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2011

Different types of processers

Submitted to: Mr. Khaqan Zaheer Submitted by Sehrish Shabbir BS(eco)-FA11-102/LHR DATE: Sehreish shabir 08-12-2011company name] [Type the 1/1/2011

Intel 80386
The Intel 80386, also known as the i386, or just 386, was a 32-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel in 1985. The first versions had 275,000 transistors and were used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many workstations and high-end personal computers of the time. As the original implementation of the 32-bit extension of the 8086 architecture, the 80386 instruction set, programming model, and binary encodings are still the common denominator for all 32-bit x86 processors, this is termed x86, IA-32, or i386-architecture, depending on context. The 80386 was launched in October 1985, but full-function chips were first delivered in the third quarter of 1986.[Main boards for 80386-based computer systems were cumbersome and expensive at first, but manufacturing was rationalized upon the 80386's mainstream adoption. The first personal computer to make use of the 80386 was designed and manufactured by Compaq and marked the first time a fundamental component in the IBM PC compatiblede facto-standard was updated by a company other than IBM. Intel 386

Intel 80386 DX rated at 16 MHz Produced

From 1985 to September 2007 Intel AMD IBM

Common manufacturer(s)

Max. CPU clock 12 MHz to 40 MHz rate Min. feature size Instruction set

1.5m to 1m x86 (IA-32) 132-pin PGA, 132-pin PQFP; SX variant: 88-pin PGA, 100-pin PQFP

Package(s)

Intel 80486
The Intel80486microprocessor (alias i486 or Intel486) was a higher performance follow up on the Intel 80386. Introduced in 1989, it was the first tightly[1]pipelinedx86 design as well as the first x86 chip to use more than a million transistors, due to a large on-chip cache and an integrated floating point unit. It represents a fourth generation of binary compatible CPUs since the original 8086 of 1978. A 50 MHz 80486 executed around 40 million instructions per second on average and was able to reach 50 MIPS peak. The i486 was without the usual 80-prefix because of a court ruling that prohibited trade marking numbers (such as 80486). Later, with the introduction of the Pentium brand, Intel began branding its chips with words rather than numbers. Intel 486

The exposed die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor. Produced

From 1989 to 2007 Intel, IBM, AMD, Texas Instruments, Harris Semiconductor, UMC, SGS Thomson 16 MHz to 100 MHz 16 MHz to 50 MHz 1m to 0.6m x86 (IA-32) including x87 for DX models

Common manufacturer(s) Max. rate CPUclock

FSB speeds Min. feature size Instruction set Package(s)

PGA (socket 1, 2, 3), 196-pin PQFP

Pentium 1

Introduced November 1, 1995 Precursor to Pentium II and III Primarily used in server systems Socket 8 processor package (387 pins) (Dual SPGA) Number of transistors 5.5 million Family 6 model 1 0.6 m process technology o 16 KB L1 cache o 256 KB integrated L2 cache o 60 MHz system bus clock rate Variants 150 MHz 0.35 m process technology, or 0.35 m CPU with 0.6 m L2 cache o Number of transistors 5.5 million o 512 KB or 256 KB integrated L2 cache o 60 or 66 MHz system bus clock rate o Variants

166 MHz (66 MHz bus clock rate, 512 KB 0.35 m cache) Introduced November 1, 1995 180 MHz (60 MHz bus clock rate, 256 KB 0.6 m cache) Introduced November 1, 1995 200 MHz (66 MHz bus clock rate, 256 KB 0.6 m cache) Introduced November 1, 1995 200 MHz (66 MHz bus clock rate, 512 KB 0.35 m cache) Introduced November 1, 1995

200 MHz (66 MHz bus 200 MHz (66 MHz bus clock rate, 1 MB 0.35 m cache) Introduced August 18, 1997

Pentium II
The Pentium II brand refers to Intel's sixth-generation microarchitecture ("P6") and x86compatible microprocessors introduced on May 7, 1997. Containing 7.5 million transistors, the Pentium II featured an improved version of the first P6-generation core of the Pentium Pro, which contained 5.5 million transistors. However, its L2 cache subsystem was a downgrade when compared to Pentium Pros. In early 1999, the Pentium II was superseded by the Pentium III. In 1998, Intel stratified the Pentium II family by releasing the Pentium II-based Celeron line of processors for low-end workstations and the Pentium II Xeon line for servers and high-end workstations. The Celeron was characterized by a reduced or omitted (in some cases present but disabled) on-die full-speed L2 cache and a 66 MT/s FSB. The Xeon was characterized by a range of full-speed L2 cache (from 512 KB to 2048 KB), a 100 MT/s FSB, a different physical interface (Slot 2), and support for symmetric multiprocessing.

Pentium III
The Pentium IIIbrand refers to Intel's 32-bitx86 desktop and mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 microarchitecture introduced on February 26, 1999. The brand's initial processors were very similar to the earlier Pentium II-branded microprocessors. The most notable difference was the addition of the SSEinstruction set (to accelerate floating point and parallel calculations), and the introduction of a controversial serial number embedded in the chip during the manufacturing process.

Processor cores
Similarly to the Pentium II it superseded, the Pentium III was also accompanied by the Celeron brand for lower-end versions, and the Xeon for high-end (server and workstation) derivatives. The Pentium III was eventually superseded by the Pentium 4, but its Tualatin core also served as the basis for the Pentium MCPUs, which used many ideas from the P6 microarchitecture. Subsequently, it was the Pentium M microarchitecture of Pentium M branded CPUs, and not the NetBurst found in Pentium 4 processors, that formed the basis for Intel's energy-efficient Core microarchitecture of CPUs branded Core 2, Pentium Dual-Core, Celeron (Core), and Xeon. Intel Pentium III processor family Desktop Standard Logo Mobile Logo Code-named Core Date released 1999 2000 2000

Katmai (250 nm) May Coppermine (180 nm) Mar Coppermine T (180 nm) Aug Tualatin (130 nm) Apr 2001

Pentium 4
Pentium 4 was a line of single-core desktop and laptopcentral processing units (CPUs), introduced by Intel on November 20, 2000[1] and shipped through August 8, 2008.They had a 7th-generation x86 microarchitecture, called NetBurst, which was the company's first all-new design since the introduction of the P6 microarchitecture of the Pentium Pro CPUs in 1995. NetBurst differed from P6 (Pentium III, II, etc.) by featuring a very deep instruction pipeline to achieve very high clock speeds (up to 3.8 GHz) limited only by TDPs reaching up to 115 W in 3.4 GHz 3.8 GHz Prescott and Prescott 2M cores.In 2004, the initial 32-bit x86instruction set of the Pentium 4microprocessors was extended by the 64-bit x86-64 set. The performance difference between a Pentium III at 1.13 GHz and a Pentium 4 at 1.3 GHz would have been hardly noticeable

The first Pentium 4 cores, codenamed Willamette, were clocked from 1.3 GHz to 2 GHz. They were released on November 20, 2000, using the Socket 423 system. Notable with the introduction of the Pentium 4 was the 400 MT/sFSB. It actually operated at 100 MHz but the FSB was quad-pumped, meaning that the maximum transfer rate was four times the base clock of the bus, so it was marketed to run at 400 MHz.. Pentium 4

Produced Common manufacturer(s)

From 2000 to 2008 Intel 1.3 GHz to 3.8 GHz 400 MT/s to 1066 MT/s 180 nm to 65 nm x86 (i386), x86-64, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3 NetBurst

Max. CPUclock rate FSB speeds Min. feature size Instruction set Microarchitecture

Socket(s)

Socket 423 Socket 478 LGA 775 Willamette Northwood Prescott Cedar Mill

Core name(s)

Pentium Dual-Core
The Pentium Dual-Core brand was used for mainstream x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009 when it was renamed to Pentium. The processors are based on either the 32-bit Yonah or (with quite different microarchitectures) 64-bit Merom-2M, Allendale, and Wolfdale-3M core, targeted at mobile or desktop computers. In terms of features, price and performance at a given clock frequency, Pentium DualCore processors were positioned above Celeron but below Core and Core 2 microprocessors in Intel's product range. The Pentium Dual-Core was also a very popular choice for overclocking, as it can deliver high performance (when overclocked) at a low price. Pentium Dual-Core

Produced Common manufacturer(s) Max. CPUclock rate FSB speeds Min. feature size Instruction set

From 2006 to 2009 Intel 1.3 GHz to 2.6 GHz 533 MHz to 800 MHz 65 nm to 45 nm MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, x86-64

Microarchitecture Cores

Core 2 LGA 775 Socket M Socket P Yonah Merom-2M Allendale

Socket(s)

Core name(s)

Processor cores In 2006, Intel announced a planto return the Pentium trademark from retirement to the market, as a moniker of low-cost Core microarchitecture processors based on the singlecore Conroe-L but with 1 MiB of cache. The identification numbers for those planned Pentiums were similar to the numbers of the latter Pentium Dual-Core microprocessors, but with the first digit "1", instead of "2", suggesting their single-core functionality. A single-core Conroe-L with 1 MiBcache was deemed as not strong enough to distinguish the planned Pentiums from the Celerons, so it was replaced by dual-coreCPUs, adding "Dual-Core" to the line's name. Throughout 2009, Intel changed the name back from Pentium Dual-Core to Pentium in its publications. Some processors were sold under both names, but the newer E5400 through E6800 desktop and SU4100/T4x00 mobile processors were not officially part of the Pentium Dual-Core line. Desktop Original Logo Rebranded Logo Codenamed Core Laptop Date CodeCore released named Date released

dual dual (65 nm) Yonah Jan 2007 Allendale (65 nm) Jun 2007 dual Merom Nov 2007 Wolfdale dual Aug 2008 (65 nm) Penryn Dec 2008 (45 nm) dual (45 nm)

Intel Core 2
This article is about The Core 2 Solo/Duo/Quad/Extreme line of Intel processors. For the overall Intel Core brand, see Intel Core. For the microarchitecture used in Core 2, see Intel Core (microarchitecture). Core 2 Produced Common manufacturer(s) Max. rate

From 2006 to present Intel

CPUclock

1.06 GHz to 3.5 GHz 533 MHz to 1600 MHz 65 nm to 45 nm x86, x86-64, (SSE4.1 is for 45 nm processors only)

FSB speeds Min. feature size Instruction set

Microarchitecture Core Cores


1, 2, or 4 (2x2) Socket T (LGA 775) Socket M (PGA 478) Socket P (PGA 478) Micro-FCBGA (BGA 479) Micro-FCBGA (BGA 965) Allendale, Conroe, ConroeL, Merom-2M, Merom, Merom-L, Kentsfield, Wolfdale, Yorkfield, Penryn

Socket(s)

Core name(s)

Core 2 is a brand encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bitx86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture. The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi-chip module.[1] The introduction of Core 2 relegated the Pentium brand to the mid-range market, and reunified laptop and desktop CPU lines, which previously had been divided into the Pentium 4, Pentium D, and Pentium M brands.

Intel Core 2 processor family Original New logo * logo Desktop Codenamed Core Date released Laptop Codenamed Core Date released

dual (65 nm) Conroe dual Allendale (65 nm) Wolfdale dual (45 nm)

Aug 2006 Merom Jan 2007 Penryn Jan 2008

dual (65 nm) dual (45 nm)

Jul 2006 Jan 2008

Core i3
The Core i3 was intended to be the new low end of the performance processor line from Intel, following the retirement of the Core 2 brand. The first Core i3 processors were launched on January 7, 2010. The first Nehalem based Core i3 was Clarkdale-based, with an integrated GPU and two cores. The same processor is also available as Core i5 and Pentium, with slightly different configurations. The Core i3-3xxM processors are based on Arrandale, the mobile version of the Clarkdale desktop processor. They are similar to the Core i5-4xx series but running at lower clock speeds and without Turbo Boost. According to an Intel FAQ they do not support Error Correction Code (ECC) memory. According to motherboard manufacturer Supermicro, if a Core i3 processor is used with a server chipset platform such as Intel 3400/3420/3450, the CPU will support ECC with UDIMM. When asked, Intel confirmed

that, although the Intel 5 series chipset supports non-ECC memory only with the Core i5 or i3 processors, using those processors on a motherboard with 3400 series chipsets it will support the ECC function of ECC memory. A limited number of motherboards by other companies also support ECC with Intel Core iX processors; the Asus P8B WS is an example, but it does not support ECC memory under Windows non-server operating systems.

Core i5
The first Core i5 using the Nehalemmicro architecture was introduced on September 8, 2009 as a mainstream variant of the earlier Core i7,[28] the Lynnfield core. Lynnfield Core i5 processors have an 8 MB L3 cache, a DMI bus running at 2.5 GT/s and support for dual-channel DDR3-800/1066/1333 memory and have Hyper-threading disabled. The same processors with different sets of features (Hyper-Threading and other clock frequencies) enabled are sold as Core i7-8xx and Xeon 3400-series processors, which should not be confused with high-end Core i7-9xx and Xeon 3500-series processors based on Bloomfield. The Core i5-5xx mobile processors are named Arrandale and based on the 32 nm West mere shrink of the Nehalem micro architecture. Arrandale processors have integrated graphics capability but only two processor cores. They were released in January 2010, together with Core i7-6xx and Core i3-3xx processors based on the same chip. The L3 cache in Core i5-5xx processors is reduced to 3 MB, while the Core i5-6xx will use the full cache and the Core i3-3xx will have no support for Turbo Boost.Clarkdale,

Core i7
Intel Core i7 is an Intel brand name for several families of desktop and laptop 64-bitx8664 processors using the Nehalem, West mere, and Sandy Bridgemicro architectures. The Core i7 brand is targeted at the business and high-end consumer markets for both desktop and laptop computers, and is distinguished from the Core i3 (entry-level consumer), Core i5 (mainstream consumer) and Xeon (server and workstation) brands. The Core i7 name was introduced with the Bloomfield Quad-core processor in late 2008. In 2009 new Core i7 models based on the Lynnfield desktop quad-core processor and the Clarksfield quad-core mobile were added, and models based on the Irondale dualcore mobile processor were added in January 2010. The first six-core processor in the Core lineup is the Gulf town, which was launched on March 16, 2010. Both the regular Core i7 and the Extreme Edition are advertised as five stars in the Intel Processor Rating. In January 2011, Intel released the second generation of Core i7 processors. Both the first and second generation of Intel Core i7 processors are rated as 5 stars in the Intel processor rating. The second generation of Intel core processors are based on the "Sandy Bridge" core and are set to be updated in January 2012 with "Ivy Bridge". In each of the first three microarchitecture generations of the brand, Core i7 has family members using two distinct system-level architectures, and therefore two distinct sockets (for example, LGA 1156 and LGA 1366 with Nehalem). In each generation, the highest-performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and QPI-based architecture as the low-end Xeon processors of that generation, while lower-performing Core i7 processors use the same socket and PCIe/DMI/FDI architecture as the Core i5. "Core i7" is a successor to the Intel Core 2 brand. Intel representatives stated that the monikerCore i7 is meant to help consumers decide which processor to purchase as the newer Nehalem-based products are released in the future.