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HEAT TREATMENT

TECHNOLOGY

THE

EFFECTIVENESS N. V. Zimin

OF

INTENSE

SPRAY

QUENCHING UDC 620. 785.6. 063

Analysis of the work on t h e r m a l hardening of low- and m e d i u m - c a r b o n steels indicates that in many c a s e s standard quenching in unsuitable due to ineffective cooling [1-5]. Some investigators consider that quenching by i m m e r s i o n in circulating water or aqueous salt solutions (brine, for example) ensures the optimal p r o p e r t i e s and that f u r t h e r intensification of cooling (in a liquid spray, for example) is inefficient. However, in the use of w a t e r s p r a y s the heat t r a n s f e r coefficient at all cooling t e m p e r a t u r e s is 10-15 times higher than that in cooling by plunging in circulating water [6, 77. In this case the heat flow is 20-25 t i m e s higher in the t e m p e r a t u r e range of the pearlitic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n arid 9-12 t i m e s higher in the m a r t e n sitic t r a n s f o r m a t i o n range. Such cooling i n c r e a s e s the hardenability and quenchability. This is manifest not only in the g r e a t e r depth of hardening (hardenability) but also in an i n c r e a s e of the h a r d n e s s in the h a r d ened zone (quenchability). We investigated steels 25, 45, and 40KhNMA; the chemical composition of the steels and the thickness of the samples a r e given in Table 1. A uniform s t r u c t u r e after quenching is obtained at specific cooling r a t e s in the center of the machine p a r t in the l o w - t e m p e r a t u r e range. These r a t e s differ for different steels (600 d e g / s e c for steel 25, 300 d e g / s e c for steel 45, around 80 d e g / s e c f o r steel 40KhNMA) and were obtained in samples of different thicknesses in spray quenching (see Table 1). As the c r i t e r i o n of an evenly hardened s t r u c t u r e we used the m i c r o - and m a c r o h a r d n e s s throughout the section of the part that was the highest possible for the given steel. It can be seen f r o m Fig. 1 that this r e q u i r e m e n t m a t c h e s a m a x i m u m plate thickness of 8 ram. Heating for quenching and tempering was conducted by induction f r o m a mechanical g e n e r a t o r with a frequency of 2500 Hz, the heating rate in the phase t r a n s f o r m a t i o n range not exceeding 30 d e g / s e c , with an austenitizing time of 50-60 see, which is sufficient for even distribution of carbon in the austenite. The austenite g r a i n size in this c a s e was g r a d e 11-12 for steels 45 and 40KhNMA and g r a d e 9-10 for steel 25. The s a m p l e s w e r e quenched with s p r a y e r s on both sides, the w a t e r input being 0.7-0.8 mn/see, m 2, c o r r e s ponding to a heat t r a n s f e r coefficient of 75,000-90,000 k c a l / m 2 . h . d e g . The induction heating rate for t e m p e r i n g was 1-4 d e g / s e c .
TABLE
Steel

1
Composition, % C 0,24---0,26 Mn 0,47--0,50 Si 0,25--0,27 Cr 0,20 NI 0,15

Sample thickness~ 25, mm


5

25

45 40KkNMA

0,44 0,39

0,75 0,70

0,30 0,20

0,15 0,75

0,10 1,30

8 20

Note: Steel 40KhNMAalso contained 0.20%M0,

V. P. Vologdtn All-Union S c i e n t i f i c - R e s e a r c h Institute of H i g h - F r e q u e n c y Current. f r o m Metallovedeni i T e r m i e h e s k a y a Obrabotka Metallov, No. 5, pp. 23-26, May, 1970.

Translated

9 Consultants Bureau, a division of Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 if%st I7th Street~ ~Yew York: N. Y. ]00]]. 4l[ rights reserved. This article cannot De reproduced for any purpose w,~atsoever without permission of the publisher. A copy of tlds article is available from the publisher for $]5.00.

381

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aSt

/ ":.....[.>.:7
2 0 4
mm

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"

,"

~2

T; .... ,c~

y"

"

"

.sooL

Distance from center of plate Fig. 1

4 o 4 Distance from center of ,late b Fig. 2

J "

mm

Fig. 1. Hardness through sections of steel 45 plates of different t h i c k n e s s e s after induction heating and water s p r a y quenching f r o m both sides. 1) 25 = 6 ram; 2) 8 ram; 3) 10 mm; 4) 12 ram. Fig. 2. H a r d n e s s through sections of steel 45 plates of different t h i c k n e s s e s after quenching + t e m p e r i n g at 200 ~ (a) and 300 ~ (b). 1) 25 = 6 ram; 2) 8 ram; 3) 10 ram; 4) 12 ram. After quenching and l o w - t e m p e r a t u r e t e m p e r i n g (Table 2) the strength i n c r e a s e d substantially and the plasticity r e m a i n e d high. As is well known [8-12], m a r t e n s i t e partially d e c o m p o s e s during the period in which it is formed, but this can be stopped by a c c e l e r a t e d quenching 9 With the use of s p r a y quenching the m a r t e n s i t e does not decompose, due to the i n c r e a s e in the rate of heat t r a n s f e r in the m a r t e n s i t i e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n range. This is one of the f a c t o r s ensuring c o n s i d e r a b l e hardening of low- and m e d i u m - c a r b o n steels. The influence of m a r t e n s i t e not t e m p e r e d in the p r o c e s s of quenching should d e c r e a s e in subsequent tempering, although with t e m p e r i n g at 200-300 ~ a difference still r e m a i n s in the p r o p e r t i e s of zones with m a r t e n s i t e t e m p e r e d and not t e m p e r e d during quenching (Fig. 2); with t e m p e r i n g at higher t e m p e r a t u r e s (600-700 ~ this d i f f e r ) ence d i s a p p e a r s . The t e m p e r i n g of m a r t e n s i t e in the c o u r s e of quenching can be stopped and an even h a r d n e s s through the section can be attained only when the thickness of the part m a k e s it possible to achieve a cooling rate in the c e n t e r that is higher than the c r i t i c a l rate for quenching of the given steel in the range of 700-500 ~ (VUrP) and a cooling rate in the m a r t e n s i t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n range that prevents t e m p e r i n g of the m a r t e n s i t e M in the c o u r s e of its f o r m a t i o n (Vcr). Attaining VlcVl is of decisive i m p o r t a n c e in obtaining m a x i m u m hardening: if the cooling rate in the r center of the part in the lower t e m p e r a t u r e range is higher than VclcMrthen it is usually above V~Pr in the upp e r t e m p e r a t u r e range of the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 9 The latter value depends on the concentration of carbon and alloying elements, being i n v e r s e l y proportional. F o r example, it is 600-700 d e g / s e c for steel 25 and 300350 d e g / s e c for steel 45. Such r a t e s of heat t r a n s f e r a r e attained in the c e n t e r of plates 5 and 8 m m thick r e s p e c t i v e l y when s p r a y quenching is used. With eooling by plunging in circulating water it is impossible to attain such cooling r a t e s in the c e n t e r of the plates. The r a t e s attained in this c a s e a r e one-third to o n e - q u a r t e r those attained in spray quenching. The less c a r b o n in the steel and the s m a l l e r the amount of alloying elements, the m o r e critical the quenching conditions to obtain the optimal strengthening and the s m a l l e r the thickness of the part in which it can be obtained. min min Let us call these dimensiops D~. for cylindrical p a r t s and 6cr for plates (with cooling f r o m one mm "~ ml'n side). With spray quenching Dcr = 7-8.5 m m and 5 c r = 2.3-3.8 m m for steel 25 with 0.22-0.28% C, while Dccr = 9-12 m m and 5cmr = 3-4 m m for steel 45 with 0.42-0 9 in m C. The studies showed that round and flat p a r t s of these critical sizes have equal strength c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i . e . , ~,min/~min = 3. ~ cr / - c r
9

382

TABLE

Temperature, ~ Steel

I *0,2 kg/mm2

~5

! ~'~ '
HRC

quenching ] tempering t 25 45
4 K Nv A 0 h IL

I000 900
9O O

]
I

2C0 500 300 600


350

175 120 200 120 200 120

160 110 180 110

~ 1 6,5 15

~ ~

47 34 53 33
52 32

[
|

650

] }

180

11o

TABLE 3 Thickness of Tempering, steel 45 samtemp., ~ Ob


aO,2
HRC

~les,

~, m
_

[-200 120
200 120

kg/mm2
1

6
8

300 600
309 600

I ]
} 1

180 112
180 II0

6,0 15
7 15

-50
-50
--

54--53 34
54--52 34--32

10 12

300 600 300 600

195 114 190 104

176 104 170 95

7 15 8 16

50 52

54--51 34--31
54--49 34--30

If the s i z e of the p a r t e x c e e d s the c i r t i c a l s i z e f o r the given steel then the m a x i m u m p o s s i b l e s t r e n g t h cannot be attained (Table 3). When the s i z e of the p a r t slightly e x c e e d s the c r i t i c a l s i z e then the s t r e n g t h is s o m e w h a t l o w e r due to t e m p e r i n g of the m a r t e n s i t e in the i n n e r l a y e r s b e c a u s e cooling in the m a r t e n s i t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r a n g e o c c u r s at r a t e s l e s s than V~r"m (a p a r t t h i c k n e s s 25 < 12 m m f o r s t e e l 45). With still l a r g e r s i z e s of the p a r t the i n c o m p l e t e h a r d e n i n g of the inner l a y e r s due to cooling at r a t e s l e s s than vcuP in the p e a r l i t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r a n g e b e g i n s to affect the m e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . C ONCLUSIONS
I. The use of spray quenching for hardening parts of low- and medium-carbon unalloyed and lowalloy steels ensures considerable strengthening not attainable by other quenching methods. 2. To attain high strength characteristics tensite during the course of its formation. the most important factor is to prevent tempering of mar-

3. For steel 25 with 0.22-0.28~c C the cooling rate in the lower temperature range that is sufficient to prevent decomposition of martensite during quenching must be above 600-700 deg/sec. When a water
xmin spray is used this rate is attained in the center of parts of diameter ~min = 7-8.5 mm or thickness v cr ~cr = 2.3-2.8 mm (cooling from one side). 4. F o r steel 45 with 0.42-0.48% C the cooling rate in the lower temperature range that is sufficient to prevent decomposition of martensite during.quenching must be above 300-350 d e g / s e c . This rate is a t = 9-12 mm or thickness amin = 3-4 mm tained in the center of parts with diameter n mm . er (cooling from one
~Cr

side). 5. With quenching of l o w - and m e d i u m - c a r b o n s t e e l s in a w a t e r s p r a y , identical r a t e s of heat t r a n s f e r f r o m the inner l a y e r s can be a t t a i n e d in any t e m p e r a t u r e r a n g e and a l s o equal s t r e n g t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , with n m i n / ~ m i n ~cr -Ucr = 3.
LITERATURE CITED

1. 2. 3.

V.A. M.L. M.E.

Z a i m o v s k i i and M. L. B e r n s h t e i n , Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Metally, No. 2 (1966). B e r n s h t e i n and N. Dr~gan, Metal. i T e r m . O b r a b o t k a M e t a l . , No.6 (1965). Blanter et a l . , Metal. i T e r m . O b r a b o t k a M e t a l . , No. 8 (1964).

383

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

M . E . Blanter and A. [. Surin, Metal. i T e r m . Obrabotka M e t a l . , No. 8 (1964). M . L . Bernshtein, in: P r o g r e s s i v e Methods of H e a t - T r e a t i n g Machine P a r t s and Tools [in Russian], GOSINTI, Moscow (1966). M . M . Zamyatnin and N. V. Zimin, in: P r o g r e s s i v e Methods of H e a t - T r e a t i n g Machine P a r t s and Tools [in Russian], GOSINTI, M o s c o w (1966). M . M . Zamyatnin and N. V. Zimin, C o m m e r c i a l Use of H i g h - F r e q u e n c y Current, P r o c e e d i n g s of the All-Union S c i e n t i f i c - R e s e a r c h Institute of H i g h - F r e q u e n c y Current, No. 7 [in Russian], M a s h inostroenie, Moscow (1066). G . V . Kurdyumov, Phenomena of Quenching and T e m p e r i n g of Steel [in Russian], Metallurgizdat, Moscow (1960). G . A . O s t r o v s k i i et a l . , Refining of Austenite G r a i n s to I n c r e a s e the Strength of Steel, Ser. 2, No. 14 [in Russian], C h e r m e t i n f o r m a t s i y a (1967). G V. Kurdyumov, Metal i T e r m . Obrabotka M e t a l . , No. 8 (1965). K. Z. Sheplyakovskii et a l . , Metal. i T e r m . Obrabotka M e t a l . , No. 9 (1962). K . Z . Shepelyakovskii et a l . , in: P r o c e e d i n g s of the State All-Union " O r d e r of Red Banner of Labor" Automobile Engine S c i e n t i f i c - R e s e a r c h Institute, No. 59 [in Russian], ONTI, Moscow (1963).

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