3 frequency control.
simple Simulink blocks such as math operators, relational Pure sinein and pure sineout waveforms are the unique
operators, delay circuits along with mﬁle Sfunctions. features of the matrix converter.
Advantages of mathematical model over conventional power Displacement factor is unity.
circuit are: High drive performance and long life due to the absence
Very less computation time. of intermediate dc link circuit.
Low memory requirement. The practical realization [9] of the Matrix converter requires
The proposed model is simple, ﬂexible and can be accom BiDirectional Switches (BDS) capable of blocking voltage
modated with any type of load. The basic block diagram of and conducting current in both directions, but there is no such
a device available currently. BDS can be implemented by using
The authors are with Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute
of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India(email: imayam@ee.iitb.ac.in, suitable combination of unidirectional switches and diodes [2].
avkrishna@iitb.ac.in, bgf@ee.iitb.ac.in) As the matrix converter draws the input voltage directly from
Matrix Converter
where is the transfer matrix and is given by > > >
A >
>
1
>
1
>
S Aa S Ab S Ac
> > >
2 2
2
B
4 4
4
(4)
S Ba S Bb S Bc A C D
>
C
Input
1
1
H , I J is the
sampling period. The input current is given by
>
M 5
L L
(5)
a b c
Duty cycles must satisfy the following conditions in order to
Clamp circuit avoid short circuit on the input side. > > >
Q
1 ' 1 ' 1
4 ' 4 '
4
shown in ﬁg. 2.
the desired output voltage and output frequency. The switches
A clamp circuit is connected between the input and out on each output phase are closed sequentially and repetitively.
put to avoid overcurrents from the input side due to short The sequence time
circuit and to avoid overvoltages from the output side due
> > >
1 ' 1 ' 1
I
J
V
I
J
I
J
I
J
(6)
of matrix converter under shortterm power interruptions. The
main constraints in the practical implementation of the matrix where is the switching frequency which should
U
J
E F
converter are the nonavailability of BDS, more sensitivity for be 20 times higher than the output frequency so as to have
power disturbances and commutation problems [4]. For the low harmonic content in the output voltage. Switches are
time being the above problems have been partially solved by operated such that the average value of the output voltage
the researchers and a prototype of the matrix converter has is equal to desired voltage during each sampling period . I J
been developed [2]. The maximum peakpeak output voltage should be contained
within the continuous envelope of input voltages in order to
have complete control of output voltage. This restricts the
B. Principle and switching algorithm
maximum voltage transfer ratio to 0.5. This limitation can be
Three phase matrix converter connects load directly to the overcome by using modiﬁed Venturini algorithm [6].
source by using 9 bidirectional switches. When operating with 2) Maximum voltage Transfer Ratio  Modiﬁed Venturini
bidirectional switches, two basic rules have to be followed [5]: Control Algorithm: The maximum possible output voltage
No two input lines should be connected to the same can be achieved by injecting third harmonics of the input and
output line  to avoid short circuit. output frequencies into the output waveform [1]. The injection
Atleast one of the switches in each phase should be of third harmonic does not affect the operation of load since
connected to the output  to avoid open circuit. there is no neutral connection between the supply and load.
The three phase input voltages of the converter are given by The injection of third harmonic at the input frequency into all
output voltages increases the available output voltage range
' ) +
to 0.75 of the input when the third harmonic has a peak
(1)
W Y
' .

+
value of . Further improvement of the transfer ratio can

(2) 5
W Z
] Q
5
Z
^ ` a e 5 '
Y
e
1114
M Aa
Phase a
Comparator
v M Aa* Vi m Cos ω it X
i Sawtooth
Carrier Wave V im Cos ω it
vo −2π
M Ba * Vi m Cos ω it+ Adder
3
Delay
fi Duty M Ba
M Ca * Vi m Cos ω i t + 4 π Circuit
Cycle 3 Comparator
fo Calculation 3φ V oa
Load Sawtooth X Adder
V imCos (ω it + 2π )
Phase b Carrier Wave
fs 3
Delay
t=kT s M Ca
Phase c Circuit
Comparator
Sawtooth
X
Carrier Wave V imCos (ω it + 4π )
Switching Algorithm Matrix Converter Model Load 3
is shown in ﬁg. III for both 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer
5 [ 5 [ 5
^ ` a ' b d ^ ` a e ' e
Z Y
A. Control Algorithm ]
lation of the duty cycle matrix . The duty cycle calculations B. Power circuit
for voltage transfer ratios of 0.5 and 0.866 are realized in the
The modelling of power circuit is done using the basic
form of mﬁle in Matlab. Duty cycles for the transfer ratio of
equations for output voltage [7], [8].
0.5 are;
> > >
> Q ]
1 1 ' 1 ' 1
1 ' h ' i
2 2 ' 2 '
2
> Q ]
4 4 ' 4 '
4
1 ' h ' i d
e e
> Q ]
e
' h ' i d
e
g
Q ]
switching pulses for the bidirectional switches are realized by
2
' h
' i d
Y
g
comparing the duty cycles with a sawtooth waveform having
>
e
Q
Q ]
e
> Q ]
2 ' h ' i d
e e
>
Q ]
1.2
h
1
4
' h ' i d
0.8
g
e e
> Q ]
0.6
Y
4
' h
' i d
0.4
g
e e
0.2
>
Q ]
0
4 ' h ' i
−0.2
e
]
5 d i
0.6
h
5 [
h
0.4
[ ' ' r s ' b a t u e w
0.2
J o
I
e p e
I o o
b
(8) ]
−0.2
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
where : 0,2 /3,4 /3 corresponding to the input phases
o g
g
A,B,C respectively, is the maximum voltage ratio (0.866), Fig. 5. Pulse generation the switch } ~ with =30Hz, =0.4 and =2KHz
1115
C. Types of Load
500
The mathematical model is veriﬁed for both passive and
0
a
a a '
−500
0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
1) Mathematical model of Induction Motor: The dynamic
modelling of three phase Induction machine is developed 10
t '
0
J J J J
t '
−5
J J J J
t d '
−10
Time in milliseconds
t ' '
Fig. 6. Simulation results using Power system block set for =0.4, =230,
=100Hz, =2000Hz with RL load, =10 , =20mH
where stator and rotor ﬂux linkages are given by
t ' t
J J J
t ' t
J J J
t ' t
50
40
Va in volts
t ' t
>
>
J
30
20

10
where , )
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
stator ’a’ phase and rotor ’a’ phase, when the angle between
Phase of Va in degrees
200
the axes of the two phases is zero. 100
Equation governing the motion of any machine is
Q
0
d
−100
I I
−200
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Output currents in amps
4
where electromagnetic torque developed by the induction
2
machine is given by
0
e
t d t
−2
h h
−4
I J J J J
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time in milliseconds
IV. S IMULATION RESULTS AND D ISCUSSION Fig. 7. Simulation results using Power system block set for =0.85,
The simulations of Matrix converter are carried out using =50V, =30Hz, =2000Hz with RL load, =10 , =40mH
1116
400
200 10
Va in volts
0 5
Ia in amps
−200 0
−400 −5
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02
400 −10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
200
Vb in volts
10
0
5
Ib in amps
−200
0
−400
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 −5
400 −10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
200
Vc in volts
10
0
5
Ic in amps
−200
0
−400
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 −5
Time in milliseconds
−10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time in milliseconds
Fig. 9. Output phase voltages for =0.4, =230V, =100Hz, =5000
with RL load
Fig. 11. Output Currents for =0.4, =230V, =100Hz, =5000Hz with
120
RL load
100
80
Va in volts
60
MAa MBa MCa
40 1 1 1
20
0 0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1
100 MAb MBb MCb
1 1 1
Phase of Va in degrees
50
−50
0 0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1
−100 MAc MBc MCc
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 1 1 1
Time in milliseconds
Fig. 10. Fourier analysis of phase ’a’ output voltage for =0.4, =230V, 0.5 0.5 0.5
0 0 0
]
J
U U
output voltage. 5
150
0
shows the control waveforms computed using MATLAB pro
−50
gram and ﬁg. 13 shows the three phase output voltages and
−100
currents. As expected, the third harmonics of input and output −150
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014
voltages appear in the output phase voltages which is clearly
visible from the output currents shown in ﬁg. 13. Output 10
voltage is veriﬁed by Fourier analysis of ‘a’ phase output as
output current in amps
5
shown in ﬁg. 14.
W
−5
ratio is chosen such that ratio is maintained constant U
input and output currents are shown in ﬁgs. 15 18. Rated @ ¢
Fig. 13. Output voltages and currents for =0.85, =5000Hz, =30Hz,
load torque of 20Nm is applied at time sec. and the =110V with RL load
1117
150
100
80 0
Ampltude in volts
60 −50
−100
40
−150
20 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
60
40
20
Phase angle in degrees
80
0
60
−20
40
−40
20 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Time in milliseconds
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time in milliseconds
Fig. 17. Output and input current of Induction motor =0.35,
=42Hz,
=327V
Fig. 14. Fourier analysis of ’a’ phase output voltage for =0.85,
=30Hz,
=110V with RL load
1500
1000
Speed in rpm
500
0.8 0.8 0.8
MAa MBa MCa
0.6 0.6 0.6 0
0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
40
0.8 0.8 0.8
MAb MBb MCb 30
0.6 0.6 0.6
Torque in N−m
20
0.4 0.4 0.4
0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
]
Time in milliseconds
5
120
100
shown in ﬁg. 2223.
80
60
V. C ONCLUSION
40
50
easy and prosperous. The operation of Matrix converter was
0
analysed using mathematical model for different loads with
−50 both 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer ratios.
−100
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Time in milliseconds
A PPENDIX I
Fig. 16. Fourier analysis of ’a’ phase output voltage for =0.35, =42Hz,
I NDUCTION M ACHINE PARAMETERS
=327V, =5000Hz
1118
400
200
Va in volts
400
a Phase output voltage in volts
0
200 −200
−400
0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
.
Fourier spectrum of Va
200
−200
150
100
−400
0.556 0.558 0.56 0.562 0.564 0.566 0.568 0.57 0.572 0.574
. 50
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
600
200
Line to Line voltage in volts
Fig. 19. Phase and Line to Line output voltage of Matrix converter fed
Induction motor for =0.5, =60Hz, =327V, =5000Hz
2500
2000
Speed in rpm
1500
150 1000
Output currents in amps
100 500
50
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0
−50
40
−100
30
−150
Torque in N−m
100 10
0
Input current in amps
50
−10
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0 Time in milliseconds
−50
Fig. 23. Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.8, =70Hz,
−100
=204V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec
£
Fig. 20. Output current and Input current of Induction motor for =0.5,
Inductances: =0.0538 H
=0.05606 H
2500 =0.0553 H J
)
1500
¥
1000
500 ACKNOWLEDGMENT
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 We would like to thank Prof. Sedat Sunter, Firat Univer
sity, Turkey, for his invaluable contribution and support via
40
Electronic mail.
30
Torque in N−m
20
R EFERENCES
10
[1] A. Alesina and M.G.B. Venturini, “Analysis and design of optimum
0
amplitude nineswitch direct ACAC converters”, IEEE Trans. Power
−10 Electron., vol.4, pp.101112, Jan. 1989.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Time in milliseconds [2] P.W. Wheeler, J. Clare and A. Weinstein,“Matrix Converters: A Tech
nology Review”, IEEE Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2002,
Fig. 21. Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.5, =60Hz, pp. 276287.
=327V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec
£
[3] Zuckerberger, A., Weingstock, D. and Alexandrovitz, A., “ Singlephase
matrix converter ”, IEE proc.Electric Power Applications, Vol. 144(4),
July 1997, pp. 235240.
1119
[4] P.W. Wheeler, Jon C. Clare and M. Bland, “ Gate drive level intelligence
and current sensing for matrix converter current commutation”, IEEE
Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2002, pp. 383389.
[5] M. Imayavaramban, K. Latha and G. Uma,“Analysis of different schemes
of matrix converter with maximum voltage conversion ratio”, IEEE
MELECON 2004, MAY 1215, 2004, pp. 11371140.
[6] Sedat Sunter and Tatar Y, “Pspice modelling and design of a snubber
circuit for the matrix converter”, Int.J.Eng Model 13, 2000, pp.4146.
[7] Zuckerberger, A., Weinstock, D. and Alexandrovitz, A.,“Simulation of
threephase loaded matrix converter”, Electric Power Applications, IEE
Proceedings, Vol.143, Issue: 4, July 1996, pp. 294  300.
[8] “Modelling and simulation of singlephase ACAC matrix converter
using SPWM”, Student conference on Research and Development pro
ceedings, Malaysia, 2002, pp. 286289.
[9] M. Imayavaramban, K. Latha, G. Uma and S. Sunter, “ Matlab/Simulink
Implementation for reducing the motor derating and torque pulsation
of Induction motor using Matrix Converter”, IEEE Power Engineering
Society, PSCE 2004, No. 078038178X/04.
[10] R Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and Control”,
Prentice Hall, 2001.
1120