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Procedia Computer Science 00 (2011) 000000 Procedia Computer Science 5 (2011) 812819

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

International Symposium on Intelligent Systems Techniques for Ad hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks (IST-AWSN 2011)

Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeha,*, Abolfazl T. Haghighata, Fariborz Mahmoudia and Behrooz Shahrokhzadeha

a

Abstract Random deployment of wireless sensors in the network environment and the need for determining sensors location has made the localization problem as a critical challenge in wireless sensor networks. One of the efficient approaches to solve this problem is the heuristic algorithm based on simulated annealing. Despite the advantages of such an algorithm, its major weakness is accuracy reduction in low density networks and the increase of the localization processing time associated with the growth of the network density. This paper aims at providing a solution to increase the efficiency of this algorithm. To this end, first we applied Iterative Multilateration method in a base station. With this idea the completely random initial estimation is replaced by an appropriate estimation location of sensor nodes, so while the prevention of localization error propagation in the whole network, the computation is decreased considerably at the beginning of the algorithm. In addition, by changing the probability distribution function P(f) , the localization error has been reduced even in highly noisy environments. The evaluation results indicate a significant increase in the localization accuracy and speed in all networks especially in high noisy ones.

2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Prof. Elhadi Shakshuki and Prof. Muhammad Younas. 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction The rapid development of wireless communications and technology growth in the field of electronics has facilitated the deployment of more capable sensor networks to control and manage our homes and cities intelligently. For this reason, we have observed more and more attention to this technology and the development of related applications in the recent years. One of the main methods to deploy wireless sensor networks is to scatter the nodes throughout the

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +98-281-3665275; fax: +98-281-3665279. E-mail address: m.shahrokhzadeh@qiau.ac.ir.

18770509 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Prof. Elhadi Shakshuki and Prof. Muhammad Younas. doi:10.1016/j.procs.2011.07.111

Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh et al. / Procedia Computer Science 5 (2011) 812819 Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2011) 000000

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interested environment. Therefore an unknown parameter in this network is the precise location of the sensor nodes while in most sensor network applications, the information gathered will be meaningless unless to know the location of sensors. Therefore finding the location of the wireless sensor nodes is a critical and unavoidable issue. There are many localization algorithms that they can be categorized into two broad classes: The first is centralized and the second is distributed algorithms. The centralized algorithms collect their required data in a central base station and by processing this data, they find the location of sensors and finally migration of the resulting locations back to respective nodes. The most important advantage of these algorithms is their high precision and elimination of redundant calculations in each node while in distributed algorithms, each sensor tries to find its location based on local data independently, so the communication cost of the network is lower. Simulated Annealing has been applied in one of the centralized algorithms. The idea of applying of this technique in sensor localization problem for the first time was introduced in [1] and due to its desirable results in comparison with other centralized techniques, it was more acceptable. Despite its advantages over other solutions, there are some disadvantages therefore experts in [2,3,9] try to improve its performance, but it is still far from desirable. The most important disadvantage of this algorithm is the problem of time-consuming calculations that grows with the size of network and consequently the localization process takes more time as well. Another problem of this algorithm is decreasing precision of algorithm due to flip ambiguity, to solve this problem, another phase has been added to the algorithm that is costly in high density networks. The aim of this article is to present the achieved solutions for these two problems. We use Iterative Multilateration (iM) method and make some modifications to upgrade the performance of this algorithm considerably. There are three advantages for our proposed algorithm: The execution of algorithm has been accelerated to double speed. The precision of algorithm in all conditions especially in low density networks has been improved significantly. Unlike The iM method, the proposed algorithm does not propagate error in a noisy environment. The second section of this article deals with a literature review in this field, in the third section the proposed algorithm is described elaborately, in the fourth section the algorithm evaluation results have been presented and the fifth section concludes the article. 2. The Centralized Localization Algorithms Traffic control, environmental monitoring, monitoring of patients in the health sector, modern agriculture are some examples of wireless sensors network applications. In these applications, the gathered data from each sensor node is continuously collected and analyzed in the base station. In order to detect the location of each node in the above mentioned specifications, the optimal choice is the centralized algorithms [6]. In general, the common characteristics of all centralized algorithms are creating a cost function and applying an optimization technique. In what follows, the main algorithms with the centralized structure will be introduced and their advantages and disadvantages will be represented briefly. The method of Multidimensional Scaling [7] is the first efficient centralized method that could solve this problem precisely. The MDS technique works as the heart of this algorithm. In this algorithm, the shortest paths between all pair of sensor nodes are first computed which are used to construct a distance matrix then MDS is applied to the distance matrix and an approximate position of each node is obtained in 2 or 3 dimensional map. Of course there is the possibility of map rotation or incorrect scaling, for this reason by applying three anchors as sensors that are aware of their locations, a cost function is created and to be refined using a least-squares minimization, finally a relatively map can be converted to a precise

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Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh et al.Procedia Computer Science 005(2011) 000000 Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh/ / Procedia Computer Science (2011) 812819

map. The requirement of low numbers of anchors is the principle advantage of this method in the localization procedure, but on the other hand need the global information of network and its heavy processing in each phase are the disadvantages of this method [5]. Sensor localization in [8] is formulated as convex optimization problem and solved with SDP algorithm. For this purpose, the localization problem is modeled as a quadratic equation then this equation is solved by Semi Definite Programming (SDP) using the information of distances between sensors. This method also requires low number of anchors but the speed of convergence is not desirable compares to heuristic optimization methods. Heuristic optimization method is another solution to the localization problem. Among the solutions, the Simulated Annealing (SA) based method, produced the more desirable result because this method is not trapped in local minima. At first, a two-phase localization algorithm based on SA technique was presented in [1,4]. This algorithm needs to the distances between one-hop neighboring nodes. First, an imaginary network is assumed in which the location of each sensor except anchors is randomly determined, then the Euclidean distance of each sensor to its neighbors is calculated. The cost function is defined based on sum of squares of the distance difference between of each sensor to its neighbors in real network and imaginary network. The assumption is that by applying SA technique and determining the location of sensors in the imaginary network, the problem of localization is solved, but in most of the cases especially in low density networks, some sensor nodes may have been flip ambiguity problem. This problem occurs when a nodes neighbors are placed nearly collinear, or in the case of erroneous distance measurements [4]. To distinguish ambiguous sensor nodes, the set of neighbors of each node in the estimated location must be compared to set of real neighbors that are defined as the algorithms input parameter, in the case of incompatibility between these two sets, that sensor is sent to the next phase otherwise it will be elevated to an anchor node. The second phase is accomplished by altering the cost function to modify the location of the ambiguous sensors which is a time-consuming process. There is a direct relationship between the performance of this method and network density in a way that the lower the density is, the lower the precision will be. However the evaluation results indicate that the SA based algorithm has very better accuracy than the improved SPD based algorithm [6]. Moreover, the way of initializing parameters of this algorithm, and the defining cost function, both play an important role in its performance. In [2] while presenting a new formula to compute the temperature parameter (as one the most important parameter of SA method), the cost function is defined in other format that is applicable in a network containing a high number of anchor nodes. The authors of the article [3] are proposing a new formula to lower the temperature parameter gradually in order to solve the localization problem more precisely. In [9] The SA method is combined with genetic algorithm to promote its performance. Hence the SAL will be more efficient when its computing time decreases and at the same time its precision increases. In the third section, the authors of the article introduce an efficient hybrid algorithm with a high localization accuracy and speed. 3. A Heuristic Method and Its Specifications In wireless sensor network, each sensor that is in neighboring of at least three anchors like Fig. 1 while having data on location of anchors and distance between itself and anchors can calculates its position by applying simple mathematical computations, this method is called Trilateration. With this approach, this sensor has been added to the anchors set in the network so we can apply it for the next computation. As shown Fig. 2, by repetition of this procedure in the whole network and upgrading some of the unknown sensors to anchor sensors at the end of each procedure, the possibility of positioning more sensors is provided. This recurring procedure is termed Iterative Multilateration (iM). However two major weaknesses in this method have influenced its capabilities. First, due to the random distribution of

Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh et al. / Procedia Computer Science 5 (2011) 812819 Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2011) 000000

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sensors, the possible availability of three anchors in any partitions of the network even after the application of iM method is not very high. The second and more important weakness is that, in the case of network deployment in a noisy environment (which usually is the case), distance determination between neighboring sensors is associated with error that not only causes accuracy reduction in detecting location of a sensor but also the propagation of error in the whole network [10].

Unknown Sensor Node Anchor B(k,l) Initial anchor Become anchor after Step 1 Become anchor after Step 2 A(i,j) C(m,n) Become anchor after Step 3 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2

As mentioned, SA method is a heuristic optimization approach that by creating a hypothetical random network and applying step by step changes tries to find the best possible answer. We propose that applying iM method in base station. With this idea, the completely random initial estimations for creating initial hypothetical network can be replaced by relatively good estimations. Note that the application of iM method here does not make any changes in the number of anchors but contributes only in the sensors position estimation. Therefore not only the propagation of localization error is prevented but also the amount of computations in detection of sensor positioning is significantly reduced that consequently increases the processing speed. Fig. 3 shows a completely random initial estimation of sensors location in a real network. Fig. 4 also shows an initial hypothetical network after applying iM method on the same network. It is clear that the cost of second hypothetical network is much lesser than first one in the beginning of the process.

Original Sensor Position Anchor Estimate of Sensor Position Original Sensor Position Anchor Estimate of Sensor Position Link between Sensor and Its Estimation Link between Sensor and Its Estimation

Y-axis

X-axis

Y-axis

X-axis

Fig. 4. Relatively accurate initial estimate of the coordinate sensor nodes using the proposed method

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Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh et al. / Procedia Computer Science 5 (2011) 812819 Mohamadreza Shahrokhzadeh/ Procedia Computer Science 00 (2011) 000000

To annealing process, the material is heated to a temperature that many atomic rearrangements, then cooled carefully and slowly. As cooling proceeds, the material becomes more ordered; but a low temperature alone is not a sufficient condition for finding a highly ordered state. After the material is heated to a high energy state if it is cooled in an un-controlled manner allowing it get out of equilibrium so temperature is one of the important parameters for annealing process [1].

Procedure Modified_SALoc( T, Begin calculate f 0 ;

d , Itr)

While (repetition is lower than Itr AND f is not enough small) do For i = 1 to (q * N) do select a sensor randomly; Do j times move sensor by (Rand(0,1) * d ) in random direction;

Accept movement;

calculate f

End.

else

In the SA technique, variable T is equal to the temperature in annealing process and it is used as control parameter. At the beginning of algorithm running the value of this parameter is high which decreases by the increase of processing time. By assigning a high value to T, the probability of accepting any changes in the hypothetical network rises and the exploration property of this algorithm improves that could help the system jump out of the local minimum trap. By the reduction of T value, large movements are replaced by short ones that results in the exploitation property increase and improve the algorithm accuracy. We offer to reduce T value to 0.01T for the sensors that their location is estimated by the iM method. This idea could help the system to prevent large movements that leads the sensors away from their true positions and also avoids the flip ambiguity problem, so the algorithm accuracy increases. Fig. 5 shows how SA technique solves the localization problem in a randomly distributed sensors network. The algorithm runs on the imaginary network. In this algorithm, in addition to the parameter T, d is maximum displacement of a node in each perturbation and Itr is the maximum number of simulation iterations. The simulation begins with calculating the initial cost function f 0 and it will be stopped when the number of iterations is bigger than Itr or when the cost function is smaller than a predefined number. The cost function f shown in formula (1).

ianchor jNi

(dij dij )2

(1)

where dij is measured distance between node i and its neighbor j; and dij is estimated distance. The probability distribution function P(f ) is used to accept or reject the random perturbation.

817

Formula (2) shows how to compute the P(f ) function in this pseudo code of algorithm: 1

if f 0

P(f ) =

f 100 ) T

(2)

f ) e T (

Otherwise

The proposed algorithm for solving the problem of wireless sensors localization is as Fig. 6. In the first phase of proposed algorithm, the location of sensor nodes will be estimated with iM method. After that, if there is a sensor node with no estimation, we consider a random location. After one round of running the Modified_SALoc, we enter the third phase. In the third phase that is an iterative process, the sensors that are mistakenly positioned in neighboring of another sensor will be detected and processed in the next iteration. Note that the number of iterations depends on the desired accuracy of the proposed algorithm.

/* Phase 1 */ Determinate the approximate position of sensor nodes using iM; /* Phase 2 */ Execute Modified_SALoc(T, d , iteration) for non-anchor sensors; /* Phase 3 */ While (f f threshold ) Set unambiguous sensors to anchor; Execute Modified_SALoc (T, d , iteration) for non-anchor sensors; End While Fig. 6. The proposed algorithm

4. Performance Evaluation In order to evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm and compare with the reference algorithm, a program has been developed using C++.NET. This program was running on an Intel Pentium Dual-Core 2.2 GHz processor with 2GB of main memory. We run the simulation independently 120 times. In each experiment, the studied network consists of 80 sensors that are randomly distributed in a square-shaped two-dimensional space (size: 10 by 10) and among them 15% of sensors are randomly selected as anchors. The values of j and q in the Fig. 5 are chosen as 10 and 2 respectively. Half of the experiments are done in the noiseless environment and the other half are done in the environment with 10% noise. In order to apply noise to the measured distance between the neighboring nodes, formula (3) is used.

(3)

where d ij and d ij are true distance and measured distance respectively between two nodes i and j. is a Gaussian distributed random variable with 0 mean and variance 1. The set of experiments are classified into five different groups based on the degree of network connectivity (the average number of one-hop neighbors per node). A relationship of transmission range vs. connectivity is tabulated in the table 1. In each experiment, the produced random network is processed by the SA algorithm and again the same network is processed by the proposed algorithm. Finally the

818

processing time and the location error rate are registered. To increase the accuracy of the evaluation results, the best and the worst experiments have been omitted and then the average has been obtained.

Table 1. Transmission range vs. the connectivity Transmission Range Connectivity 1.2 8 1.4 11 1.6 14 1.8 18 2.0 21

Formula (4) is the basis for calculation of location error of the sensors in the network.

Location Error =

(( xi xi )2 ( yi yi )2 )

i 1

N R2

100%

(4)

where N equals the number of sensor nodes, R is the activity radius of each sensor (that is equals to the transmission range in all of our experiments), ( xi , yi ) is the true location and ( xi , yi ) is the estimated location of the sensor i. The results of the accomplished experiments show that the significant difference exists between the processing time of the proposed algorithm and the reference algorithm especially when the degree of network connectivity is high. Fig. 7 shows the average processing time of both algorithms in the networks with the different degrees of connectivity in the noiseless environment. The assessment results represent higher speed of proposed algorithm even in the noise environment. This fact is well reflected in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 indicates the difference between these two algorithms on the accuracy of location estimation of each sensor. As it is clear from this figure, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm in all cases is better than the reference algorithm, and even this difference is much more significant in low connectivity networks. Fig. 10 shows that even after applying noise, the performance of the proposed algorithm is much more desirable.

SAL Proposed Algorithm

Average Processing Time

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 8 11 14 Connectivity 18 21

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

SAL

Proposed Algorithm

11

14 Connectivity

18

21

SAL Proposed Algorithm

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 8

16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 8

SAL

Proposed Algorithm

11

14 Connectivity

18

21

11

14 Connectivity

18

21

Fig. 10. Location error of distributed sensor nodes with 10% noise

819

5. Conclusion Random deployment of wireless sensors in the network environment and the need for determining sensors location has made the localization problem as a critical challenge in wireless sensor networks. Overall, the presented algorithms can be classified into two groups: distributed and centralized. Among them the SA based algorithm is one of the most efficient centralized approaches to solve the localization problem. The major weakness of this method is the increase of localizing process time associated with the increase in network size, and while in low density network the algorithm accuracy reduces significantly. The main goals of the proposed algorithm are to improve the speed and accuracy of the SA based algorithm. For these purposes, by applying Iterative Multilateration method, the completely random initial estimation is replaced by a relatively appropriate location of sensor nodes, therefore at the beginning of the algorithm, the computation is decreased considerably while the accuracy is increased. Evaluation results represent a more than double increase in the speed. On the other hand, after changing the probability distribution function P(f) , we mitigate the flip ambiguity problem. According to this, the error of the proposed algorithm also is reduced by half. However with these modifications, the negative impact caused by lack of anchors in localization process has been relatively resolved but still SA based method is dependent to network density and the number of anchor nodes that the ways of their solving could be the goal of the future work. References

[1] A. Kannan, G. Mao and B. Vucetic, Simulated Annealing based Wireless Sensor Network Localization, Journal of Computers, Vol. 1, No. 2, (2006) 15-22. [2] Y. Li, J. Xing, Q. Yang and H. Shi, Localization Research based on Improved Simulated Annealing Algorithm in WSN, 5th Int. Conf of WICOM, China, 2009, pp. 1-4. [3] Z. Su, F. Shang and R. Wang, A Wireless Sensor Network Location Algorithm Based on Simulated Annealing, 2nd Int. Conf. of BMEI, China, 2009, pp. 1-5. [4] A. Kannan, G. Mao and B. Vucetic,Simulated Annealing based Wireless Sensor Network Localization with Flip Ambiguity Mitigation, 63rd Conf. of IEEE VTC, Australia, 2006, pp. 1022-1026. [5] A. Pal, Localization Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks: Current Approaches and Future Challenges, Journal of Network Protocols and Algorithms,Vol 2, Issue 1, (2010) 45-73. [6] G. Mao, F. Fidan and B. Anderson, Wireless sensor network localization techniques, Journal of Computer Networks, Volume 51, Issue 10, (2007) 2529-2553. [7] X. Ji and H. Zha, Sensor Positioning in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks Using Multidimensional Scaling, 23th Conf. of IEEE INFOCOM,, Vol 4, 2004, pp. 2652 2661. [8] P. Biswas and Y. Ye, Semidefinite Programming for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Network Localization, Third Int. Symposium of IPSN, 2004, pp. 46-54. [9] Q. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Jin and Q. Zeng, Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Based on Genetic Simulated Annealing Algorithm, 4th Int. Conf. of WICOM, 2008, pp. 1-5. [10] J.H.S. Tay, V.R. Chandrasekhar and W. Seah, Selective Iteratitive Multilateration for Hop Count-based Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks, 7th Int. Conf. on Mobile Data Management, 2006, pp. 52-55.

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