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# Analysis and Mathematical Modelling of Matrix

## Converter for Adjustable Speed AC Drives

M. Imayavaramban, A.V. Krishna Chaithanya and B.G. Fernandes

## Abstract— This paper presents the work carried out in devel- 3− φ

oping a mathematical model for a Matrix converter. The power Input Mathematical
circuit of the matrix converter is realized by using mathematical Model of Mathematical
expressions. The mathematical expressions relating the input and Power Circuit Model of Load
output of the three-phase matrix converter are implemented by Switching of MC
using Simulink block set. A unique feature of the mathematical Algorithm
model is that it requires very less computation time and less
memory compared to the power circuit realized by using actual
switches. The duty cycles of the switches are calculated using Fig. 1. Basic block diagram of Mathematical model
modiﬁed Venturini Algorithm for 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer
ratios. Simulations of the Matrix converter loaded by passive RL
load and active induction motor are performed. This is followed mathematical model is shown in ﬁg. 1. The mathematical
by speed control of Induction motor in open loop. model is validated using a passive RL load and active induction
Index Terms— Matrix converter, ac-ac conversion, mathemat- motor load.
ical model, Venturini Modiﬁed Algorithm, Induction motor. The paper is organized as follows: section II presents the
basics and mathematical model of matrix converter. Section III
I. I NTRODUCTION presents types of loads and their mathematical models. Section
IV presents results and discussions and section V presents the
A Matrix converter is a device used for direct ac-ac power
conclusion.
conversion device without the need for an intermediate dc-
link circuit. It is also known as a forced commutated ac-
II. M ATRIX C ONVERTER
ac converter, which uses an array of controlled bi-directional
semiconductor switches as the main power circuit. It converts A. Basic Theory
ac input voltage into variable ac voltage with unrestricted The matrix converter is a single stage direct ac-ac converter,
output frequency. which has an array of m x n bi-directional power switches
The real development of Matrix converter started with that can directly connect an m-phase voltage source to an n-
the work of Venturini and Alesina, which was published in phase load [2], [3]. A three phase matrix converter consists of
1980 [1]. They presented the power circuit of the converter 3x3 switches arranged in matrix form. The arrangement of bi-
as a matrix of bi-directional power switches. In this paper, a directional switches is such that any of the input phases A,B,C
complete mathematical analysis of the power circuit along with is connected to any of the output phases a,b,c. The switches
the duty cycle calculation (switching algorithm) is described are controlled in such a way that the average output voltage is
for both low voltage transfer ratio (0.5) and maximum voltage a sinusoid of desired frequency with desired amplitude. The
transfer ratio (0.866). 3x3 switches give 512 combinations of switching states [2].
The whole matrix converter is modelled using Simulink, a Compared with other ac-ac converters, the matrix converter
dynamic and powerful tool box. Mathematical modelling is a has the following advantages:
unique and valuable resource. Its proper application can yield Inherent four quadrant operation and regeneration capa-
signiﬁcant results and deep perception. Modelling of a Matrix bility due to the use of bidirectional switch and hence it
converter includes modelling of the power circuit, switching can be used as an alternative to PWM inverter drive for
algorithm and load. The whole model is the realized by using 

3- frequency control.
simple Simulink blocks such as math operators, relational Pure sine-in and pure sine-out waveforms are the unique
operators, delay circuits along with m-ﬁle S-functions. features of the matrix converter.
Advantages of mathematical model over conventional power Displacement factor is unity.
circuit are: High drive performance and long life due to the absence
Very less computation time. of intermediate dc link circuit.
Low memory requirement. The practical realization [9] of the Matrix converter requires
The proposed model is simple, ﬂexible and can be accom- Bi-Directional Switches (BDS) capable of blocking voltage
modated with any type of load. The basic block diagram of and conducting current in both directions, but there is no such
a device available currently. BDS can be implemented by using
The authors are with Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute
of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India(email: imayam@ee.iitb.ac.in, suitable combination of unidirectional switches and diodes [2].
avkrishna@iitb.ac.in, bgf@ee.iitb.ac.in) As the matrix converter draws the input voltage directly from

## 1­4244­0178­X/06/\$20.00 ©2006 IEEE 1113 PSCE 2006

> A

Matrix Converter
where is the transfer matrix and is given by > > >

A > 
> 
1
> 
1
>

S Aa S Ab S Ac
> > >
 2  2
2


B
 4  4
4
(4)
S Ba S Bb S Bc A C D

>

C
Input 
1

1

## filter S Ca S Cb S Cc where , duty cycle of switch E F

H , I J is the
sampling period. The input current is given by >

 M 5

L L

(5)
a b c
Duty cycles must satisfy the following conditions in order to
Clamp circuit avoid short circuit on the input side. > > > Q

 

1 ' 1 ' 1

2

 4 '  4 '
4

## Fig. 2. Practical Scheme of Matrix Converter

This can be achieved by proper calculation of duty cycle using
Venturini Modulation Algorithm.
3-phase lines (grid), a small ﬁlter is necessary at the input
1) Venturini Switching Algorithm: The Venturini algo-
side to reduce the switching harmonics in the input current as 
1 T

1 T

## rithm [1] controls the switches according to H H H

shown in ﬁg. 2.
the desired output voltage and output frequency. The switches
A clamp circuit is connected between the input and out- on each output phase are closed sequentially and repetitively.
put to avoid overcurrents from the input side due to short The sequence time
circuit and to avoid overvoltages from the output side due
> > >

## to open circuit. This circuit provides ride-through capability

 

1 ' 1 ' 1

I
J

V
I
J
I
J
I
J
(6)
of matrix converter under short-term power interruptions. The
main constraints in the practical implementation of the matrix where is the switching frequency which should
U
J
E F

converter are the non-availability of BDS, more sensitivity for be 20 times higher than the output frequency so as to have
power disturbances and commutation problems [4]. For the low harmonic content in the output voltage. Switches are
time being the above problems have been partially solved by operated such that the average value of the output voltage
the researchers and a prototype of the matrix converter has is equal to desired voltage during each sampling period . I J

been developed [2]. The maximum peak-peak output voltage should be contained
within the continuous envelope of input voltages in order to
have complete control of output voltage. This restricts the
B. Principle and switching algorithm
maximum voltage transfer ratio to 0.5. This limitation can be
Three phase matrix converter connects load directly to the overcome by using modiﬁed Venturini algorithm [6].
source by using 9 bi-directional switches. When operating with 2) Maximum voltage Transfer Ratio - Modiﬁed Venturini
bi-directional switches, two basic rules have to be followed [5]: Control Algorithm: The maximum possible output voltage
No two input lines should be connected to the same can be achieved by injecting third harmonics of the input and
output line - to avoid short circuit. output frequencies into the output waveform [1]. The injection
Atleast one of the switches in each phase should be of third harmonic does not affect the operation of load since
connected to the output - to avoid open circuit. there is no neutral connection between the supply and load.
The three phase input voltages of the converter are given by The injection of third harmonic at the input frequency into all
   
        

output voltages increases the available output voltage range
            ' ) +
to 0.75 of the input when the third harmonic has a peak
(1)
 W Y



          ' .
-

+
value of . Further improvement of the transfer ratio can
-

## be achieved by subtracting a third harmonic at the output

The output voltage vector of the matrix converter can be given frequency from all target output voltages. This minimizes the
by range of the output voltage envelope to 0.866 of the peak phase
voltage. This implies an absolute maximum transfer ratio of
 5       5
 
 1

 

## 0.75/0.866 = 0.866 of when this third harmonic has a peak

 2  5       5  ' ) +

(2)  5
W Z

## value of . Consequently the output voltage becomes

 4 . +
5  5
       '

] Q

 5
 

## where and are the frequencies of input and output  5 [    ^ ` a   5  ' b [  d

Z
   ^ ` a  e  5   '

Y 
    e  

## voltages of the matrix converter respectively. The relationship

between the output and the input voltages is given as follows: >
b [
(7)
 5       @   
where : 0,2 /3,4 /3 corresponding to the output phases g g

## (3) a,b,c respectively [1], [6] and [7].

1114
M Aa
Phase a
Comparator
v M Aa* Vi m Cos ω it X
i Sawtooth
Carrier Wave V im Cos ω it
vo −2π
M Ba * Vi m Cos ω it+ Adder
3
Delay
fi Duty M Ba
M Ca * Vi m Cos ω i t + 4 π Circuit
Cycle 3 Comparator
fo Calculation 3φ V oa

V imCos (ω it + 2π )
Phase b Carrier Wave
fs 3

Delay
t=kT s M Ca
Phase c Circuit
Comparator

Sawtooth
X
Carrier Wave V imCos (ω it + 4π )
Switching Algorithm Matrix Converter Model Load 3

## Fig. 4. Mathematical modelling of power circuit of ‘a’ phase

Fig. 3. Block diagram of Mathematical Model of Matrix Converter
]

  

## is the required voltage ratio, is the input voltage vector

III. M ATHEMATICAL M ODELLING  5 [

] Q

## The complete mathematical modelling of Matrix converter

]

is shown in ﬁg. III for both 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer
5 [   5 [   5   
  ^ ` a    ' b  d  ^ ` a  e    '   e 

Z Y


b
(9) [

## where : 0,2 /3,4 /3 corresponds to the output phases a,b,c g g

A. Control Algorithm ]

5

## ratios are shown in simulation results.

The required voltage transfer ratio( ), output frequency( ) >
U

## and switching frequency( ) are the inputs required for calcu- U

J

lation of the duty cycle matrix . The duty cycle calculations B. Power circuit
for voltage transfer ratios of 0.5 and 0.866 are realized in the
The modelling of power circuit is done using the basic
form of m-ﬁle in Matlab. Duty cycles for the transfer ratio of
equations for output voltage [7], [8].
0.5 are;
> > >

> Q ]

   

 1    1     ' 1     ' 1  

## > > >

 
1  ' h       ' i

 2     2      '  2      '
2 


## > > >

> Q ]

 4     4      '  4      '
4 


 
1  ' h       ' i d

e e

> Q ]

e
 ' h        ' i d

e
g

## Realization of phase ’a’ output voltage is shown in ﬁg. 4. The

other two phases also can be realized in a similar way. The
>
Q

Q ]
switching pulses for the bi-directional switches are realized by
 2
 ' h     

' i d
Y

g

comparing the duty cycles with a sawtooth waveform having
>
e
Q

Q ]
e

## very high switching frequency. The pulses generated using

 2
 ' h     

' i
this PWM technique are shown in ﬁg. 5. The input current
waveform is obtained by using control waveforms and the
Q

> Q ]

## output current waveform.

h

2  ' h        ' i d

e e

> Q ]
1.2
h

1
 4 
 ' h       ' i d

0.8
g

e e

> Q ]

0.6
Y

 4
 ' h     

' i d
0.4
g

e e

0.2
> Q ]

0

4  ' h        ' i

−0.2

e

]
   5 d   i

## relative phase of the output and is the voltage transfer ratio. 1

0.8
The switching times for voltage transfer ratio of 0.866 are;
Q
]

0.6
h 
5 [


h

0.4
[ ' '  r s     ' b  a t u  e     w

0.2
J o
I


e p e

  

I o o

b
(8) ]
−0.2
0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
where : 0,2 /3,4 /3 corresponding to the input phases
o g


g

A,B,C respectively, is the maximum voltage ratio (0.866), Fig. 5. Pulse generation the switch } ~  with   =30Hz, =0.4 and    =2KHz

1115
C. Types of Load
500
The mathematical model is veriﬁed for both passive and

## Output voltages in volts

active loads. The passive RL load is modeled using the transfer
function
Q

0
 a

  a  a ' 

−500
0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03
1) Mathematical model of Induction Motor: The dynamic
modelling of three phase Induction machine is developed 10

## Output currents in amps

5
are [10]  

 

 t '  
0

   

J J J J

 t '  
−5

       

J J J J

 t d    '  

−10

 

##       0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

J J

Time in milliseconds
 t '   '  


Fig. 6. Simulation results using Power system block set for =0.4,     =230,
=100Hz, =2000Hz with R-L load, =10 , =20mH
where stator and rotor ﬂux linkages are given by 

  




  


 t ' t

 

   

J J J


 t ' t

 

     

J J J


 t ' t

50
 

     

40

Va in volts
  t ' t

 

>


>

 J
30
20
 -

10


where , )

## is the mutual inductance between the J J

0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
stator ’a’ phase and rotor ’a’ phase, when the angle between
Phase of Va in degrees

200
the axes of the two phases is zero. 100
Equation governing the motion of any machine is
Q

0


 d
−100



I  I 

−200
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Output currents in amps

4
where electromagnetic torque developed by the induction
2
machine is given by

   

0
e

 t  d t 

−2
h  h

−4
I J J J J


0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time in milliseconds

IV. S IMULATION RESULTS AND D ISCUSSION Fig. 7. Simulation results using Power system block set for =0.85, 

The simulations of Matrix converter are carried out using  =50V, =30Hz, =2000Hz with R-L load, =10 , =40mH
        

## Power System blockset (Actual switches) as well as Simulink

blockset (Mathematical model) to compare the computation
times. The former took a few hours while the latter took
less than 10 minutes for an induction machine load. This
is the unparalleled feature of the mathematical model of
Matrix converter. Fig. 6- 7 shows the simulation results of
matrix converter realized by bi-directional switches for q=0.5
and q=0.85 respectively. For these two cases, a switching
]

## frequency of 2kHz is chosen. The output voltage transfer

ratio( ) is veriﬁed by Fourier analysis as shown in ﬁg. 7.

## A. Simulation results using Mathematical Model

The mathematical model realized by MATLAB Simulink is
shown in ﬁg. 8. The Matrix converter was simulated for two
different cases:
Loaded by 3-phase passive R-L load, R=10 , L=20mH 

## for both 0.5 and 0.866 transfer ratios.

Fig. 8. The schematic of Mathematical model realized using Simulink
Loaded by 3-phase induction motor (5hp, 200V, 60Hz,
star-connected) for both 0.5 and 0.866 transfer ratios.

1116
400

200 10
Va in volts
0 5

Ia in amps
−200 0
−400 −5
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02

400 −10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
200
Vb in volts

10
0
5

Ib in amps
−200
0
−400
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 −5

400 −10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
200
Vc in volts

10
0
5

Ic in amps
−200
0
−400
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014 0.016 0.018 0.02 −5
Time in milliseconds
−10
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
Time in milliseconds
Fig. 9. Output phase voltages for =0.4,     =230V,   =100Hz,   =5000
Fig. 11. Output Currents for =0.4,     =230V,   =100Hz,   =5000Hz with
120
100

80
Va in volts

60
MAa MBa MCa
40 1 1 1

20

## 0 0.5 0.5 0.5

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1

0 0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1
100 MAb MBb MCb
1 1 1
Phase of Va in degrees

50

## 0.5 0.5 0.5

0

−50
0 0 0
0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1
−100 MAc MBc MCc
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 1 1 1
Time in milliseconds

Fig. 10. Fourier analysis of phase ’a’ output voltage for =0.4,     =230V, 0.5 0.5 0.5

  

0 0 0
]

## 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1 0 0.05 0.1

Time in milliseconds
  

5

## Fig. 12. Duty cycles for =0.85, =5000Hz, =30Hz

=100Hz, =5000Hz with R-L load. The output phase volt-
    

J
U U

## ages and currents are shown in ﬁg. 9 and ﬁg. 11 respectively.

Fig. 10 gives the amplitude and phase angle of the ‘a’ phase ]

output voltage.    5
150

100

## U =5000Hz with R-L load are shown in ﬁg. 12-14. Fig. 12

J
50

0
shows the control waveforms computed using MATLAB pro-
−50
gram and ﬁg. 13 shows the three phase output voltages and
−100
currents. As expected, the third harmonics of input and output −150
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.01 0.012 0.014
voltages appear in the output phase voltages which is clearly
visible from the output currents shown in ﬁg. 13. Output 10
voltage is veriﬁed by Fourier analysis of ‘a’ phase output as
output current in amps

5
shown in ﬁg. 14. 
 

5
=0.35, =327V, 0

## U =42Hz, =5000Hz with induction motor load. Transfer U

J


W

−5
ratio is chosen such that ratio is maintained constant U

## below rated speed. Induction motor parameters are given −10

0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06
Time in milliseconds
in the appendix. Duty cycles, acceleration torque, speed,

input and output currents are shown in ﬁgs. 15- 18. Rated  @ ¢
Fig. 13. Output voltages and currents for =0.85,    =5000Hz,   =30Hz,
load torque of 20Nm is applied at time sec. and the  =110V with R-L load


1117
150

100

## Output current in amps

Fundamental ouput voltage by Fourier analysis
100
50

80 0
Ampltude in volts

60 −50

−100
40
−150
20 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
60

40

## Input current in amps

100

20
Phase angle in degrees

80

0
60

−20
40

−40
20 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Time in milliseconds
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5
Time in milliseconds
Fig. 17. Output and input current of Induction motor =0.35,  

=42Hz,
 =327V 

Fig. 14. Fourier analysis of ’a’ phase output voltage for =0.85,  

=30Hz,
 =110V with R-L load


1500

1000

Speed in rpm
500
0.8 0.8 0.8
MAa MBa MCa
0.6 0.6 0.6 0

## 0.4 0.4 0.4

−500
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0.2 0.2 0.2

0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
40
0.8 0.8 0.8
MAb MBb MCb 30
0.6 0.6 0.6
Torque in N−m

20
0.4 0.4 0.4

## 0.2 0.2 0.2 10

0 0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

## 0.8 0.8 0.8 −10

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
MAc MBc MCc Time in milliseconds
0.6 0.6 0.6

## 0.4 0.4 0.4

Fig. 18. Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.35,  

=42Hz,
0.2 0.2 0.2
 =327V, =20Nm at 0.8sec
 £

0 0 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
]

Time in milliseconds
  5


## Fig. 15. Duty cycles for =0.5,    =42Hz

Simulation is repeated for =0.5, =327V, =60Hz, U

J

W

 
U

## 140 repeated again for =0.8, =204V, =70Hz, =5000Hz as U U

J
a phase output voltage in volts

120

100
shown in ﬁg. 22-23.
80

60
V. C ONCLUSION
40

## 20 The main constraint in the theoritical study of matrix con-

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 verter is the computation time it takes for the simulation. This
constraint has been overcome by the mathematical model that
100
resembles the operation of power conversion stage of Matrix
converter. This makes the future research on Matrix converter
a phase angle in degrees

50
easy and prosperous. The operation of Matrix converter was
0
analysed using mathematical model for different loads with
−50 both 0.5 and 0.866 voltage transfer ratios.
−100
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Time in milliseconds
A PPENDIX I
Fig. 16. Fourier analysis of ’a’ phase output voltage for =0.35,    =42Hz,
I NDUCTION M ACHINE PARAMETERS
 =327V, =5000Hz
  

## 200V, 60Hz, “Y” connected, 5HP machine

No of poles of pairs = 2.

1118
400

200

Va in volts
400
a Phase output voltage in volts
0

200 −200

−400
0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04
.

Fourier spectrum of Va
200
−200
150

100
−400
0.556 0.558 0.56 0.562 0.564 0.566 0.568 0.57 0.572 0.574
. 50

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
600
200
Line to Line voltage in volts

## Ouput current in amps

400
100
200
0
0
−100
−200
−200
−400 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Time in milliseconds
−600
0.556 0.558 0.56 0.562 0.564 0.566 0.568 0.57 0.572 0.574
Time in milliseconds
Fig. 22. Phase ‘a’ output voltage and current for  =0.8,   =70Hz,
 =204V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec
  £

Fig. 19. Phase and Line to Line output voltage of Matrix converter fed
Induction motor for =0.5, =60Hz, =327V, =5000Hz        

2500

2000

Speed in rpm
1500

150 1000
Output currents in amps

100 500

50
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0

−50
40
−100
30
−150
Torque in N−m

## 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

20

100 10

0
Input current in amps

50
−10
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
0 Time in milliseconds

−50
Fig. 23. Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.8,    =70Hz,
−100
 =204V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec
 £

## 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

Time in milliseconds

Fig. 20. Output current and Input current of Induction motor for =0.5,




## Rotor resistance, =0.183

 
    

Inductances: =0.0538 H


=0.05606 H


2500 =0.0553 H J


)

## 2000 Rotor inertia, =0.01667 kg/ ¤ .

Rated speed, =1766.9 rpm
Speed in rpm

1500
¥

1000

500 ACKNOWLEDGMENT
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 We would like to thank Prof. Sedat Sunter, Firat Univer-
sity, Turkey, for his invaluable contribution and support via
40
Electronic mail.
30
Torque in N−m

20
R EFERENCES
10
[1] A. Alesina and M.G.B. Venturini, “Analysis and design of optimum
0
amplitude nine-switch direct AC-AC converters”, IEEE Trans. Power
−10 Electron., vol.4, pp.101-112, Jan. 1989.
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Time in milliseconds [2] P.W. Wheeler, J. Clare and A. Weinstein,“Matrix Converters: A Tech-
nology Review”, IEEE Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2002,
Fig. 21. Speed and Torque response of Induction motor for =0.5,    =60Hz, pp. 276-287.
 =327V, =20Nm applied at 0.8sec
  £
[3] Zuckerberger, A., Weingstock, D. and Alexandrovitz, A., “ Single-phase
matrix converter ”, IEE proc.-Electric Power Applications, Vol. 144(4),
July 1997, pp. 235-240.

1119
[4] P.W. Wheeler, Jon C. Clare and M. Bland, “ Gate drive level intelligence
and current sensing for matrix converter current commutation”, IEEE
Industrial Electronics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 2002, pp. 383-389.
[5] M. Imayavaramban, K. Latha and G. Uma,“Analysis of different schemes
of matrix converter with maximum voltage conversion ratio”, IEEE
MELECON 2004, MAY 12-15, 2004, pp. 1137-1140.
[6] Sedat Sunter and Tatar Y, “Pspice modelling and design of a snubber
circuit for the matrix converter”, Int.J.Eng Model 13, 2000, pp.41-46.
[7] Zuckerberger, A., Weinstock, D. and Alexandrovitz, A.,“Simulation of
three-phase loaded matrix converter”, Electric Power Applications, IEE
Proceedings, Vol.143, Issue: 4, July 1996, pp. 294 - 300.
[8] “Modelling and simulation of single-phase AC-AC matrix converter
using SPWM”, Student conference on Research and Development pro-
ceedings, Malaysia, 2002, pp. 286-289.
[9] M. Imayavaramban, K. Latha, G. Uma and S. Sunter, “ Matlab/Simulink
Implementation for reducing the motor derating and torque pulsation
of Induction motor using Matrix Converter”, IEEE Power Engineering
Society, PSCE 2004, No. 0-7803-8178-X/04.
[10] R Krishnan, “Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and Control”,
Prentice Hall, 2001.

## B.G. Fernandes received the B.Tech. degree from

Mysore University, India, in 1984, the M.Tech
degree from the Indian Institute of Technology,
Kharagpur in 1989, and the PhD. degree form the
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, in 1993.
He then joined the Department of Electrical En-
gineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur,
as an Assistant Professor. In 1997, he joined De-
partment of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute
of Technology, Bombay, where he is currently an
Associate Professor. His current research interests
are in permanent magnet machines, high performance ac drives, quasi resonant
link converter topologies and power electronic interfaces for non-conventional
energy sources.

## M. Imayavaramban was born in Pondicherry, Tamil

Nadu, India on April 05, 1977. He received the
B.E. degree in electrical and electronics engineering
from University of Madras, in 1999 and the M.E.
from Anna University, Chennai, India in 2004. He is
currently working as a Research Assistant in Indian
Institute of Technology, Bombay.
His ﬁeld of interest are direct ac-ac power con-
version and power electronics converters for reactive
power compensation.

## A.V. Krishna Chaithanya was born in Chi-

lakaluripet, Andhra pradesh, India on September 22,
1982. He received the B.Tech. degree in electrical
and electronics engineering from Nagarjuna Univer-
sity, Guntur, in 2003 and is currently pursuing the
M.Tech. degree at Indian Institute of Technology,
Bombay.
His ﬁeld of interest are machine design, power
electronics and electric drives.

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