropods with gills, trachea, or lungs books. Time metabolism in

the form issued by the organs of excretion of fluid, called the channel / Malpighi tubules, glandular excretion, or both. Arthropods circulatory system is open. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels shorter, and the space around the organs called the sinus or hemosol. Arthropod blood called hemolimfa. Way of life and habitat Arthropods are very diverse way of life, there are free-living, parasitic, komensal, or symbiotic. Our environment, often encountered this group of animals, such as mosquitoes, flies, ants, butterflies, dragonflies, grasshoppers, and bees. Habitat is very wide spread of arthropods. There are at sea, periran freshwater, deserts, and grasslands. Reproduction Arthropods reproductive system generally occurs sexually. But there is also asexually, that is by parthenogenesis. Parthenogenesis is the formation of a new individual without fertilization (conception). Individuals produced are sterile. Male and female reproductive organs on separate arthropods, each of which produce gametes of different individuals that are dioseus (married two). The result of fertilization of an egg. Classification Arthropods are classified into 20 classes based on body structure and leg. Here are four of them the most common classes, namely Class Arachnoidea, Myriapoda, Crustacea, and Insecta.

ARACHNOIDEA

Arachnoidea is also called spider groups, although members are not just spiders. Arachnoidea body size varies, there is a length smaller than 0.5 mm to 9 cm. Arachnoidea is a terrestrial animal (land) who live independently or parasites. Arachnoidea are free living carnivores. Arachnoidea divided into three orders, namely Scorpionida, Arachnida, and Acarina. Scorpionida has a poisonous stinger on the last abdominal segment, examples of this animal is a scorpion (Uroctonus mordax) and ketunggeng (Buthus after). In Arachnida, abdomen and bersegmen not have toxic glands in kaliseranya (tool sting), examples of this animal is a wolf spider (Pardosa amenata), kemlandingan spider (Nephila maculata). Acarina have a very small body, for example, are ticks or mites (Acarina sp.). Here are the characteristics of one animal Arachnoidea that we often encounter, namely the spider. His body consists of two parts, namely sefalotoraks (head-chest) on the anterior and posterior abdominal section. Sefalotoraks is the union of body parts sefal or radial head (head) and the thorax (chest). In there is a pair sefalotoraks kalisera (stinger tool), a pair of pedipalps (claws), and six pairs of legs for walking. Kalisera and pedipalps is an additional tool in the mouth. In the abdomen (opistosoma) spider consists of mesosoma and metasoma. In the posterior part of the abdomen there is spineret which is cone-shaped organs and can rotate freely. In spineret there are a lot of spending spigot which is a holes

gland fine threads or yarn abdominal gland. Fine threads gland to secrete fluid containing elastic protein. Elastic protein that will harden in the air to form fine threads are used to trap prey. Spiders breathe with lungs or trachea book. The lungs are the organs of respiration layered book much like the book and is located in the abdomen. Excretion of spiders made by tubules (single = tubule) Malpighi. Malpighi tubules are long and stuck a small tube and the organ is located in the hemosol which empties into the intestine. In addition to Malpighi tubule, other excretions done with koksal gland. Koksal gland is a gland that leads to clogged ekskretori koksa region (segments on foot Insecta).

MYRIAPODA

Myriapoda (in greek language, myria = many, podos = feet) is a many-legged animal. Animals millipede is one of them that sometimes we look at the environment around us. Myriapoda live on land in damp places, such as under leaves, rocks, or piles of wood. Myriapoda body parts are difficult to distinguish between the thorax and abdomen. His body was elongated like a worm. At the head there is an antenna, mouth, and one pair of mandibular (lower jaw), two pairs of maxillary (upper jaw), and eye-shaped oseli (single eye). Her body bersegmen with one to two pairs of limbs on each segment. Each segment of respiration there is a hole called spiracles leading to the trachea. Excretion by the tubule malpighi. Myriapoda are dioseus and perform sexual repsroduksi internally. Myriapoda are divided into two orders, the Chilopoda and Diplopoda. Chilopoda: This group of animals known as centipedes. His body elongated and

slightly flattened. There is an antenna on his head and mouth with a pair of mandibles and two pairs of maxilla. In each segment of its body there is a pair of legs and spiracles. The first set foot modified into alt-toxic. Sting stinger used fatherly enemy or intruder. Sting causes swelling and pain. Examples of this animal is a centipede. Diplopoda: Animals in this Order is known by a thousand feet, though not the total amount of one thousand feet. There are other names like keluwing. His body was round long. Its mouth consists of two pairs of maxillary and lower lip. In each segment of its body there are two pairs of legs and two pairs of spiracles. Diplopoda do not have poisonous claws of this animal is therefore hebivora or eating the rest of the organism. These animals move slowly with legs that move like waves. When disturbed the animal would furl its body and pretend to be dead. Examples of this animal is a millipede (graduated sp.)

CRUSTACEA

Crustaceans (in Latin language, crusta = skin) has a hard skin. Shrimp, lobster, and crabs are examples of this group. Generally, crustacean animals are aquatic animals, though some live on land. Crustaceans can be divided into two subclasses based on body size, namely Entomostraca and Malacostraca.

Entomostraca: microscopic-sized crustacean, living as zooplankton or benthos in the waters, and also there is a parasite. Examples of these animals are Daphnia, Cypris virens, and Cyclops sp.

Malacostraca: crustacean that is larger than the entomostraca. Animals belonging to these groups are shrimp, lobster, and crab. Shrimp have a hard ekssoskeleton to protect his body. His body consists of two parts, namely the head and thorax are fused to form sefalotoraks, and abdomen. Sefalotoraks section protected by a hard exoskeleton of karapaks. Karapaks have thorns on the anterior end called a rostrum. Near the eye facets terdapar rostrum (plural) that stemmed. At the head of a union of five segments sefalotoraks. Section contained a pair antenula head, a pair of antennae, and three pairs of mouth parts. Antenula serves as a means of touch, while the antenna as a means of balancing the body. Three pairs of mouth consists of a pair of mandibles and two pairs of maxilla. In the thorax consists of eight segments, there are three pairs of maksiliped, seliped pair, and four pairs of feet road (periopod). Maksiliped serves sebgai filter feeders. Seliped function to find food and protect themselves from enemies. In the abdomen there are five pairs of swimming legs (pleopod). At the end there is posterior telson and a pair of steering devices for swimming (urupod). In shrimp male pleopod pairs 1 and 2 together into gonopod. Gonopod serves as distributor of sperm during copulation.

INSECT

Insecta (in Latin, insecti = insects). Many members of these animals we often see around us, such as butterflies, mosquitoes, flies, bees, ants, dragonflies, crickets, grasshoppers, and bees. Especially characteristic is the six-foot pieces. Because it also often called hexapoda. Insecta can live in different habitats, namely fresh water, sea and land. These animals

are the only group of invertebrates that can fly. Insecta is a living freely and there is a parasite. Insecta body is divided into three parts, namely the head, thorax, and abdomen. Head has a well-developed organs, namely the existence of a pair of antennae, compound eyes (eye facets), and a single eye (oseli). Insecta have sensory organs called palpus. Insecta which have a wing on the second and third segments. Insecta abdominal part has no limbs. In the abdomen there is spiracles, which is a hole that led to respiratory tracheal tube. The trachea is a respiratory device in Insecta. In the abdomen there are also malpighi tubule, ie excretion tool attached to the posterior digestive tract. Open circulation system. Dioseus sex organs.

Arthropods BENEFITS FOR DAILY LIFE


Various types of arthropods provide advantages and disadvantages for humans. The role of human beneficial arthropods such as food and clothing in the field are as follows: - Sources of foods containing high animal protein. For example, black tiger shrimp (Panaeus monodon), rajingan (Portunus pelagicus), crab (Scylla serrata), and crayfish (panulirus versicolor) - Producers of honey, ie honey bees (Apis indica) - Material silk fabric industry, namely silk butterfly pupae (Bombyx mori) While the harm humans among other: - Vector intermediaries for human disease. For example, malarial mosquitoes, dengue mosquitoes, flies Tsetse as vectors of disease sleep, and fly home as vectors of disease typhus. - Potential problems in humans. For example, ticks cause of scabies, head lice, and

bedbugs - Disinfect food and industrial crops. Examples brown planthopper and beetle horns - Destroyer food. Examples of grain mite - Destroyer of products made from natural materials. For example termites and Bookworm

Material and

Alat dan Bahan


-udang atau kepiting

-belalang atau jangkrik atau kecoa -laba-laba -kelabang atau keluwing -pinset

Cara Bekerja

1. Persiapkan alat dan bahan 2. Ambil salah satu hewan yang akan diobservasi menggunakan pinset 3. Perhatikan setiap ruas bagian tubuhnya 4. Kemudian dilanjutkan menggambar bentuk hewan itu sesuai dengan aslinya 5. Lakukan hal itu berulang-ulang sampai urutan hewan yang paling akhir.

Hasil Observasi